WorldWideScience

Sample records for legacy organochlorine pesticides

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  2. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  3. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s...

  4. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... Objectives: The present study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the organochlorine pesticide and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in the surface sediments of the Grand-Lahou lagoon. (Côte d'Ivoire). Methodology and Results: Sediment samples were collected during ...

  5. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface ...

  7. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  8. Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water and sediments from Agboyi Creek, Lagos. AB Williams. Abstract. Microlayer water, mixed layer water, epipellic and benthic sediments were collected from Agboyi Creek, Lagos to analyse organochlorine pesticide residues. Sampling was conducted between December ...

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in fish sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the organochlorine pesticide residues in fish sold in markets and fishing sites in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Pesticides are not only used in agriculture but also in public health for the prevention of malaria. However, pesticide residues may be found in foodstuffs. Contamination of foods by ...

  10. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  11. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  12. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  13. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother's age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds.

  15. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , heptachlor and endosulfan were determined in water and sediment samples of freshwater systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa that receive runoff from agricultural lands and effluents from industries. The organochlorine ...

  16. Partition distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in surface water, pore water and surface sediment samples collected from the uMngeni River, which is one of the largest rivers in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the analytes from water and pore water samples and ...

  17. Organochlorine Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels and compositions of organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil samples collected from a former formulation plant in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania, were determined. Extraction was performed by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was ...

  18. organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    J. Sci. 38(3), 2012. 41. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS. IN SOIL AROUND A FORMER FORMULATION PLANT IN. MOROGORO MUNICIPALITY, TANZANIA. JAM Mahugija .... concentrated to 1 ml using a rotary evaporator, then using a very gentle stream of nitrogen to ca. 0.2 ml.

  19. Partition distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... P (1987) Accumulation and distribution of biogenic and pollutant hydrocarbons, PCB′s and DDT in tissues of western .... removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and nonylphenols in a wetland. J. Soil Sediment 9. 180–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-009-0081-1.

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    info/index.php/jasem http://www.bioline.org.br/ja. Occurrence of organochlorine and .... Data analysis involved analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test to test for significance of variations using GraphPad. Instat software (GraphPad Software, Inc.

  1. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A K; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Shikha

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, various environmental issues have aroused a concern on the pollution of pesticides in rivers and in their various intercompartments. Multiple residues of pesticides discharged from industries or as a result of extensive use of agrochemicals in agriculture have been monitored. These pesticide residues contaminate the river ecosystem and its intercompartments such as sediments, and aquatic biota, and make it harmful to humans when they contaminate food and drinking water. The pesticide contamination in water, sediments, and aquatic biota has been reported to be beyond the acceptable range. The most commonly found pesticides are organochlorine, namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others. The paper discusses the general description, classification, and toxicity of pesticides; it also aims to create public awareness among people and appraise them with various alternate methods to combat the problem of pesticide contamination. An attempt has also been made to elucidate the findings of various works on pesticides in aquatic system and to highlight the challenging aspects of pesticide contamination, which have not attracted the attention of investigators yet.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegria, Henry [Chemistry Department, California Lutheran University, 60 West Olsen Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (United States)]. E-mail: halegria@clunet.edu; Bidleman, Terry F. [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Meteorological Service of Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON L0L 1N0 (Canada); Figueroa, Miguel Salvador [Area de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University Autonoma de Chiapas, Carretera a Puerto, Madero Km. 2, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, Henry; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  4. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Chicken eggs are important sources of nutrients to the human body. ... agricultural sources. A study by Mahugija et al. (2017) found high levels of pesticide residues in maize grains, which are among the sources of poultry feeds in Tanzania. This suggested ... through boiling the eggs with distilled water for 15 minutes, and ...

  5. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833μg /kg, heptachlor 0.695μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.283μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.108μg /kg, dieldrin 0.040 μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014μg /kg, endrin 0.018μg /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.340μg /kg, α-endosulfan 0.162μg /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.101μg /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315μg /kg, heptachlor 0.530μg /kg, dieldrin 0.050μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.233μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.070μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043μg /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.115μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.128μg /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of γ-HCH and δ-HCH in the kidney were 0.435μg /kg and 0.107μg /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135μg /kg in

  7. Brief communication: Organochlorine pesticides in an archived firn core from Law Dome, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bigot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were, for the first time, quantified in archived firn cores from East Antarctica representative of 1945–1957 and 1958–1967 (current era, C.E.. The core sections were melted under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, and the meltwater was analysed. Methods allowed quantification of hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlor, trans-chlordane, dieldrin and endrin. While the core presented evidence of nominal contamination by modern-use chemicals, indicating handling and/or storage contamination, legacy OCP concentrations and deposition rates reported are orders of magnitude lower than those from Arctic regions, lending support for their validity. The study further provides a description of equipment used and suggests methods to overcome logistical challenges associated with trace organic contaminant detection in polar regions.

  8. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, M; Brudnowska, B; Falandysz, J; Wakimoto, T

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCBz and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 59 soil samples collected in Poland in 1990-1994 to understand the scale of contamination, spatial distribution and sources of these compounds. Identification and quantification of organochlorines were carried out using HRGC-ECD (63Ni) and HRGC-LRMS. All soil samples were contaminated by DDTs, PCBs and HCHs, while HCBz and CHLs were absent in a few samples. DDTs dominated as organochlorine residues in Polish soil and on the concentration of other insecticides was two orders of magnitude lower. Percentage composition of DDTs (about 60% of p,p'-DDT) indicates a very slow metabolism of DDT in Polish soils. Spatial distribution of HCHs in Poland is similar to distribution of DDTs, while HCBz and CHLs are rather evenly distributed. PCBs concentrations in soil of the Former Soviet Union Army Base are 10 times higher then in urban soils, and 100 times higher then in cultivated and forests soils.

  9. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  10. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

  11. Regional differences and sources of organochlorine pesticides in soils surrounding chemical industrial parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Wang, T.Y.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were investigated in 105 soil samples collected in vicinity of the chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. OCP concentrations significantly varied

  12. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  13. Current trends of some organochlorinated pesticides in Yamuna River sediments around Delhi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, A; Sarkar, A

    Organochlorinated pesticides viz. DDTs, HCHs, and Cyclodiene compounds have been detected in the sediment samples of Yamuna River around Delhi, India during the three seasons namely pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. Five sampling sites were...

  14. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Assem O; Khairy, Mohammed A; Mahmoud, Mahmoud R

    2017-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels, distribution and toxicological potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge samples from several WWTPs in the Alexandria area, Egypt. The POPs of interest were 26 PCBs and 16 OCPs. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) using deuterated organochlorines as internal standards. Total concentrations of OCPs and Σ7 PCBs (ICES) in sludge ranged from 44.2 to 489 μg/kg dw. and 5,600 to 11,000 μg/kg dw., respectively. The highest concentration levels were found for PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and HCB, in this order. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. Seasonal variations were observed for OCPs with higher levels in summer, which reflects more usage in warmer climates. Composite profiles of OCP metabolites indicated new inputs of lindane and technical endosulfan and earlier usage of DDT and technical chlordane. Contamination levels of OCPs and PCBs for Egyptian sludge can be categorized as moderate to high compared to other countries worldwide. The OCP content in none of the samples exceeded limits set by the European Commission for use of sludge in agriculture; while all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were higher by one order of magnitude than the upper limit for land application.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in poultry meats of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty poultry meat samples from four large companies were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine pesticides. Homogenized samples were mixed with silica sand and anhydrous sodium sulfate, and extracted with ethyl acetate followed by n-hexane: MTBE. Clean up of samples were done by silica sulphuric acid and analyzed by GC-ECD, and confirmed by GC-MS. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were 0.5, 0.5 and 0.7, and 2.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ng/g, respectively. The calibration curves were linear and the correlation coefficients (r2 were 0.991, 0.992 and 0.997 for DDE, DDD and DDT, respectively and the recoveries for them were 76%, 78% and 80%. DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD were detected in 28 (70%, out of 40 samples and ranged 0.039-0.769 mg/kg.

  17. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  18. [Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jie; Lai, Mao-Xiang

    2013-04-01

    To determine the contents of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum and provide scientific foundation for the quality control and standard establishment. GC-MS method with selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to analyze the contents of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum. The samples were extracted with acetone and ultrasonic vibrations, and the analytical samples were purified by anhydrous sodium sulfate-anhydrous magnesium sulfate -PSA -C18-PestiCarb -phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Eight kinds of organochlorine pesticide were detected simultanously. Small amounts of OP-DDT were detected in samples 1, 4, 5, 6, 11 and 12, no organochlorine pesticide residue was detected in other samples. The RSD of precision ranged from 0.89% to 2.21%, and the average recovery ranged from 85.33% to 103.70%, with the RSD less than 4%. The contents of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum are less than 0.2 ppm. This method is sensitive, good purifying, and suitable for analyzing organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum.

  19. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    were altered by p, p' DDE, MXC, and flutamide. Interestingly, immune-related gene networks were suppressed by all three chemicals. The data suggest that p, p' DDE and flutamide affected more genes in common with each other than either chemical with MXC, consistent with studies suggesting that p, p' DDE is a more potent anti-androgen than MXC. These data demonstrate that reproductive health was not affected by these specific dietary treatments, but rather the immune system, which may be a significant target of organochlorine pesticides. The interaction between the reproductive and immune systems should be considered in future studies on these legacy and persistent pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  1. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Brazilian human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T. [INCQS/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Braga, A.M.C.B.; Rosa, J.M. [CESTEH/ENSP/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Kypke, K.; Malisch, R. [State Inst. for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Breastfeeding has been intensively encouraged, especially in developing countries, due to its beneficial properties, i.e., increase infant immune factors and resistance to chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or allergies. In addition, human exposure to environmental pollution has led the scientific community to study the pathways of these contaminants and the possible risks they pose to human health. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCs), in special, has been the subject of great interest during recent years given their potential toxicity, resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation through the food chain. The major source of OC has been agriculture and public health campaigns to vector control. General population exposure occur mainly through the diet and human milk can be an indicator of exposure since OCs are lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate in adipose tissue and breastfeeding is the main pathway of elimination through the fatty fraction of milk. In this study pooled samples of mothers living in the capitals of two different states of Brazil were evaluated in order to assess the trends of human exposure to persistent pollutants.

  2. Polyetherimide Nanofibres as Sorbents for Organochlorinated Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoš Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun polyetherimide (PEI nanofibres were fixed on a steel wire solid phase microextraction (SPME assembly. The basic properties of the prepared nanofibres were determined by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, adsorption, and SEM. The analytical performance of prepared PEI SPME fibres was compared with three commercially available SPME fibres, 7 μm PDMS, 100 μm PDMS, and DVB/Carboxene/PDMS. As model water pollutants, persistent organochlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH and chlorobenzene (ClB were chosen as model water pollutants. The fibres were compared in the headspace- (HS- SPME mode of GC-MS/MS instrumentation. The comparison omitted other method parameters and focused exclusively on the extraction time variability. Lab-made PEI SPME fibres showed significantly better response for the target compounds than the other tested fibres from industrial production. Based on the results, the extraction time could be shortened from 50 to 10 min, if PEI SPME fibres were used as a modification of existing analytical protocol.

  3. Phytoremediation of organochlorine pesticides: Concept, method, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanvi; Singh, Dileep K

    2017-09-02

    Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants. Processes known to be involved in phytoremediation of OCPs include phytoaccumulation, rhizoremediation, and phytotransformation. Vegetation has been accounted to considerably amplify OCP elimination from soil, in contrast to non-planted soil, attributable to both, uptake within plant tissues and high microbial degradation of OCP within the root zone. Developing transgenic plants is a promising approach to enhance phytoremediation capabilities. Recent advances in the application of phytoremediation technique for OCPs, including uptake by plants and plant-microbe association in the rhizosphere for the enhanced degradation and mineralization of these pollutants, is presented in this review. Additionally, some attempts to improve this technique using transgenesis and role of certain enzymes are also discussed.

  4. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  5. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  6. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. - Highlights: • Findings comprised a range of contemporary and banned legacy pesticides in streams. • Groundwater is a significant pathway for some herbicides entering streams. • Legacy pesticides increased predicted aquatic toxicity by four orders of magnitude. • Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for ecotoxicity. • Stream monitoring programs should include legacy pesticides to assess impacts. - Legacy pesticides, particularly sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity impacting benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams

  7. Trend and climate signals in seasonal air concentration of organochlorine pesticides over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin; Cao, Zuohao; Dove, Alice; Zhang, Lisheng

    2010-08-01

    Following worldwide bans or restrictions, the atmospheric level of many organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over the Great Lakes exhibited a decreasing trend since the 1980s in various environmental compartments. Atmospheric conditions also influence variation and trend of OCPs. In the present study a nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with an additional process to remove the effect of temporal (serial) correlation was used to detect the temporal trend of OCPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes region and to examine the statistical significance of the trends. Using extended time series of measured air concentrations over the Great Lakes region from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network, this study also revisits relationships between seasonal mean air concentration of OCPs and major climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere. To effectively extract climate signals from the temporal trend of air concentrations, we detrended air concentrations through removing their linear trend, which is driven largely by their respective half-lives in the atmosphere. The interannual variations of the extended time series show a good association with interannual climate variability, notably, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study demonstrates that the stronger climate signals can be extracted from the detrended time series of air concentrations of some legacy OCPs. The detrended concentration time series also help to interpret, in addition to the connection with interannual variation of the NAO, the links between atmospheric concentrations of OCPs and decadal or interdecadal climate change.

  8. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  9. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  10. Phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides by aquatic macrophytes and algae in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ghazala; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Iqbal, Shakir; Yasar, Abdullah; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Mahfooz, Yusra; Baqar, Mujtaba

    2017-10-03

    Extensive use of Pesticides in agriculture and its surface runoff in river water is a major environmental concern. The present study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes, Pistia strateotes and algae (Chaetomorpha sutoria, Sirogonium sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. Water and plant samples were extracted by liquid phase and solid phase extraction respectively and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven treatments (T1-T11) with and without plants were used for phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. During the experiment, P. strateotes, E. crassipes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) showed the highest removal efficiency with 62 (71% root, 29% shoot), 60 (67% root, 33% shoot), and 58% respectively for organochlorine and 76 (76% root, 24% shoot), 68 (69% root, 31% shoot), and 70% respectively for pyrethroids for the respective aquatic plants. Dissipation rate constant of treatments with plants (T2, T3, T5, T6, T8, and T9) was significantly higher (p plants (T10 and T11, control) for both organochlorine and pyrethroid. The bioconcentration factor of pyrethroid treatments (T3, T6, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of organochlorine treatments (T2, T5 and T8). The removal efficiency of E. crassipes, P. strateotes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for pyrethroids was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to that of organochlorine.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  12. Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Ravindran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

  13. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Nagarajan, R.; Chaphadkar, S.; Pal, S.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    . 195-200, 1997 Pergamou Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved PlI: S0043-1354(96)00210-2 0043-1354/97 $17.00 + 0.00 CONTAMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE ARABIAN SEA ALONG... environment by 1 2 8 4 6 6 r 8 g 11o 11 12 various organochlorine pesticides can be envisaged Stetion nos from the fact that there are 232 industries situated it-,c. ~AUlr,. ~l)le~.,. iml~,l, rff~t-am" along the west coast of India. About 0.6 x 109m...

  14. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity <5 PSU). The average concentration of the OC in the sediments was 44.75 ng g(-1), among which the group of the alicyclic compounds presented the greatest concentrations. The average value of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments of the system was 0.90%. The sediments collected inside the lagoon had an average OC concentration of 18.97 ng g(-1), and the predominant type of sediment was fine to very fine sand. The average OC concentration in the sediments collected in the agricultural drains was 75.69 ng g(-1), where fine sediments (silt) were predominant. The presence of methoxychlor, endrin and heptachlor suggested that these compounds were continuously used in the system, even though their use is forbidden in Mexico.

  15. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Naser Haji Samoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

  16. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waliszewski Stefan M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  17. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addi......We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater......, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable...

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  19. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  20. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  1. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  2. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  3. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Symons, Robert; Fürst, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human milk has been used as a surrogate for the assessment of body burden and exposure to persistent lipophilic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). With the exception of restricted use of mirex, the use of persistent, lipophilic OCPs has been banned in Australia since the 1980s. The decline of human body burden of OCPs following their ban in many industrialised countries is well recorded worldwide from the 1970s until the 1990s though little is known on whether these trends are continuing. In this study, 157 human milk samples collected during 2002 and 2003 as well as 24 samples collected in 1993 were analysed as 20 regional pools for 17 OCPs. OCPs were detected in all pooled human milk samples from 2002/03 typically with highest concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (mean+/-standard deviation; median concentration 311+/-174; 279 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) (80+/-173; 21 ng g(-1) lipid). Other OCPs consistently detected included dieldrin (16+/-6; 17 ng g(-1) lipid), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (18+/-16; 14 ng g(-1) lipid), transnonachlor (11+/-5; 9 ng g(-1) lipid) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (9+/-6; 7 ng g(-1) lipid). The results from this study indicated that following a substantial decline of OCP concentrations from the early 1980s to the 1990s, little decline could be observed since then. Furthermore the use of multivariate statistics indicated some regional trends with slightly higher levels of the broadly used insecticides DDT and HCH in both historic and recent samples from Melbourne, whereas, sample pools collected from mothers that lived in rural Queensland and New South Wales as well as Adelaide and Sydney showed comparatively higher levels of heptachlor and dieldrin - both of which have been used for termite treatment. These results indicate that even 20 years after the discontinuation of usage, historical use of OCPs rather than exposure via global transport of OCPs is

  5. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F; Alvarado, Víctor; Angeles, Felipe; Galarza, Alfredo Avila; Bandala, Erick R; Hinojosa, Idolina de la Cerda; Estrada, Ignacio Galindo; Reyes, Guillermo Galindo; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Zamora, Jose Vinicio Macías; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Espinoza, Elias Ramirez

    2009-02-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in air across Mexico was investigated by deploying passive samplers at eleven stations across the country during 2005-2006. Integrated samples were taken over three-month periods and quantified for DDT compounds, endosulfans, toxaphenes, components of technical chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dieldrin. Enantiomers of chiral chlordanes and o,p'-DDT were determined on chiral stationary phase columns as an indicator of source and age. Results are discussed in combination with pumped air samples taken at four other stations in southern Mexico during 2002-2004. DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and toxaphene were the most abundant OCs detected in all sampling sites. Atmospheric concentrations of SigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD + o,p'-DDD) ranged from 15 to 2360 pg m(-3) with the highest concentrations found in southern Mexico and the lowest found in northern and central Mexico. A fresher DDT residue was observed at sites with greater DDT use and in the southern part of the country, as shown from the higher FDDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and nearly racemic o,p'-DDT. This agrees with the former heavy use of DDT in the endemic malarious area of the country. A local hotspot of endosulfan was identified at an agricultural area in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, with a annual mean concentration of SigmaENDO (endosulfans I + II + endosulfan sulfate) = 26,800 pg m(-3). At this site, higher concentrations of SigmaENDO were recorded during the winter (November to February) and spring (February to May) periods. From back trajectory analysis, this coincides with a shift in the air mass coming from the Pacific Ocean (May to November) to the inland agricultural area (November to May). The elevated SigmaENDO observed is likely due to the local agricultural usage. HCHs, chlordanes, transnonachlors, and dieldrin were more evenly distributed across the country likely due to

  6. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    and suspended sediment samples exceeded safety thresholds in 50% of the samples and the average contribution of legacy pesticides to the SumTUC.riparius was >90%. Our results suggest that legacy pesticides can be highly significant contributors to the current toxic exposure of stream biota, especially...

  7. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lu

    Full Text Available DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment.

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides in Gonad, Brain, and Blood of Mice in Two Agricultural Areas of Sinaloa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Ernestina; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises-Giovanni; Herrera-Moreno, Maria-Nancy; Rodriguez-Meza, Guadalupe-Durga; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector-A; Bucio-Pacheco, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    The adverse effect of pesticides on non-target wildlife and human health is a primary concern in the world, but in Mexico, we do not know which wildlife species are at the greatest risk. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticides in mice of two agricultural fields in Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guasave. Procedures of extraction, analysis, and quantification were followed according to the modified EPA 8081b method. In three mouse tissues (gonad, brain, and blood), γBHC and decachlorobiphenyl with a frequency higher than 50% and endosulfan sulfate with 43% were observed. The wildlife fauna living in agricultural areas are at great risk due to: (1) diversity of the chemicals used for pest control, like mice, and (2) variety of organochlorine pesticides in direct or indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals and humans (toxic effects and accumulation).

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993).

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bringas, Laura M.; Ponce-Velez, Guadalupe; Botello, Alfonso V.; Calva B, Laura G.; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaias Hazamamberth; Diaz Gonzalez, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher than 10 years. Sediments were studied in November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July 2002, from the lacustric zone of Metzitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine possible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. The p,p'-DDD and δ-HCH were detected in the tilapias tissue. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the international limits for freshwater benthic fauna, although lindane, γ-HCH, was near the limit. The fish was above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993). (author)

  11. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  12. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  13. Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

  14. Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs in Sediments Collected from the East Coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCs and PCBs concentration were analyzed in sediments from east coast of Thailand. The samples were collected in April 2013 and were analyzed by GC/ECD. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations were detected in sediments in the range of 1.06-3.71 ng/g calculated on dry weight basis. T-DDTs concentrations were the highest in OCs group compared to other groups in most of the samples. PCBs concentrations were detected in sediments in the range of 0.04-3.03 ng/g calculated on dry weight basis. This study suggests that there is no correlation between the results of different stations but proximity to the sources of contamination may be the most important determining factor for the dominance of these contaminants. Probably this contamination seems to be localized due to the presence of urban runoff, municipal sewage, industrial waste, outflow from agricultural area and chemical spill.

  15. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  16. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  17. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  18. Contamination of some aquatic species with the organochlorine pesticide chlordecone in Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Coat, Sophie; Bocquene, Gilles; Godard, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Martinique is a French overseas department whose economy relies heavily on agriculture. Organochlorine pesticides, mainly chlordecone, were used for banana cultivation to eradicate banana weevil over a period of 40 years. Chlordecone is chemically stable,and has a strong affinity for fatty tissues. It is therefore able to bioaccumulate in animals and thereby represent a threat to ecosystems and man. Soils from banana plantations in Martinique are heavily contaminated with chlordecone. Possibl...

  19. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  20. [Levels and distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the air, pine needles, and human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Darija; Romanić, Snjezana Herceg

    2010-09-01

    This review presents the findings on the distribution and levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) all over the world, based on measurements in samples of air, human milk and pine needles. The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health has been conducting research in all three matrices for many years, and this review summarises its results too. Significant decrease in concentrations of organochlorine compounds has been seen after the legal ban of their use, but that decresing trend has been slowed down and they are still found in all samples. In general, higher PCB levels are found in samples from urban locations, pesticides levels are higher in samples from locations where has been their probable usage in agriculture, while HCB levels are usually indicator of industrial activity.γ-HCH has been found in the highest concentration in air and pine needles samples, while in humans DDE and β-HCH are the most abundant compounds. Indicator PCB congeners are also differently present in environment and humans: in air and pine needles lower-chlorinated, more volatile PCB congeners have higher concentrations while in humans that goes for more persistent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners. Among toxic ortho-substituted PCB congeners in human and environmental samples the most abundant is PCB-118 while three non-ortho substituted congeners (PCB-77, PCB-126 and PCB-169) that are the most toxic ones are rarely detected. From organochlorine pesticides, DDD is found in lowest concentrations in all samples.

  1. Temperature dependence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in Chicago air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa; Tasdemir, Yucel; Khalili, Nasrin R.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides measured in Chicago, IL between June and October 1995 were investigated using plots of the natural logarithm of partial pressures (ln P) vs. reciprocal mean temperatures (1/ T). For the eight lowest molecular weight PAHs, temperature dependence was statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) and temperature accounted for 23-49% of the variability in gas-phase concentrations. The relatively higher slopes for most of the PAHs suggested that volatilization from local sources and short-range transport influenced their concentrations. For pesticides, temperature dependence was statistically significant for DDD and for trans-nonachlor (at the 95% and 90% confidence levels), and was not statistically significant for the other five compounds (2-18% of the variability in their gas-phase concentrations). The relatively lower slopes for individual pesticides suggested that they have mostly non-urban and distant sources. Results of back trajectory analyses suggested that the region, southwest of Chicago, might be an important local or regional source sector for PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. No statistically significant relationship was observed between wind speed and PAH or pesticide concentrations. None of the variables (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, local and regional sources) could fully explain the variation in their concentrations measured in Chicago, therefore, this variation can be attributed to the combined effect of those factors.

  2. Concentration of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Molluscs from Tighra Reservoir, Gwalior, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites were determined in whole body homogenate of L. acuminata, I. exustus, V. dissimilis, V. bengalensis, from Tighra Reservoir during summer and post monsoon season using GC-MS technique. The different types of pesticides viz., HCB, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p-DDT, choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, parathion were found in resident molluscs studied. Concentration of these pesticides varied independently during the summer and the post monsoon season at monitored sites. The study concluded that presence of pesticides in Tighra Reservoir is a major concern on public and ecosystem health and use of biopesticides in the adjacent area of Reservoir is highly recommended.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  4. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Cabrera, Felix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dominguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the 'Canary Islands Nutrition Survey' (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  5. Preparation of reference material for organochlorine pesticides in a herbal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yiu Chung; Wong, Siu Kay; Kam, Tat Ting

    2008-12-01

    The development of reference material for four organochlorine pesticides, namely hexachlorobenzene and three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), in a ginseng root sample is presented. Raw materials (Panax ginseng) were purchased from a local market and confirmed to contain certain levels of incurred organochlorine pesticide residues by a validated gas chromatography-mass selective detection method. A total of more than 300 bottles each containing 25 g of samples were prepared after the materials had been freeze-dried, milled and thoroughly mixed. The homogeneity and stability of samples from randomly selected bottles were verified and the reference values were characterized using a highly precise isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GCMS) method that was recently developed by our laboratory. The purity of standard organochlorine chemicals was determined against certified reference materials to establish the accuracy of the ID-GCMS analysis. The concentrations (+/- expanded uncertainty) of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in the reference material were 0.198 +/- 0.015, 0.450 +/- 0.022, 0.213 +/- 0.011 and 0.370 +/- 0.032 mg kg(-1), respectively. A portion (70 bottles) of the samples was also used in a proficiency testing (PT) scheme for assessing the testing capabilities of field laboratories. The consensus mean values of the PT obtained from the 70 participants were on the same order but deviated by -2.7 to -14.1% from those of the assigned reference values. Because of the wide spread of participants' data (relative standard deviation ranging from 44 to 56%), the PT results were not included in the calculation of the assigned values of the reference materials. The materials served as suitable reference materials to ascertain the quality control and validation processes for the

  6. Soil-Air exchange controls on background atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, A.; Dachs, J.; Jones, K. C.; Barceló, D.

    2011-12-01

    Soils are the major terrestrial reservoir of persistent organic pollutants, and thus net volatilization from soil, when it happens, may exert a control on the atmospheric occurrence and variability of organic pollutants. Here, we report and discuss the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the atmosphere and in soils, their measured fugacities in soil, the soil-air partition coefficients (KSA) and soil-air fugacity ratios (fs/fa) in rural background areas of N-NE Spain and N-NW England. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in Spain and UK to assess seasonal variability and differences between sampling sites. KSA values were significantly dependent on soil temperature and soil organic matter quantity, and to a minor extent on organic matter type. HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in soil are close to equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere at rural background areas of Spain with a tendency to volatilize and deposit during warm and cold periods, respectively. The mixture of HCH and DDT found in the atmosphere is clearly strongly influenced by the mixture of HCH and DDT which escapes from soil, with significant correlations between them (r2 ranging between 0.63-0.76 and p-level<0.001 for the Ebro sampling sites), thus suggesting a close coupling of air and soil concentrations, demonstrating that net volatilization from soil control the atmospheric levels of OCPs in the Northern Spain background atmosphere. Conversely, soils at rural UK sites were usually a sink for atmospheric DDT and HCH, but not for HCB. The negative statistically significant relationship found between log KSA and the log (fs/fa) ratio, suggests that high latitude regions, due to the high soil organic matter content and lower temperatures, will act as larger traps and accumulate more atmospheric OCPs. Thus, the extent to which soils are secondary sources to the atmosphere

  7. Soil-Air exchange controls on background atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrerizo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are the major terrestrial reservoir of persistent organic pollutants, and thus net volatilization from soil, when it happens, may exert a control on the atmospheric occurrence and variability of organic pollutants. Here, we report and discuss the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB, hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT in the atmosphere and in soils, their measured fugacities in soil, the soil-air partition coefficients (KSA and soil-air fugacity ratios (fs/fa in rural background areas of N-NE Spain and N-NW England. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in Spain and UK to assess seasonal variability and differences between sampling sites. KSA values were significantly dependent on soil temperature and soil organic matter quantity, and to a minor extent on organic matter type. HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in soil are close to equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere at rural background areas of Spain with a tendency to volatilize and deposit during warm and cold periods, respectively. The mixture of HCH and DDT found in the atmosphere is clearly strongly influenced by the mixture of HCH and DDT which escapes from soil, with significant correlations between them (r2 ranging between 0.63–0.76 and p-level<0.001 for the Ebro sampling sites, thus suggesting a close coupling of air and soil concentrations, demonstrating that net volatilization from soil control the atmospheric levels of OCPs in the Northern Spain background atmosphere. Conversely, soils at rural UK sites were usually a sink for atmospheric DDT and HCH, but not for HCB. The negative statistically significant relationship found between log KSA and the log (fs/fa ratio, suggests that high latitude regions, due to the high soil organic matter content

  8. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are compounds that can be detected in human populations as a result of occupational or residential exposure. Despite their occurrence in considerably low levels in humans, their biological effects are hazardous since they interact with a plethora of enzymes, proteins, receptors and transcription factors. In this review we summarize the cell and molecular effects of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides with respect to their toxicity, with particular emphasis on glucose and lipid metabolism, their interaction with some members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, including the steroid and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors that changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. More importantly, evidence regarding the metabolic degradation of pesticides and their accumulation in tissues is presented. Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms after long-term low-dose organophosphate exposure resulting in neurodevelopmental outcomes and neurodegeneration are also addressed. We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level

  9. Hypospadias in offspring is associated with chronic exposure of parents to organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Michalis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kovatsi, Leda; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Heretis, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2014-10-15

    We have currently evaluated the possible association between hypospadias and exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. For this purpose, we measured the dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (DAPs) in the hair and blood, as well as OC pesticides (DDTs, HCHs) in the hair collected from children with hypospadias and their parents. The concentration of HCHs in the hair samples obtained from mothers was higher than that previously reported for people working in open cultivations, while the concentration of DDTs in the hair samples obtained from mothers, fathers and their children with hypospadias was much higher than that previously reported for occupationally exposed individuals. The DMP concentration in hair samples obtained from mothers was much higher not only from that reported for the general population, but even higher than that reported for occupationally exposed individuals. Furthermore, SUMDEPs and SUMDAPs in the hair samples obtained both from the hypospadiac boys, as well as from their parents were higher than the corresponding values previously reported for the general population. Our study supports the hypothesis that organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide exposure may be a potential risk factor for hypospadias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Soil from Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the concentrations of five pesticide residues, lindane, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, p, p'-DDE and p, p'-DDD in soil samples collected from tomato fields in Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania. Endosulfan sulphate was detected in 100 % of the sample analysed with mean concentration of 0.2407 mg/kg dw. Chlorpyrifos ...

  11. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Soil from Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    aSchool of Environmental Science and Technology, Ardhi University, P.O. Box 35176, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; bDepartment of. Environmental and ... were used for sample preparation. Samples were quantified using pesticide standard mixture which had over 99 % certified purity. Laboratory glassware were washed with ...

  12. A review of organochlorine pesticide residues in ferruginous hawk eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ten Ferruginous Hawk nests in northeast Oregon were studied from 1978 to 1980. Pesticide residues, eggshell thickness, and reproductive success from these nests will be reviewed. In addition, egg residues from other published studies in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be discussed.

  13. Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Willims

    2013-05-12

    May 12, 2013 ... residues were performed by injecting 1 µL of purified extract into the injection port of a gas chromatograph with a 63Ni electron capture .... Identification and determination of OCP residues by gas chromatography. A gas chromatograph with ..... Distribution of chlorine- ted pesticides in shellfishes from Lagos ...

  14. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... 6890N GC-5973 Inert MSD GC-MS with electron bombardment ionization (EI), solid phase extraction apparatus, SHZ-88 constant temperature water bath oscillator, and a SPE Sep-Pak Florisil (1 000 mg, 6 ml, Agilent Co. Ltd., USA) were used in the determination of pesticides. Acetone, acetonitrile, hexane ...

  15. Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common dolphins (Delphinus sp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockin, K.A. [Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC (New Zealand)], E-mail: k.a.stockin@massey.ac.nz; Law, R.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham on Crouch, Essex CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Duignan, P.J.; Jones, G.W. [New Zealand Wildlife Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Porter, L. [AgriQuality Limited, PO Box 31 242, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mirimin, L. [University College Cork, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, North Mall, Distillery Fields, Cork (Ireland); Meynier, L. [New Zealand Wildlife Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Orams, M.B. [Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    Trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in tissues collected from stranded and bycaught common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters between 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and silver (Ag) were determined in blubber, liver and kidney tissue. PCBs (45 congeners) and a range of OC pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites DDE and DDD were determined in blubber samples. Cr and Ni were not detected in any of the samples and concentrations of Co, Sn and Pb were generally low. Concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.17 to 110 mg/kg wet weight. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, HCB, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were present at the highest concentrations. Sum DDT concentrations in the blubber ranged from 17 to 337 and 654 to 4430 {mu}g/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. Similarly, {sigma}45CB concentrations ranged from 49 to 386 and 268 to 1634 {mu}g/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. The mean transmission of {sigma}DDTs and ICES7CBs between a genetically determined mother-offspring pair was calculated at 46% and 42%, respectively. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides determined in the present study are within similar range to those reported for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhyncus hectori) from inshore New Zealand waters.

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriada-Pereira, M; Concha-Graña, E; González-Castro, M J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

    2003-08-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane-ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained (75.5-132.7% for Soxhlet extraction and 81.5-108.4% for MAE) show that both methods are suitable for the determination of chlorinated pesticides in vegetation samples. The method using microwave energy was applied to grass samples from parks of A Coruña (N.W. Spain) and to vegetation from the contaminated industrial area of Torneiros (Pontevedra, N.W. Spain).

  17. Assessment of human health risk from organochlorine pesticide residues in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Asmus,Carmen Ildes R. Fróes; Alonzo,Herling Gregorio Aguilar; Palácios,Marisa; Silva,Alexandre Pessoa da; Filhote,Maria Isabel de Freitas; Buosi,Daniela; Câmara,Volney de Magalhães

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a heath risk assessment in Cidade dos Meninos, an area contaminated with organochlorine pesticide residues located in the county (municipality) of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) risk assessment methodology was applied. The following organochlorine compounds exceeded the established limits and were considered target pollutants: HCH and its isomers (in eggs, milk, and soil); DDT and...

  18. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: legacy organochlorine contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (ΣPCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ΣDDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD and p,p'-DDT, α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and BB-153), 18 showed statistically significant average yearly declines of -4.4% (range: -2.0 to -10.8%/year) among subadult polar bears (i.e. femalespolar bear tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF THE KILIYA DELTA OF THE DANUBE (2003–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Sytnik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCP in organs and tissues of benthivorous and predatory fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube (Eastern mouth and their comparison with previous years. Methodology. The analysis of the samples of aquatic organisms for the content of residual organochlorine pesticides was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLH based on a unified methodology. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on the gas chromatograph "Color 5" with electron capture detector at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Findings. The effect of stable organochlorine pesticides on aquatic organisms is characterized by marked persistence in the environment and by high ability for migration and accumulation on different levels of food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The continuous presence of OCP in all investigated organs and tissues of selected species with the presence of a certain amount of fat and consequently, the fixation of residual organochlorine pesticides. Among benthivorous fishes, the content of OCP in organs and tissues (total is as follows: vimba → roach → wild carp → bream → gibel carp. Among the predators: asp → perch → European catfish → pikeperch. Originality. Recently, a significant number of scientists all around the world returns to the problem of the accumulation and distribution (redistribution of OCP in the components of aquatic ecosystems. This is associated with certain threats to the environment and human health, that could lead to negative consequences as a result of the consumption of fish as the highest trophic level in fresh waters of Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained data indicate that the major commercial fish species of the Kiliya delta of the Danube river contains residual quantities of pesticides. This indicates to the need for continuous hygienic and toxicological monitoring of fish caught

  20. A review of organochlorine pesticide residues in Swainson's hawk eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    U. s. Fish and Wildlife Service research projects during the last 10 years in the Pacific Northwest resulted in the collecting of a sample egg from 35 Swainson's Hawk nests (Henny and Kaiser, 1979. Murrelet 60:2-5; Henny et al. 1984. Raptor Research 18:41-48). Pesticide residues, eggshell thickness, and reproductive success from these nests will be reviewed. In addition, egg residues from other published studies in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be discussed.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in residues in waters from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... There was a marked difference in the frequency of pesticide residue detection during the dry and wet seasons. All the wet season samples and 37.5% of the dry season samples revealed presence of p,p-DDE at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.45 mgl-1 and 0.08 to 0.20 mgl-1 ...

  2. Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides in prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, during 1978-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi; Kumar, K Senthil; Masunaga, S; Iseki, N; Kasuga, S; Nakanishi, J

    2004-07-01

    Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides such as beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), were determined in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) collected from Lake Kasumigaura in 1978 to 2000. The organochlorine pesticides elucidated a 72.4% decrease in beta-HCH, from 42 (1978) to 11.6 ng/g fat (2000); an 89.6% decrease in HCB, from 1.64 (1978) to 0.17 ng/g fat (2000); and an 87.3% decrease in p,p'-DDE, from 97.5 (1978) to 12.4 ng/g fat (1992). After organochlorine pesticide prohibition in 1971, the declining trend of beta-HCH, HCB, and p,p'-DDE concentrations persisting in the prawns could be approximated by exponential equations.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Human Breast Milk from the Middle Governorates in Jordan in 2013/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Antary, Tawfiq M; Alawi, Mahmoud A; Estityah, Hussein; Haddad, Nizar

    2017-07-01

    One hundred samples of mother breast milk were gathered from six middle governorates and districts in Jordan in 2013/2014 to monitor Organochlorine pesticides pollutants. The results showed clearly that banned organochlorine pesticides are still detected in the monitored samples in low concentration despite banning of these persistent pollutants in Jordan since 36 years ago. However, the results indicated that 1% of the contaminated samples contained β-HCH, 5% γ-HCH, 3% p,p'-DDD, 2% heptachlor, 45% p,p'-DDE and 3% p,p'-DDT. In addition, these monitored samples had no residues of aldrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, HCB, o,p'-DD, o,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDE. In conclusion, there was a decline in the residues of Organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT group members.

  4. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; Forsstrom, Sanja; Muir, Derek C. G.; Pohjola, Veijo; van de Wal, Roderik; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some "low-persistence" pesticides with high OH center dot reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar

  5. A method to determine residue levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk from Indonesian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Emma R; Holden, Alexis J; Shaw, Ian C

    2003-01-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk using solvent extraction, Florisil solid phase extraction clean-up and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The recovery of analytes from spiked milk samples was in the range 53 +/- 1% to 109 +/- 7% (n = 9). A small number of samples were obtained from women in a rural and an urban area of Indonesia and analysed using the developed method. The results are reported on a milk fat basis. All samples contained detectable residues of p,p'-DDT (urban mean 0.11 +/- 0.18 mgkg(-1) (n = 5), rural mean 0.07 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) (n = 5)) and p,p'-DDE (urban mean 0.05 +/- 0.04 m kg(-1) (n = 5), rural mean 0.76 +/- 1.46 mg kg(-1) (n = 5)). Residues of HCB, betaHCH, alpha-endosulfan and dieldrin were also detected in some samples. There was no significant difference (at the 95% confidence level) in levels of pesticides between urban and rural areas. The levels of organochlorine pesticides in milk from Indonesian women were lower than those reported from Indonesian women exposed to DDT through malaria eradication schemes and were similar to levels reported from UK and Japan.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L01 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alegria, Henry A. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Geography, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, 140 7th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L01 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM = 1.6 ng g{sup -1}), endosulfans (0.16 ng g{sup -1}), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g{sup -1}). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher F{sub DDTe} = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. - Chemical profiles of residues and soil-air fugacities are used to assess the potential of soil as a source of organochlorine pesticides to the air of Mexico.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Bidleman, Terry F.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM = 1.6 ng g -1 ), endosulfans (0.16 ng g -1 ), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g -1 ). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher F DDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. - Chemical profiles of residues and soil-air fugacities are used to assess the potential of soil as a source of organochlorine pesticides to the air of Mexico.

  8. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008–2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs...... for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m−3. The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl...

  9. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  10. Spatial variations in the seasonality of organochlorine pesticides (OC) in Arctic air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, H.; Blanchard, P. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Li, H.; Fellin, P. [AirZOne, Mississauga (Canada); Rosenberg, B.; Stern, G. [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg (Canada); Barrie, L. [Environment Div., Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Under the Canadian-managed Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), air samples were collected at three Canadian Arctic sites, namely Alert, Nunavut (1992-ongoing); Tagish, Yukon (Dec 1992 - Mar 1995) and Kinngait, Nunavut (Mar 1994 - Feb 1996, Oct 2000 - Sep 2002), as well as Dunai Island, Russia (Apr 1993 - May 1995) and Amderma, Russia (1999-2001) to assess the levels, transport pathways and potential sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic. A simultaneous sampling period exists between March 1994 and April 1995 at Alert, Tagish, Kinngait and Dunai Island. Spatial comparisons of organochlorine pesticide (OC) seasonality from this concurrent sampling period is presented in this study.

  11. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychloronaphthalenes in Nuuk, South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) were measured for the first time in Nuuk, Greenland in 2004 and 2005. The annual mean concentrations af the measured OCs were: α-HCH 20.2 pg m-3, Υ-HCH (lindane) 5......) and the penta-PCNs (18% of the annual mean). A seasonal trend for ∑PCNs was not observed. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature and anthropogenic CO in order to obtain information about their transport pattern. Positive correlations were found between CO...... contaminated surfaces as an important factor for the observed variations in concentrations....

  12. Organochlorinated pesticide residues in coastal sediment from the Muda rice granary area, Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhanuddin Ahmad; Zaleha Hashim; Abdul Khalik Wood; Nashriyah Mat; Mohamad Kamil Abdul Rashid; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2002-01-01

    A study was done on the speciation and analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediment collected from coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia along the Straits of Malacca, namely the coastal water areas of Kedah, Perlis and Perak. Sediment samples were collected using a box coring device at four stations in coastal waters along the Muda rice granary area and four other stations outside the area. The main objective of the study was to monitor the level of contamination by compounds that have been used to control pests particularly in rice granary areas. The detection and quantification of the compounds were done with the GC-ECD. The capability of the method used was examined by analysis of Standard Reference Material obtained from NIST, USA. The mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticide compounds in the coastal water area along the Muda area was 11.17 ± 3.76 ng/g, dry weight (range 7.64-19.86 ng/g, dry weight) whilst those in other areas was 4.14 ± 1.36 ng/g, dry weight (range 2.29-5.10 ng/g, dry weight). The average concentration of the DDT group in the Muda area was 4.22 ± 2.39 ng/g, dry weight, whilst the non-DDT group was 6.94 ± 2.01 ng/g, dry weight. Outside the Muda area, the average concentration of the DDT group was 1.26 ± 0.58 ng/g, dry weight. The non-DDTgroup had a mean concentration of 2.88 ± 0.80 ng/g, dry weight. Even though the concentration of the organochlorinated pesticides in the Muda area was higher, it was still lower than levels reported worldwide. For example, at the Gulf of Mexico (range DDT<0.02-454.00 ng/g, dry weight), Arabian Sea (range DDT 7.4-179.1 ng/g), Gulf of Bengal (range DDT<0.22-720.0 ng/g, dry weight) and Colombian Caribbean (range DDT 38.0-266.0 ng/g, dry weight). Being aware of the sensitivity of marine life, especially crustacean to organochlorines and ensuring the sustainability of rice production in the Muda area, continued monitoring of the level of pesticides residues of the coastal water of the Muda granary

  13. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides removal from wastewater by pine bark adsorption after activated sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ruiz, Antonio; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-04-01

    Pesticides have been responsible for strong environmental impacts, mainly due to their persistence in the environment. Removal technologies are usually combined, because degradation of organic matter is needed prior to a tertiary treatment to guarantee pesticides elimination to levels below legal limits (normally 0.1 microg L(-1)). Pine bark was studied as an alternative to activated carbon, for organochlorine pesticides removal. A combination of technologies based on biodegradation with activated sludge followed by pine bark adsorption treatment was used for lindane (LIN) and heptachlor (HEP) removal from contaminated waters. Pesticides were quantified throughout the process by GC-ECD preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). An experimental set-up was maintained for 4 months, by feeding a standard solution with pesticides concentration of 1 microg L(-1) each and known organic matter (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, -563 mg O2 L(-1)) on a daily basis. COD suffered a reduction of about 81% in the biological step and no increase was detected in the subsequent adsorption treatment. Overall removal efficiency was 76.6% and above 77.7% for LIN and HEP, respectively.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  16. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian; Sun Quanhui; Song Jie; Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Hale, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. ΣTEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with ΣPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  18. Determining organochlorine pesticides in samples of green sea turtles by QuEChERS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs can pose numerous adverse effects on biota. Marine turtles face numerous threats, in particular those related to anthropogenic activities. Therefore, development and improvement methodologies for monitoring chemical compounds are a relevant task. In this work, we developed a methodology based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe extraction for detection of twelve OCPs, by gas chromatography with electron capture detector, in fat and liver samples of green sea turtles. Quantification limits were lower than 5.3 ng g-1; acceptable recovery rates for most compounds; medium matrix effect; matrix-calibration with linearity at the range from 1.0 to 200 ng g-1. This methodology provides contributions for the study of pesticide residues with adverse effects on sea turtle health, important skills for new directions in conservation issues.

  19. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  20. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jacob de, E-mail: jacob.de.boer@ivm.vu.n [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dao, Quy T., E-mail: quy.dao@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van, E-mail: stefan.van.leeuwen@ivm.vu.n [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kotterman, Michiel J.J., E-mail: michiel.kotterman@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Schobben, John H.M., E-mail: john.schobben@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has delivered valuable information on trends and spatial differences of these compounds in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and other Dutch canals, rivers and lakes. Specific local PCB, HCH and dieldrin contaminations were identified. Temporal trends show a slow decrease of PCB concentrations since 1977. Eels from the rivers Rhine and Meuse still exceed present European maximum residue limits for dioxin-like PCBs. Apart from some exceptions, OCP and tetra-BDE concentrations have also decreased, and more than those of PCBs. Fat contents of eel have decreased from an average of 21 to ca. 13%. This decrease in fat contents, coincides with the strong reduction of the European eel stock. - Results of thirty-year eel monitoring in The Netherlands reveal decreasing PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations, and the identification of specific local contaminations.

  1. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in conifer needles in the southeast Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruiqiang; Yao Tandong; Xu Baiqing; Jiang Guibin; Zheng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine conifer needles in mountain-valley areas from the southeastern Tibet were collected with altitude span from 1520 to 4340 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Concentrations of OCPs in samples ranged from 0.69 to 4.3 ng/g, from 0.39 to 4.9 ng/g and from 1.9 to 20.5 ng/g (dry weight) for HCB, total HCHs and DDTs, respectively. The levels of DDTs found here were noticeably higher than those from other high mountainous regions. Composition of HCH isomers and DDTs was analyzed, and it was found that the high ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT might be caused by the application of dicofol in adjacent regions. A number of environmental factors controlling the distribution of OCPs in regional scale were also discussed in this paper. - Conifer needles in southeastern Tibet indicate several organochlorine pesticides are transported from the Indian continent by the southern Asian monsoon

  2. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  3. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  4. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  6. Perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticide contamination in composite food samples from Dallas, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357-362]. In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants.

  7. Efeitos tardios dos praguicidas organoclorados no homem Delayed effects of organochlorine pesticides in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vannucci Nunes

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se relacionar as informações disponíveis sobre os organoclorados e os efeitos crônicos provocados pela exposição. Os compostos organoclorados são os praguicidas mais persistentes já fabricados. Embora sejam geralmente eficientes no controle das pragas, são importantes poluentes ambientais e potenciais causas de problemas de saúde para o homem, tendo sido proibidos ou controlados na maioria dos países. Com poucas exceções, os efeitos tardios desses compostos sobre a saúde humana são difíceis de detectar, em função de dificuldades metodológicas e da extrapolação dos resultados. A genotoxicidade está entre os mais sérios dos possíveis danos causados por esses compostos e merece atenção especial, devido à natureza irreversível do processo. Outro ponto a ser considerado é o aumento na incidência de alterações no desenvolvimento do trato reprodutivo e na fertilidade masculina observada nas últimas décadas provavelmente decorrente do aumento da exposição intra-uterina a compostos estrogênicos e anti-androgênicos, como os organoclorados.Available information on organochlorines and the chronic effects of exposure to them are set out. Organochlorinated compounds are the most persistent pesticides and can be found in all ecosystems. Although they are generally efficient in pest control, they are also a potent environment pollutant and can provoke health problems in man. The evidences of the carcinogenic potential of organochlorines are controversial and insufficient, but they have been related to an increase in the incidence of some kinds of tumors, such as leukemia and solid tumors. Reproductive effects, due to anti-androgenic and estrogenic action, on embryonic virilization, the incidence of abortion and the frequency of prematurity, have also been observed. The accumulation of the organochlorines in the adipous tissue is positively correlated to the increase in aging and could be implicated in the

  8. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Geraldine; Terouanne, Beatrice; Mauvais, Pascale; Michel, Serge; Rahmani, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Many persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been implicated in adverse effects, that is, reproductive and developmental effects, in man and in wildlife alike. It has been hypothesized that these so-called xeno-hormones could be responsible for the increased incidence in various male sexual differentiation disorders such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, low sperm counts and quality. In this report, OCs, called endocrine disrupters, were tested for their interaction with the androgen receptor. The stable prostatic cell line PALM, which contains a human androgen receptor (hAR) expression vector and the reporter MMTV-luciferase, was used to characterize the response of hAR to OC and was compared with synthetic androgen compound R1881. We found that all the OC pesticides tested were able to shift the agonist [ 3 H]-R1881 from its binding site to the AR in competitive binding assays. In addition, these compounds antagonize - in a dose-dependent manner - the AR-mediated transcription by synthetic AR ligand R1881. None of the pesticides reacted as agonists. These results demonstrate that OC endocrine activities in vivo probably result from direct and specific binding to the AR ligand-binding domain. Although the antagonistic potential of OC pesticides is lower than that of hydroxyflutamide, they are capable of disrupting the male hormone signaling pathway. Because these chemicals are extremely persistent and tend to bioaccumulate, these results support the hypothesis that the recent increase in the incidence of male sexual disorders could be due to long exposure to ubiquitous OC pesticides found in the environment

  9. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (age and lower cognitive function (Pinteractioncognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile), the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years) vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years), while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles). Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in prospective studies.

  10. Efficiency of modified chemical remediation techniques for soil contaminated by organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, S. N.; Kopytko, M.; Avila, S.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the optimization of innovation chemical techniques in order to improve the remediation of soils contaminated with organochloride pesticides. The techniques used for remediation were dehalogenation and chemical oxidation in soil contaminated by pesticides. These techniques were applied sequentially and combined to evaluate the design optimize the concentration and contact time variables. The soil of this study was collect in cotton crop zone in Agustin Codazzi municipality, Colombia, and its physical properties was measure. The modified dehalogenation technique of EPA was applied on the contaminated soil by adding Sodium Bicarbonate solution at different concentrations and rates during 4, 7 and 14 days, subsequently oxidation technique was implemented by applying a solution of KMnO4 at different concentration and reaction times. Organochlorine were detected by Gas Chromatography analysis coupled Mass Spectrometry and its removals were between 85.4- 90.0% of compounds such as 4, 4’-DDT, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4-DDE, trans-Clordane y Endrin. These results demonstrate that the technique of dehalogenation with oxidation chemistry can be used for remediation soils contaminated by organochloride pesticides.

  11. [Distribution character of organochlorinated pesticides in the karst cavity atmosphere from Guilin City, south China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-hui; Qi, Shi-hua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Jun-peng; Yuan, Dao-xian

    2010-03-01

    The investigation was performed on organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) pollution in karst cavity atmosphere in Guilin City, South China. The total concentrations of OCPs outside the cave atmosphere ranged from 1.82 to 2.01 ng x m(-1), were far more than those of inside cave (range of 0.27-0.83 ng x m(-3)). OCPs concentrations fell gradually from cave gate to inside, especially to HCH, which reflected outside atmospheric transportation contributed most of pollutants inside cave. OCPs concentrations inside cave equaled to those in South and North poles therefore could be considered as background for OCPs research. The concentrations distribution sequence of HCH isomers corresponded to degradation rates themselves and that might provide critical information on the exhibiting their inherent character differences of HCH pesticides well under peculiarly original surrounding. In addition, a possibly fresh introduction of discofol-type and a historical usage potential for HCH pesticides in studied area were identified by isomer percentage combined isomer ratios.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in placenta in Kyrgyzstan and the effect on pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichuev, Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich; Zhilova, Liudmila Victorovna; Paizildaev, Timur Rashidinovich; Khametova, Madina Shavkatovna; Rakhmatillaev, Abdygapar; Sakibaev, Kyialbek Sherikbaevich; Madykova, Zhanyl Akhmedovna; Toichueva, Asel Uezbekovna; Schlumpf, Margret; Weber, Roland; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2017-12-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography in 241 placentas from cotton-growing regions, 121 placentas from an urban area (city of Osh), and 146 placentas from unpolluted mountain regions of Kyrgyzstan. Manifestations of disease were recorded in the mothers during pregnancy and parturition and in their newborns during the first 6 days of life. OCPs were detected in 240 out of 508 placentas (47.2%), with increased incidence in the two polluted regions (65%), particularly in placentas from women living near former pesticide storehouses and agro air-strips (99%), but only in 2.7% of placentas from the unpolluted region. α-, β-, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); DDT; DDE; aldrin; and heptachlor were detected. The sum of concentrations of all OCPs (total OCPs) was calculated for each of the 240 placentas with detectable OCPs (median 9.5 μg/kg placenta, mean 88.3 μg/kg, range 0.1-3070 μg/kg). The incidence of health problems in four subgroups of this data set, with increasing levels of total OCPs, was compared with the incidence of health problems in the group of 268 placentas, where OCPs were undetectable. Relative risk of health problems in both, mothers and newborns, increased significantly, in a concentration-dependent manner, with increasing levels of total OCPs (p pesticide storehouses and agro airstrips should be considered as being at risk. Reduction of exposure is urgently needed.

  13. A study on biochemical changes in the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) following exposure to sublethal doses of organochlorine pesticide (endosulfan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryavanshi, U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Nigam, S.; Badesab, S.

    Endosulfan, a broad-spectrum non-systemic organochlorine (OC) pesticide is extensively used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture and public health programmes. Biochemical changes occurring in the metabolically active...

  14. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  15. Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Atmospheric Particles Collected in Zagreb, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Dvoršćak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the occurrence and levels of hexachlorobenzene, α-, β-, and γ-hexachlorocyclo-hexane, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, and 17 PCBs (six indicator and eleven other toxicologically significant congeners in PM10 and/or PM2.5 particle fractions collected between 2000 and 2003 and in 2010 at a site in the northern residential part of Zagreb, Croatia. Twenty-four-hour particle samples were collected on glass or quartz microfibre filters from approximately 100 m3 of ambient air per filter. Filters with particles collected over seven consecutive days were combined for ultrasonic extraction with 1:1 acetone:n-hexane mixture followed by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. In the monitored periods, the mass concentrations of organochlorine compounds in atmospheric particles were characteristic of global environmental pollution and showed a decreasing trend. Local input was observed only for γ-hexachlorocyclohexane. There were no pronounced seasonal variations in the mass fraction levels of any pesticide or PCB in airborne particles. A decreasing trend in the mass concentrations of some compounds with higher air temperatures was mostly related to the lower particle concentrations in warmer seasons and, consequently, to less particle-bound organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere.

  16. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K OW . A negative correlation between BCF and log K OW was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K OA . - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots

  17. Contamination levels of selected organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the Selangor River, Malaysia between 2002 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kok Hoong; Tan, L L Benjamin; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2007-01-01

    In Malaysia, rivers are the main source of public water supplies. This study was conducted from 2002 to 2003 to determine the levels of selected organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the Selangor River in Malaysia. Surface water samples have been collected seasonally from nine sites along the river. A liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was used to determine the trace levels of these pesticide residues. The organochlorine pesticides detected were lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endosulfan sulfate, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE whereas for organophosphate pesticides, they were chlorpyrifos and diazinon. At the river upstream where a dam is located for public water supply, incidents of pesticide levels exceeding the European Economic Community Directive of water quality standards have occurred. Furthermore, the wetland ecosystems located at the downstream of the river which houses the fireflies community is being threatened by occasional pesticide levels above EPA limits for freshwater aquatic organisms. The occurrence of these residual pesticides in the Selangor River can be attributed to the intense agriculture and urban activity.

  18. Monitoring of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in water during different seasons of Tighra reservoir Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of pesticides during different seasons for pesticidal contamination in water samples of Tighra reservoir was carried out on gas chromatograph-electron capture detector with capillary columns following multiresidual analytical technique. Organochlorine pesticides, viz., hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), beta-BHC, γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, o,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p-DDD, p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endrin, and organophosphorus pesticides, viz., choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, diazion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, and parathion, were detected in water samples during different seasons. However, the pesticide concentration varied during different seasons at different sites. The prominent reason of contamination is the use of pesticides (both organochlorine and organophosphorus) in the agricultural fields near Tighra reservoir. On the basis of our observations, more extensive monitoring studies need to be carried out, covering all wetlands of Madhya Pradesh to enforce the policies for the restricted application of pesticides in agricultural fields adjacent to wetlands.

  19. Simultaneous determination of organochlorine and pyrethriod pesticide residues in the Chinese patent medicines by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xue J; Zhong, Yao; Yan, Ai P; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yuan X; Wan, Yi Q

    2018-02-01

    A simple, sensitive, reliable method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organochlorine and pyrethriod pesticide residues in Chinese patent medicines Six ingredient rehmannia pills and Xiaoyao pills. These pesticides were extracted by ethyl acetate. The extraction time and volume of ethyl acetate were optimized. Cleanup of extracts was performed with dispersive-solid phase extraction using graphitized carbon black as the sorbent. The determination of pesticides in the final extracts was carried out by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode (GC-MS/MS, MRM). The linearity of the calibration curves is good in matrix-matched standard and yields the coefficients of determination (R 2 ) ≥0.99 for all of the target analytes. Under optimized conditions, the average recoveries (five replicates) for most pesticides range from 75.5% to 114.6%, and RSDs are less than 10.0%. The LODs of 18 pesticides in Six ingredient rehmannia pill and Xiaoyao pills are in the range of 0.01-8.82 μg kg -1 . The developed method meets the requirements of pesticide residue analysis and could be effectively used for routine analysis of the organochlorine and pyrethriod pesticide residues in Six ingredient rehmannia pills and Xiaoyao pills.

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongxuan; Liu, Weiguo

    2013-10-01

    In this study, surface soil samples from 14 representative college school yards in Xi'an, the capital city of Shaanxi province, China, were collected and analyzed for 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The total concentrations were in the ranges of 0.2-67.0 ng/g. HCHs and DDTs were the most dominant compounds among the 21 OCPs, and their concentrations ranged from 0.1-8.5 to 0.1-56.3 ng/g, respectively. Source identification analysis indicated that the residues of HCHs and DDTs were mostly due to historical use of these chemicals or from other source regions. The quality of all the Xi'an college school yard soils except sample XAUAT was classified as low pollution by OCPs according to the National Environmental Quality Standards for Soils of China (GB15618-1995).

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Gardner, Susan C; Urbán R, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports unique data on concentrations of several classes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in blubber biopsies from healthy living fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico, one of the most isolated and unstudied population in the world. OC levels in this population were generally lower than levels reported in fin whales from other regions. The rank order of OCs were SigmaDDTs (range from 300 to 2400 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaPCBs (range from 40 to 290 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaHCHs (range from or = SigmaCHLORs (from Gulf of California fin whales, health effects in individuals could readily translate into population-level effects. Future research on this topic will be necessary to better understand the role that these compounds may have on the health of this population.

  2. Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-Juan; Wu, Fu-Yong; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility.

  3. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF...... values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant...... for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K-OA....

  4. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  5. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  6. Assessing the distribution and human health risk of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from selected rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2016-02-01

    Sediment samples from major agricultural producing areas in Edo state Nigeria were analysed for α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT with the aim of elucidating contamination profiles, distribution characteristics, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of these compounds in these regions. Analysis was done using a gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD), while health risk assessment was carried out using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) and the chronic daily intake (CDI). Results showed varying concentrations of α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT pesticides in sediment samples with hexachlorocyclohexane (∑HCHs) (4.6 µg/g/dw) being the dominant contaminants as it was widely detected in all samples and stations. Source identification revealed that the current levels of HCHs and DDT in sediments were attributed to both historical use and fresh usage of these pesticides. Risk estimates using ILCR and CDI showed that the risk of cancer and non-cancer effects was highest when exposure route was through ingestion. Furthermore, model projections highlights children as high risk population groups for non-dietary exposure to OCPs. These findings suggests the need for increased monitoring programmes, with a wider scope for both currently used pesticides and legacy/banned pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  8. Inhibitory effects of organochlorine pesticides on intercellular transfer of Lucifer Yellow in cultured bovine oviductal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, U; Pöhland, R

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), methoxychlor (MXC), and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gammaHCH, lindane) on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cultured bovine oviductal cells. GJIC was evaluated by microinjecting fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow and observing the inhibition of the spreading of dye into adjacent cells. After incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C, a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC was observed over a concentration range of 16 to 128 microM DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH compared with nonexposed controls. A significant inhibition began at 32 microM DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH. After incubation for 5 h, a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC was obtained in the concentration range from 8 to 64 microM of the pesticides. The first significant inhibitory effect on GJIC was caused by 8 microM DDT, 16 microM MXC, and 32 microM gammaHCH. The 128 microM concentration of the pesticides was toxic. At pesticide concentration of 64 microM, the decrease in dye-coupling observed was not due to lethal cell injury, as is indicated by the use of trypan blue dye exclusion. After removal of 64 microM DDT from the culture medium, intercellular communication was reestablished within 3 h. Measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in fura-2/AM-loaded oviductal cells showed that the inhibition of GJIC by addition of DDT, MXC, or gammaHCH was not associated with a detectable increase in [Ca2+]i. Coincubation of the DDT with dibutyryl-cAMP prevented the 64 microM DDT-induced inhibition of intercellular communication in adherent oviduct cells. It is suggested that organochlorine pesticides can influence cells responsible for reproduction.

  9. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Fernández-Bringas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The organochlorine pesticides (OP are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July (2002 from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982 (sediments and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986 (organisms methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were g-HCH, d-HCH, p,p’-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p’-DDD y d-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (g-HCH was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1381-1390. Epub 2008 September 30.El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en la cuenca lacustre de Metztitlán, Hgo. Se realizaron tres colectas de sedimentos recientes en noviembre (2001, abril y julio (2002 y dos colectas para organismos en abril y julio (2002. Los análisis se hicieron siguiendo la metodología para sedimentos propuesta por UNEP/IAEA (1982 y para tejido de organismos por UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986. Se identificaron y cuantificaron tres familias químicas de plaguicidas organoclorados, para determinar el posible riesgo toxicológico de los sedimentos y de organismos en capturas comerciales. Los principales compuestos clorados en sedimentos fueron el g-HCH, d

  11. Determination of levels of organochlorine pesticides in plastic resin pellets on selected beaches in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoatey, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in beached plastic resin pellets were determined with the objective of assessing the status of OCP pollution in the marine ecosystem in selected beaches in Ghana. Samples of plastic resin pellets were collected at seven beaches in Accra (namely Art centre, Sakumono, Osu castle, Labadi, Korle-Gonno, Independence Square and Tema Mighty beaches) and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, total chlorine and extractable chlorine. The plastic pellets were subjected to Soxhlet extraction and the extracts analyzed using Gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detected compounds were alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, hexachlorobenzene, o, p' -DDE, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, heptachlor, trans-heptachlor epoxy, trans-chlordane, trans-nanochlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, endosulphan sulphate and methoxychlor. Analysis of the virgin pellets recorded no organochlorine pesticides present. However, plastics pellets collected from all seven beaches were found to contain OCPs with the highest recorded on the Art Centre beach with a total concentration of 106.26 ng/g. Plastic pellets collected on the Labadi beach recorded the lowest OCPs with a concentration of 20.2 ng/g. Total chlorine and extractable organochlorine (EOCI) were also determined in the plastic resin pellets by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The concentrations of total chlorine analyzed by INAA were between 2.82 and 50.25 mg/kg whereas the EOCR concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 30.90 mg/kg. EOCR accounted for 48.05% of the total chlorine in plastic pellets, suggesting that chlorine in the beached pellet relatively existed as organic and are extractable. The relative proportion of known or identified organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDT s, chlordane compounds, endosulphans, HCB and methoxychlor) to the total extractable organochlorine(EOCI) was averagely 7.4% which suggested

  12. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region.

  13. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  14. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in raft mussels coming from Galician rías.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2017-09-01

    This survey gives an overview of the range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) α and γ-HCH (lindane), HCB, pp´-DDE, pp´-DDD, op´-DDT, pp´-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor in raft mussels cultivated in several polygons of the Galician Rías (Ares-Betanzos, Muros-Noia, Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo) during the period 1998-2014. A significant number of OCPs were detected, but the levels found were generally low, mainly in the recent samplings (2010-2014). The levels of ∑DDs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites, pp´-DDE and pp´-DDD) ranged between 0.22 ng/g dry weight (dw) in samples from the Ría of Pontevedra and 46.4 ng/g dw in mussels from the Ría of Arousa. Both aldrin and endrin were not detected or were below the analytical limits of detection. With regard to other pesticides, dieldrin is the major compound, followed by γ-HCH, isodrin, α-HCH and transnonachlor. Significant ANOVA regressions indicated variations in levels of some OCPs with the biological parameters (lipid, condition index and shell length). Univariate and multivariate analysis of OCP levels revealed no significant differences between Rías. Temporal trends showed an important decline of OCPs in the studied samples during the period 1998-2014.

  15. Bioindicators of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Western Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2017-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O. keta, chinook O. tshawytscha, and sockeye O. nerka) were collected near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. The total OCPs concentration (HCHs + DDTs) was found in each organism, including the Pacific walrus (70-90,263 ng/g lipid), the seabirds (29-16,095 ng/g lipid), and the Pacific salmon (41-7103 ng/g lipid). The concentrations and possible sources of OCPs in marine organisms as biological indicators are discussed.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM=1.6 ng g(-1)), endosulfans (0.16 ng g(-1)), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g(-1)). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher FDDTe=p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in the air of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.; Li, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry; Li, X. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2005-07-01

    This study assessed the levels, seasonal patterns, and long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) related to pesticide use in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China and Hong Kong. Sampling was conducted simultaneously at 2 sampling sites for a consecutive 24 hour period on a bi-weekly basis from December 2003 to December 2004. Twenty target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified against a 6 point calibration curve. Results showed that concentrations of OCPs increased in the summer seasons. HCH OCPs showed no clear seasonal pattern. Higher levels of y-HCH and DDTs were found in Guangzhou. A strong DDT pollution event was identified in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou, along with a sharp drop of op-DDT and DDE/DDT ratios. A pollution plume of endosulfan was observed from August 25 to October 19,2004. Air DDT and endosulfan pollution events could not be explained by temperature-dependent surface evaporation. The results of 5- and 10-days back analyses indicated that the high DDT levels in both cities were related to the Asian summer monsoon originating from southern Asia, where large quantities of DDT may still be used. High concentrations of endosulfan in winter were attributed to atmospheric transport from winter monsoons from eastern China. 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. Recent strategies for removal and degradation of persistent & toxic organochlorine pesticides using nanoparticles: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manviri; Shanker, Uma; Jassal, Vidhisha

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) are the most hazardous class of pesticides, therefore, banned or restricted in several countries. The major sources of OCs include food industries, agriculture and sewage wastes. Their effluents discharged into the water bodies contain extremely high concentration of OCs which ultimately causes environmental concern. Because of their high persistence, toxicity and potential to bioaccumulation, their removal from wastewater is imperative. The degradation techniques are now advanced using nanomaterials of various kinds. During the last few years, nanoparticles such as TiO 2 and Fe are found to be excellent adsorbents and efficient photocatalysts for degrading more or less whole OCs as well as their toxic metabolites, which opens the opportunities for exploring various other nanoparticles as well. It is noteworthy that such methodologies are economic, fast and very efficient. In this review, the detailed information on different types of OC pesticides, their metabolites, environmental concern and present status on degradation methods using nanoparticles have been reviewed. An attempt has also been made to highlight the research gaps prevailing in the current research area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Some Selected Cocoa Beverages in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Ibigbami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17 OCP residues using gas chromatography coupled with an Electron Captured Detector (GC-ECD after extraction and silica-gel clean-up. The study reveals the presence of ten OCP residues in the cocoa beverages, with a concentration range from not detected ND—0.256 mg/kg, while α-BHC, β-BHC, methoxychlor, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin, endrin aldehyde, and endosulfan sulphate were not detected in any of the analysed samples. The contamination pattern of OCPs in the beverages was in the following order: Ovaltine > Milo > Cadbury-choco > Bournvita > Cowbell-coffee > Richoco > Oluji, with p,p′-DDT being the most frequently found pesticide. Heptachlor and endosulfan II showeda residual level above the European Union (EU Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs in only one sample.

  20. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10 -5 Ω -1 m -1 , 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t 1/2 =22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in elementary school yards along the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miersma, Nick A; Pepper, Christopher B; Anderson, Todd A

    2003-01-01

    A reconnaissance study was undertaken to determine potential contaminant exposures to children through soil from elementary school playgrounds. Soil samples were collected from areas along the Texas-Mexico border, inland areas (soils from elementary school yards in cities/towns within the state of Texas), and three National Parks (one on the border, one in Tennessee, and one in Washington). The present study focused on organochlorine (OC) pesticides as the potential contaminants of concern because of their historical (and possibly current) use, and their importance as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDE and heptachlor were the most frequently detected OCs (69 and 63%, respectively), although heptachlor concentrations in soil never exceeded 5 ppb. Relatively higher concentrations of DDE were observed in agricultural areas along the border (50-60 ppb in soils from McAllen, Palmview, and San Benito) than in other soils. However, a school yard in Lubbock, TX had the highest OC concentration observed (70 ppb dieldrin). These results may be due to historical agriculture activity prior to the banning of OC pesticides such as DDT in the early 1970s, as well as the more recent use of DDT in Central and South America for malaria control.

  2. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindoruk, S. Sıddık; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of Σ10OCPs.

  3. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of organochlorine pesticides in the US Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Offenberg, John H.; Gigliotti, Cari L.; Totten, Lisa A.; Du, Songyan; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period January 2000-May 2001 at six locations as part of New Jersey Atmospheric Deposition Network (NJADN). Gas phase, particle phase and precipitation concentrations of 22 OCP species, including chlordanes, DDTs, HCHs, endosulfan I and II, aldrin and diedrin, were measured. OCPs are found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons, representing over 95% of the total air concentrations. Most of the pesticides measured display highest concentrations at urban sites (Camden and New Brunswick), although in many cases the differences in geometric mean concentrations are not statistically significant. The relationship of gas-phase partial pressure with temperature was examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation; significant temperature dependencies were found for all OCPs, except aldrin. Atmospheric depositional fluxes (gas absorption into water+dry particle deposition+wet deposition) to the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary of selected OCPs were estimated at NJADN sites. Atmospheric concentrations of dieldrin, aldrin and the HCHs are similar to those measured by the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) in the Great Lake Region. In contrast, concentrations of DDTs, chlordanes and heptachlor are higher in the Mid-Atlantic compared to the Great Lakes, suggesting that the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary receives higher fluxes of these chemicals than the Great Lakes.

  4. Preliminary Study Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticide (Heptachlor) and Heavy Metal (Arsenic) in Shallow Groundwater Aquifer of Semarang Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochaddi, Baskoro; Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Atmodjo, Warsito; Satriadi, Alfi

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the level of pesticide and heavy metal contamination in shallow aquifer of Semarang coastal areas. Results indicated that Heptachlor and Arsenic were detected in the water samples in the range 0.023-0.055 μg L-1 and 0,03-1,63 μg L-1, respectively. Compared to the standard limits of the organochlorine contents in the water sample by World Health Organization (WHO) limits and Indonesian Drinking and Domestic Water Quality Standard for Ground Water (IWQS), groundwater of Semarang Coastal Areas was contaminated with pesticide and heavy metal. This study has proven the presence of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination of some shallow aquifer supplies in the coastal areas of Semarang.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddarth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Tyagi, Vipin; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. Methods All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n = 100), patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (n = 100), and patients with chronic kidney disease o...

  6. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were measured directly for 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C. Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7.4 for hexachlorobenzene to 10.1 for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Measured values were compared to values calculated as KowRT/H (where R is the ideal gas constant [8.314 J mol(-1) K(-1)], T is absolute temperature, and H is Henry's law constant) were, in general, larger. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air (deltaHoa) were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to 105 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). Activity coefficients in octanol (gamma(o)) were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures (pL(o)), and these were in the range of 0.3 to 12, indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and -10 degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.

  7. Determination of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught from five different locations of the western Black Sea coast of Turkey in August 2009. Organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the liver tissues, and then the levels of OCPs were measured using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all locations. The levels of total OCPs in fish samples ranged between 0.224 and 1.103 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. DDT, beta-HCH, and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the fish samples. The levels of DDT in fish samples ranged between 0.081 and 0.186 μg g(-1) dry weight. The levels of total HCH in fish samples ranged between 0.007 and 0.376 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Although the usage of OCPs was banned in Turkey, the results of this study clearly indicated the presence of OCPs in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey and exposure of living organisms to these chemicals.

  8. The Preliminary Study of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Sediments of Bivalvia Fishing Ground at Eastern Part of Coastal Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Subagyo; Setyati, Wilis Ari; Sri Susilo, Endang; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Triaji Mahendrajaya, Robertus

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the occurrence level of organochlorine contamination in marine sediments of Semarang coastal areas as a fishing ground of Bivalvia. Five compounds (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT) of contaminant have been determined in the sediments surface of Semarang coastal waters. The samples were then analyzed by using gas chromatography and followed by using the method of Standard Method Examination. The result showed that the average concentration of organochlorine pesticides Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT were 25.5, bellow detected, 7.1, 37.2, 28.6 μ g/L, respectively. The high concentration of pesticide showed on Endrin (65,84 ppb), pp-DDT (29,53 μ g/L), and heptachlor (25,45 μ g/L). The low concentrations were detected on aldrin (bellow detected) and endosulfan (0,92 μ g/L). The concentration of organochlorine pesticides in these areas might contribute on four rivers which deposited the sediment in these coastal waters

  9. Sources and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in the soil and sediment along the Kaidu-Peacock River, Northwest of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Fei; Qu, Chengkai; Zhang, Yuan; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a sub-group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have raised the concerns from researchers all around the world for several decades. But very little research has been conducted on POPs in the arid zone of Northwest China. More than 100 soil and sediment samples were collected from Kaidu-Peacock River of Xinjiang, Northwest of China, to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in this region analysed by the gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Our pre-study in 2006 (Chen et al. 2011) in the same region, showed that OCPs except o,p'-DDT were detected in sediments from the Peacock River. Similar results were found in the whole river catchment in this investigation. DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and endosulfans were the dominant OCPs residual in the soil and sediments. This study confirmed that POPs, such as OCPs in this region were contributed to by both local emissions and long-term atmospheric transport and may pose risks to human health and the ecosystem. Chen, W., Jing, M., Bu, J., Ellis Burnet, J., Qi, S., Song, Q., Ke, Y., Miao, J., Liu, M. & Yang, C. (2011) Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the Peacock River Drainage Basin in Xinjiang, China: a study of an arid zone in Central Asia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 1-21.

  10. Easy and fast extraction methods to determine organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge, soil, and water samples based at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Tayane C R; Santos, Rizia R; Cacique, Ane P; De Sá, Ludimara J; Silvério, Flaviano O; Pinho, Gevany P

    2018-03-04

    Organochlorine pesticides present in sewage sludge can contaminate soil and water when they are used as either fertilizer or agricultural soil conditioner. In this study, the technique solid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was optimized and validated for determination of ten organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge and soil samples. Liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was also validated for the same compounds in water. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selective ion monitoring mode. After optimization, the methods showed recoveries between 70% and 115% with relative standard deviation lower than 13% for all target analytes in the three matrices. The linearity was demonstrated in the range of 20 to 70 µg L -1 , 0.5 to 60 µg L -1 , and 3 to 13 µg L -1 , for sludge, soil, and acetonitrile, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged between 2 and 40 µg kg -1 , 1 and 6 µg kg -1 , and 0.5 µg L -1 for sludge, soil, and water, respectively. The methods were used in the study of pesticide lixiviation carried out in a poly vinyl chlorine column filled with soil, which had its surface layer mixed with sludge. The results showed that pesticides are not leached into soil, part of them is adsorbed by the sewage sludge (4-40%), and most pesticides are lost by volatilization.

  11. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2–bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was banned in the United States in 1972. It has been suggested that peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibises (Plegadis chihi), various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America. Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border and throughout Mexico are discussed. The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene) (DDE), the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past (e.g., Chiapas and Michoacan). Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.

  12. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  13. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paula F; Weinstock, Ruth S; Silverstone, Allen E; Sjödin, Andreas; Pavuk, Marian

    2017-11-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study, was undertaken in 2005-2007 to study environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and health outcomes among residents of Anniston, AL, United States. The examination of potential risks between these pollutants and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia) was the focus of this analysis. Participants were 548 adults who completed the survey and a clinic visit, were free of diabetes, and had a serum sample for clinical laboratory parameters as well as PCB and OC pesticide concentrations. Associations between summed concentrations of 35 PCB congeners and 9 individual pesticides and metabolic syndrome were examined using generalized linear modeling and logistic regression; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Pollutants were evaluated as quintiles and as log transformations of continuous serum concentrations. Participants were mostly female (68%) with a mean age (SD) of 53.6 (16.2) years. The racial distribution was 56% white and 44% African American; 49% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In unadjusted logistic regression, statistically significant and positive associations across the majority of quintiles were noted for seven individually modeled pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, oxychlor, tNONA, Mirex). Following adjustment for covariables (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, positive family history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, liver disease, BMI), significant elevations in risk were noted for p,p'-DDT across multiple quintiles (range of ORs 1.61 to 2.36), for tNONA (range of ORs 1.62-2.80) and for p,p'-DDE [OR (95% CI)] of 2.73 (1.09-6.88) in the highest quintile relative to the first. Significant trends were observed in adjusted logistic models for log 10 HCB [OR=6

  15. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-03-01

    The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ∑PCB 2682 ± 3300 pg/g lipid; ∑DDT 25,938 ± 28,644 pg/g lipid; and ∑HCH 2930 ± 2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ∑WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies.

  16. Levels and potential sources of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides at Korea background sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang-Zhu; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Su-Yeong; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Min-Jin; Sim, Ki-Tae; Kang, Hak-Gu; Kim, Il-Gyu; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Hwang, Seung-Ryul

    2013-04-01

    Data are presented for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) measured by high volume air samplers at three background sites (monthly for one site, seasonally for two sites) in South Korea during June 2008 and December 2009, and levels, seasonal variations and potential sources of high levels of OCPs and impact of long-range transport (LRT) were discussed. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of OCPs in air samples (pg m-3) were highest for HCB (80, 15.0-256), HCH (71, 10.8-547), a currently used pesticide, DDT (3.50, ND-56.5), and Chlordane (1.15, ND-10.5). Other chemicals regularly detected included, Heptachlor (0.41, ND-2.59), Drins (0.61, ND-4.36) and Mirex (0.04, ND-0.78). Seasonal variation of OCPs was featured by higher concentrations in summer and lower in winter period. This could be associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization from historical source and recent application of some OCPs (such as dicofol, HCH etc). Ratios of specific OCPs isomers suggest that dominant source of air HCHs in Korea background sites is technical HCH with a little input of lindane in recent time, and dominant source of air DDT is old and used technical DDT with a little bit of dicofol type DDT, and current air chlordane in Korean background sites mainly come from the source of historically used chlordane. The results from this study will provide comparable and scientifically sound data of OCP in background air and will contribute to further long-term POPs monitoring program in East Asia.

  17. Soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.; Leone, Andi D.

    2004-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from 30 farms in Alabama, Louisiana and Texas during 1999-2000 to determine residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). One or more of the DDT compounds (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE) was above the quantitation limit (0.1 ng g -1 dry weight) in every soil, and toxaphene was above the quantitation limit (3 ng g -1 ) in 26 soils. Chlordanes, dieldrin and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers occurred less frequently (quantitation limits 0.1 ng g -1 for dieldrin and 0.05 ng g -1 for chlordanes and HCHs). OCPs were measured in air at 40 cm above the soil at selected farms to investigate soil-air partitioning. Concentrations of OCPs in air were positively and significantly (P s and f a ) for samples with quantifiable residues in both compartments. The fugacity fraction ((f s )/(f s +f a ))=0.5 at equilibrium and is 0.5 for net deposition and net volatilisation, respectively. Fugacity fractions varied greatly for different soil-air pairs, reflecting generally disequilibrium conditions. Mean fugacity fractions indicated near-equilibrium for some OCPs (p,p'-DDE, chlordanes, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin) and net volatilisation for others (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, toxaphene, γ-HCH). Chiral analysis showed that enantioselective degradation of (+) or (-) o,p'-DDT in soil was accompanied by enrichment or depletion of the corresponding enantiomers in the overlying air, although there appeared to be some dilution by racemic o,p'-DDT from regional air transport. - Old pesticide residues in agricultural soils continue to be emitted into the atmosphere

  18. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Concentrations and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic biota from Qiantang River in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Rongbing [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: brz3000@163.com; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Chen Yuyun; Kong Qingxia [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Qiantang River is a typical river flowing through an agricultural area in China. It was studied in 2006 for its aquatic biota quality by determining 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the edible parts of crabs, clams, shrimp, fish, aquatic plants, as well as water and sediments collected from seven sites along its upper reaches all the way downstream. The levels of all insecticides were in the range of 17 {+-} 13 (water plants), 35 {+-} 36 (shrimp), 32 {+-} 14 (crabs), 39 {+-} 21 (clams), 47{+-}35 (fish) ng/g wet weight (ww) and in the range of 2936 {+-} 2356 (water plants), 5827 {+-} 6013 (shrimp), 2102 {+-} 966 (crabs), 1859 {+-} 1018 (clams), 3624 {+-} 11331 (fish) ng/g lipid. DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most biota. A linear relationship was observed between the log bio-concentration factor (BCF) and log octanol-water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}) for fish, clams and shrimp. Composition analyses in various environmental media indicated a recent usage of lindane and dicofol into the river. - OCP residues still exist in aquatic biota from Qiantang River after the ban of OCPs twenty years ago.

  20. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in sediments of Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangcai; Tang, Jianhui; Zhao, Zhen; Pan, Xiaohui; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (HCHs, DDTs and HCB) have been investigated in sediments of Laizhou Bay and its adjacent rivers. The average concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCBs are 0.09ng/gdw, 0.59 and 0.05 for marine sediments and 0.55, 8.6 and 1.1 for riverine sediments, respectively. Laizhou Bay is less contaminated by HCHs and DDTs in comparison with other coastal regions around the world, including the other two biggest bays in Bohai Sea. Fresh input of lindane and dicofol-type DDT were found in several riverine sites. Relatively strong TOC-dependence of HCB distribution in the entire studied area suggested no point source existed and/or water-sediment equilibrium achieved. No significant difference of α/γ-HCH ratios have been observed between marine and riverine sediments. However, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios varied largely between the two regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of using low density polyethylene sheets to detect atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairy, Mohammed A.; Lohmann, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Egypt is a major agricultural country in Africa with a known past of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) application, yet data on atmospheric levels of OCPs in Egypt is sparse. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were therefore deployed for 3 weeks each at 11 locations in July, 2010 and January, 2011 in Alexandria to screen for gas-phase OCPs. Performance reference compounds were used to investigate the uptake kinetics. Field-derived sampler-air partitioning coefficients (K PE-A s) for OCPs were significantly correlated against the compounds' subcooled liquid vapor pressure (log P L ): [log K PE-A = −0.77 ± 0.07*log P L + 6.35 ± 0.13 (R 2 = 0.90; n = 17; SE = 0.19; p 3 . Calculated isomeric ratios indicated recent usage of chlordanes and endosulfans. -- Highlights: •The feasibility of using LDPE as passive air samplers for OCPs was investigated. •PRCs were used to investigate the exchange kinetics and equilibration stages. •K PE-A s for OCPs were predicted from a regression relation with P L . •Estimated (from LDPE) and measured (active sampler) OCP concentrations agreed well. •OCP levels, sources and temporal variations were studied in Alexandria using LDPE. -- LDPE passive air samplers spiked with PRCs can be used as a practical low cost technique for monitoring gas phase OCPs in Egypt

  3. Sequestration of organochlorine pesticides in soils of distinct organic carbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Na [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processing, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Yu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processing, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Shu, E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processing, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu Yan; Shi Kelu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processing, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-03-15

    In the present study, five soil samples with organic carbon contents ranging from 0.23% to 7.1% and aged with technical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) for 15 months were incubated in a sealed chamber to investigate the dynamic changes of the OCP residues. The residues in the soils decreased over the incubation period and finally reached a plateau. Regression analysis showed that degradable fractions of OCPs were negatively correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) except for {alpha}-HCH, while no correlation was found between degradation rate and SOC, which demonstrated that SOC content determines the OCP sequestration fraction in soil. Analysis of the ratio of DDT and its primary metabolites showed that, since it depends on differential sequestration among them, magnitude of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT is not a reliable criterion for the identification of new DDT sources. - Research highlights: > Soil organic carbon content determines the OCP sequestration fraction in soil. > Magnitude of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT is not a reliable criterion for the identification of new DDT sources. > The more hydrophobic compounds have relatively higher sequestration fractions in soils with SOC contents >2%. > DDD may have higher sorption by soil organic matter than DDE. - The effect of soil organic matter on the sequestration of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDTs) in soils was investigated in an innovative microcosm chamber.

  4. Leaf-air transfer of organochlorine pesticides from three selected vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xinglun [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Jiang Xin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)]. E-mail: jiangxin@issas.ac.cn; Yu Guifen [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yao Fenxia [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Bian Yongrong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang Fang [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-07-15

    The leaf-air transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three kinds of vegetables, namely lettuce, romaine and garlic leaves was investigated. It was found that although the uptake of OCPs by the three selected vegetables was similar under controlled conditions, the depuration varied significantly among chemicals and plant species in terms of elimination rate, final residue of each OCPs, as well as the effect of temperature on the residue of OCPs in the vegetables. The results indicated that neither QCB nor HCB could be trapped tightly by any of the three selected vegetables, in contrast, p,p'-DDT could be retained effectively by all of them; the retainment of {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, p,p'-DDE, was dependent on the vegetable species, of which the garlic leaf had the biggest ability to trap them. Our work provided insight into the behavior of OCPs in the agroecosystem. - The leaf-air transfer of OCPs varied significantly among chemicals and the three selected vegetables.

  5. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) recorded in sediments across the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiqiang; Xie, Ting; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Wu, Guangjian

    2018-02-01

    Sediment cores from four lakes across the Tibetan Plateau were used as natural archives to study the time trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The total concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (ΣHCH) were in the range of 0.04-1.61 and 0.08-1.88 ng/g based on dry weight (dw), while the input fluxes were in the range of 0.3-236 and 0.7-295 pg/cm 2 /y in the core sediments, respectively. The input fluxes of ΣDDT and ΣHCH generally peaked in sediment layers corresponding to the 1970s-1990s and peaked in top sediment layers. The ratio of α/γ-HCH decreased in the top layer sediments, implying that the contribution of lindane (pure γ-HCH) has been increasing in recent years. In addition, the ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT increased significantly over the last 15-20 years, suggesting that dicofol (characterized by high ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT about 7.0) has recently become a relatively more important source of DDT compared to technical DDT itself. The time trends of OCPs recorded in lake sediments examined the impact on such remote alpine regions by human activities.

  6. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in a northeastern state of India, Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Qi, Shihua; Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed over a year during January to December, 2009 at three locations, i.e., Imphal (urban site), Thoubal (rural site) and Waithou (alpine site) of Manipur, to assess the seasonal local atmospheric emission of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The average concentration of HCHs monitored at mountain site during hot season (Mar, Apr, and May) and rainy seasons (Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) were 403 and 349 pg/m3, respectively. DDTs had a high concentration with 384 pg/m3 at rural site and 379 pg/m3 at urban site during hot seasons. Endosulfans and chlordane were found high in concentration during hot seasons (260 pg/m3) and low during retreating monsoon seasons (44 pg/m3) at rural site. Most of the OCPs concentrations were high during cultivation period. The OCP concentrations of rainy season were highly correlated (p < 0.01) with OCPs of hot seasons. Further, positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also obtained between cold seasons and retreating monsoon. Principal component analysis showed a significant correlation among the four seasons and distribution pattern of OCPs in air. Back trajectory analysis by using HYPSLIT model showed a long range air transport of OCPs to the present study area. Present OCP levels at Manipur is an outcome of both local emission and also movement of air mass by long range atmospheric transport.

  7. Relationship of air sampling rates of semipermeable membrane devices with the properties of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Ding, Guanghui; Levy, Walkiria; Jakobi, Gert; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-06-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in Eastern-Barvaria at Haidel 1160 m a.s.l. were monitored with a low volume active air sampler and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The air sampling rates (Rair) of SPMD for OCP were calculated. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of Rair of SPMD were developed for OCP with partial least square (PLS) regression. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by semi-empirical PM6 method were used as predictor variables. The cumulative variance of the dependent variable explained by the PLS components and determined by cross-validation (Q(2)cum), for the optimal models, is 0.637, indicating that the model has good predictive ability and robustness, and could be used to estimate Rair values of OCP. The main factors governing Rair of OCP are intermolecular interactions and the energy required for cave-forming in dissolution of OCP into triolein of SPMD. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K(OW). A negative correlation between BCF and log K(OW) was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K(OA).

  9. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  10. The concentration and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the air from the karst cave, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghui; Guo, Songjun; Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Weisheng; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Yuan, Daoxian

    2012-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the air of Dayan Cave in Guilin were analyzed, to investigate the source and contamination levels. Generally, air outside of the cave had much higher concentrations than inside air, and both outside and inside air showed much lower contamination levels than those observed in other regions in China and abroad. The ratios of α-/γ-HCHs and the percentages of β-(or δ-)HCH implied a residue of historical local technical HCH contamination. The DDT concentrations, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested fresh DDT-containing products acted as the primary source of DDT for the air in Dayan Cave. An intermediate level concentration of α-endosulfan (156.00 pg/m(3)) was observed in the outside air, implying local source was dominant. Based on the similar sources of HCH and DDT and the relationships between outside and inside air, it appeared that outside air pollutants affected on inside HCH and DDT's distribution. For other OCPs, outside air might be major contributor to inside air contamination under conditions of high concentrations in outside air compared with low levels in inside air for semi-closed karstic caves.

  11. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Construction of a genetically engineered microorganism that simultaneously degrades organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jijian; Liu, Ruihua; Song, Wenli; Yang, Yao; Cui, Feng; Qiao, Chuanling

    2012-02-01

    Field contamination with pesticide mixtures of organophosphates (OPs) and organochlorines (OCs) is becoming global issues to be solved urgently. The strategy of utilizing engineered microorganisms that have an ability to simultaneously degrade OPs and OCs has increasingly received great interest. In this work, an OP degradation gene (mpd) and an OC degradation gene (linA) were simultaneously introduced into Escherichia coli by using two compatible plasmids, resulting in strains with both OP degradation and OC degradation capabilities. To overcome the potential substrate uptake limitation, MPH was displayed on the cell surface of Escherichia coli using the N- and C-terminal domains of ice nucleation protein (INPNC) as an anchoring motif. The surface localization of INPNC-MPH was verified by cell fractionation, Western blot, proteinase accessibility, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, both LinA and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were functionally co-expressed in the MPH-displaying Escherichia coli. The engineered Escherichia coli degraded OPs as well as OCs rapidly, and it can be easily monitored by GFP fluorescence.

  13. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ruiqiang; Wang Yawei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Li An [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Zhang Qinghua; Jing Chuanyong; Wang Thanh; Wang Pu; Li Yingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Jiang Guibin, E-mail: gbjiang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2010-06-15

    High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organoclorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream. - Occurrence of POPs in higher-altitude lakes suggests that Tibetan Plateau acts as potential regional convergence zones for long-range atmospheric transported contaminants.

  15. SPME GC/MS determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbolat Sailaukhanuly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME in combination with gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS was studied for analysis of water samples. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE were collected and analyzed by GC/MS. To select of effective fiber coatings four types of SPME fibers were examined and compared. The parameters effecting the efficiency of HS-SPME such as extraction and pre-incubation time and extraction temperature, effect of solvent nature, ionic strength were studied to obtain optimal parameters. The method was developed using spiked water samples in a concentration range  10 - 500 ng/L. The calibration curve was linear over the studied concentration range with r≥0.9925. The detection limits varied from 1.57 to 2.08 ng/L. An authentic water samples from contaminated lake with OCPs were analyzed by developed method.

  16. Microwave-assisted steam distillation for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroids in Chinese teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Huiqin; Wu, Yunyun; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-02-28

    In this work, microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) extraction method followed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and pyrethroids in the Chinese teas. MASD is a combination of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques. Water vapor generated by microwave irradiation is used to accelerate desorption of the analytes from the sample, and the nonpolar organic solvent used for trapping the analytes is kept from direct contact with the sample by the water. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained compared to the method directly using organic solvent as extraction solvent, such as ultrasonic extraction (USE). Microwave power of 200W and irradiation time of 2min was found to be the optimum conditions for the MASD process, and n-heptane was chosen as the analyte-trapping solvent in the study. Five OCPs (alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, dicofol, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT) and two pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenvalate) were determined using this extraction method in the tea samples. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the analytes varied from 2.2 to 8.4%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) found were lower than 0.23mug/kg. The recoveries of the seven compounds in the Jasmine tea sample were between 84.04 and 110.1%. Comparative results obtained by MASD and USE were also discussed in the study.

  17. Anthropogenic nexus on organochlorine pesticide pollution: a case study with Tamiraparani river basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, P; Govindaraj, S; Vignesh, S; Rajendran, R Babu; James, R Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The levels of 17 organochlorine pesticides residues (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Tamiraparani river basin, South India were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risk impacts. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at 12 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons during 2008-2009. The ΣOCP concentrations in surface water and sediments were in the range of 0.1 to 79.9 ng l(-1) and 0.12 to 3,938.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and mirex were dominant in the sediments. The dominant OCPs in water samples are heptachlor, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, o,p'-DDD, and mirex, which show different source of contamination pattern among sampling seasons. The distribution pattern of DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane, and other OCPs in the present study shows heterogenic nature of nonpoint source of pollution. Notable contamination of water and sediment sample that was observed in upstream (S2) 58 ng l(-1) and downstream (S11) 1,693 ng g(-1) dw explains agricultural and municipal outfalls, whereas frequent damming effect reduces the concentration level in the midstream. The overall spatial-temporal distribution pattern of ΣOCP residues are illustrated by GIS package.

  18. Distribution and air-sea exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the North Pacific and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minghong; Ma, Yuxin; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhong, Guangcai; MöLler, Axel; Yang, Haizhen; Sturm, Renate; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Surface seawater and boundary layer air samples were collected on the icebreaker Xuelong (Snow Dragon) during the Fourth Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE2010) cruise in the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans during 2010. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and two isomers of heptachlor epoxide. The gaseous total HCH (ΣHCHs) concentrations were approximately four times lower (average 12.0 pg m-3) than those measured during CHINARE2008 (average 51.4 pg m-3), but were comparable to those measured during CHINARE2003 (average 13.4 pg m-3) in the same study area. These changes are consistent with the evident retreat of sea ice coverage from 2003 to 2008 and increase of sea ice coverage from 2008 to 2009 and 2010. Gaseous β-HCH concentrations in the atmosphere were typically below the method detection limit, consistent with the expectation that ocean currents provide the main transport pathway for β-HCH into the Arctic. The concentrations of all dissolved HCH isomers in seawater increase with increasing latitude, and levels of dissolved HCB also increase (from 5.7 to 7.1 pg L-1) at high latitudes (above 73°N). These results illustrate the role of cold condensation processes in the transport of OCPs. The observed air-sea gas exchange gradients in the Arctic Ocean mainly favored net deposition of OCPs, with the exception of those for β-HCH, which favored volatilization.

  19. Feasibility of using low density polyethylene sheets to detect atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2013-10-01

    Egypt is a major agricultural country in Africa with a known past of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) application, yet data on atmospheric levels of OCPs in Egypt is sparse. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were therefore deployed for 3 weeks each at 11 locations in July, 2010 and January, 2011 in Alexandria to screen for gas-phase OCPs. Performance reference compounds were used to investigate the uptake kinetics. Field-derived sampler-air partitioning coefficients (KPE-As) for OCPs were significantly correlated against the compounds' subcooled liquid vapor pressure (log PL): [log KPE-A = -0.77 ± 0.07 log PL + 6.35 ± 0.13 (R(2) = 0.90; n = 17; SE = 0.19; p < 0.001)]. Estimated and measured OCP concentrations in Alexandria agreed well (factor difference ≤ 2) indicating the feasibility of monitoring OCPs using LDPEs. OCP concentrations ranged from

  20. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in a metropolitan city in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindoruk, S Sıddık

    2011-01-01

    Air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured at four different sites in Bursa, Turkey to determine current levels. For this purpose, about 35 samples were collected from June 2008 to June 2009 using a high volume air sampler (HVAS) equipped with particle and gas-phase units. Ten OCP compounds (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, Heptachlor epoxide, Endrin, Endosulfan beta, Endrin aldehyde, p,p'-DDT and Methoxychlor) were reported within the scope of this study. The average concentrations of total (particle+gas) ∑OCPs were 550.9 ± 277.6 pg m⁻³ (coastal), 1030.7 ± 453.5 pg m⁻³ (urban/traffic), 519.7 ± 277.5 pg m⁻³ (semi-rural) and 722.8 ± 351.8 pg m⁻³ (urban/residential). The individual OCP concentrations were in line with reported concentrations. The maximum particle and gas-phase concentrations were determined for Endosulfan beta and beta-HCH for all sites, respectively. Available gas/particle partitioning models were applied in order to investigate the compatibility of the experimental data and the significant relationships were observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and PCBs in Vegetable and Fruit Samples from market in Peja –Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Defrime Berisha

    2013-12-01

    In this study, were analyzed samples of fruit and vegetables from the market of Peja, Kosovo in September 2011. Ultrasonic extraction was used for extracting pesticide residues from samples. Clean-up procedure was performed using firstly sulfuric acid followed a second clean-up procedure in an “open” florisil column. The organochlorine pesticides detected were HCHs (a-, b-, γ- and d-isomers and the DDT-related chemicals (o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor and Aldrine’s. Analyses were done with capillary column Rtx-5, 60m long, 0.32mm internal diameter, 0.25 μm film thicknesses on a gas chromatograph Dani 1000, with μECD detector. The found concentrations of the chlorinated pesticides were lower than accepted levels for studied samples

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and soil across Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Kurkova, Romana; Hovorkova, Ivana; Klánová, Jana; Halsall, Crispin

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported in air and surface soil in an extensive spatial survey across Azerbaijan, a country bordering the Caspian Sea with a history of OCP production and extensive use. Polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed during October-November 2008 with soil samples collected in July 2009. Levels of Σ(7)PCB in ambient air were generally low (mean of 0.046 ng m(-3), n = 13) and comparable to concentrations reported in countries within Eastern Europe and similar to or lower than concentrations reported in urban air in the UK and other western countries. Surprisingly, PCB concentrations in rural/background soil fell below the method detection limits at most sites, although concentrations were 0.209 and 0.071 ng Σ(7)PCB g(-1) dry weight (dw) for two urban sites, again comparable to PCB levels measured at background sites in Europe. Levels of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT/E were elevated in ambient air across Azerbaijan in comparison to PAS-derived concentrations reported elsewhere, with concentrations of α-HCH in air ranging from 0.085 to 2.699 ng m(-3) and p,p'-DDE, 0.037-2.290 ng m(-3). High concentrations of OCPs occurred at several of the urban sites and at sites in proximity to old pesticide storage facilities with concentrations in soil >0.1 μg g(-1) dw for p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT at several sites. The ratio of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE was close to unity in the soil at these sites, but elsewhere, the ratio was <1, indicating a weathered DDT pattern, which was also reflected in the air at all sites. A fugacity approach revealed the strong likelihood of net soil-to-air transfer at the majority of sites for all OCPs. The calculated annual fluxes or loading to the atmosphere from a rural/agricultural area (representing land as vineyards and cotton cultivation) were estimated to be on the order of ≈10-100 kg year(-1) for the HCH isomers (including

  3. Relations between land use and organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and semi-volatile organic compounds in streambed sediment and fish on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, A M D; Wolff, R H

    2004-04-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  4. Screening of the presence organophosphates and organochlorines pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides is commonly used to improve the quality of agricultural product, especially in vegetables and fruits. Due to pesticide residues in the product become a concern to consumer health, monitoring and analysis of pesticide residues in agriculture product need to be established. The certified reference material (CRM) is often benefited to obtain accurate results in analysis. It is required as the quality control to improve quality assurance of the testing results. Unfortunately in Indonesia, the development of matrix CRM for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits is still limited. This study is aimed to determine the type of commodity and target analyte to be employed in the development of CRM for pesticides in vegetables and fruits. As the preliminary study, the screening of 11 commodities of fresh vegetables and fruits has been conducted to review the information about the presence of organophosphates (OPs) and organochlorines (OCs) in the sample. In this analysis, QuEChERS technique was used in the extraction process and the qualitative analysis was evaluated by using GC-MS. The results showed that strawberry and celery contain residues of pesticide chlorpyrifos. Further analysis of the commodity celery from seven different places has been conducted, resulting that from 3 of all 7 samples (43%) were positive containing chlorpyrifos. Therefore, the development of CRM for chlorpyrifos in celery will be our next research project.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in catfish, Tachysurus thalassinus (Ruppell, 1835), from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Y.S.A.; Das, Pranab; Shaheen, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide concentrations in fish were lower than recommended for human consumption. - Organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, lindane, and heptachlor) were measured in muscle tissue of catfish (Tachysurus thalassinus) during the dry and wet season. Catfish were collected from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal during October-December 1997 and May-July 1998. Tissue residues were analyzed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The pesticide residues levels were found in order of Σ DDT>Heptachlor>Lindane>Aldrin. Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in all samples during dry season, as compared with the wet season, primarily due to elevated lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation and linear relationship was observed between the pesticide residues (ΣDDT and ΣOCs) and lipid content of fishes. However, the concentrations of pesticide residues in the muscle were found to be lower than the FAO/WHO [(1993) Food standards programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission, vol. 9 (4) pp. 149-158] recommended permissible limit for human consumption

  6. Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddarth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Tyagi, Vipin; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-05-26

    Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n = 100), patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (n = 100), and patients with chronic kidney disease of known etiology (CKDk) (n = 100). Blood OCP levels of all three study groups were analyzed by gas chromatography. Increased level of OCPs, namely α-HCH, aldrin, and β-endosulfan, were observed in CKDu patients as compared to healthy control and CKD patients of known etiology. The levels of these pesticides significantly correlated negatively with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and positively with urinary albumin of CKD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed association of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDE, and β-endosulfan with CKDu on adjustment of age, sex, BMI, and total lipid content. Increased blood level of certain organochlorine pesticides is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides, lead, and mercury in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Catherine E; Pappas, Sara; Abel, Michael T; Kendall, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from the Rolling Plains ecoregion in Texas and Oklahoma were evaluated for organochlorine pesticides, Pb, and Hg. Of all organochlorine pesticides analyzed, only p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) were found in a few composite liver samples. Similarly, a small fraction of tissue samples had detectable levels of Hg (liver and breast) or Pb exceeding background concentrations (femur). Lead concentrations in a few individuals fell within the range associated with moderate toxicity. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from Shantou Bay, China: Sources, seasonal variations and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingchun; Li, Ping; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Wenhua; Zheng, Gene Jin-Shu; Xiang, Li; Huang, Zhongwen

    2016-12-15

    Sediments from Shantou Bay, China, were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) for the first time. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were 0.54-55.5ngg -1 and 2.19-16.9ngg -1 (dry weight), respectively. Source identification showed that tri-CBs and penta-CBs were manufactured and used in the last century, while usage of antifouling paint might still serve as a significant source of sediment DDT. Concentrations of PCBs and HCHs significantly (porganochlorine compounds to the global ocean, its role cannot be neglected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide contamination in marine organisms of Yantai coast, northern Yellow Sea of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Linlin; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in marine organisms and their potential health risk on consumers in the northern Yellow Sea of China, mollusks, wild shrimps, and crabs were collected from the Yantai coast, and the OCP contents in the samples were analyzed and compared. The results indicate that all the samples have been contaminated by OCPs, and OCP concentrations varied in individual species and in sampling sites. Among the studied OCPs, ∑HCH and ∑DDT concentrations ranged from 0.91 to 13.92 ng g(-1) and from 10.16 to 411.19 ng g(-1), respectively. Meretrix was highly enriched with HCHs, while the highest DDT concentration was found in Crassostrea. For the OCP isomers, β-HCH was the predominant isomer of HCHs, and p,p'-DDE concentration was much higher than other isomers of DDTs. The concentrations of other OCPs (HCB, t-CHL, endrin, and mirex) were relatively low. For the shrimp and crab samples, Alpheus distinguendus samples accumulated a higher level of HCHs but lower DDTs than Oratosquilla aratoria and Carcinoplax vestitus in all sampling areas. HCHs in the samples of contrast area were not significantly lower than that of the sewage outfall area and port area, whereas DDTs in the samples of contrast area were relatively lower than that of the other two areas. Generally, all the OCP contents in the samples are in the range of the edible hygienic criteria except the total concentration of DDTs in Crassostrea.

  11. Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in food web of Nansi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Bai, Aiying; Li, Jing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in water, sediment, aquatic plant, and animal (shrimp and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The total OCPs concentrations were 65.31-100.31 ng L(-1) in water, 2.9-6.91 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 1.29-6.42 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants and 7.57-17.22 ng g(-1) dw in animals. The OCPs composition profiles showed that heptachlor compounds was also the predominant OCPs contaminants in addition to hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in Nansi Lake. According to the source of HCHs and DDTs in sediment samples, there was no new input and the HCHs pollution mainly came from the use of Lindane in Nansi Lake. Bioaccumulation of OCPs in aquatic biota indicated that DDTs and heptachlor compounds had a strong accumulation, followed by HCHs and drins. The accumulation abilities of fish for OCPs were higher than those of plants and shrimps. The OCPs biota-sediment accumulation factor values of Channa argus was the highest in fish samples, followed by Carassius auratus, and Cyprinus caspio. Risk assessment of sediment showed that heptachlor epoxide had a higher occurrence possibility of adverse ecological effects to benthic species. Based on the calculation of acceptable daily intake and hazard ratio, HCHs in fish and shrimps from Nansi Lake had a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one per million. The risk assessment of water, sediment, and fish indicated the water environment of Nansi Lake is at a safe level at present.

  12. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using PFU systems in Yunnan lakes and rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing; Shen, Yunfen; Feng, Weisong; Wang, Xinhua

    2007-01-01

    Polyurethane foam unit (PFU) systems were collected from 11 lakes and three rivers in the Yunnan Plateau, China and, the PFU extrusion liquids were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The concentrations of pp'-DDE, HCB and HCHs were undetectable to 1.86 microgl-1 (mean 0.27 microgl-1), undetectable to 0.72 microgl-1 (mean 0.11 microgl-1), and 0.24-21.95 microgl-1 (mean 7.39 microgl-1) respectively in lakes; and those in rivers were undetectable to 0.23 microgl-1 (mean 0.08 microgl-1), 0.68-2.93 microgl-1 (mean 1.70 microgl-1), and 2.71-37.56 microgl-1 (mean 17.01 microgl-1) respectively. Notably, some residue levels of OCPs exceeded the US National Recommended Water Quality Criteria, implying Yunnan has levels of OCPs potentially harmful to human health. Further, the contamination by OCPs showed an obvious spatial distribution pattern. Amongst the lakes, Dianchi, Xingyun, Lugu and Yangzonghai had the highest OCP levels dominated by beta-HCH, whereas among rivers, Nujiang and Lancang Rivers had the highest contents of OCPs dominated by alpha-HCH. This demonstrates that HCHs are the predominant contaminants and some point sources of HCHs may still exist in Yunnan. The pollution levels in Yunnan were compared with other studies, suggesting the PFU method is suitable for long-term on-line monitoring of trace OCPs in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, continuous studies monitoring OCPs in lakes and rivers are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination.

  13. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg -1 dw) and HCHs (393ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg -1 ) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  15. Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in human adipose tissue of inhabitants from Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Valencia Quintana, R; Corona, C A; Herrero, M; Sánchez, K; Aguirre, H; Aldave, I A; Gomez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of insecticide properties of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), they have provided great benefits to humans in sanitary actions to combat the spread of infection-borne disease vectors. Public Health Programs in Mexico used DDT and HCH until 1999 as the insecticides of choice to control disease-transmitting organisms. Because of their persistence and accumulative properties, organochlorine pesticides bioconcentrate in lipids of the human body, reflecting the rate of environmental exposure. Eighty human abdominal adipose tissue samples from Veracruz and 80 samples from Puebla were analyzed and the obtained results were compared among both populations. The results from Veracruz showed higher contamination levels (mg/kg on lipid base) compared to Puebla: beta-HCH, 0.072 vs. 0.029; pp'DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), 2.364 vs. 0.726; op'DDT, 0.022 vs. 0.025; pp'DDT, 0.192 vs. 0.061; and Sigma-DDT, 2.589 vs. 0.806. The population from Veracruz and from Puebla divided by sex, origin, and cause of death presented no statistical differences. The comparison between sexes (women and men groups) at Veracruz and Puebla indicated significantly higher levels in Veracruz and statistical significant differences. Calculating possible risks (odds ratios, OR), pp'DDE (OR = 5.04) and op'DDT (OR = 2.93) revealed significantly higher risk for the Veracruz population. The study indicated prolonged DDT exposure of Mexicans caused by the past sanitary use and persistence of its residues in soils and air.

  16. Nutrient and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in American alligator eggs and their associations with clutch viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Wiebe, Janet E; Honeyfield, Dale C; Gross, Timothy S

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1900s, the lakes of the Ocklawaha basin in central Florida have experienced ecological degradation due to anthropogenic development. One species affected by this degradation is the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis, which has suffered from poor clutch viability and embryo mortality. Although some studies indicate that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) may be involved, OCPs do not account for all of the variation seen in hatch rates. Indeed, nutrition and non-OCP contaminants have been associated with developmental problems in fish and birds. Our study evaluated embryo mortality in alligators at reference and OCP-contaminated sites as a function of exposure to OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with egg nutrients (Zn, Se, and vitamins A, E, and B1). The four-pronged study consisted of a case-control cohort study, an expanded field study, a topical egg treatment thiamine amelioration experiment, and a topical egg treatment thiamine antagonist experiment. The results from the two field studies suggested that the total thiamine levels in the eggs were positively associated with clutch viability and negatively associated with the lipid content and certain OCPs measured in egg yolks. In addition, PCBs, PAHs, Zn, Se, and vitamins A and E were not found to be associated with the observed clutch viability defects. The thiamine levels in the eggs explained 38% of the variation in clutch survival in the case-control cohort study and 27% in the expanded field study. The topical egg treatment experiments were successful in elevating the thiamine concentrations in the albumin but not the yolk. No significant differences were noted among treatment groups in either egg treatment experiment with respect to clutch survival. In summary, thiamine egg concentrations explain some of the variation in the clutch viability of free-ranging alligators, but the cause-effect relationships are still unclear.

  17. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated lake sediment using activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yao, Fu-Bing; Guo, Min; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment were a potential damage for humans and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of carbon materials remedy hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in sediment. Two different carbon materials including activated carbon (AC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in the present research. Sediment treated with 2 wt% AC and MWCNTs after 150 d contact showed 97%, and 75% reduction for HCH, and 93% and 59% decrease for DDTs in aqueous equilibrium concentration, respectively. Similarly, the reduction efficiencies of DDT and HCH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) treated with AC (MWCNTs) were 97% (75%) and 92% (63%), respectively under the identical conditions. Furthermore, for 2 wt% AC (MWCNTs) system, a reduction of XAD beads uptake up to 87% (52%) and 73% (67%) was obtained in HCH and DDT flux to overlying water in quiescent system. Adding MWCNTs to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium concentration and DDTs and HCH availability in SPMDs compared to AC treatment. A series of results indicated that AC had significantly higher remediation efficiency towards HCH and DDTs in sediment than MWCNTs. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of two organic pollutants improved with increasing material doses and contact times. The greater effectiveness of AC was attributed to its greater specific surface area, which was favorable for binding contaminants. These results highlighted the potential for using AC as in-situ sorbent amendments for sediment remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave-assisted steam distillation for simple determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Takatsu, Akiko

    2003-03-15

    A novel sample extraction technique for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) analysis using microwave-heating device is developed. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques were combined. Desorption of the anatytes from solid matrixes was accelerated with water vapor which was generated by microwave irradiation. A sample holder in a commercial microwave extraction cell kept the sample from direct contact with the organic solvent for analytes trapping during the treatment process. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained with small amount of solvents. Without any cleanup steps, the obtained extract could be analyzed with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers (GC/MS). Six PCB congeners (PCB15, 28, 70, 101, 180, 194, 209) and three OCPs (gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD) in two marine sediment samples (a sediment collected from a bay of Kyusyu Island, Japan, and a certified reference material NIST SRM1944) were analyzed by using this microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) technique and another extraction method (exhaustive steam distillation, MAE, and Soxhlet extraction); and comparisons of the results are shown in this report. Although recovery yields of highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCB180, 194, 209) and relatively polar OCPs (gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDD) were low (30-60%) compared with other analytes (PCB15, 28, 70, 101, 4,4'-DDE; recovery, 80-100%), use of isotope labeled internal standards for the MASD technique gave comparable results with the values obtained by other extraction methods and the certified values in the samples.

  20. Levels, seasonal variations and sources of organochlorine pesticides in ambient air of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunyun; Li, Deliang; Mu, Dehai

    Air samples were collected at an urban site and a suburban site of Guangzhou city, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations and sources. The average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane and ∑DDTs in the air were 93, 287 and 351 pg m -3 at the urban site, and 94, 2258 and 399 pg m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. OCPs in the air were predominantly in gas phase in this study but their concentrations in particle phase were still not neglectable. The air concentrations and seasonal variations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs at the urban and suburban sites were similar without obvious difference. The seasonal variations of ∑chlordane concentrations were extremely different at the two sampling sites and the air concentrations were unusually high at suburban site, especially in April and May 2005. The potential sources of HCHs in the air of Guangzhou might come from lindane due to the relative low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios. Technical chlordane was likely used, especially at or near the suburban site, because the t-chlordane/ c-chlordane ratios were >1.2 and the air concentrations of chlordane were extremely high. Present usage of dicofol at or near Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was implied by the much higher ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) and o, p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT. The air concentrations of aldrich were low, and dieldrin and endrin were detected in none of the samples.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in urban air of Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Senar; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

    2009-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in urban air samples of Konya, Turkey between August 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of pollutants in both the gas and particulate phase were separately analysed. The average total (gas + particulate) concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs were determined as 206 ng m - 3 , 0.106 ng m - 3 , 4.78 ng m - 3 respectively. All of the investigated target compounds were dominantly found in the gas phase except OCPs. Higher air concentrations of PAHs were found at winter season while the highest concentrations of PCBs were determined in September. The highest OCPs were detected in October and in March. In urban air of Konya, PCB 28 and PCB 52 congeners represent 46% and 35% of total PCBs while Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene accounted for 29%, 13%, 10% of total PAHs. HCH compounds (α + β + γ + δ-HCH), total DDTs ( p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT), Endosulfan compounds (Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan sulfate) were dominantly determined as 30%, 21%, 20% of total OCPs respectively. Considering the relation between these compounds with temperature, there was no significant correlation observed. Despite banned/restricted use in Turkey, some OCPs were determined in urban air. These results demonstrated that they are either illegally being used in the course of agricultural activity and gardens in Konya or they are residues of past use in environment. According to these results, it can be suggested that Konya is an actively contributing region to persistent organic pollutants in Turkey.

  2. Soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidleman, Terry F.; Leone, Andi D

    2004-03-01

    Soil samples were collected from 30 farms in Alabama, Louisiana and Texas during 1999-2000 to determine residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). One or more of the DDT compounds (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE) was above the quantitation limit (0.1 ng g{sup -1} dry weight) in every soil, and toxaphene was above the quantitation limit (3 ng g{sup -1}) in 26 soils. Chlordanes, dieldrin and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers occurred less frequently (quantitation limits 0.1 ng g{sup -1} for dieldrin and 0.05 ng g{sup -1} for chlordanes and HCHs). OCPs were measured in air at 40 cm above the soil at selected farms to investigate soil-air partitioning. Concentrations of OCPs in air were positively and significantly (P<0.001-0.004) correlated to soil concentrations for toxaphene, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor. The regression was weaker (P=0.022) for cis-chlordane and not significant for trans-chlordane (P=0.43) nor {gamma}-HCH (P=0.80). Approach to soil-air equilibrium was assessed by calculating fugacities in the soil and air (f{sub s} and f{sub a}) for samples with quantifiable residues in both compartments. The fugacity fraction ((f{sub s})/(f{sub s}+f{sub a}))=0.5 at equilibrium and is <0.5 or >0.5 for net deposition and net volatilisation, respectively. Fugacity fractions varied greatly for different soil-air pairs, reflecting generally disequilibrium conditions. Mean fugacity fractions indicated near-equilibrium for some OCPs (p,p'-DDE, chlordanes, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin) and net volatilisation for others (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, toxaphene, {gamma}-HCH). Chiral analysis showed that enantioselective degradation of (+) or (-) o,p'-DDT in soil was accompanied by enrichment or depletion of the corresponding enantiomers in the overlying air, although there appeared to be some dilution by racemic o,p'-DDT from regional air transport. - Old pesticide

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and prostate cancer, Is there an association? A meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2015-10-01

    The results of epidemiological studies about exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and risk of prostate cancer (PC) are inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between exposure to specific OCPs and PC. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of science databases for case-control and cohort studies published till March 2015 that provided data about exposure to OCPs and PC. We also contacted authors and hand-searched references of the included articles. We calculated pooled estimates using random effects model and explored heterogeneity between studies. We systematically reviewed 15 articles and based our meta-analysis on 10 articles covering nine case-control studies and a large prospective cohort study. Pooled estimates of PC for highest versus lowest exposed category to p,p'-DDE was 1.02 (0.69-1.35), I (2) = 12.7 %, p = 0.333, trans-nonachlor, 0.88 (0.45-1.31), I (2) = 0.00 %, p = 0.892, oxychlordane, 0.91 (0.46-1.35), hexachlorobenzene, 0.88 (0.18-1.57), I (2) = 36.0 %, p = 0.210 from combining results of studies that applied serum OCPs measurements among the general population. For DDT, stratifying studies by exposed population revealed homogeneity, pooled estimate for serum level measurement for the highest exposed versus the lowest exposed of the general population was 0.81 (0.95-1.26), I (2) = 0.00 %, p = 0.400, and for occupational exposure 1.30 (0.94-1.67), I (2) = 13.4 %, p = 0.315. A positive but also insignificant association was obtained for pooling results for high exposure to lindane among farmers and pesticide applicators, 1.56 (0.82-2.29), I (2) = 41.7 %, p = 0.180. The existing epidemiological data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to specific OCPs is associated with an increased incidence of PC in the general population.

  4. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Tutu, A.

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  5. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A.; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E.; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K.; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (60 years) had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product. PMID:25310541

  6. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of estrogen receptor endocrine disruptor potency of commonly used organochlorine pesticides using the LUMI-CELL ER bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.D.; Chu, A.C.; Clark, G.C. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Chu, M.D. [Alta Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC (United States); Denison, M.S. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In order to detect the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides and other compounds, BG-1 (human ovarian carcinoma) cells containing a stably transfected estrogenresponsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid (BG1Luc4E2), was used. This cell line, termed the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system, responds in a time-, dose dependent- and chemical-specific manner with the induction of luciferase gene expression in response to exposure to estrogen (but not other steroid hormones) and estrogenic chemicals in a high-throughput screening (HTPS) format6. Here we describe studies in which the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system was used for high throughput screening (HTPS) analysis of the estrogenic disrupting potency of several commonly used pesticides and organochlorines: p,p'DDT; p,p'-DDE; DDD; {alpha}a-chlordane; {psi}-chlordane; Kepone; Methoxychlor; Vinclozolin; Fenarimol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; and Dieldrin. Our results demonstrate the utility of XDS's LUMI-CELL trademark ER bioassay HTPS system for screening chemicals for estrogenic activity.

  8. Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North-East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, R.; Skjoth, C. A.; Skov, H.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds...

  9. Triple domain in situ sorption modeling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Here we analyze the potential of black carbon (BC) and oil-inclusive models to explain in situ sorption of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons

  10. Development of Directly Suspended Droplet Micro Extraction Method for Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kamal Rajabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient directly suspended droplet micro extraction in conjunction with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD has been developed for extraction and determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from water samples. In this technique a micro drop of 1-dodecanol is delivered to the surface of an aqueous sample while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of solution. Factors relevant to the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. The optimized extraction conditions were extraction solvent: 1-dodecanol; extraction temperature: 60◦C; NaCl concentration: 0.5M; solvent extraction volume: 10 µL; stirring rate: 800rpm and the extraction time: 20 min. The detection limits of the method were in the range of 0.066–1.85 ngL−1, relation standard deviation (n=5 range were 0.102 - 0.964. A good linearity (r 2 ≥0.995 and a relatively broad dynamic linear range (25–2600ng.L−1 were obtained and recoveries of method were in the range of 90.729% - 102.343%. Finally, the proposedmethod was successfully utilized for pre concentration and determination of OCPs in different real samples.We successfully developed a method based on the DSDME technique combined with capillary GC-ECD for the analysis of OCPs in the water samples and compared with the conventional sample preparation method such as LPME. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  12. Sources of organochlorine pesticides in air in an urban Mediterranean environment: volatilisation from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana; Erić, Ljiljana; Ilić, Predrag; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kovacić, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) cycling was studied in the area of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 3 days in summer with high temporal (4 h-means) and spatial (3 sites distanced 3-6 km) resolutions. Elevated levels of DDX compounds (i.e. o,p'- and p,p'-isomers of DDT, DDE and DDD, 44-74 pg m(-3) at the urban sites and 27 pg m(-3) as a background level), HCH (α-, β- and γ-isomers, 52-70 vs. 147 pg m(-3)), HCB (34-48 vs. <0.1 pg m(-3)) and pentachlorobenzene (6.8-9.9 vs. 6.0 pg m(-3)) were found. The variation of OCP levels at the two urban sites was not in phase, except for most DDX compounds. This was related to background levels, which for HCH were higher than in the urban area. Vertical profiles between samples collected from 1.1 and 2.3 m (part of the time 0.6 and 2.3 m) above a soil, which was only moderately contaminated by OCPs (0.12 ng g(-1) HCH, 0.11 ng g(-1) DDX, 0.44 ng g(-1) HCB) were analysed. Volatilisation from the ground caused negative vertical concentration gradients of HCH isomers (day and night), but not for HCB (except for 1 day-time sample) and DDX compounds (except p,p'-DDD, day-time, sporadically). The concentration in air and the vertical concentration gradient of the HCH isomers varied with air temperature (day-time maxima), while the variation of the HCB concentration was inversely related to air temperature and was determined by mixing (night-time maxima). α- and β-HCH were volatilised from soil throughout the three days, even during periods of cooling. Fugacity calculations, based on the absorption in soil organic matter as the process determining retention in soil, underestimated the volatilisation of β-HCH and p,p'-DDD. It is concluded that the representativeness of point measurements of OCPs in urban areas is limited by the spatial variability of soil contamination.

  13. The persistent organochlorine pesticide endosulfan modulates multiple epigenetic regulators with oncogenic potential in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishna; Chatterjee, Biji; Jayaprasad, Aparna Geetha; Kanade, Santosh R

    2018-05-15

    Environmental cues and chemicals can potentially modulate the phenotypic expression of genome through alterations in the epigenetic mechanisms. Endosulfan is one of the extensively used organochlorine pesticides around the world which is known for its endocrine, neuro- and reproductive toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the potential of α-endosulfan in modulation of multiple epigenetic enzymes in MCF-7 cells. The cells were treated with DMSO (control) or α-endosulfan (1 and 10μM) and the expression of various epigenetic enzymes was assayed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, in addition to their activity assays. The results shows α-endosulfan, at 1 and 10μM concentration, significantly promoted viability of MCF-7 cells compared to untreated cells after 24h. The expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) was upregulated while the global DNA methylation status was initially affected, but later recovered. Total intracellular histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity was found to be significantly increased which was correlated with upregulation of class I HDACs (HDAC 1 and 3) while no significant alteration in the other HDAC classes was observed. The expression and activity of arginine and lysine methylation enzymes, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), respectively, were also found to be modulated by α-endosulfan. We found increased expression of histones H3 and H4, trimethylated H3K27 (product of EZH2), symmetric dimethylation of H4R3 (product of PRMT5) and five different (unidentified) proteins whose arginine residues are symmetrically dimethylated (by increased level of PRMT5) were enhanced in response to 10μM α-endosulfan after 24h exposure window. Moreover, overexpression of basal level of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), suggests estrogenicity of α-endosulfan. In summary, our results shows modulatory impact of α-endosulfan on multiple cellular epigenetic regulators, known to possess oncogenic

  14. Water-gas exchange of organochlorine pesticides at Lake Chaohu, a large Chinese lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hui-Ling; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Qing-Mei; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a potential threat to ecosystems and human health, are still widely residual in the environment. The residual levels of OCPs in the water and gas phase were monitored in Lake Chaohu, a large Chinese lake, from March 2010 to February 2011. Nineteen types of OCPs were detected in the water with a total concentration of 7.27 ± 3.32 ng/l. Aldrin, DDTs and HCHs were the major OCPs in the water, accounting for 38.3%, 28.9% and 23.6% of the total, respectively. The highest mean concentration (12.32 ng/l) in the water was found in September, while the lowest (1.74 ng/l) was found in November. Twenty types of gaseous OCPs were detected in the atmosphere with a total concentration of 542.0 ± 636.5 pg/m(3). Endosulfan, DDTs and chlordane were the major gaseous OCPs in the atmosphere, accounting for 48.9%, 22.5% and 14.4% of the total, respectively. The mean concentration of gaseous OCPs was significantly higher in summer than in winter. o,p'-DDE was the main metabolite of DDT in both the water and gas phase. Of the HCHs, 52.3% existed as β-HCH in the water, while α-HCH (37.9%) and γ-HCH (30.9%) were dominant isomers in the gas phase. The average fluxes were -21.11, -3.30, -152.41, -35.50 and -1314.15 ng/(m(2) day) for α-HCH, γ-HCH, HCB, DDT and DDE, respectively. The water-gas exchanges of the five types of OCPs indicate that water was the main potential source of gaseous OCPs in the atmosphere. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the water-gas flux of α-HCH, γ-HCH and DDT is more vulnerable than that of HCB and DDE to the variation of the parameters. The possible source of the HCHs in the water was from the historical usage of lindane; however, that in the air was mainly from the recent usage of lindane. The technical DDT and dicofol might be the source of DDTs in the water and air.

  15. Determination of octanol-air partition coefficients and supercooled liquid vapor pressures of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yang, Yu; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu

    2009-09-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (K(OA)) and supercooled liquid vapor pressures (P(L)) of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH were determined as functions of temperature using a gas chromatographic retention time method. Among them, the K(OA) of o,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDD and the P(L) of o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, beta-HCH and delta-HCH were determined for the first time. The determined K(OA) and P(L) values of investigated compounds at 25 degrees C ranged from 3.14 x 10(7) (alpha-HCH) to 3.76 x 10(9) (p,p'-DDD), and 8.95 x 10(-4) Pa (p,p'-DDD) to 1.08 x 10(-1) Pa (alpha-HCH), respectively. The K(OA) and P(L) data were compared with published data. The K(OA) values of o,p'-DDT at 25 degrees C were 3.23 x 10(9), higher than o,p'-DDE (1.02 x 10(9)) and o,p'-DDD (2.01 x 10(9)), indicating o,p'-DDT were more preferred to partition in soil compared with the metabolites. The K(OA) values were lower and P(L) values were higher for o,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDD, compared with their p,p'-isomeric counterparts, leading to a potential difference in behavior and fate of these isomers. The discrepancies among chemicals are obvious, which reflected in the increasing K(OA) and decreasing P(L) values in order of alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, beta-HCH, delta-HCH, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD. For each compound, the LogK(OA) decreased linearly with reciprocal absolute temperature, while LogP(L) had a significant positive correlation with the inverse absolute temperature. The present study suggested that the method of gas chromatographic retention time was appropriate to measure the K(OA) and P(L) of a number of OCPs.

  16. Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistara Randhawa

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Organochlorine contamination has significant associations with health outcomes in California sea lions, raising concerns for humans and other animals eating tainted seafood. While environmental exposure to these organochlorines appears to be decreasing over time based on levels in sea lion tissues, their persistence in the environment and food web for all predators, including humans, and the associated serious health risks, warrant monitoring, possibly through sentinel species like marine mammals.

  17. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia; Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos; Fernandes, Daniella R.; Souza Avelar, Andre de; Erthal Santelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  18. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  19. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Legacy Chlordane in Soils from Housing Areas Treated with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 ERDC/EL TR-09-20 ii Abstract: Chlordane was used for termite prevention in Air Force housing areas, where it was sprayed...gardens, and also for underground treatment of building foundations for termite treatment/prevention. The USEPA canceled above-ground uses in 1978...xenobiotic compounds (Semple et al. 2001). These materials are rich in nutrients and have diverse microbial floras, including bacteria, actinomycetes, and

  1. Exposición prenatal a los plaguicidas organoclorados y criptorquidia Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Patrícia Bustamante Montes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos en desarrollo y los niños son particularmente vulnerables a los tóxicos ambientales. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados (HCB, ß-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT y pp'DDE en lípidos séricos de madres de niños con criptorquidia y comparar los niveles con un grupo control de madres de niños con testículos descendidos. El grupo de los casos fue constituido por recién nacidos con diagnóstico de criptorquidia (n=41. El grupo control (n=41 se conformó por niños con testículos descendidos. A las madres de ambos grupos se les determinaron los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados. La criptorquidia fue diagnosticada al nacimiento por neonatólogo. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados fueron encontrados en lípidos séricos de ambos grupos. Los niveles de la mediana (mgkg-1 en base lipídica fueron mayores para los metabolitos pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269 y ß-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192 en el grupo con criptorquidia comparado con el grupo control. (pFetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ß-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41, and the controls (n=41 newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269 and ß-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192 in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01. It

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in fish, water and sediments in the middle Volta Basin: a case study of Kpando Torkor lake, Volta Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbeddy, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    The levels of contamination with selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water, sediment, and two commonly harvested fish species namely Tilapia zilli and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Kpando Torkor Lake were determined. This was to give the general picture of the extent of contamination of these matrices with OCPs and also assess the suitability of the water and fish catch for human consumption. Organochlorine pesticides residues in water samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction whilst Soxhlet was used in the case of fish and sediment samples. All extracts were cleaned-up using packed columns and then analyzed using Gas chromatography equipped with 63 Ni electron-capture detector (ECD). Fifteen organochlorine pesticide residues namely β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, γ-Chlordane, α-Endosulfan, β-Endosulfan, Endosulfan sulphate and Methoxychlor were investigated in this study. Thirteen of them excluding γ-HCH and Endrin were detected in sediment and fish samples at concentrations ranging from below the level of quantification (LOQ) to 37.75ng/g wet weight, and occurrence frequencies ranging from 14 to 100%. Twelve of them excluding p,p'-DDT, -HCH and Endrin were however, measured in water samples with concentrations ranging from below LOQ to 0.669μg/L and occurrence frequencies ranging from 14 to 29%. γ-HCH and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected residues in all samples analyzed with an average percentage frequency of 85.8, followed by Endosulfan sulphate (83.0%) and β-HCH (80.0%) among others. In consonance with their properties, organochlorine pesticide residues measured in fish samples were higher than those of sediment samples. Even though, the fat content of catfish muscle (10.24%) was higher than tilapia muscle (2.80%), the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia tissues were however, higher than that of catfish. For instance, the levels of β-HCH in

  3. Regression models for explaining and predicting concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in fish from streams in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Stone, Wesley W.; Thelin, Gail; Wolock, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical regression models were developed for estimating concentrations of dieldrin, total chlordane, and total DDT in whole fish from U.S. streams. Models were based on pesticide concentrations measured in whole fish at 648 stream sites nationwide (1992-2001) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Explanatory variables included fish lipid content, estimates (or surrogates) representing historical agricultural and urban sources, watershed characteristics, and geographic location. Models were developed using Tobit regression methods appropriate for data with censoring. Typically, the models explain approximately 50 to 70% of the variability in pesticide concentrations measured in whole fish. The models were used to predict pesticide concentrations in whole fish for streams nationwide using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 and to estimate the probability that whole-fish concentrations exceed benchmarks for protection of fish-eating wildlife. Predicted concentrations were highest for dieldrin in the Corn Belt, Texas, and scattered urban areas; for total chlordane in the Corn Belt, Texas, the Southeast, and urbanized Northeast; and for total DDT in the Southeast, Texas, California, and urban areas nationwide. The probability of exceeding wildlife benchmarks for dieldrin and chlordane was predicted to be low for most U.S. streams. The probability of exceeding wildlife benchmarks for total DDT is higher but varies depending on the fish taxon and on the benchmark used. Because the models in the present study are based on fish data collected during the 1990s and organochlorine pesticide residues in the environment continue to decline decades after their uses were discontinued, these models may overestimate present-day pesticide concentrations in fish. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  4. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Ruiz-Suárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60. We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde. Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively. The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl and mid-altitude (520 masl locations had the highest levels of p,pʹ-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product.

  5. Residue analysis of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in fatty matrices by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Woo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Song, Sung-Ok; Shim, Jae-Han

    2006-01-01

    A multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of 22 organochlorine (OCs) and organophosphorus (Ops) pesticides (including isomers and metabolites), representing a wide range of physicochemical properties, was developed in fatty matrices extracted from meat. Pesticides were extracted from samples with acetonitrile/n-hexane (v:v, 1:1). The analytical screening was performed by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection (ECD). The identification of compounds was based on their retention time and on comparison of the primary and secondary ions. The optimized method was validated by determining accuracy (recovery percentages), precision (repeatability and reproducibility), and sensitivity (detection and quantitation limits) from analyses of samples fortified at 38 to 300 ng/g levels. Correlation coefficients for the 22 extracted pesticide standard curves (linear regression analysis, n = 3) ranged from 0.998 to 1.000. Recovery studies from 2 g samples fortified at 3 levels demonstrated that the GC-ECD method provides 64.4-96.0% recovery for all pesticides except 2,4'-DDE (44.6-50.4%), 4,4'-DDE (51.1-57.5%) and 2,4'-DDT (50.0-51.2%). Both repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviation values were < 20% for all residues. Detection limits ranged from 0.31 to 1.27 ng/g and quantification limits were between 1.04 and 4.25 ng/g. The proposed analytical method may be used as a simple procedure in routine determinations of OCs and Ops in meat. It can also be applied to the determination of pesticide multi-residues in other animal products such as butter and milk.

  6. Simultaneous degradation of organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides by Sphingobium japonicum UT26 with surface-displayed organophosphorus hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Chao; Liu, Ruihua; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jianli; Song, Cunjiang; Qiao, Chuanling; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    A genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) capable of simultaneously degrading organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides was constructed for the first time by display of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) on the cell surface of a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-degrading Sphingobium japonicum UT26. The GEM could potentially be used for removing the two classes of pesticides that may be present in mixtures at contaminated sites. A surface anchor system derived from the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) from Pseudomonas syringae was used to target OPH onto the cell surface of UT26, reducing the potential substrate uptake limitation. The surface localization of INPNC-OPH fusion was verified by cell fractionation, western blot, proteinase accessibility, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the functionality of the surface-exposed OPH was demonstrated by OPH activity assays. Surface display of INPNC-OPH fusion (82 kDa) neither inhibited cell growth nor affected cell viability. The engineered UT26 could degrade parathion as well as γ-HCH rapidly in minimal salt medium. The removal of parathion and γ-HCH by engineered UT26 in sterile and non-sterile soil was also studied. In both soil samples, a mixture of parathion (100 mg kg(-1)) and γ-HCH (10 mg kg(-1)) could be degraded completely within 15 days. Soil treatment results indicated that the engineered UT26 is a promising multifunctional bacterium that could be used for the bioremediation of multiple pesticide-contaminated environments.

  7. Toxic influence of organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides on cellular metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), organochlorine (OC), and carbamate (CB) compounds, are widely used in agricultural and indoor purposes. OP and CB act as acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that affect lots of organs such as peripheral and central nervous systems, muscles, liver, pancreas, and brain, whereas OC are neurotoxic involved in alteration of ion channels. There are several reports about metabolic disorders, hyperglycemia, and also oxidative stress in acute and chronic exposures to pesticides that are linked with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In this respect, there are several in vitro and in vivo but few clinical studies about mechanism underlying these effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for the years 1963-2010 and resulted in 1652 articles. After elimination of duplicates or irrelevant papers, 204 papers were included and reviewed. Results indicated that OP and CB impair the enzymatic pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein within cytoplasm, mitochondria, and proxisomes. It is believed that OP and CB show this effect through inhibition of AChE or affecting target organs directly. OC mostly affect lipid metabolism in the adipose tissues and change glucose pathway in other cells. As a shared mechanism, all OP, CB and OC induce cellular oxidative stress via affecting mitochondrial function and therefore disrupt neuronal and hormonal status of the body. Establishing proper epidemiological studies to explore exact relationships between exposure levels to these pesticides and rate of resulted metabolic disorders in human will be helpful.

  8. Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Becker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An extensive database of organochlorine (OC pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994–2005 suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003–2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC indicate a shift from primary sources, to more "weathered" secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from "new" sources.

  9. Processes affecting the movement of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between soil and air in an industrial site in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Muezzinoglu, Aysen; Odabasi, Mustafa

    2009-11-01

    Soil and atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated at an industrial site in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Current-use pesticides, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, had the highest atmospheric levels in summer and winter. Summertime total (gas+particle) OCP concentrations in air were higher, probably due to increased volatilization at higher temperatures and seasonal local/regional applications of current-use pesticides. Particle deposition fluxes were generally higher in summer than in winter. Overall average dry particle deposition velocity for all the OCPs was 4.9+/-4.1 cm s(-1) (average+/-SD). SigmaDDXs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were the most abundant OCPs in Aliaga soils (n=48), probably due to their heavy historical use and persistence. Calculated fugacity ratios and average net gas fluxes across the soil-air interface indicated volatilization for alpha-CHL, gamma-CHL, heptachlorepoxide, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p'-DDT in summer, and for alpha-CHL, gamma-CHL, trans-nonachlor, endosulfan sulfate, and p,p'-DDT in winter. For the remaining OCPs, soil acted as a sink during both seasons. Comparison of the determined fluxes showed that dry particle, gas-phase, and wet deposition are significant OCP input mechanisms to the soil in the study area.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in muscle of wild seabass and Chinese prawn from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuangxin; Huang, Yeru; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Liang

    2011-10-01

    Muscle samples from wild seabass and Chinese prawn collected from the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China were analyzed for 22 organochlorine pesticides. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in all samples. The concentration of DDTs in seabass was 247 μg kg(-1) wet wt (from 4.30 to 2,089 μg kg(-1) wet wt). Significantly, concentration of DDTs in seabass was much higher than that in prawn (6.51 μg kg(-1) wet wt). Very high concentrations of DDTs and high DDT/DDTs ratio were found in seabass samples from some locations, which imply there might be new inputs of DDT into the marine environment. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  13. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term air monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Pfister, G; Bernhöft, S; Kirchner, M; Jakobi, G; Bassan, R; Kräuchi, N; Schramm, K-W

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was conducted using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) deployed in the Alps at different altitudinal transects for two consecutive exposure periods of half a year and a third simultaneous year-long period. Along all the altitude profiles, the sequestered amounts of OCPs increased in general with altitude. SPMDs were still working as kinetic samplers after half a year for the majority of the OCPs. However, compounds with the lowest octanol-air partition coefficient (K(oa)), reached equilibrium within six months. This change in the SPMD uptake was determined for the temperature gradient along the altitude profile influencing K(oa), OCPs availability in the gaseous phase, and SPMD performance. In sum, it seems two effects are working in parallel along the altitude profiles: the change in SPMD performance and the different availability of OCPs along the altitudinal transects determined by their compound properties and concentrations in air.

  15. Toxic deposition monitoring network data listing for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and precipitation 1989 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Ontario environment ministry established a toxics deposition network in 1987 to monitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and furans in air and precipitation. Monitoring sites are located along each Canadian shoreline of the Great Lakes. Data are presented from the 1989 and 1990 air and precipitation monitoring results for PCBs and OCs. The sampling and analytical methods, data screening methods, and codes used in the data tables are explained. Each data listing is identified by station name, and individual sample records are listed consecutively by sample collection date. Each sample record includes a heading consisting of several field sample collection information data fields and a number of analytical results. PCBs are listed by congener group (up to nonachlorobiphenyl) and as a congener group sum. The OCs measured include Heptachlor, Aldrin, Mirex, chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane. 3 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in the soil of a karst cave in Guilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghui; Guo, Songjun; Xue, Rui; Qi, Shihua; Xu, Yiyin; Xue, Baoming; Yuan, Daoxian

    2011-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including HCH, DDT, chlordane, endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate were analyzed in surface soil of the Dayan Cave to investigate their source and concentration levels in September 2006. Generally, the data showed that outside soil of the cave had much higher concentrations than inside soil for the most detected OCPs in the cave and both inside soil and outside soil showed much lower concentration levels (basically, the levels of OCPs were less than 0.7 ng/g) than those observed in other regions within and outside China other than TC (ranging from 3.22 to 5.00 ng/g) and CC (ranging from 3.89 to 5.08 ng/g) in the soil outside. The ratios of α-/γ-HCH ranged from 0.88 to 1.20 in the soil of the cave, together with the averaged percentages of β-HCH and δ-HCH among the total HCH isomers (accounting for 39.0% and 14.2%, respectively), implied that a historical residue of local technical HCH contamination was likely to be dominant in the soil of the cave. Based on (1) the accordance of TC/CC ratios (ranging from 0.83 to 0.98) between the values observed in the outside soil and the potentially available chlordane products in the markets, and (2) the high concentrations of TC and CC observed in the outside soil, it appeared that the illegal usage of technical chlordane was done in Guilin. The low concentrations of TC (0.02 to 0.56 ng/g) and CC (0.10 to 1.71 ng/g) in the inside soil, together with the significant distinctions of TC/CC ratios between the inside soil (ranging from 0.03 to 0.33) and the outside soil, implied that the chlordane in the inside soil of the cave was a historical residue of local technical chlordane contamination. The similar ratios of DDT isomers (o, p (')-DDT/p, p (')-DDT and p, p (')-DDE+DDD/DDT) between the outside soil and the inside soil of the cave suggested that they may have the similar DDT source. The ratios of p, p (')-DDE+DDD/DDT (ranging from 3 to 8) indicated that DDT was relatively aged. The

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    Full Text Available Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p’-DDE to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p’-DDT were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p’-DDT. The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Keywords: Pesticides, Organochlorine, Cocoa beans, Ondo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  18. Search and studying of salt resisting bacteria -destructors of organochlorine pesticides with help of tritium labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djumaniyazova, G.I.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Norbaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Salinization of soils is one of serious problems of agriculture of Uzbekistan. The problem is also aggravated as the salted soils are strongly contaminated with pesticides. We isolated aboriginal active strains of bacteria- destructors of organochlorine compounds from soils contaminated by pesticides (HCCH, DDT, PCBs). We investigated their cultural-morphological and physiological -biochemical properties and determined their taxonomic position. In laboratory experiments the effect of various concentrations of NaCl - 3%-5-7-10-20-30-40-50 % and reproduction of the active strains-destructors was investigated. It was found that the culture number 20 stands the NaCl concentration - up to 3 %, culture number 505 - up to 7 % salt in medium that specifies ability of this culture to survive in the middle salinated soils, cultures number 28 and 33 stand the NaCl concentration up to 30-40 % that characterize their survival rate in strongly salinated soils; the culture number 26 stood the NaCl concentration up to 50 % that characterizes its ability to survive and propagate in brackish soils. With the help of designed radiochemical methods we had been explored ability of the active salt resisting strains of bacteria to utilize and destroy the tritium labeled PCBs. The precise quantity and quality characteristics of the PCB-destructive activity of each investigated strain were received. The salt resisting strains of bacteria having high PCB-destructive activity were determined. At present, investigation on development of the new biological preparation designed for destruction of persistent organochlorine compounds in salted soils are carried out. (author)

  19. Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lili; Ge, Jing; Zhu, Yindi; Yang, Yuyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China, in order to assess health risk to the human via fish consumption. Two edible fish species (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were collected and analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and eight heavy metals (HMs). Concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs, and ∑OCPs in fish samples were in the range of 0.37-111.20, not detected (nd)-123.61, and 2.04-189.04 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of OCPs in bighead carp (A. nobilis) were higher than those in silver carp (H. molitrix). Concentrations of ∑HMs in bighead carp and silver carp were 352.48 and 345.20 mg kg(-1) (dw), respectively. Daily exposure of OCPs and HMs for consumers was estimated by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) with different criteria. The results revealed that the EDIs in our study were all lower than those criteria. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and risk ratio (R) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. As regard to non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, hazard quotients (THQ) of OCPs and HMs were both lower than 1.0, implying negligible non-carcinogenic risk via fish consumption in study area. Nevertheless, in view of carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, the total value of risk ratio (R) of OCPs was lower than the threshold of tolerable risk while the total value of risk ratio (R) of HMs was higher than the threshold of tolerable risk due to the high carcinogenic risk ratios of As and Cr, indicating high carcinogenic risks via fish consumption. The results demonstrated that HMs in edible fish from Wuhan, China, especially As and Cr required more attention than OCPs.

  20. Increased level of organochlorine pesticides in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology: role of GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddarth, Manushi; Datta, Sudip K; Mustafa, Md; Ahmed, Rafat S; Banerjee, Basu D; Kalra, Om P; Tripathi, Ashok K

    2014-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology represents about 16% of CKD patients in Indian subcontinents and 10% worldwide. The aetiology of CKD of unknown etiology remains unclear though epidemiological studies indicate the involvement of the environmental toxins. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been detected in general population in India. It is possible that polymorphism of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) may play an important role in this process. In this we intend to find out blood levels of OCPs in CKD patients of unknown etiology and to evaluate the consequence of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism on the same. We have assessed 270 CKD patients and 270 age-sex-matched healthy controls for this study. The blood OCP levels were analyzed by gas chromatograph. GSTM1, GSTT1 genotyping were carried out by multiplex PCR. Blood levels of HCH, endosulfan and total pesticides were significantly higher in CKD patients and negatively correlated with eGFR. The combined frequency of GSTM1(-)/GSTT1(-) genotype increased the risk of CKD by 1.8-fold as compared to healthy controls. To find out the dependence of blood OCPs level on genotype, we carried out logistic regression analysis and results revealed that GSTM1(-)/GSTT1(-) genotype associated significantly with a number of OCPs namely γ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and total pesticides. Polymorphism of XMEs not only increased accumulation of pesticides but also aggravates kidney dysfunction as evident from significant decrease in eGFR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oana Docea

    Full Text Available The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases. Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Cytochrome P450, Genetic polymorphisms, Pathogenesis, Environmental pollutants

  2. Occurrence and distribution of halogenated flame retardants in an urban watershed: Comparison to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-12-01

    Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore. Several alternative HFRs were detected in water and sediments. Dechlornane Plus stereoisomers (syn- and anti-DP) were detected in all samples, exhibiting relatively high concentrations in water, sediments and SPM. The maximum syn-DP concentrations in water, sediments and SPM were 24.30 ng/L, 2.48 ng/g dry wt. and 7774 ng/g dry wt., respectively. 1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HxBBz) and tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) were routinely detected. PBDE concentrations were relatively low and often non-detectable. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 0.017 to 8.37 ng/L in water, 9.86-27.92 ng/g dry wt. in SPM, and 6.48-212.3 ng/g dry wt. in sediments. Congener and isomer patterns suggested no recent inputs of PBDEs or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Rainfall was found to be an important factor influencing temporal and spatial patterns of DPs, BTBPE, PBDEs and some organochlorines in surface water. Land use index was found to be important for several organochlorines, but not HFRs. The observed sediment-water partitioning behavior of the studied HFRs and legacy POPs was highly dependent on chemical hydrophobicity. The data demonstrate that the studied HFRs have a relatively high affinity for SPM and bottom sediments. For example, the log K OC,OBS for TBECH, syn-DP and anti-DP and BTBPE in bottom sediments ranged between 8.1 and 9.6. The findings will aid future

  3. Confirmatory determination of organochlorine pesticides in surface waters using LC/APCI/tandem mass spectrometry open diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusaksri, S; Sutthivaiyakit, S; Sutthivaiyakit, P

    2006-03-01

    A confirmatory method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their metabolites (endrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, 2,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDD, 2,4'-DDE 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, and 4,4'-DDT) in surface waters using liquid chromatography /APCI/tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a ChromSpher 5 Pesticide column using a gradient elution with mobile phase 1mM ammonium acetate-acetonitrile. Endrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan , endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were determined in the negative ionization mode, while the rest compounds in positive ionization mode. For the identification of the analytes, two multireaction monitoring transitions were selected per compounds except for the heptachlor which selected ion monitoring was used. The linearity of the optimized method ranges after SPE concentration, from 0.009 to 30.60 microgL(-1) with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The method recovery values varied from 72 to 119 % for the different fortification levels . The developed method was successfully applied to determine OCPs and their metabolites in surface water samples collected near paddy fields in growing season of rice, at year 2005 in Pathumthani province, Thailand. Endosulfan sulfate was detected in five out of seven samples and three of them could be quantitated in the range of 0.31 to 0.50 microgL(-1).

  4. [Well water pollution in the Khombole district: research on the contamination by organochlorine pesticide residues and organic substances (feces)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, A; Ciss, M; Diop, Y; Boye, C S; Diouf, S; Fall, M; Diop, A; Ba, D

    1998-01-01

    The study realized in the district of Khombole (SENEGAL) has permit to estimate the contamination levels of wells waters used by the populations. The research and the dosage of the organichlorine pesticide residues, nitrites and nitrates and microbiologic analysis have been done on 19 wells chosen after a drawning of lots. The organochlorine pesticide residues which have been found prove that the wells are permanently exposed to these chemical substances which don't constitute nevertheless a major risk for the populations health. The results of our research proved also that there is a real risk of intoxication with the nitrogen oxides. In effects more than 50% of the wells have revealed nitrates contents up to the indicative value (25 mg/l). As for the nitrates, with a few exceptions (5/18), the contents are superior to the authorized norm (0.1 mg/l). By another way the bacteriologic analysis has revealed in the one hand a DBT (Total Bacterian Count) up to 10,000 germs/l for all the wells, and in the other hand the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis that confirm a faecal contamination.

  5. Upper Yellow River air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides estimated from tree bark, and their relationship with socioeconomic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chang; Jin, Jun; Xiang, Bailin; Wang, Ying; Ma, Zhaohui

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in tree bark from the upper Yellow River region were determined. Total OCP concentrations ranged from 2.7 to 82 ng/g dw, with a mean of 20 ng/g dw. Concentrations of total (Σ) DDTs (0.49-37 ng/g dw), HCHs (0.55-4.5 ng/g dw), and HCB (0.1-1.0 ng/g dw) were much higher than the other OCPs and accounted for 89% of the ΣOCP concentrations. p,p'-DDT was the dominant member of the DDT pesticide group and β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. The p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios suggested that there were recent DDT and γ-HCH releases. OCP concentrations in the air were estimated from the tree bark, and the estimated median ΣDDTs, ΣHCHs, and HCB concentrations in the air were 0.09, 0.14, and 0.024 pg/m(3), respectively. The relationship between total OCP concentrations and socioeconomic and natural environment indices were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis, and a regression equation including all these factors was obtained. Population density and tertiary industry were the two dominant factors that appeared to affect OCP concentrations in the upper Yellow River region. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between GC-MS-SIM and GC-ECD for the determination of residues of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in Brazilian citrus essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Andréa A. R.; Rezende, Michelle J. C.; Hovell, Ana M. C.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina L.; Rodrigues, Silvana V.; Rezende, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian citrus essential oils (mandarin, orange, lemon, bergamot and tangerine) were analyzed for the determination of pesticides residues of organochlorine (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin and dicofol) and organophosphorus (methyl chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methidathion and methyl parathion) . A comparative study between gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was performed using solid phase extr...

  8. Short-term temperature-dependent air-surface exchange and atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes and organochlorine pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.G.M.; Burnett, V.; Harner, T.; Jones, K.C.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, some of which have been banned for a number of years, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured at a U.K. site over periods of 6 h for 7 days resulting in 28 samples. Mean concentrations of the pesticides were {alpha}-HCH 90 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {gamma}-HCH 500, {rho},{rho}{prime}-DDE 8, dieldrin 63, endrin 22, and HCB 39. PCN mean homologue concentrations were {sub 3}CNs 67 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {sub 4}CNs 78, {sub 5}CNs 5, {sub 6}CNs 0.6, {sub 7}CNs 0.6, and {Sigma}PCNs 152. TEQ concentrations for those PCNs ascribed TEF values ranged between 0.36 and 3.6 fg m{sup {minus}3} which corresponds to {approximately}3.0--30% of the TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs at the same site. All the compounds measured, except HCB, exhibited a strong temperature-dependent diurnal cycling. Results from Clausius-Clapeyron plots show that pesticide concentrations were controlled by temperature-driven air-surface recycling throughout the first 5 days when stable atmospheric conditions were dominant, while during the last 2 days advection became more influential as more unstable and cooler weather started to influence the site. PCN concentrations were controlled primarily by a mixture of recycling and advection throughout the first 5 days and then by advection in the final 2 days, suggesting that there are ongoing emissions from diffuse point sources of PCNs into the U.K. atmosphere. This study provides further evidence of the rapid air-surface exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and shows how different factors alone or in combination can produce rapid changes in the atmospheric concentrations of past and present SOCs.

  9. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IN RAW MILK IN TURIN DEPARTEMENT : HEAVY METALS, P.C.B, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES – YEARS 2005 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cavallera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period between 2005 and 2008 was carried out a survey on 252 samples of raw bovine milk collected in Turin departement to certain levels of contamination by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Zn, PCB and organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides. These results argue that the levels of heavy metals, PCB and pesticides are well below what is expected by the European legislation and that the situation is under control and that raw milk meets the hygiene requirements for human health.

  10. Quantitative determination of organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludges using soxtec, soxhlet and pressurized liquid extractions and ion trap mass-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaleh, M I H; Al-Omair, A; Ahmed, N; Gevao, B

    2005-06-01

    A new analytical method is described for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sewage sludges using GC-ion trap-MS-MS. In this work, 16 organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as priority pollutants were separated and quantified. Sludge samples from three of Kuwait's wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Spiked sludge samples were extracted with a mixture of (1:1 v/v) dichloromethane (DCM)/hexane. The extracts were cleaned on a silica/aluminum oxide column, then transferred to a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column, before undergoing further silica/aluminum oxide clean-up; the presence of OCPs was then confirmed by GC-ion trap-MS-MS. Three extraction techniques, soxtec, soxhlet, and pressurized liquid extractions were utilized, compared and validated using the spiked sludge samples. The methods were validated in term of accuracy (recovery) and precision (RSD). The method recovery values varied from 76.1 to 92.9% for the three extraction techniques.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) breeding at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Miglioranza, K S B; Uhart, M M; Gonzalez, M; Commendatore, M

    2015-06-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead Southern Right Whales (SRW - Eubalaena australis) stranded at Península Valdés, Argentina. The life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the South West Atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of Argentina. Organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8 ng·g(-1)ww) than PCBs (7.5±10 ng·g(-1)ww). Among pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, dieldrin, chlordans, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were present in 69% and 26% of samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio showed low values (whales is highlighted as a priority for research. This is the first study on levels, compositional patterns, and organochlorine sources in SRW. Moreover, more research including milk, and other tissues/organs is recommended considered that in the studied specimens, mostly calves, pollutants are likely transferred from the mother during pregnancy and nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine) had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( > 3.0 µm), which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide) and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  13. Limit of detection and limit of quantification development procedures for organochlorine pesticides analysis in water and sediment matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results. Result In this study, 18 organochlorine pesticides were targeted for analysis and determination in water and river sediment. Experiments based on signal-to-noise ratio, calibration curve slope and laboratory fortified blank methods were conducted to determine the limits of qualification and quantification. The data were compared with each other. The limitation values, following Laboratory Fortified Blank, showed significant differences in the signal-to-noise ratio and calibration curve slope methods, which are assumed in the results for the sample concentration factor to be 1,000 times in water and 10 times in sediment matrices. The method detection limit values were found to be between 0.001 and 0.005 μg/L (mean of 0.002 ± 0.001) and 0.001 and 0.005 μg/g (mean of 0.001 ± 0.001). The quantification limits were found to be between 0.002 and 0.016 μg/L (mean of 0.006 ± 0.004) and 0.003 and 0.017 μg/g (mean of 0.005 ± 0.003 μg/L) for water and sediment, respectively, based on the laboratory fortified blank method. Because of different slopes in the calibration methods, it was also found that the limitation values for some components from the internal standard were higher than from external standard calibration, because in the latter a factor for injection efficiency is applied for calibration

  14. Determination of soil content in chlordecone (organochlorine pesticide) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Didier, E-mail: didier.brunet@ird.f [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France); Woignier, Thierry [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Montpellier 2, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphael [CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement), PRAM, BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Rangon, Luc [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Barthes, Bernard G. [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France)

    2009-11-15

    Chlordecone is a toxic organochlorine insecticide that was used in banana plantations until 1993 in the French West Indies. This study aimed at assessing the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining chlordecone content in Andosols, Nitisols and Ferralsols from Martinique. Using partial least square regression, chlordecone content conventionally determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be correctly predicted by NIRS (Q{sup 2} = 0.75, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the total set), especially for samples with chlordecone content <12 mg kg{sup -1} or when the sample set was rather homogeneous (Q{sup 2} = 0.91, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the Andosols). Conventional measures and NIRS predictions were poorly correlated for chlordecone content >12 mg kg{sup -1}, nevertheless ca. 80% samples were correctly predicted when the set was divided into three or four classes of chlordecone content. Thus NIRS could be considered a time- and cost-effective method for characterising soil contamination by chlordecone. - Soil content in chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, can be determined time- and cost-effectively using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

  15. Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Nistara; Gulland, Frances; Ylitalo, Gina M; DeLong, Robert; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2015-12-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs), like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), are widespread marine pollutants resulting from massive historical use and environmental persistence. Exposure to and health effects of these OCs in the marine environment may be examined by studying California sea lions (Zalophus californianus ), which are long lived, apex predators capable of accumulating OCs. We evaluated PCB and DDT levels in 310 sea lions sampled between 1992 and 2007: 204 individuals stranded along the coast of central California, 60 healthy males from Washington State, and 46 healthy females from southern California. Lipid-normalized contaminant concentrations were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression to ascertain temporal trends; differences between stranded and healthy sea lions; and association of organochlorines with sex, age, and presence of cancer or fatal infectious disease. Concentrations of the contaminants in stranded adults decreased over time in the study period (adjusted for sex, as adult males had higher mean blubber concentrations than adult females and juveniles). Cancer was almost eight and six times more likely in animals with higher summed PCBs and DDTs, compared to those with lower levels (95% CI 5.55-10.51 and 4.54-7.99, respectively). Fatal infectious diseases were similarly seven and five times more likely in animals with higher contaminant burdens (95% CI 4.20-10.89 and 3.27-7.86, respectively). Mean contaminant loads were significantly higher in stranded sea lions than in healthy live captured animals ( p  lions, raising concerns for humans and other animals eating tainted seafood. While environmental exposure to these organochlorines appears to be decreasing over time based on levels in sea lion tissues, their persistence in the environment and food web for all predators, including humans, and the associated serious health risks, warrant monitoring, possibly through sentinel

  16. Rapid analysis of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides in tea samples by directly suspended droplet microextraction using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Min, Shungeng

    2012-04-27

    A simple and efficient directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME) has been developed to extract and pre-concentrate organochlorine and pyrethrin pesticides from tea samples prior to analysis by a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The optimal experimental conditions of DSDME were: 100 μL isooctane exposed for 15 min to 5 mL of the tea aqueous sample stirred at 1100 rpm. For most of the target analytes, the optimal pretreatment of DSDME processes led to no significant interference of tea matrices. The approach was applied to the determination of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides in tea samples, with a linearity range of 0.0005-2 μg/mL. The relative recoveries of all the pesticides ranged between 80.0% and 120.8% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 0.8-19.9% (n=5). The limits of detections (LODs) ranged between 0.04 and 1 μg/L for all the target pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  18. Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs are important in the development of conditions predisposing to diabetes as well as of type 2 diabetes itself. We recently reported that low dose POPs predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a nested case-control study. The current study examined if low dose POPs predicted future adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among controls without diabetes in that study.The 90 controls were diabetes-free during 20 years follow-up. They were a stratified random sample, enriched with overweight and obese persons. POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2 sera included 8 organochlorine (OC pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB. Body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment value for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were study outcomes at 2005-06 (year 20. The evolution of study outcomes during 18 years by categories of serum concentrations of POPs at year 2 was evaluated by adjusting for the baseline values of outcomes plus potential confounders. Parallel to prediction of type 2 diabetes, many statistically significant associations of POPs with dysmetabolic conditions appeared at low dose, forming inverted U-shaped dose-response relations. Among OC pesticides, p,p'-DDE most consistently predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 after adjusting for baseline values. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene also significantly predicted higher triglycerides. Persistent PCBs with ≥7 chlorides predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 with similar dose-response curves.Simultaneous exposure to various POPs in the general population may contribute to development of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, common precursors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  20. Multiresidue analysis of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides in ground beef meat by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Patrizia; Santilio, Angela; Cataldi, Lucilla; Dommarco, Roberto

    2009-05-01

    A multiresidue method was developed and optimized for the identification/quantification of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) in beef meat samples. Samples extraction was performed by an automated solvent extractor and the extracts were cleaned-up by a tandem-cartridge system consisting of an Extrelut NT3 combined with a Sep-Pack C18 cartridge and a florisil minicartridge. Analysis was finally carried out by gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The performance of the method was investigated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ). Good linearity was obtained, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.98. Mean recoveries were found in the ranges 70-110 % and 84-99 % for the investigated OCPs and PYRs, respectively, with the exception of extremely volatile hexachlorobenzene (HCB). RSD% turned out to range from 2 to 15 %. LOQ values were in the range 0.005-0.1 mg/kg for either class of compounds. The method developed was successfully tested on 50 commercial beef meat samples from the market area of Rome (Italy), proving to be a useful tool in routine multiresidue analysis of OCPs and PYRs for monitoring purposes. None of the compounds of interest were observed above their respective LOQ.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in osprey eggs--1970-79--and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Bunck, C.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected in 14 states in 1970-79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. DDE was detected in all eggs, PCBs in 99%, DDD in 96%, dieldrin in 52%, and other compounds less frequently. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites declined in eggs from Cape May County, New Jersey between 1970-72 and 1978-79. Eggs .from New Jersey in the early 1970s contained the highest concentrations of DDE. Dieldrin concentrations declined in eggs from the Potomac River, Maryland during 1971-77. Five different contaminants were significantly negatively correlated with shell thickness; DDE was most closely correlated. Ten percent shell thinning was associated with 2.0 ppm DDE, 15% with 4.2 ppm, and 20% with 8.7 ppm in eggs collected from randomly selected nests before egg loss. Shell thickness could not be accurately predicted from DDE concentrations in eggs collected after failure to hatch, presumably because the eggs with the thinnest shells had been broken and were unavailable for sampling. DDE was also significantly negatively correlated with brood size. Other contaminants did not appear to adversely affect shell thickness or reproductive success.

  2. Matrix solid phase dispersion-Soxhlet simultaneous extraction clean-up for determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jibao; Gao, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2005-11-01

    A novel method combining matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with Soxhlet simultaneous extraction clean-up (SSEC) was developed. Being a single-step extraction and clean-up procedure, it could be used instead of multistep solvent extraction and Florisol column clean-up. It not only reduces sample contamination during the procedure, but it also decreases the amount of organic solvent needed. The retention times of standards were used to qualitatively assess the method, and the external standard method was used to quantitatively assess it. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in tobaccos were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD), and their identities were confirmed by the standard addition method (SAM). The performance of the method was evaluated and validated: the detection limit was 0.01-0.02 microg g(-1), relative standard deviations were 5-26%, and recoveries were 72-99% at fortification levels of 0.10, 1.00 and 10.0 microg g(-1). The analytical characteristics of MSPD-SSEC compared very favorably with the results from the classical multistep solvent extraction and Florisol column clean-up method.

  3. Long-term air monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Pfister, G.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kirchner, M.; Jakobi, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto, Via Matteotti 27, 35137 Padova (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Schramm, K.-W., E-mail: schramm@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); TUM-Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department fuer Biowissenschaftliche Grundlagen Weihenstephaner Steig 23, D-85350 Freising (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was conducted using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) deployed in the Alps at different altitudinal transects for two consecutive exposure periods of half a year and a third simultaneous year-long period. Along all the altitude profiles, the sequestered amounts of OCPs increased in general with altitude. SPMDs were still working as kinetic samplers after half a year for the majority of the OCPs. However, compounds with the lowest octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa}), reached equilibrium within six months. This change in the SPMD uptake was determined for the temperature gradient along the altitude profile influencing K{sub oa}, OCPs availability in the gaseous phase, and SPMD performance. In sum, it seems two effects are working in parallel along the altitude profiles: the change in SPMD performance and the different availability of OCPs along the altitudinal transects determined by their compound properties and concentrations in air. - SPMDs were in different uptake stages regarding OCPs, as they were influenced by the temperature (season, triolein state, and altitude) and K{sub oa}.

  4. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E; Bernhoft, A; Riget, F; Belikov, S E; Boltunov, A N; Derocher, A E; Garner, G W; Wiig, Ø; Skaare, J U

    2003-05-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of alpha- and beta-HCH. The lowest alpha-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, summation operator HCHs was dominated by beta-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p'-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research.

  5. Different transfer pathways of an organochlorine pesticide across marine tropical food webs assessed with stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte R Dromard

    Full Text Available Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide used in the banana fields of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Three marine habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs of two study sites located downstream contaminated rivers were chosen to evaluate the level of contamination of marine food webs. On each habitat, the food chain collected included suspended organic matter, primary producers (macroalgae, algal turf, seagrass, zooplankton, symbiotic organisms (corals, sea anemones, primary consumers (herbivores, suspension feeders, biofilm feeders, omnivores and detritivores (lobsters, fish, secondary consumers (carnivores 1: invertebrate feeders, planktivores and tertiary consumers (carnivores 2: invertebrate and fish feeders, piscivores. Log-linear regressions of the concentrations of chlordecone versus nitrogen isotopic ratios (δ15N were used to assess the bioaccumulation of chlordecone along trophic food webs. At each site, bioconcentration and bioamplification take part on the transfer of chlordecone in marine organisms. In mangroves (i.e. close to the source of pollution, lower trophic magnification factors (TMF indicated that bioconcentration prevailed over bioamplification phenomenon. The opposite phenomenon appeared on coral reefs in which bioconcentration processes were less important and bioamplification pathway became dominant. Far from the source of pollution, molecules of chlordecone seemed to be transfered to organisms mostly via trophic interactions rather than water contact.

  6. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

    2003-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of organochlorine pesticides on some non-target organisms in maize and cowpea agro-ecosystems in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the effects of organochlorine pesticides on non-target organisms under tropical conditions, a three-year study was conducted in Ghana applying lindane at 1 kg AI. ha -1 and endosulfan at 0.75 kg AI. ha -1 to maize and cowpeas respectively. The endosulfan treatment was preceded by two consecutive treatments with cypermethrin at 50 g AI ha -1 . Lindane significantly reduced the numbers of ants, spiders and springtails trapped though the numbers of ants and spiders generally recovered within the cropping period. Lindane significantly increased the numbers of leafhoppers caught from maize plots probably due to the elimination of a natural enemy. Ant, spider and springtail numbers were also significantly reduced by the endosulfan treatment in cowpea plots 5. Lindane did not significantly increase maize yields in two of the three years. Endosulfan contributed to significant yield increases and reduced seed damage in cowpeas. Neither lindane nor endosulfan seemed to have any significant adverse effects on the activities of soil microfauna and microflora based on the rates of decomposition of leaf discs buried in the experimental plots. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Comparison of using polyurethane foam passive samplers and tree bark samples from Western China to determine atmospheric organochlorine pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuxu; Lu, Yao; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Li, Peng; He, Chang; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were deployed and tree bark samples were collected at 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the samples were determined. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the PUF samples and tree bark samples. The mean DDTs, HCHs and HCB concentrations were 33, 22 and 18ng/sample in the PUF samples, and 428, 74, and 43ng/(g lipid weight (lw)) in the tree bark, respectively. The OCP concentrations in the air, calculated using PUF-air and tree-bark-air partitioning models, were of the same order of magnitude. Both sample types showed that relatively fresh inputs of DDT and HCHs to the environment have occurred in western China. Meanwhile, PUF passive samplers were compared with the use of tree bark samples as passive samplers. The OCP compositions in the PUF and tree bark samples were different. Only the relatively stable OCPs (such as HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE)) were consistent in the PUF and tree bark samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhananjayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethylene (p,p′-DDE concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research.

  11. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used. - Highlights: • Freeze drying significantly reduces extractability of OCPs in fish muscle sample. • It is the protein that causes the reduction in extractability of OCPs. • The extractability can be recovered by adding water before extraction. - Freeze drying significantly decreases the concentrations of OCPs extracted from fish muscle samples by microwave-assisted method

  12. Determination of Henry's law constants of organochlorine pesticides in deionized and saline water as a function of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Ozer, Serdar; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa

    The Henry's law constant ( H) is an important parameter that is required to estimate the air-water exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds. Henry's law constants for 17 banned/restricted/currently used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were experimentally determined using a gas-stripping technique in deionized and saline water (3%) over a temperature range of 5-35 °C. H values (at 25 °C) ranged between 0.066±0.037 Pa m 3 mol -1 (endosulfan II) and 62.0±24.2 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor) in deionized water while the range in saline water was 0.28±0.03 Pa m 3 mol -1 ( γ-HCH) and 135.2±31.3 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor). The increase in dimensionless Henry's law constants ( H') for OCPs over the studied temperature range was between 3 ( γ-HCH)-19 times (chlorpyrifos) and 3 (endosulfan II)-80 times ( trans-nonachlor) in deionized and saline water, respectively. The calculated enthalpies of phase change (Δ HH) were within the ranges previously reported for OCPs and other organic compounds (23.8-100.2 kJ mol -1). The salting-out constant, ks, ranged between 0.04 ( γ-HCH) and 1.80 L mol -1 (endosulfan II) indicating the importance of assessing the H values of OCPs in saline water to accurately determine their partitioning and fate in seawater.

  13. Long-term air monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Pfister, G.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kirchner, M.; Jakobi, G.; Bassan, R.; Kraeuchi, N.; Schramm, K.-W.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was conducted using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) deployed in the Alps at different altitudinal transects for two consecutive exposure periods of half a year and a third simultaneous year-long period. Along all the altitude profiles, the sequestered amounts of OCPs increased in general with altitude. SPMDs were still working as kinetic samplers after half a year for the majority of the OCPs. However, compounds with the lowest octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa ), reached equilibrium within six months. This change in the SPMD uptake was determined for the temperature gradient along the altitude profile influencing K oa , OCPs availability in the gaseous phase, and SPMD performance. In sum, it seems two effects are working in parallel along the altitude profiles: the change in SPMD performance and the different availability of OCPs along the altitudinal transects determined by their compound properties and concentrations in air. - SPMDs were in different uptake stages regarding OCPs, as they were influenced by the temperature (season, triolein state, and altitude) and K oa .

  14. Effects of perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on total development in 10-month-old Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J.; Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor and chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned to use in late 1960s and in early 1970s in Japan, because of their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment, their appearance in animal and human tissue, and their toxicity. However, these chemicals and their metabolites still have been contaminating our environment, food and human beings. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs), highly toxic organochlorine compounds and so-called dioxins, are also determined in human beings. Consequently, the chemicals mentioned above and their metabolites have been measured in Japanese breast milk, which indicates Japanese mothers are also contaminated with these compounds. These compounds in Japanese mothers may cause some deleterious effects on the developmental condition of Japanese infants. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between perinatal exposure to the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins and the total developmental condition at about 10 months of age in Japanese male and female infants.

  15. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Concentrations, distributions, and cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Xiulan; Niu, Shan; Li, Lingling; Wu, Zhongxiang; Huang, Yeru

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has been quickly industrialized and urbanized. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in the YRD in 2010–2011 to investigate their spatiotemporal distributions and estimate the risk of cancer from their inhalation. Annual concentrations were 151, 168, 18.8, 110, 17.9, and 35.0 pg m −3 for HCB, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, mirex, and PCBs, respectively. The highest OCP and PCB concentrations were generally detected in the autumn and winter. The average concentrations of OCPs and PCBs for the different site groups followed the order urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. The lifetime excess cancer risks from the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs were −6 . The predicted cancer cases per lifetime associated with the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs are 12, 7, and 4 per ten thousand people for urban, urban–rural transition, and rural areas, respectively. Highlights: •Organochlorine pollutants were measured in the air in the Yangtze River Delta area. •Air PCB concentration declined in recent years comparing with previous results. •HCB and DDEs predominated, with the highest values in winter and autumn, respectively. •OCPs and PCBs followed the order: urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. -- A detailed study of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air across the Yangtze River Delta area using passive air samplers

  16. Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.

    1981-10-01

    Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

  17. Seasonal differences in organochlorine pesticide concentrations of zooplankton and fish in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Nair, M.

    pathway, as in the case of avian eggs (Skaare et al.. 199 1). The reproductive effects of such an extensive maternal transfer of the pesticide compounds remain to be assessed. For most species of fish in the Arabian Sea, the spawning season is during...

  18. Organochlorine pesticides in ambient air in selected urban and rural residential areas in the Philippines derived from passive samplers with polyurethane disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Evangeline C; Cayetano, Mylene G

    2011-01-01

    The passive sampler with PUF disk was applied to investigate the types and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in ambient air in three urban and rural residential areas simultaneously at different weather conditions in the Philippines. The concentrations of OCPs derived from the passive samplers indicated clear distinctions in the predominance of certain types and amounts of OCPs in air at different sampling sites and periods of sampling. Chlordanes were detected in concentrations ranging from 218 to 2,324 pg/m³ in the urban residential sites in all the sampling periods, indicating the possible use of these pesticides as termiticides in houses. Endosulfans were detected in two rural sites at 491 pg/m³ and 904 pg/m³ during one sampling period; indicating the possible use of the pesticide in the farm areas at that period.

  19. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Eulaers, Igor [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jaspers, Veerle L.B., E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ntnu.no [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); WWF-Pakistan, Ferozpur Road, PO Box 5180, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005 Paris (France); Ambus, Per Lennart [Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 København K (Denmark); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ{sup 13}C; p = 0.50 for δ{sup 15}N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ{sup 13}C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of

  20. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g − 1 dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g − 1 dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g − 1 dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g − 1 dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g − 1 dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ 13 C; p = 0.50 for δ 15 N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ 13 C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and PCB's: A continuing problem for the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Clark, D.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    In general. decreases in OC contamination in North America are unmistakable. This is documented by the NPMP. but. more importantly. it is borne out by improvements in the reproduction and population status of the brown pelican. bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and osprey. However, some OC contamination still persists, and several species, particularly predatory birds and insectivorous bats, continue to be vulnerable. Current OC problems in North America result from present and past usage and from industrial contamination. In addition, some studies suggest that some migrant bird species that winter south of the U.S. border are exposed to higher levels of OC pesticide than non-migrants. However, heavy OC pesticide contamination is known to exist in Arizona, New Mexico, and in southern California where migratory birds might stop during migration. At this time, we do not have the information to assess specifically the sources of contamination for most migrant species. From the number of recent OC problems identified in North America, it is apparent that OC's are not confined to the past and that we must continue to monitor and study OC's during this decade. However, current administrative, management, and research priorities are being directed toward the search for potential impacts of newer pesticides, air pollution. industrial waste, and other contaminants. Although it is necessary to build a body of scientific data on these types of contaminants, we feel that we cannot neglect continued work on OC's for which harmful effects impacting our wildlife resources are already known.

  2. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  3. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Degrendele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and current-use pesticides (CUPs in air. Two years (2012/2013 of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( >  3.0 µm, which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  4. Organochlorinated pesticides in sediments from the Lake Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, E; Requena, S; de la Guardia, M; Pastor, A; Carrasco, J M

    2005-09-01

    Bottom sediment samples from 121 sites of the Lake Albufera of Valencia were analyzed. Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and op'-DDT were not detected (<0.01 ng g(-1)) in 88-93% of the sites. Aldrin and HCB concentration ranges were between <0.01 and 0.1 ng g(-1) in 86% and 94% of the sites, respectively. Heptachlor-epoxide and lindane 95% confidence intervals were 0.2-0.5 and 0.06-0.12, respectively. The greatest average concentration corresponds to pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD and pp'-DDT. The sum of six isomers and derivatives of the DDT average concentration reaches 2.1 ng g(-1), as opposed to 2.7 ng g(-1) for the sum of 13 pesticides considered. In the site with a major contamination, 27.0 ng g(-1) of pp'-DDD and 12.8 ng g(-1) of pp'-DDT were accumulated. The DDE:DDT proportion average was 0.37, indicating an aged DDT contamination. Concentrations of pesticides in sediments were compared to three sediment quality guidelines, and indicated that a low biological effects level can be expected in either sediments or aquatic organisms.

  5. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in organic quinoa grains (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) by GC-µECD, using the QuEChERS method

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Barriga, Rosario Edely; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno; Zamalloa Cuba, Walter Alejandro; Universidad Nacional del Altiplano Puno; Luiz Tornisielo, Valdemar; Ecotoxicology Laboratory of the Center of the Nuclear Energy in Agriculture University of Sao; Zirena Vilca, Franz; Ecotoxicology Laboratory of the Center of the Nuclear Energy in Agriculture University of Sao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is currently great interest in environmental pollutants in relation to food security; previous studies show that persistent organic pollutants  (POPs) could be found in small amounts, even in organic food; therefore, in this  research, 12 organochlorine pesticides residues (p, p'-DDD; p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'DDE, Dicofol, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, α-BHC, β-BCH, heptachlor and mirex) were monitored in quinoa grains from organic production systems, sampled ...

  6. Toxic deposition monitoring network data listing for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and precipitation, 1989 and 1990. Report No. ARB-107-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The toxic deposition network was established in late 1987 to monitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/PCDFs) in air and precipitation. This report gives the 1989 and 1990 air and precipitation monitoring results for PCBs and OCs. Data from the site at Shallow Lake are incomplete because the site was closed in October 1990. Trace metal data are reported as part of the APIOS monitoring program.

  7. Aquatic biota as potential biological indicators of the contamination, bioaccumulation and health risks caused by organochlorine pesticides in a large, shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yan; He, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic biota have long been recognized as bioindicators of the contamination caused by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. The primary purpose of the present study is to identify which species of aquatic biota are the most sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs...... to OCPs and may serve as the most effective bioindicators for monitoring OCP contamination in the water and suspended solids of Lake Chaohu. Megalobrama amblycephala, which contained the highest wet weight mean OCP concentration, is the most sensitive OCP indicator and can be used to assess the human...

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekunle, J A O; Akindolani, O A; Sosan, M B; Adekunle, A S

    2017-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p'-DDE) to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p'-DDT) were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin) to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p'-DDT). The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs) for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Guangzhou and Hong Kong: Regional sources and long-range atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Lingli; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Lee, Celine S. L.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period of December 2003-December 2004 at four sampling sites in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of 8 OCP species, including trans-chlordane ( t-CHL), cis-chlordane ( c-CHL), p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDT, α-endosulfan, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), were studied. OCPs were found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons. t-CHL, c-CHL, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan had significantly ( pGuangzhou could be attributed to the present usage of lindane and dicofol in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The very high concentrations of p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan were observed at all sampling sites. The results of 7 days air back trajectory analysis indicated that the unusual high p, p'-DDT levels in summer in both cities could be related to the seasonal usage of DDT containing antifouling paints for fishing ships in the upwind seaports of the region. The high concentrations of α-endosulfan in winter in the study area suggested an atmospheric transport by the winter monsoon from the East China, where endosulfan is being used as insecticide in cotton fields. The consistency of the seasonal variation of concentrations and isomeric ratios of DDTs and α-endosulfan with the alternation of winter monsoon and summer monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in the long-range atmospheric transport of OCPs.

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air of the North Sea region and air-sea exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH. The results suggest that declining trends of HCH in seawater have been continuing for γ-HCH but have somewhat levelled off for α-HCH. Dieldrin displayed a close to phase equilibrium in nearly all the sampling sites, except in the central southwestern part of the North Sea. Here atmospheric deposition dominates the air-sea exchange. This region, close to the English coast, showed remarkably increased surface seawater concentrations. This observation depended neither on riverine input nor on the elevated abundances of dieldrin in the air masses of central England. A net depositional flux of p,p'-DDE into the North Sea was indicated by both its abundance in the marine atmosphere and the changes in metabolite pattern observed in the surface water from the coast towards the open sea. The long-term trends show that the atmospheric concentrations of DDT and its metabolites are not declining. Riverine input is a major source of PCBs in the German Bight and the wider North Sea. Atmospheric deposition of the lower molecular weight PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) was indicated as a major source for surface seawater pollution.

  11. [Characterization of free and bound organochlorine pesticides in four soil/sediments of the Pearl River Delta, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu-lu; Song, Jian-zhong; Yu, Chi-ling; Peng, Ping-an

    2008-12-01

    Free and bound residues are the main form of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils/sediments. Four surface soil/sediments from the Pearl River Delta, China, were selected to characterize free and bound OCPs in different fractions of organic matters in the samples through alka-extraction, HCl/HF demineralization and organic solvent extraction. Total OCPs concentrations of samples were 20.96-134.22 microg x kg(-1), total HCHs concentrations were 5.66-22.87 microg x kg(-1), and total DDTs concentrations were 1.51-11.70 microg x kg(-1). beta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor were the dominate compounds which took 53.56%-77.26% of total OCPs. Concentrations of free OCPs were 8.46-88.45 microg x kg(-1) and took 40.37%-65.90% of total OCPs while concentrations of bound OCPs were 11.46-45.77 microg x kg(-1) and took 34.10%-59.63% of total OCPs. Most of bound OCPs were in the humic acid and humin fractions of the samples which shows the significantly occurrence of bound OCPs in environment. Distributions of free DDTs and HCHs showed that there were no fresh HCHs poured into these samples but there were fresh DDTs poured into some of the samples. The distribution of OCPs in these two fractions were associated with the organic C content of the fractions, and 94.78%-97.48% of bound OCPs were in humin fraction which took 57.71%-80.55% of total organic C in the samples. Environmental risk estimate showed that some free OCPs such as gamma-HCH, aldrin, endrin and DDTs may have risk to environment and total of free and bound concentration of each compound were 1-30 times higher than free concentration of each compound. Therefore bound OCPs should be considered while making the environmental risk estimate and establishing environmental criteria.

  12. Distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; LeMenach, Karyn; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; El megdiche, Yassine; Hammami, Bechir; Ben Ameur, Walid; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Cachot, Jérôme; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 18 surface sediment samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia. The total concentrations of ten PCBs (∑PCBs) and of four OCPs (∑OCPs) in the sediments from this area ranged from 0.8 to 14.6 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.9 ng g(-1) dw) and from 1.1 to 14.0 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.3 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the range of concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 0.3-11.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.9 ng g(-1) dw) and 0.6-2.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.4 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Compositional analyses of the POPs indicated that PCB 153, 138 and 180 were the predominant congeners accounting for 60 % of the total PCBs. In addition, p,p'-DDT was found to be the dominant DDTs, demonstrating recent inputs in the environment. Compared with some other regions of the world, the Bizerte lagoon exhibited low levels of PCBs and moderate levels of HCB and DDTs. The high ratios ΣPCBs/ΣDDTs indicated predominant industrial versus agricultural activities in this area. According to the established guidelines for sediment quality, the risk of adverse biological effects from such levels of OCPs and PCBs, as recorded at most of the study sites, was insignificant. However, the higher concentrations in stations S1 and S3 could cause biological damage.

  13. Necropsy findings in American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings from northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Del, Piero F.; Wiebe, J.J.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryo and neonatal mortality has been reported from several northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with old-use organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, a clear relationship among these contaminants and egg viability has not been established, suggesting the involvement of additional factors in these mortalities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the ultimate cause of mortality of American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings through the conduction of detailed pathological examinations, and to evaluate better the role of OCPs in these mortalities. Between 2000 and 2001, 236 dead alligators were necropsied at or near hatching (after ???65 days of artificial incubation and up to 1 mo of age posthatch). Dead animals were collected from 18 clutches ranging in viability from 0% to 95%. Total OCP concentrations in yolk ranged from ???100 to 52,000 ??g/kg, wet weight. The most common gross findings were generalized edema (34%) and organ hyperemia (29%), followed by severe emaciation (14%) and gross deformities (3%). Histopathologic examination revealed lesions in 35% of the animals, with over half of the cases being pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Within and across clutches, dead embryos and hatchlings compared with their live cohorts were significantly smaller and lighter. Although alterations in growth and development were not related to yolk OCPs, there was an increase in prevalence of histologic lesions in clutches with high OCPs. Overall, these results indicate that general growth retardation and respiratory abnormalities were a major contributing factor in observed mortalities and that contaminants may increase the susceptibility of animals to developing certain pathologic conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  14. The Rate of Success of the Accelerated Solvent Extraction (Ase of Fat and Organochlorine Pesticides from Dried Fish Meat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of conventional sample preparation techniques with newer techniques which are automated, faster and more eco-friendly, is nowadays desired in every analytical laboratory. One of the techniques with the attributes mentioned above is the Accelerated Solvent Extraction. In order to evaluate how successful this method is for the extraction of fat and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs from dried fish meat samples, we have tested two series of diverse fish using Dionex™ 350 ASE provided by Thermo Scientific™ (Germany. For a more interesting approach, we added to our investigation 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs, 3 thricholorobenzenes, 2 tetrachlorobenzenes, 1 pentachlorobenzenes and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. The study focused on comparing the recoveries of these analytes from different fish samples, after replacing the conventional reference method of the laboratory with ASE. The ASE parameters tested were previously used for the extraction of fat and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE from fish samples: temperature: 120 ° C; static time: 5 min; number of cycles: 3; flushing volume: 25%; rinse with nitrogen: 90 s; solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (ratio 1:1. The ASE method provided similar and in some cases better results when compared to the standard reference method, more rapidly, eco-friendly and safer. Any high or low recoveries of the analytes taken into study are attributed to random or systematic errors during the Clean-up step of the extracts and the quantification with Gas Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass-Spectrometry (GC MS/MS.

  15. Developing a Screening Model to Establish Human Risk from Glacial Meltwater Release of Legacy Organochlorine Pollutants at the Silvretta Glacier in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (OCPs) banned globally by the Stockholm Convention in 2004 are reemerging from melting glaciers in numerous alpine ecosystems. Despite the known OCP influx from glaciers, a study of human risk from uptake of pesticides in glacial meltwater has never been attempted. Our study qualifies human uptake routes and quantifies risk utilizing published meltwater data from the Silvretta Glacier in the Swiss Alps in combination with methodology established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Relatively high concentrations of OCPs in Silvretta glacier meltwater reflect proximity to use near high density populations and provide the best estimate of a 95th percentile human risk scenario. This screening level model assesses direct PCB risk to humans through consumption of fish tissue and meltwater. Our model shows a risk for both cancer and non-cancer disease impacts to children with lifetime exposure to glacial meltwater and an average local fish consumption. For adults with an abbreviated 30 year exposure timeframe, the risk for non-cancer effects is negligible and cancer effects are only barely above screening level. Populations that consume higher quantities of local fish are at greater risk, with additional challenges borne by children. Further direct study into the individual level risk to Swiss residents from glacial meltwater pollution is deemed necessary by our screening study.

  16. Reductive dechlorination of organochlorine pesticides in soils from an abandoned manufacturing facility by zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xin; Xue, Nandong; Wang, Shijie; Li, Keji; Li, Fasheng

    2010-07-15

    Several experiments and a model were constructed using conventional granular zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles as the reducing agent to study the reductive dechlorination characteristics of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in soils from a former pesticide-manufacturing site. The results showed that ZVI had good ability for the reductive dechlorination for both HCHs and DDTs. The reductive dechlorination of HCHs and DDTs proceeded at different rates. The pseudo first-order constants of HCHs were greater than those of DDTs. The reductive dechlorination rates in a descending order were gamma-HCH>delta-HCH>beta-HCH>alpha-HCH>o,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDE. To discuss the major influential factors over the reductive dechlorination rates of HCHs and DDTs by ZVI, 22 quantum chemical descriptors were computed with the density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G() level, which characterizes different molecular structures and physicochemical properties of HCHs and DDTs. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (LFER) model was established, which correlates the reductive dechlorination properties of pollutants with their structural descriptors. Using the partial least squares (PLS) analysis, an optimal two-parameter LFER model was established. q(+) and q(Cl)(-) were more important factors in determining the dechlorination rate of OCPs in the chemical reductive reaction. This optimal model was stable and had good predictability. The model study also showed that the coefficient value of q(+) was 0.511, which positively correlated with the reductive dechlorination rate constant, whereas q(Cl)(-) was negatively correlated with it. The reductive dechlorination rate of pollutants appears to be limited mainly by the rate of dissolution in the aqueous phase. This model can be used to explain the degradation potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and the trend of residues changing during the soil remediation. Therefore, the study is of

  17. Reductive dechlorination of organochlorine pesticides in soils from an abandoned manufacturing facility by zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Xin; Xue, Nandong; Wang, Shijie; Li, Keji; Li, Fasheng

    2010-01-01

    Several experiments and a model were constructed using conventional granular zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles as the reducing agent to study the reductive dechlorination characteristics of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in soils from a former pesticide-manufacturing site. The results showed that ZVI had good ability for the reductive dechlorination for both HCHs and DDTs. The reductive dechlorination of HCHs and DDTs proceeded at different rates. The pseudo first-order constants of HCHs were greater than those of DDTs. The reductive dechlorination rates in a descending order were γ-HCH > δ-HCH > β-HCH > α-HCH > o,p'-DDT > p,p'-DDT > p,p'-DDE. To discuss the major influential factors over the reductive dechlorination rates of HCHs and DDTs by ZVI, 22 quantum chemical descriptors were computed with the density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G * level, which characterizes different molecular structures and physicochemical properties of HCHs and DDTs. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (LFER) model was established, which correlates the reductive dechlorination properties of pollutants with their structural descriptors. Using the partial least squares (PLS) analysis, an optimal two-parameter LFER model was established. q + and q Cl - were more important factors in determining the dechlorination rate of OCPs in the chemical reductive reaction. This optimal model was stable and had good predictability. The model study also showed that the coefficient value of q + was 0.511, which positively correlated with the reductive dechlorination rate constant, whereas q Cl - was negatively correlated with it. The reductive dechlorination rate of pollutants appears to be limited mainly by the rate of dissolution in the aqueous phase. This model can be used to explain the degradation potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and the trend of residues changing during the soil remediation. Therefore, the study is of

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  19. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study (ENNS), 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Fréry, Nadine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Deschamps, Valérie; Göen, Thomas; Garnier, Robert; Guldner, Laurence

    2014-02-15

    Although most organochlorine (OC) pesticides were banned in France in the 1970s and 1980s, they remain a source of public concern. Because of their high persistence in the environment, they are still detected in foodstuffs, leading to continued human exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of serum organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the French adult population and to identify the main risk factors for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The selected OC pesticides (HCB, DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCB and γ-HCH) were measured in serum samples collected in 2006-2007 from 386 persons (aged 18-74 years) randomly selected among the participants in the clinical and biological component of the French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé [ENNS]), a cross-sectional survey carried out in the general population. Collected data included biological samples, socio-demographic characteristics, and data about environmental and occupational exposure factors. Of the six OC pesticides investigated, the highest concentrations were observed for HCB, β-HCH and DDE. Median serum concentrations were as follows: 22.8 ng/g lipid for HCB, 0.74 and 27.0 ng/g lipid, respectively, for α- and ß-HCH, and 3.8 and 104.6 ng/g lipid, respectively, for DDT and DDE. Lindane (γ-HCH) was detected in approximately 10% of the sample. OC pesticide levels in serum in French adults were higher (except for DDT and DDE) than those observed in American, Canadian and German populations and generally lower than or in the same range as those observed in other European countries. The low serum DDT/DDE ratio in the present study (3.7%) would suggest that the concentrations observed for these two OC pesticides were mainly the result of past exposure. The most important predictors of serum DDE, HCB and β-HCH concentrations among the French adult population included individual factors (age, gender

  20. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  1. Atmospheric deposition of PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides to Corpus Christi Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.

    Air and rain samples were collected at an atmospheric sampling site on Corpus Christi Bay from 20 August 1998 to 16 September 1999. Water samples were periodically collected from Corpus Christi Bay concurrently with air samples for calculation of the air-water gas exchange. Wet deposition, dry deposition and air-water gas exchange rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Corpus Christi Bay were estimated as 182, 68, and -38.4 μg m -2 yr - 1 (negative values indicate loss from surface water to the air), and those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were estimated as 3.93, 0.98, and -67.2 μg m -2 yr - 1. Total input of PAHs and PCBs directly to the surface of Corpus Christi Bay were estimated to be 298 and -87.9 kg yr -1, respectively. The estimation indicates that Corpus Christi Bay is currently acting as a net sink for PAHs and as a net source for PCBs to the atmosphere. Total atmospheric input of PAHs to Corpus Christi Bay is not as large as inputs from land runoff and periodic oil spills. The daily and annual gas exchange fluxes of most pesticides appear to be approaching equilibrium between the atmosphere and bay water (flux in is nearly equal to flux out).

  2. Concentrations, patterns and metabolites of organochlorine pesticides in relation to xenobiotic phase I and II enzyme activities in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routti, Heli; Bavel, Bert van; Letcher, Robert J.; Arukwe, Augustine; Chu Shaogang; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their metabolites in liver and plasma of two ringed seal populations (Phoca hispida): lower contaminated Svalbard population and more contaminated Baltic Sea population. Among OCPs, p,p'-DDE and sum-chlordanes were the highest in concentration. With increasing hepatic contaminant concentrations and activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, the concentrations of 3-methylsulfonyl-p,p'-DDE and the concentration ratios of pentachlorophenol/hexachlorobenzene increased, and the toxaphene pattern shifted more towards persistent Parlar-26 and -50 and less towards more biodegradable Parlar-44. Relative concentrations of the chlordane metabolites, oxychlordane and -heptachlorepoxide, to sum-chlordanes were higher in the seals from Svalbard compared to the seals from the Baltic, while the trend was opposite for cis- and trans-nonachlor. The observed differences in the OCP patterns in the seals from the two populations are probably related to the catalytic activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, and also to differences in dietary exposure. - Contrasting patterns of organochlorine pesticides in two ringed seal populations.

  3. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in fish collected from the Pearl River Delta, China: Implications for fishery input source and bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ying; Meng Xiangzhou; Tang Honglei; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Fish tissues from different fishery types (freshwater farmed, seawater farmed and seawater wild) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), with the aim to further our understanding of bioaccumulation, and reflect the state of different fishery environments. Significantly higher ΣOCP levels were found in seawater farmed fish than others, and among three freshwater farmed species, the lowest levels occurred in filter-feeding fish (bighead carp). Liver contained the highest ΣOCP levels, while no significant differences were found among other tissues. Among DDT components, p,p'-DDT was abundant in seawater fish, while for freshwater fish, p,p'-DDE was the predominant congeners, except for northern snakehead (34% for p,p'-DDE and 30% for p,p'-DDT). The new source of DDTs to freshwater fish ponds was partly attributed to dicofol, whereas sewage discharged from the Pearl River Delta and anti-fouling paint were likely the DDTs sources to seawater farmed fish. - Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in fish tissues was examined to assess input sources and modes of bioaccumulation in the Pearl River Delta, China

  4. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  5. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a one-off global survey of bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    During the Danish Galathea 3 expedition, bivalve samples were collected at the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Chile, US Virgin Islands, Boston, Newfoundland and Shetland Islands and analysed for organochlorines and PAHs. Concentration...... in terms of PCB and PAH levels, while other Greenland samples came closest to representing PAH background levels. Several locations had undetectable organochlorine levels, including Hobart and Chile, which had the lowest Sigma PAH concentrations (

  7. Determination of the limits of identification and quantitation of selected organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in surface water by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahboub, Yahya R; Zaater, Mohammad F; Al-Talla, Zeiad A

    2005-12-09

    In this work, we report a reliable method for quantitation and determination of the limits of identification of 14 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide (OPP) residues in surface water. The method features the simultaneous identification and quantitation of targeted pesticides and the possibility of identification of any other eluting compounds. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with a mixture of petroleum ether and dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) followed by gas chromatographic separation and a full-scan mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). The method presents a new validation parameter, limit of identification (LOI) which is defined for our purpose as the lowest analyte concentration that yields a library searchable mass spectrum. The method is linear over the range 0.048-1.20microgL(-1) for nine pesticides and 0.024-0.60microgL(-1) for the other five pesticides. Correlation coefficients vary between 0.988 and 0.998. Limits of detection (LODs) vary between 0.005 and 0.05microgL(-1) for 4,4'-DDT and LOIs vary between 0.012 and 0.048microgL(-1).

  8. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  9. Influence of contamination by organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls on the breeding of the spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mauro; González, Luis M; Oria, Javier; Sánchez, Roberto; Arroyo, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated temporal and regional trends of organochlorine (OC) pesticide (including polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]) levels in eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) collected in Spain between 1972 and 2003. Levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs varied significantly (p = 0.022) among regions (central, western, and Doñana), being higher in Doñana than in the central and western populations (DDE: 1.64 +/- 5.56, 0.816 +/- 1.70, and 1.1 +/- 2.66 microg/g, respectively; PCBs: 1.189 +/- 5.0, 0.517 +/- 1.55, and 0.578 +/- 1.75 microg/g, respectively). Levels of DDE decreased with time, but a significant interaction was observed between region and time. In Doñana, egg volume and breadth as well as Ratcliffe Index were significantly lower after DDT use (p = 0.0018) than during the pre-DDT period (p = 0.0018); eggs were significantly smaller overall than in the other two regions (p = 0.04) and were smaller when DDE levels increased, even when controlling for regional differences (p = 0.04). Productivity in Doñana was significantly lower than in the other regions (p < 0.001). Clutch size in Doñana varied according to DDE concentrations (p = 0.01), with the highest DDE concentrations found in clutches consisting of one egg. When considering eggs with DDE levels greater than 3.5 microg/g, a significant effect of DDE on fertility was found (p = 0.03). Clutches with DDE levels greater than 4.0 microg/g had a higher probability of hatching failure (p = 0.07) and produced fewer fledglings (p = 0.03). If we consider 3.5 microg/g as the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level, the proportion of sampled clutches that exceeded that level in Doñana (29%) was significantly higher than in other regions (p < 0.001). These eggs showed a mean percentage of thinning of 16.72%. Contamination by OCs, mainly DDE, could explain, at least in part, the low productivity of the Spanish Imperial Eagles in Doñana.

  10. Short-term variation in ambient concentrations and gas/particle partitioning of organochlorine pesticides in Izmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Cetin, Eylem; Bozacioglu, Sevde Seza; Sener, Gaye Devrim; Odabasi, Mustafa

    Twenty successive daytime and nighttime air samples were collected and analyzed for 23 currently used and/banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between 14 and 23 May 2003 in Izmir, Turkey. Average individual OCP concentrations ranged from 5±4 pg m -3 (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) to 391±306 pg m -3 (chlorpyrifos) and they were within the ranges previously measured at different sites. Most of the OCPs did not exhibit strong diurnal cycling. The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of OCPs investigated using Clausius-Clapeyron plots was statistically significant for β-HCH and endosulfan sulfate ( pgas-phase concentrations). In addition to temperature, the effect of wind speed and direction was also investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and these three parameters together explained the 2% (aldrin) to 72% (endosulfan II) of the variability in gas-phase OCP concentrations. Results of the multiple regression analysis indicated that wind speed was a statistically significant factor for most of the OCPs and wind direction was important for some compounds. The temperature-dependent diurnal cycling of most OCPs was probably masked by the higher wind speeds observed during daytime periods with high temperatures, different source sectors and ongoing sources. The lack of correlation for heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p-p'-DDT) with temperature, wind speed and direction suggested that their concentrations were affected by long-range transport. The partitioning of OCPs between particle and gas phases was investigated and compared to KOA (octanol/air partition coefficient) absorption model. The overall agreement between experimental and modeled log K p (gas/particle partition coefficient) values was good ( p<0.01, slope=0.94). Prediction of absorption model for particulate percentages was excellent for β-HCH, endosulfan I, and p-p'-DDT. However

  11. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus Paso de los plaguicidas organoclorados persistentes a través de placenta al feto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M. Waliszewski

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.OBJETIVO: Como consecuencia de la exposición ambiental a los plaguicidas organoclorados éstos se acumulan en tejidos ricos en grasa, como el adiposo materno, y se distribuyen en el suero materno y el suero del cordón umbilical. Para establecer la distribución en el organismo humano, se comparó el gradiente de concentración de los plaguicidas organoclorados entre estos compartimentos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se tomaron las muestras de tejido adiposo materno, suero materno y suero del cordón umbilical de 64 participantes voluntarias admitidas para cesárea en el Hospital

  12. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhipeng; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Chen, Zenglong; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-02-26

    In this study, the application of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APGC-QTOF-MS) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of fifteen organochlorine pesticides in soil and water. Soft ionization of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography was evaluated by comparing with traditional more energetic electron impact ionization (EI). APGC-QTOF-MS showed a sensitivity enhancement by approximately 7-305 times. The QuEChERs (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was used to pretreat the soil samples and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was used for water samples. Precision, accuracy and stability experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of the method. The results showed that the mean recoveries for all the pesticides from the soil samples were 70.3-118.9% with 0.4-18.3% intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) and 1.0-15.6% inter-day RSD at 10, 50 and 500 μg/L levels, while the mean recoveries of water samples were 70.0-118.0% with 1.1-17.8% intra-day RSD and 0.5-12.2% inter-day RSD at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/L levels. Excellent linearity (0.9931 ≦ r(2)≤ 0.9999) was obtained for each pesticides in the soil and water matrix calibration curves within the range of 0.01-1.0mg/L. The limits of detection (LOD) for each of the 15 pesticides was less than 3.00 μg/L, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was less than 9.99 μg/L in soil and water. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to monitor the targeted pesticides in real soil and water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interlaboratory study of a multiresidue gas chromatographic method for determination of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in milk, fish, eggs, and beef fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordet, François; Inthavong, Dary; Fremy, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to validate a gas chromatographic (GC) method for determination of 21 organochlorine pesticides, 6 pyrethroid pesticides, and 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners in milk, beef fat, fish, and eggs. The method was performed at low contamination levels, which represent relevant contents in food, and is an extension of the European standard (method NF-EN-1528, Parts 1-4). It enlarges the applicable scope of the reference EN method to pyrethroid pesticides and proposes the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) as a cleanup procedure. Cryogenic extraction was made, and SPE cleanup was performed with 2 successive SPE cartridges: C18 and Florisil. After injection of the purified extract onto a GC column, residues were measured by electron capture detection. Food samples (liquid milk, beef fat, mixed fish, and mixed eggs) were prepared, tested for homogeneity, and sent to 17 laboratories in France. Test portions were spiked with 27 pesticides and 7 PCBs at levels from 26 to 45, 4 to 27, 31 to 67, and 19 to 127 ng/g into milk, eggs, fish, and fat, respectively. Based on results for spiked samples, the relative standard deviation for repeatability ranged from 1.5 to 6.8% in milk, 3 to 39% in eggs, 4.5 to 12.2% in fish, and 7 to 13% in fat. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility ranged from 33 to 50% in milk, 29 to 59% in eggs, 31 to 57% in fish, and 30 to 62% in fat. This method showed acceptable intra- and interlaboratory precision data, as corroborated by HORRAT values at low levels of pesticide and PCB contamination. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ISO 3534 standard) and 5725-2 Guideline.

  14. The impact of seasonal variation on organochlorine pesticide residues in buffalo and cow milk of selected dairy farms from Faisalabad region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Wasim; Shamoon, Muhammad; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Asim, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred milk samples from 20 randomly selected dairy farms were screened for the incidence of organochlorine pesticide residues to evaluate the safety of milk in Faisalabad region. The results revealed that overall buffalo milk samples in winter (85 %) and in summer (78 %) were more contaminated as compared to cow milk samples 83 and 75 % in respective seasons. The residues of cyhalothrin were found only in summer season in milk of both species. Permethrin residues were detected at higher levels than perfinofos while DDT and methamedophos were found undetectable. The mean levels of permethrin were 0.042 and 0.033 mg kg -1 in buffalo milk samples and 0.045 and 0.043 mg kg -1 in cow milk in winter and summer season, respectively. Perfinofos residues were found to be the least contaminated pesticides with mean values of 0.0006 and 0.0013 mg kg -1 , respectively in winter season, and 0.004 and 0.0025 mg kg -1 in summer season. All analysed pesticide residues in milk samples in both seasons were below the maximum residual limit (MRL) values as described by European Union (EU) but milk samples contaminated with α, β-endosulfan and endosulphate exceeded their respective Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) established MRLs both in winter and summer.

  15. A survey and measurement of residues of lindane (organochlorine pesticides) in four species of the most consumed fish in the Caspian Sea (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, A G; Shokrzadeh, M

    2006-02-01

    In this study, samples of four species of the most consumed fish (sefid, koli, kilca and kafal fish) were analysed for concentrations of lindane (organochlorine pesticides). Fish were caught using electric fishing at four sites (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in the Mazandaran provinces of Iran. Quantitative determination of the lindane was performed by gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Samples contained detectable concentrations of lindane, but at concentrations below the maximum residue limit (MRL). No differences were found in the lindane concentrations between the types of fish at each site, but there were two groups of sites that were significantly different from one another in terms of lindane concentrations: sites II-IV < site I (P <0.05). However, the concentrations of lindane residues in the muscle were found to be less than the FAO/WHO (1993) recommended permissible intake and should not be of public concern in Mazandaran province.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of reduced graphene oxide decorated with magnetite and gold nanoparticles, and its application to solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdinia, Ali; Rouhani, Shirin; Mozaffari, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    An agent-free microwave-assisted method was developed for the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide/Fe 3 O 4 -gold nanocomposite. This material was used as an adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from water samples. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effects of sample volume, amount of sorbent, eluent volume, extraction and desorption time, and the effect of salt on the extraction efficiency were optimized. The linear response range of GC analysis extends from 0.05 to 500 μg L −1 of OCPs, the limits of detection range from 0.4 to 4.1 ng L −1 , relative standard deviations from 1.7 to 7.3 %, and recoveries (from spiked seawater samples) from 69 to 114 %. (author)

  17. The effects of rice canopy on the air-soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides using paired passive air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    The rice canopy in paddy fields can influence the air-soil exchange of organic chemicals. We used paired passive air samplers to assess the exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy field, South China. Levels of OCPs and light PAHs were generally higher under the canopy than above it. We found that the rice canopy can physically obstruct the evaporation of most OCPs and light PAHs, and can also act as a barrier to the gaseous deposition of p,p'-DDT and heavy PAHs. Paddy fields can behave as a secondary source of OCPs and light PAHs. The homolog patterns of these two types of chemical varied slightly between the air below and above the rice canopy, implying contributions of different sources. Paired passive air samplers can be used effectively to assess the in situ air-soil exchange of PAHs and OCPs in subtropical paddy fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for Analysis of 10 Organochlorine Pesticides: Application of MAE-SPE Method in Soil from Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shanshan; Shi, Shengchao; Xu, Peng; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Four commonly applied extraction techniques for organochlorine pesticides, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction, were applied on soil samples in order to evaluate their performances. The extracts were analyzed by GC-ECD and confirmed by GC-MS/MS. The MAE and QuEChERS extraction methods generally yielded higher results compared to the ultrasonication and ASE methods, while the lowest recovery (56.8 %) for o,p'-DDD was obtained using the QuEChERS method. The MAE method was further applied to six different soils from Beijing. In the soil samples only α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan were not detected. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH and α-HCH/β-HCH indicated HCH residues likely originated from historical use of HCHs, and that technical HCHs were not likely being currently applied in Beijing.

  19. Sources and pathways of selected organochlorine pesticides to the Arctic and the effect of pathway divergence on HCH trends in biota: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Macdonald, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Historical global usage and emissions for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), toxaphene and endosulfan, are presented. Relationships between the air concentrations of these OCPs and their global emissions are also discussed. Differences between the pathways of α- and β-HCH to the Arctic Ocean are described in the context of environmental concentrating and diluting processes. These concentrating and diluting processes are shown to control the temporal and spatial loading of northern oceans and that the HCH burdens in marine biota from these oceans respond accordingly. The HCHs provide an elegant example of how hemispheric-scale solvent switching processes can alter the ocean into which an HCH congener partitions, how air-water partitioning controls the pathway for HCHs entering the Arctic, and how the various pathways impact spatial and temporal trends of HCH residues in arctic animals feeding out of marine and terrestrial foodwebs

  20. Before the curtain falls: endocrine-active pesticides--a German contamination legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg; Keil, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The European Parliament recently approved a new EU regulation aimed at eliminating the use of pesticides that have unwanted endocrine-disrupting properties. The test criteria for these chemicals are slated to be finalized by 2013. For this reason, in this review, we have evaluated the meta data of lists and databanks that address pesticides with potentially endocrine-disrupting properties, and have checked which of the 250 active ingredients currently in use in Germany are affected. Azoles, dithio-carbamates/carbamates, and pyrethroids were most frequently rated as endocrine-active ingredients. In Germany, assessments have shown that total environmental pesticide emission is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total pesticide use.Courtyard drainage and field runoff are regarded to constitute the most important sources of pesticide emission into the aquatic environment. In addition, in several investigations of drinking- and groundwater contamination, various pesticide-active ingredients and their metabolites were confirmed to be contaminants. Water suppliers recorded the following pesticides or their metabolites as being most frequently detected in drinking water: atrazine, desethylatrazine, diuron, simazine, isoproturon,and its dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide. Surface water contamination results mainly from substances that are no longer approved by EU pesticide regulation. The most frequently detected pesticides in streaming waters that are still authorized were bentazone, diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, mecoprop,metamitron, pendimethalin, and tebuconazole. Pesticide residues in comestible goods of herbal origin are periodically detected in all EU member countries. The European Commission recently published results showing that 54% of all monitoring samples were devoid of positive findings. Of samples showing detectable residues, 42% were below, and 4.4% exceeded the EUMRLs. Monitoring data over a 10-year period revealed that the percentage of

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa A; Sjödin, Andreas; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Zerbo, Ousseny; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle C

    2017-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are neurodevelopmental toxicants, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to determine whether prenatal exposure to PCBs and OCPs influences offspring risk of ASD and intellectual disability without autism (ID). We conducted a population-based case-control study among Southern California births, including children with ASD ( n = 545) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and ID ( n = 181), as well as general population (GP) controls ( n = 418). Concentrations of 11 PCB congeners and 2 OCPs measured in banked second-trimester serum samples were compared between the diagnostic groups. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for associations with ASD, and separately for ID, compared with GP controls, by quartiles of analyte concentrations in primary analyses. Geometric mean levels of several PCB congeners were higher in the ASD group than in the ID and GP groups. ASD risk was elevated for a number of PCB congeners, particularly for the highest vs. lowest quartile of PCB138/158 (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.71) and PCB153 (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.02), and for highest deciles of other congeners in secondary analyses. PCB138/158 was also associated with increased ID (AOR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.91), though no trend was suggested. OCPs were not associated with increased risk of ASD in primary analyses, whereas nonmonotonic increases in risk of ID were found with p,p ´-DDE. Our results suggest higher levels of some organochlorine compounds during pregnancy are associated with ASD and ID. Citation: Lyall K, Croen LA, Sjödin A, Yoshida CK, Zerbo O, Kharrazi M, Windham GC. 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples: association with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

  2. Incidence of organochlorine pesticides and the health condition of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) at Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified and quantified organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues in the plasma of 28 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings from a dense population in Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico, during the 2001 breeding season. Sixteen OC pesticides were identified and quantified. α-, β-, δ- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptaclor, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan-sulfate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone were the OCs found in the plasma of nestlings, ranging from 0.002 to 6.856 pg/μl (parts per billion). No differences were found in the concentration of pesticides between genders (P > 0.05). In our work, the concentrations detected in the plasma were lower than those reported to be a threat for the species and that affect the survival and reproduction of birds. The presence of OC pesticides in the remote Laguna San Ignacio osprey population is an indication of the ubiquitous nature of these contaminants. OCs are apparently able to travel long distances from their source to the study area. A significant relationship between hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and OC concentrations were found suggesting that a potential effect on the health of chicks may exist in this osprey population caused by the OC, e.g. anemia. The total proteins were positively correlated with α-BHC, endosulfan I, and p,p'-DDD. It has been suggested that OC also affects competitive interactions and population status over the long term in vertebrate species, and our results could be used as reference information for comparison with other more exposed osprey populations.

  3. Occurrence and sources of selected organochlorine pesticides in the soil of seven major Indian cities: Assessment of air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sivakumar, A; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban-suburban-rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ΣOCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  5. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental factors affecting the levels of legacy pesticides in the airshed of Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anubha; McConnell, Laura L; Torrents, Alba; Kuang, Zhihua; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Meritt, Donald W; Alexander, Stephanie T; Scudlark, Joseph R; Scarborough, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Organochlorine insecticides and their degradation products contribute to toxicity in Chesapeake Bay, USA, sediments and affect the reproductive health of avian species in the region; however, little is known of atmospheric sources or temporal trends in concentrations of these chemicals. Weekly air (n = 265) and daily rain samples (n = 494) were collected over 2000 to 2003 from three locations in the Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Pesticides were consistently present in the gas phase with infrequent detection in the particle phase. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and cis- and trans-chlordane were detected most frequently (95-100%), and cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, and 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene (4,4'-DDE) were also detected frequently. The highest mean air concentrations were for dieldrin (60-84 pg/m(3)), gamma-HCH (37-83 pg/m(3)), and 4,4'-DDE (16-80 pg/m(3)). Multiple regression analyses of air concentrations with temperature and wind conditions using modified Clausius-Clapeyron equations explained only 30 to 60% of the variability in concentration for most chemicals. Comparison of the air concentrations and enthalpy of air-surface exchange values at the three sites indicate sources of chlordanes and alpha-HCH sources are primarily from long-range transport. However, examination of chlordane isomer ratios indicates some local and regional contributions, and gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDE, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane also have local or regional sources, possibly from contaminated soils. Median rain sample volumes of 1 to 3 L led to infrequent detections in rain; however, average measured concentrations were 2 to 10 times higher than in the Great Lakes. Dissipation half-lives in air were well below 10 years for all chemicals and below published values for the Great Lakes except dieldrin, which did not decline during the sample period. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  7. Plaguicidas organoclorados en población general adulta de Bizkaia Organochlorine pesticides in the general adult population of Biscay (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña Zubero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y analizar las concentraciones de siete plaguicidas organoclorados; hexaclorobenceno (HCB, beta-hexaclorociclohexano (β-HCH, gamma-hexaclorociclohexano (γ-HCH, heptacloro epóxido, beta-endosulfán, diclorodifenildicloroetileno (p,p´-DDE y diclorodifeniltricloroetano (p,p´-DDT en suero de adultos de cuatro zonas de Bizkaia no expuestos a fuentes conocidas de plaguicidas. Método: Se analizaron 283 muestras individuales de voluntarios captados a partir del censo. Se les entrevistó utilizando un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y de consumo. Se analizaron los datos utilizando la ji al cuadrado para variables discretas, y el análisis de varianza y un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple para las variables continuas. Resultados: El p,p´-DDE fue detectado en el 100% de los individuos (media: 191,43ng/g lípido, mientras que el 31% mostró valores detectables de p,p´-DDT (media: 18,9ng/g lípido. Un 96,5% de los individuos presentaban valores detectables de HCB (media: 78,56ng/g lípido; el 90,4% β-HCH (media: 42,78ng/g lípido y un 3,5% γ-HCH. No se detectó heptacloro epóxido ni beta-endosulfán. En el modelo de regresión, el incremento de la edad aumentaba los valores de todos los plaguicidas (pObjective: To identify and analyze levels of seven organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, beta-endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT] in the serum of adults of four areas of Biscay (Spain not exposed to known sources of pesticides. Method: We analyzed 283 individual samples from volunteers recruited from the census. The volunteers were interviewed using a questionnaire with items on demographic variables and consumption. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for discrete variables and analysis of variance and multiple linear regression

  8. Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomen, Rosa; Sempere, Julià; Chávez, Francisco; de López, Nelly Amaya; Rovira, Ma Dolores

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to identify levels of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in shrimp-raising areas of coastal El Salvador, to assess potential impacts on shrimp growth and survival that hamper the sustainability of aquaculture in the region. The paper reports the current levels of γ-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, parathion, methyl parathion, and etoprophos in soils (depth 20 cm), sediments (depth 5 cm), shrimp (Penaeus sp.), and water of three rearing ponds and also in the sediment (depth 5 cm) and water surrounding those ponds in Jiquilisco Bay. Sampling was carried out during the dry (January-March) and rainy (June-August) seasons of 2008. The presence of pesticides in the samples of water, shrimp, and sediment at shrimp ponds was not detected in either season; however, in soil samples (depth 20 cm) taken from these ponds, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT were identified at concentrations below the method limit of quantification (LOQ), and 4,4'-DDE was found in a concentration falling in the range from 3.85 to 19.61 ng/g. In samples of water taken at the bay water intakes to the rearing ponds, we observed dieldrin concentrations in the range between 0.085 ng/mL and 0.182 ng/mL during the dry season. In the samples of sediments taken in the surrounding areas of shrimp ponds, we found-for both seasons-that in 60 % of the samples, 4,4'-DDE was present in concentrations ranging from 3.75 ng/g to 30.97 ng/g. Additionally, in the rainy season, we observed heptachlor in sediment at concentrations below the method quantification limit. It was concluded that organochlorine compounds from pesticides are still present in Jiquilisco Bay, trapped in deep sediment, even though they have been banned since the 1980s. These were not detected in shrimp tissue, surface water, and shallow sediment in rearing ponds, and hence, we do not believe their presence has any major impact on shrimp production in sampled

  9. Hybrid field-assisted solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in tobacco with gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-01-03

    A novel one-step sample preparation technique termed hybrid field-assisted solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction (HF-SLSDE) was developed in this study. A simple glass system equipped with a condenser was designed as an extraction vessel. The HF-SLSDE technique was a three-phase dispersive extraction approach. Target analytes were extracted from the sample into the extraction solvent enhanced by the hybrid field. Meanwhile, the interfering components were adsorbed by dispersing sorbent. No cleanup step preceded chromatographic analysis. The efficiency of the HF-SLSDE approach was demonstrated in the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in tobacco with a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Various operation conditions were studied systematically. Low detection limits (0.3-1.6 μg/kg) and low quantification limits (1.0-4.5 μg/kg) were achieved under the optimized conditions. The recoveries of OCPs ranged from 70.2% to 118.2%, with relative standard deviations of HF-SLSDE showed significant predominance compared with other extraction techniques. The dispersing sorbent with good cleanup ability used in this study was also found to be a microwave absorption medium, which could heat the nonpolar extraction solvent under microwave irradiation. Different microstructures of tobacco samples before and after extractions demonstrated the mechanism of HF-SLSDE was based on an explosion at the cell level. According to the results, HF-SLSDE was proved to be a simple and effective sample preparation method for the analysis of pesticide residues in solid samples and could potentially be extended to other nonpolar target analytes in a complex matrix. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Multi-residue method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in fish feed based on a cleanup approach followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Valeria; dell'Oro, Daniela; Palermo, Carmen; Centonze, Diego

    2010-07-23

    A multi-residue method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in fish feed samples was developed and optimized. The method is based on a cleanup step of the extracted fat, carried out by liquid-liquid extraction on diatomaceous earth cartridge with n-hexane/acetonitrile (80/20, v/v) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) with silica gel-SCX cartridge, before the identification and quantification of the residues by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Performance characteristics, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), for each pesticide were determined. Instrumental LODs ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 microg L(-1), LOQs were in the range of 0.02-0.35 microg L(-1), and calibration curves were linear (r2>0.999) in the whole range of explored concentrations (5-100 microg L(-1)). Repeatability values were in the range of 3-15%, evaluated from the relative standard deviation of six samples spiked at 100 microg kg(-1) of fat, and in compliance with that derived by the Horwitz's equation. No matrix effects or interfering substances were observed in fish feed analyses. The proposed method allowed high recoveries (92-116%) of spiked extracted fat samples at 100 microg kg(-1), and very low LODs (between 0.02 and 0.63 microg kg(-1)) and LOQs (between 0.05 and 2.09 microg kg(-1)) determined in fish feed samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analyses of organochlorine pesticides residues in eels (Anguilla anguilla from Lake Garda using Gas chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Garda is located in Insubria region, that is known for being the most populated and industrialized area of Italy (Camusso et al., 2001. Therefore, the Lake water, and also the fish species present, could be affected by environmental contamination.  European eel (Anguilla anguilla are considered as suitable matrix for biomonitoring environmental contaminants in European water (Belpaire et al., 2007, being widespread in many European waters and highly contaminated by lipophilic compounds, due to the high lipid content (up to 40% (Larsson et al., 1991. Moreover, eel is an edible species (its farming currently supplies approximately 45,000 tons/year (Nielsen et al., 2008, so it also represents a public health issue. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of fourteen organochlorine pesticides (OCs in forty-five eels (Anguilla anguilla from Lake Garda, using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE procedure for the analytes extraction and Gas chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS for the analysis of OCs. GC-MS/MS analysis was developed and validated according to the SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines.  Uncontaminated eel sample (previously checked for the presence of OCs and considered blank with a concentration of compounds < Limit of Detection were used for all procedure's optimization steps. For all the OCs analysed, satisfactory results were achieved. Regarding eel samples, several pesticides were detected, but DDTs (DDT and its metabolites were found with the highest prevalence (92 %. The concentration rage was from not detected (n.d. to 19000 ng g-1. Although DDTs levels in the environment are declining (Albaiges et al., 2011, they continue to bioaccumulate in tissues of human and animal and biomagnify in food chains.

  12. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea: implication of transport, sources and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Yang, Huayun; Zhang, Anping; Li, Yi-Fan; Liu, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-eight surface sediments and two sediment cores were collected from Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS) to study the distribution patterns, origins, potential transport and burden of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the marginal sea. Residues of OCPs ranged from 0.190 to 5.17 ng g(-1) dry weight with a distinct "band type" pattern under the control of Yangtze River inputs and ECS circulation system. Differences in transmission media and redox conditions in situ respectively resulted in the divergent distributions of α/β-HCH and DDD/DDE. The compositional pattern analysis implied that OCPs in the inner shelf of ECS were derived from both "weathered" and fresh sources, whereas those in the outer shelf of ECS had undergone high metabolism. Concurrent with the land-sea migration, vertical profiles of sediment cores showed increasing trends or rebound since the 1990s, characteristic of two evident "jumps" of DDE+DDD/DDT and DDT/DDE ratios. Moreover, the primary distribution pattern founded for HCHs and the considerable mass inventories calculated (6.20 metric tones for OCPs) together suggested that the contaminated sediments in the studied area to be a potential source of OCPs to the global ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in ecological textiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jin'an; Chen, Guosheng; Qiu, Junlang; Jiang, Ruifen; Zeng, Feng; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) coupled gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was firstly developed to determine 10 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in ecological textiles. The present method can offer high separation efficiencies with minimal sample and solvent consumption. The extraction conditions were optimized, including the types of hollow fiber and organic solvent, the extraction time, the stirring and the salinity. Under the optimized conditions, the linear ranges of OCPs in cotton, terylene and fur samples were 5-1000 ng/g, 10-1000 ng/g and 10-800 ng/g, respectively, and the detection limit of the three samples were 0.07-2.30 ng/g, 0.89-1.66 ng/g and 0.06-1.04 ng/g, respectively. The optimized method was then successfully used to determine the OCPs in 3 kinds of spiked real samples, including cotton, terylene and fur. The good recoveries and RSDs of the quantification in real textile samples were obtained and the results were confirmed by the traditional liquid extraction method (GB/T 18412-2006). This study proved that the HF-LPME method, which was simple, low-cost and virtually solvent-free, was reliable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the harmful OCP residues in ecological textiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: Assessment of mass loading, input source and environmental fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yufeng; Wang Jizhong; Ni Honggang; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale sampling program was conducted to simultaneously collect water samples at the eight major riverine runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China to assess the importance of riverine runoff in transporting anthropogenic pollutants from terrestrial sources to the coastal ocean. The concentrations of Σ 21 OCPs (sum of 21 OCP components) and Σ 20 PCBs (sum of 20 PCB congeners) were 2.57-41.2 and 0.12-1.47 ng/L, respectively. Compositional distributions of DDTs suggested the possibility of new input sources in the study area, but contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. The annual inputs of Σ 21 OCPs and Σ 20 PCBs were 3090 and 215 kg, with those of total HCHs and DDTs being 1110 and 1020 kg, respectively. A mass balance consideration indicated that riverine runoff is the major mode carrying OCPs from the PRD to the coastal ocean, and the majority of OCPs is further dissipated to open seas. - Mass loadings, input sources and environmental fate of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China are assessed

  15. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: a comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Meng, Bingjun; Lu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu

    2007-10-29

    The methods of simultaneous extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soils using Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were established, and the extraction efficiencies using the three methods were systemically compared from procedural blank, limits of detection and quantification, method recovery and reproducibility, method chromatogram and other factors. In addition, soils with different total organic carbon contents were used to test the extraction efficiencies of the three methods. The results showed that the values obtained in this study were comparable with the values reported by other studies. In some respects such as method recovery and reproducibility, there were no significant differences among the three methods for the extraction of PAHs and OCPs. In some respects such as procedural blank and limits of detection and quantification, there were significant differences among the three methods. Overall, ASE had the best extraction efficiency compared to MAE and Soxhlet extraction, and the extraction efficiencies of MAE and Soxhlet extraction were comparable to each other depending on the property such as TOC content of the studied soil. Considering other factors such as solvent consumption and extraction time, ASE and MAE are preferable to Soxhlet extraction.

  17. Temperature-dependence of soil/air partition coefficients for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides over a temperature range of -30 to +30 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-07-01

    The soil/air partition coefficients (K(SA)) for two polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) and six organochlorine pesticides (OCs) were determined by a solid-phase fugacity meter over a wide temperature range of -30 to +30 degrees C in a paddy field soil. Literature values for PAHs and OCs obtained by the same method were 1.9-5.1 times of present values at +20 degrees C. Experimentally determined K(SA) ranged over six orders of magnitude, with log K(SA) from 4.5 for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane at +30 degrees C to 10.4 for trans-nonachlor at -20 degrees C. Separate linear regressions of log K(SA) and reciprocal absolute temperature were employed at temperatures above 0 degrees C and below 0 degrees C. The calculated enthalpies associated with the phase transfer from the soil to the air (DeltaH(SA)) over 0 to +30 degrees C range from 78 to 108 kJmol(-1), which are in a good agreement with the literature values.

  18. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Yangtze River Delta, China: concentrations, distributions, and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Xiulan; Niu, Shan; Li, Lingling; Wu, Zhongxiang; Huang, Yeru

    2013-10-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has been quickly industrialized and urbanized. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in the YRD in 2010-2011 to investigate their spatiotemporal distributions and estimate the risk of cancer from their inhalation. Annual concentrations were 151, 168, 18.8, 110, 17.9, and 35.0 pg m(-3) for HCB, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, mirex, and PCBs, respectively. The highest OCP and PCB concentrations were generally detected in the autumn and winter. The average concentrations of OCPs and PCBs for the different site groups followed the order urban ≈ urban-rural transition > rural. The lifetime excess cancer risks from the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs were <1.0 × 10(-6). The predicted cancer cases per lifetime associated with the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs are 12, 7, and 4 per ten thousand people for urban, urban-rural transition, and rural areas, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human health risk assessment and dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides through air, soil and food crops (wheat and rice) along two tributaries of river Chenab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-09-01

    To assess the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination and their probable hazardous effects on human health; cereal crops (wheat and rice; n=28) agricultural soil (n=28) and air (n=6) samples were collected from Gujranwala division, Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs concentration ranged between 123 and 635 pg m(-3), 31 and 365 ng g(-1) (dw), 2.72 and 36.6 ng g(-1) (dw), 0.55 and 15.2 ng g(-1) (dw) for air, soil, rice and wheat samples, respectively. DDTs were the predominant over other OCPSs detected from screened samples while the source apportionment analysis suggested the new inputs of DDTs in the study area. EDI (estimated daily intake) of ∑OCPs through rice and wheat was found 39 and 40 ng kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) on the basis 95th percentile concentrations were exceeding the integrity for most of the investigated OCP in rice and wheat. The results revealed that there is a severe risk to the human population of the study area through consumption of contaminated cereal crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their enantiomeric signatures, and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Adelie penguin food web, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Covaci, Adrian; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano; Schepens, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations and enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides were determined in Antarctic krill, emerald rockcod and Adelie penguin from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. HCB and DDTs were prevalent contaminants in penguin eggs. The highest concentrations of ΣHCHs (1.35 ± 0.72 ng/g) were found in the rockcod muscle, where γ-HCH (1.23 ± 0.67 ng/g) was the principal isomer. The ratio γ-HCH/α-HCH was evaluated. Enantioselective gas chromatography was used for the evaluation of enantiomeric fractions (EFs) for α-HCH and oxychlordane. An increase of 14% in the (+)α-HCH enantiomer was found from krill through penguin, suggesting the enantioselective biotrasformation increased proportionately with trophic level. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured and their concentrations were 5.6 ± 1.12, 5.81 ± 2.32, 4.57 ± 0.17 and 3.06 ± 3.27 ng/g lipids in krill, rockcod muscle, rockcod homogenate and penguin eggs, respectively. The detection of BDE28, BDE47, BDE99 and BDE100 in Antarctic organisms confirmed their global transport and distribution; the detection of lower brominated congeners suggested a potential long-range transport. - Enantiomeric signature and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Adelie Penguin food chain are discussed

  1. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  2. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J.

    2005-01-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response

  3. Preparation of C18 composite solid-phase microextraction fiber and its application to the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyan; Lu, Chengwei; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-05-11

    In this work, a C18 composite solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared with a new method and applied to the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water sample. A stainless steel wire (o.d. 127 μm) was used as the substrate, and a mixture of the C18 particle (3.5 μm) and the 184 silicone was used as the coating material. During the process of fiber preparation, a section of capillary column was used to fix the mixture onto the stainless steel wire and to ensure the constant of coating thickness. The prepared fiber showed excellent thermal stability and solvent resistance. By coupling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the fiber exhibited wide linearity (2-500 ng L(-1)) and good sensitivity for the determination of six OCPs in water samples, the OCPs tested included hexachlorobezene, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, o,p-DDT, p,p-DDT and mirex. Not only the extraction performance of the newly prepared fiber was more than seven times higher than those of commercial fibers, the limits of detections (LODs) (0.059-0.151 ng L(-1)) for OCPs achieved under optimized conditions were also lower than those of reported SPME methods. The fiber was successfully applied to the determination of OCPs in real water samples by using developed SPME-GC-MS method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-organizing maps for indications of airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) dependence on spatial and meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanić, Snježana Herceg; Vuković, Gordana; Klinčić, Darija; Antanasijević, Davor

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air samples with meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) using the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). Both gas- and particle-adsorbed phase of 20 PCB congeners and 7 OCPs including the three new ones (α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH) listed in the Stockholm Convention were collected during a one-year period at urban locations in Zagreb (Croatia). Moving beyond existing studies, the SOM analysis showed that the meteorological characteristics of transient seasons such as spring had no influence on the dissimilarities in the behavior of PCBs and OCPs. Towards the identification of pollutant spatial patterns, the SOM did not isolate a clear phenomenon probably due to the absence of local pollution sources contributing to the elevated concentrations of these compounds. Overall, our results have shown that the SOM method, by recognizing significant differences among PCB and OCP seasonality, could be recommended in the analysis of pollutant distribution depending on temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnhoorn, IEJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available -chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and to perform a human health risk assessment using a standard protocol described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Fish were collected from the polluted Roodeplaat-(RDPD), Rietvlei-(RVD) and Hartbeespoort (HBPD...

  6. Route-specific daily uptake of organochlorine pesticides in food, dust, and air by Shanghai residents, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Li, Chunlei; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xinyu; Pang, Yuping; Zhang, Shaohuan; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-12-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are widely detected in the environment, although they have been banned in China since 1980s. To better understand the route-specific daily uptake of the pesticides by humans, a total of 322 food, dust, and air samples were collected in Shanghai, China, during 2008-2011. The median concentrations were 0.2-126.6 and 0.03-1.6 ng/g wet weight for DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) and HCHs, respectively, in different types of foods. The values in dust (indoors and outdoors) were 5.7-29.8 and 1.3-5.4 ng/g, and 13.9×10(-3) and 2.6×10(-3)ng/m(3) in air (gas+particle) for DDTs and HCHs, respectively. The daily uptake of a pesticide by humans was calculated via the pesticide intake multiplied by its uptake efficiency. The uptake efficiencies of DDTs and HCHs in food through human intestines were estimated using bioaccessibility measured via an in vitro method simulating the human gastrointestinal digestion process. The total daily uptakes of DDTs and HCHs through three routes (i.e., ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact) were 79.4 and 4.9 ng/day, respectively, for children, and 131.1 and 8.0 ng/day, respectively, for adults. Ingestion via food and dust was the main route of human exposure to the pesticides, and the daily uptake of the pesticides via food consumption accounted for 95.0-99.2% of the total. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides residue in raw coffee with a modified "quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe" extraction/clean up procedure for reducing the impact of caffeine on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Bruno; Piol, Maria; Fabbro, Denis; Mancini, Maria Antonietta; Casetta, Bruno; Del Bianco, Clorinda

    2015-01-09

    The control of pesticide residues on raw coffee is a task of great importance due to high consumption of this beverage in Italy and in many other countries. High caffeine content can hamper extraction and measurement of any pesticide residue. A tandem extraction protocol has been devised by exploiting the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) scheme for extraction, coupled to a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) in order to drastically reduce caffeine content in the final extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for quantification of organo-chlorine pesticides in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method has been validated and performances meet the criteria prescribed by European Union regulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and two organochlorine pesticides (DDT and BHC) in crops irrigated with secondary treated waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra K; Upadhyay, Alka R; Tripathi, B D

    2009-09-01

    Four crop plants Oryza sativa (rice), Solanum melongena (brinjal), Spinacea oleracea (spinach) and Raphanus sativus (radish) were grown to study the impact of secondary treated municipal waste water irrigation. These plants were grown in three plots each of 0.5 ha, and irrigated with secondary treated waste water from a sewage treatment plant. Sludge from the same sewage treatment plant was applied as manure. Cultivated plants were analyzed for accumulation of heavy metals and pesticides. Results revealed the accumulation of six heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as well as two pesticides [1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane; DDT] and benzene hexa chloride (BHC). Order of the plants for the extent of bioaccumulation was S. oleracea > R. sativus > S. melongena > O. sativa. The study has shown the secondary treated waste water can be a source of contamination to the soil and plants.

  9. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  10. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  11. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  12. Evaluation of a single-stage consumable-free modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, Alina M; Edwards, Matthew; Górecki, Tadeusz; Reiner, Eric J

    2015-04-24

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) has been rapidly growing in popularity. The GC×GC separation is performed by interfacing a modulator between two columns of different selectivities. The modulator periodically traps and then re-injects the analytes eluting from the first column into the second column. The most popular GC×GC systems require consumables such as liquid N2 for the trapping function of the modulator. Although these systems are very effective, their costs are a hindrance to more widespread use. A new, single-stage thermal modulator for GC×GC that requires no consumables has been developed and tested. The device traps analytes using a proprietary stainless steel capillary trap compressed between two ceramic cooling pads. Analytes are thermally desorbed from the trap into the second column via resistive heating. To evaluate this system, a routine accredited method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes was run using the new modulator and its performance was compared to that of an industry standard modulation system. Within-day repeatability (% RSD ranging from 2% to 13%), between-day reproducibility (% RSD from 3% to 15%), as well as between-trap reproducibility were assessed. The results are very encouraging as negligible shifts in retention times (% RSD from 0.3% to 0.6% in the 1st dimension and 0.8% to 2% in the 2nd dimension) were observed for both within-day and day-to-day comparisons of the studied samples (ANOVA, p=0.9893 for the sediment reference material compared), and the quantitative results were comparable. Routine analysis and quality control applications will benefit from the improved reproducibility as the variances in cold/hot jet flows and temperatures are eliminated. An overview of the device operation and the results from this study are summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dawei; Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Dunstan, Jody; Hagberg, Jessika; Wang, Thanh; Ruzzin, Jerome; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; van Bavel, Bert

    2016-07-01

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r(2))>0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4pg/μL) and CS 3 (4pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas of Nepal: spatial variation, sources, temporal trends, and long-range transport potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Balram; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Nath Khanal, Sanjay; Ren, Jiao; Wang, Chuanfei; Gao, Shaopeng; Yao, Tandong

    2018-02-01

    The study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-latitude tropical and subtropical urban cities is necessary to assess their local and global impacts on ecosystems and human health. Despite studies on levels of POPs in water, soils, and sediments, analysis of the distribution patterns, seasonality, and sources of POPs in urban regions of Nepal remain limited. Polyurethane foam (PUF)-based passive air samplers were deployed in three major cities in Nepal: Kathmandu (the capital city), Pokhara, and Hetauda (agricultural cities). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were the dominant organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere at all sites. The average concentrations of POPs were ∑ DDTs, 8.7-1.0 × 103 pg m-3; ∑ HCHs, 5.3-3.3 × 103 pg m-3; HCB, 5.8-3.4 × 102 pg m-3; ∑ endosulfan, BDL-51 pg m-3; and ∑ 6PCBs, 1.4-47 pg m-3. Isomer and metabolite ratio analyses suggested that the concentrations present were from both new and historical applications of the POPs. Vegetable production sites and their market places appeared to be the major DDT and HCH source areas. Higher atmospheric concentrations of DDT and HCH occurred during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, and winter, respectively, closely associated with their local application for soil preparation and vegetable spraying. The estimated travel distances of the POPs (HCB, α-HCH, γ-HCH, and p, p'-DDT) under the Nepalese tropical climate were all above 1000 km, suggesting that high precipitation levels in the tropical climate were not enough to scavenge the POPs and that Nepal could be an important source region for POPs. Due to their close proximity and cold trapping (driven by low temperatures), the high Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are likely the key receptors of POPs emitted in Nepal. These results add to the information available on POPs from tropical developing countries.

  15. Contribution of methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides to the toxicity of a contaminant mixture based on Canadian Arctic population blood profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Masson, Sheila; Wade, Mike J; Nakai, Jamie; Alwis, Ramona; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Black, Paleah; Bowers, Wayne J; Chu, Ih; Vincent, Renaud

    2009-02-10

    Human populations are simultaneously exposed to a variety of anthropogenic contaminants. However, despite extensive literature on animal exposure to single compounds, data on the toxicity of complex mixtures are scarce. The Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM) was formulated to contain the 27 most abundant contaminants in the same relative proportions found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed from the first day of gestation until weaning with methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorines pesticides (OCs) administered either separately or together in the NCM. An additional control group for hypothyroxinemia was included by dosing dams with the goitrogen 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU). Offspring growth, survival, serum thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels, thyroid gland morphology, brain taurine content and cerebellum and hippocampus protein expression patterns resulting from such exposures were monitored. Pups' increased mortality rate and impaired growth observed in the NCM treatment group were attributed to MeHg, while decreased circulating thyroxine levels and perturbations of thyroid gland morphology were mostly attributable to PCBs. Interestingly, despite comparable reduction in serum thyroxine levels, PCBs and PTU exposures produced markedly different effects on pup's growth, serum TSH level and brain taurine content. Analysis of cerebellum and hippocampus protein expression patterns corroborated previous cerebellum gene expression data, as contaminant co-exposure in the NCM significantly masked the effects of individual components on protein two-dimensional electrophoresis patterns. Identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS of differentially expressed proteins involved notably in neuronal and mitochondrial functions provided clues on the cellular and molecular processes affected by these contaminant mixtures.

  16. Using a passive air sampler to monitor air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the pasture of the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2017-02-15

    Air-soil exchange is a key process controlling the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the "sink effect" of soil for POPs in Tibetan pasture has not been clear. In NamCo, in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) where the land is covered by grass, a modified passive air sampler (PAS) (thickness: 2cm) was tested. Using the PAS, the atmospheric gaseous phase organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 11 heights from close-to-surface (2cm) to 200cm above ground, in summer and in winter, were measured. Concentrations of OCPs in summer were higher than those in winter. Both in summer and winter, atmospheric concentrations of OCPs decreased with decreasing height from 200 to 2cm, indicating that OCPs were being deposited from air to soil. Air deposition of OCPs was possibly driven by wind speed. Furthermore, based on air OCPs at 0-3cm near the surface, the interface exchange of OCPs between air and soil was studied by the fugacity method. The results showed that pastural soil in the TP was a "sink" of OCPs even in summer. The mean deposition fluxes of α-HCH, γ-HCH and o,p'-DDT were 0.72, 0.24 and 0.54pg/h/m 2 , respectively, and it was estimated that the level of these pollutants in the soil will double every 24, 66 and 206years, respectively. This study will contribute to the further understanding of global cycling of POPs in different land covers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Chiral Signatures of Organochlorine Pesticides in Asian, Trans-Pacific, and Western U.S. Air Masses to Identify Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonich, S.; Genualdi, S.; Primbs, T.; Ryoo, K.; Bidleman, T.; Jantunen, L.

    2008-12-01

    Chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses on Okinawa Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern U.S.: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a coastal site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m; Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2300 m in Oregon's Cascade range. The chiral signature of composite soil samples collected from agricultural areas in China and South Korea were also measured. Racemic alpha-HCH was measured in Asian air masses and soil from China and South Korea. Non-racemic (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.528 ± 0.0048) alpha-HCH was measured in regional air masses at CPO, a marine boundary layer site, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the EFs were significantly (p-value <0.001) more racemic (EF = 0.513 ± 0.0003). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured in trans- Pacific air masses at MPO and MBO. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were positively correlated (p-value = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer along the 10-day back air mass trajectory prior to being sampled. This suggests that the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. The racemic signatures of cis and trans chlordane in air masses at all four air sampling sites suggest that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordanes that have not yet undergone biotransformation.

  18. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  19. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water of Lake Qiandao and its major input rivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang-Liang; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Jian-Fen; Ruan, Dong-De; Chen, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xu; Cheng, Xin-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantitatively determined by GC in several surface water samples collected in July 2011 and November 2011 from Lake Qiandao (Xin'an River Reservoir) and its major input rivers. Then the component characteristics and source apportionment of HCHs and DDTs were confirmed, and the health risk assessment was evaluated. The results showed that 8 OCPs were found to be in trace amount, and p,p'-DDT, a-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the highest frequently detected OCPs. The concentrations of total OCPs in surface water of the studied Lake ranged from 1.9 to 7.6 ng-L-1 , which were at lower pollution level, and 1.2-212 ng.L-1 in the samples from its three major input rivers. The spatial distribution of OCPs in the water of lake was varying, and Xin'an River, the mainstream of the lake, was the main input source of OCPs. Also, different contamination patterns among sampling seasons were found, the concentrations of OCPs in surface water collected in wet period were higher than those in dry season, which display the characteristics of nonpoint source pollution. According to the ratio of feature components, the OCPs in surface water from the Lake Qiandao originated largely from long distance transmission or degradation of technical HCHs, while additional sources of DDTs existed in the region. In addition, human health risk assessment of ingestion through the drinking water and skin contact absorption was performed using EPA recommends methods, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks caused by OCPs were 0. 06 x 10(-7)-23. 2 x 10(-7) and 3.43 x 10(-5) -6.01 x 10(-3), respectively. According to the acceptable risk level, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in water body of Lake Qiandao.

  1. Magnetic graphene as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Li, Xue; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Zai-Gen; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-07

    In this study, magnetic graphene was used as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in tobacco. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS procedure toward target analytes, several parameters affecting the clean-up efficiency including the amount of the adsorbent and clean-up time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a method for the determination of 26 OCPs residues in tobacco was established by coupling the modified QuEChERS procedure to on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). The limits of detection of proposed method for 26 OCPs residues ranged from 0.01275 to 3.150ng/g. And good linearities of the proposed method were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9985 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility of method was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, the relative standard deviations were less than 11.1 and 15.0%, respectively. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 64-126% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of OCPs residues in tobacco, the proposed method has the advantages of simple to operate, low cost and high clean-up ability. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of OCPs residues in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in small volumes of human blood by high-throughput on-line SPE-LVI-GC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Nestola, Marco; Kohne, Matthias; Zinn, Peter; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-01-15

    A fully automated and robust method featuring on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and large volume injection (LVI) gas chromatographic (GC) high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, such as penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCBz, HxCBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), with only 200μl of human blood, serum or plasma. After spiking the sample with (13)C-labeled internal standards and precipitating the proteins, the sample is passed through a 10mm×2.0mm ID SPE cartridge filled with C18 material that adsorbs the analytes. After washing and drying, the cartridge is extracted with hexane/dodecane (99/1, v/v); the extract is directly injected into a LVI where GC/HRMS analysis follows. The fully automated system utilizes a robotic autosampler and a modular SPE system including two high-pressure syringe pumps, an automatic SPE cartridge exchanger unit and 6 switchable valves. All sample preparation steps are performed within 20min during the GC run of a previous sample, limiting the throughput with only the GC runtime. The contents are quantified using the isotope dilution method. Due to laboratory air contamination problems, we achieved LOQs of 0.017 (PeCBz), 0.009 (HxCBz), 0.007 (HCH), 0.016 (DDE), while for the six indicator PCBs, we achieved values of 0.030 (PCB-28), 0.044 (PCB-52), 0.024 (PCB-101), 0.009 (PCB-138), 0.015 (PCB-153) and 0.008 (PCB-180)μg/l serum. Under clean laboratory air conditions, these values may be improved. This method is recommended when high throughput is desirable and/or only small amounts of material are available, such as during studies involving children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a contaminated site in southwestern China: Concentration, transmission, and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Tian, Yajun; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2017-07-01

    Remediation and management of contaminated sites have become a prevalent problem under the current situation in China. The present study was conducted to investigate the concentration, transmission, and health risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a typical pesticide-contaminated site located in southwestern China. Exchange flux between soil and air was calculated to investigate the transmission of OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCHs, top soil: 19.1 mg/kg d.w., air: 52.3 ng/m 3 , vegetation: 0.17 mg/kg d.w.) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDTs, top soil: 200 mg/kg d.w., air: 130 ng/m 3 , vegetation: 0.78 mg/kg d.w.) were the dominant pollutants at the contaminated site. Around the site, the soil, air, and vegetation samples had higher OCP concentrations than those in the normal areas, which were found to be dominated by ΣHCHs (top soil: 129 ng/g d.w., air: 5.09 ng/m 3 , vegetation: 81.8 ng/g d.w.) and ΣDDTs (top soil: 360 ng/g, air: 7.47 ng/m 3 , vegetation: 189 ng/g d.w.). The fugacity fractions of OCPs (>0.7) showed a net volatilization from soil into air, indicating that soil is an obvious pollution source for the atmosphere, especially at the site. Through human health risk evaluation, serious carcinogenic risk (CR n ) and hazardous index (HI n ) were found at the site (CR n : 7.4 × 10 -6 -1.04 × 10 -4 , HI n : 0.02 to 8.97) and the nearby areas (CR n : 3.37 × 10 -6 for adults and 1.68 × 10 -6 for children on average). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric concentrations and loadings of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB): Spatial and temporal analysis (1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Gawor, Anya; Hung, Hayley; Brice, Kenneth A; Su, Ky; Alexandrou, Nick; Dryfhout-Clark, Helena; Backus, Sean; Sverko, Ed; Shin, Cecilia; Park, Richard; Noronha, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring data for POPs are required to determine the effectiveness of source reduction measures and factors controlling air concentrations. Air samples were collected between 1992 and 2012 at three sites with different geographical characteristics (Burnt Island, Egbert and Point Petre) in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using high-volume samplers and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Spatial and temporal trends of gas-phase concentrations of OCPs, selected PCB congeners and ƩPCBs (84 congeners) were assessed. Egbert had the highest concentrations of some OCPs due to historical [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), dieldrin, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] and current (endosulfan) applications of these pesticides in the surrounding agricultural cropland. This shows that agricultural areas are a source of OCPs to the GLB. High o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios were determined and an increasing trend was observed at Point Petre and Burnt Island up to 2004; indicating that the GLB is influenced by dicofol-type DDT sources, which have higher o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios than technical DDT. Atmospheric PCB concentrations at Egbert and Point Petre are higher than those measured at Burnt Island, likely due to urban influence and greater populations. Loadings calculations suggest that the atmosphere is a source of α-endosulfan and p,p'-DDT to the lakes and the opposite is true for p,p'-DDE. Long-term decreasing trends were observed for both OCPs and PCBs; consistent with control measures implemented in North America. Atmospheric PCB concentrations are decreasing relatively slowly, with halflives in the range of 9-39 years. Chlordane, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT-related substances showed halflives in the range of 7-13 years. α-HCH and γ-HCH were decreasing rapidly in air, with halflives of 5 years. Long-term declining trends of PCBs and OCPs suggest that regulatory efforts to reduce emissions

  6. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom and suspended sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Mary C.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Foreman, William T.

    2004-01-01

    A method applicable for the determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, including total toxaphene as a complex mixture, and 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures as Aroclor equivalents--Aroclor 1016/1242, 1254, and 1260--in soil, aquatic bottom sediment, and suspended sediment is described. Method performance data are presented. The solvent system is designed to extract simultaneously selected OC pesticides and PCBs from the same sample matrix. The compounds are extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, followed by partial isolation using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to remove inorganic sulfur and large naturally present molecules from the sediment extract. The aliquot of extract collected from the GPC for OCs (OC pesticides and PCBs) is split into two sample fractions by alumina/silica combined-column chromatography, followed by Florisil adsorption chromatography to remove interfering compounds in the second fraction. The OC fractions are analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). This report is limited to the determination of selected OC pesticides and PCBs by GC/ECD using this method. Interim reporting levels (IRLs) have been set at 0.400 to 3.12 micrograms per kilogram for 18 individual OC pesticides, 200 micrograms per kilogram for toxaphene, and 4.04 to 4.68 micrograms per kilogram for the PCBs, based on a sample size of 25-gram equivalent dry weight. These reporting levels may change following additional determinations of method detection limits.

  7. Evaluation of the Level of Organochlorinated Pesticides Contamination in Environment of the Red River and its Balat Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Manh Am; Dang Duc Nhan; Vo Van Thuan; Nguyen Duc Cu; Luu Van Dieu; Nguyen Chu Hoi

    1995-01-01

    The pollution level of OC pesticides such as Lindane, DDT and its metabolites contaminants in water, sediments and Biota collected along the Red River and from the Balat estuary have, for the first time in the North of Vietnam, been determined by GC technique using capillary columns and electron capture detection (ECD). The concentration of DDT and DDE was found to be up to 38.4 ppb and 27.3 ppb, respectively, in sediments from the Red River and its Balat estuary. Lindane residue in Red River's and Balat estuary's sediments was found at level of 1.3-4.2 and 14.6-52.6 ppb, respectively. In water Lindane contaminant was detected in the sample collected from the estuarine area only, while DDE was found in both River and estuarine water. Residue of Lindane in mussel flesh was found to be always higher (up to 145 ppb) than that of any DDT's metabolites, e.g. the highest value of DDE contaminant is 66 ppb. The finding shows that Lindane contamination in marine environmental samples from the Balat estuary is higher as compared with those from the Mediterranean Sea but DDT's ones are at the same level. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 1 map

  8. Fast supercritical fluid extraction and high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture and flame photometric detection for multiresidue screening of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in Brazil's medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, V G; Yariwake, J H; Bicchi, C

    2003-01-24

    A description is given of a rapid and environmentally friendly method to determine organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide multiresidues--malathion, methidathion, fenitrothion, fenthion, parathion-ethyl, parathion-methyl, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, chlorothalonil, tetradifon, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan and dieldrin-in Passiflora alata Dryander and pasiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture and flame photometric detection (HRGC-ECD/FPD). The mild extraction conditions [pure CO2; 100 bar (1 bar = 10(5) Pa) and 40 degrees C (p = 0.62 g/ml); 5 min static+10 min dynamic extraction time; ODS trap and elution with 1 ml n-hexane at 2 ml/min] allow for direct analysis by HRGC-ECD/FPD with no prior cleaning procedure. The method provides. in accordance with the validation criteria of the European Pharmacopoeia, analytical results that are similar or even better than the official procedures, and is simpler, faster and cheaper. Mean recoveries of 69.8-107.1% were obtained, with 1.4-14.7% reproducibility (RSD). The method was applied to analyse commercial samples of Passiflora L. from Brazil. Twenty-three percent of the samples showed the presence of the organochlorine or organophosphorus pesticide residue investigated.

  9. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few. Top of Page How do pesticides work? Pesticides are designed to interfere with some biological or chemical pathway critical to the survival of the pest to which it is targeted. When the pesticide interrupts these pathways, the target organism dies. Top ...

  10. Occurrence and air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls at a CAWNET background site in central China: Implications for influencing factors and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingxi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Zuwu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Gan; Lyu, Xiaopu; Cheng, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m 3 in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil. A strong positive temperature dependence and average fugacity fraction value > 0.5 were observed for p,p'-DDT, suggesting that volatilization of residual DDT in the soil was the main influencing factor on atmospheric p,p'-DDT. Highly average fugacity fractions (>0.7) of trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) and high TC/CC ratios both in the soil and atmosphere suggested fresh inputs. Higher gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were observed in winter and negative temperature dependence was directly attributed to the surrounding ongoing source (e.g. fuel consuming activities), especially in winter. Overall, most targeted OCPs and PCBs were influenced by long-range transport, and fugacity fraction values indicated highly volatile compounds (e.g. α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and lower chlorinated PCBs) were volatilized and low volatility compounds (e.g. p,p'-DDE and higher chlorinated PCBs) were deposited at the air-soil interface. Knowing the source and sink of OCPs and PCBs can help to control their pollution in this area and provide a reference for other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2 degrades various organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and achieves enhancing removal and complete degradation of DDT in highly contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jie; Xu, Yang; Ai, Guo-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-15

    Long term residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are of great concerning because they seriously threaten food security and human health. This article focuses on isolation of OCP-degrading strains and their performance in bioremediation of contaminated soil under ex situ conditions. A bacterium, Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2, capable of degrading various OCPs and utilizing them as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, was isolated from OCP-contaminated soil. In culture experiments, PYR2 degraded 80-98% of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) isomers (50 mg L(-1)) in 30 days. A pilot-scale ex situ bioremediation study of highly OCP-contaminated soil augmented with PYR2 was performed. During the 45-day experimental period, DDT concentration was reduced by 80.3% in PYR2-augmented soils (35.37 mg kg(-1) to 6.97 mg kg(-1)) but by only 57.6% in control soils. Seven DDT degradation intermediates (metabolites) were detected and identified in PYR2-augmented soils: five by GC/MS: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDMU), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDMS), and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP); and two by LC/MS: 4-chlorobenzoic acid (PCBA) and 4-chlorophenylacetic acid (PCPA). Levels of metabolites were fairly stable in control soils but varied greatly with time in PYR2-augmented soils. Levels of DDD, DDMU, and DDE in PYR2-augmented soils increased from day 0 to day 30 and then decreased by day 45. A DDT biodegradation pathway is proposed based on our identification of DDT metabolites in PYR2-augmented systems. PYR2 will be useful in future studies of OCP biodegradation and in bioremediation of OCP-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of octanol-air partition coefficients of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as a function of temperature: application to air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Cetin, Banu

    2012-12-30

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (K(OA)) for 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined as a function of temperature using the GC retention time method. Log K(OA) values at 25 °C ranged over two orders of magnitude, between 8.32 (chlorpyrifos) and 10.48 (methoxychlor). The determined K(OA) values were within a factor of 0.5 (endosulfan sulfate) to 7.9 (endrin aldehyde) for values calculated as the ratio of octanol-water partition coefficient to dimensionless Henry's law constant. The internal energies of phase transfer between octanol and air (ΔU(OA)) ranged between 71.8 and 95.4 kJ mol(-1) and they were within the reported range for OCPs (55.8-105 kJ mol(-1)). Atmospheric and soil OCP concentrations were also measured in Izmir, Turkey, and data used to investigate the soil-air gas exchange. Net soil-air gas exchange fluxes of OCPs ranged from -0.01 (volatilization, cis-nonachlor) to 56.4 ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition, chlorpyrifos) in winter, while in summer they ranged from -0.03 (trans-nonachlor) to 329 ng m(-2) day(-1) (endosulfan I). In both sampling periods, endosulfan I and II, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT were generally deposited to the soil while γ-HCH and heptachlor epoxide mostly volatilized. Fluxes of other OCPs were variable (volatilization or absorption) due to their largely fluctuating ambient air concentrations. Calculated dry deposition and recently measured wet deposition fluxes were used to estimate the relative importance of different mechanisms (i.e., dry deposition, wet deposition, gas absorption, and volatilization) to the local soil pollutant inventory. Generally, all mechanisms contributed significantly to the soil OCP inventory. Volatilization fluxes were generally much lower than the sum of input fluxes (dry deposition, wet deposition and gas absorption) for most of the OCPs indicating a net deposition to the soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of population exposure to organochlorines: A cluster analysis application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Guimarães (Raphael Mendonça); S. Asmus (Sven); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to show the results from a cluster analysis application in the characterization of population exposure to organochlorines through variables related to time and exposure dose. Characteristics of 354 subjects in a population exposed to organochlorine pesticides residues

  14. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  15. A liquid-phase microextraction method, combining a dual gauge microsyringe with a hollow fiber membrane, for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous solution by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chih-Hao; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2004-01-01

    A liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) method has been demonstrated for the extraction and determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in aqueous solution. The method combines a dual gauge microsyringe with a hollow fiber membrane (LPME/DGM-HF) followed by detection by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The advantages include speed, low solvent and sample consumption, simplicity and ease of use. The extraction time, solvent selection, salt concentration and sample stirring rate have been investigated in order to optimize extraction efficiency. The viability is evaluated by measuring the linearity and detection limit of the five OCPs in aqueous solution. Detection linearity for the OCPs has been achieved over a range of concentrations between 1 and 500 microg/L (r2 > 0.930), with a detection limit of 0.1 microg/L for each OCP. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Nephrotoxic Effects of Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidesare used extensively throughout the world and, in recent years, their use hasincreased considerably. Pesticides are responsible for several adverse effectson human health, and they represent a potential risk to human. Liver and kidneyare firstly most harmed tissues by pesticides, because pesticides are removedfrom the body by being metabolized in the liver and kidney main road. A broad rangeof pesticides, including organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates,pyrethroids and triazi...

  17. Residus de pesticides organochlores retrouves dans quelques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Organochlorine pesticide residues found in some fishes from Lake Togo and assessment of the potential risk to the consumer. English Abstract. Organochlorinated pesticides historically used in agriculture and in health program against sickness vectors in health public were investigated in 83 fishes including 9 ...

  18. Níveis de resíduos de praguicidas organoclorados em produtos cárneos sob inspeção federal Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat products inspected by the federal government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pessoa de Paula Carvalho

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de evidenciar a freqüência e os níveis de resíduos de praguiddas organoclorados, foram analisadas 445 unidades amostrais de matéria prima (gordura bovina provenientes de carcaças de bovinos de frigoríficos e 132 unidades amostrais de carne bovina já processada (enlatados, tais como "corned beef" e "roast beef". Apresentaram-se com resíduos de praguicidas acima dos limites de tolerância estipulados, 77 unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 5 de produto processado. Resíduos de praguiddas, sem contudo ultrapassar os limites de tolerância, foram identificados em, praticamente, todas as amostras, sendo que 27% das unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 10,6% de produto processado apresentaram resíduos de praguicidas em violação aos limites estabelecidos na legislação. Heptacloro, BHC e Dieldrin foram os praguiddas mais freqüentes e Lindane e DDT os menos evidenciados.To bring attention to the frequency and the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat, 445 samples of raw material (bovine fat from bovine carcasses collected from meat packing plants and 132 samples of preserved meat (canned, such as corned or roast beef were analyzed. Seventy-seven samples of bovine fat and 8 of preserved meat were discovered to have pesticide residue above the maximum acceptable limits. Pesticide residue was found in practically all the samples without, however, exceeding the acceptable limits. Twenty-seven percent of the bovine fat samples and 10.6% of the preserved meat contained residue above the legal tolerance levels. Heptachlor, BHC, and Dieldrin were the most frequent; Lindane and DDT, the least.

  19. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    -sediment samples, including pyrethroid insecticides and fungicides. Fourteen legacy organochlorine pesticides also were detected in the suspended-sediment samples. Greater numbers of current-use and organochlorine pesticides were observed in the Alamo River samples in comparison with the New River samples. Maximum concentrations of current-use pesticides in suspended-sediment samples ranged from below their method detection limits to 174 micrograms per kilogram (pendimethalin). Most organochlorine pesticides were detected at or below their method detection limits, with the exception of p,p'-DDE, which had a maximum concentration of 54.2 micrograms per kilogram. The most frequently detected current-use pesticides in the suspended-sediment samples were chlorpyrifos, permethrin, tetraconazole, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 83 percent of the samples. The organochlorine degradates p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE were detected in all suspended-sediment samples.

  20. Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Brendan; Law, Robin J.; Allchin, Colin R.; Rogan, Emer; Murphy, Sinead; Foley, M. Barry; Glynn, Denise; McGovern, Evin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations and enantiomeric profiles for a range of organochlorine compounds are reported in blubber samples from a number of individual killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Elevated contaminant levels and enriched isotopic ratios were determined in one individual whale sampled in the Scottish Western Isles compared to the others suggesting marine mammal based dietary influences. The potential application of isotopic ratios to model contaminant uptake, enantioselective enrichment and accumulation is demonstrated. Data are presented which provide information on enantioselective enrichment factors (EFs) for o,p'-DDT, α-HCH and toxaphene congeners CHB26 and CHB 50. This dataset further improves the current database on reported levels of a number of contaminants and provides additional background information on potential metabolic processes in killer whales from British and Irish waters

  1. Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Brendan [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: brendan.mchugh@marine.ie; Law, Robin J.; Allchin, Colin R. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham on Crouch, Essex CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Rogan, Emer [Department of Zoology, University College Cork (Ireland); Murphy, Sinead [Department of Zoology, University College Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Foley, M. Barry [Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Glynn, Denise; McGovern, Evin [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Galway (Ireland)

    2007-11-15

    Concentrations and enantiomeric profiles for a range of organochlorine compounds are reported in blubber samples from a number of individual killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Elevated contaminant levels and enriched isotopic ratios were determined in one individual whale sampled in the Scottish Western Isles compared to the others suggesting marine mammal based dietary influences. The potential application of isotopic ratios to model contaminant uptake, enantioselective enrichment and accumulation is demonstrated. Data are presented which provide information on enantioselective enrichment factors (EFs) for o,p'-DDT, {alpha}-HCH and toxaphene congeners CHB26 and CHB 50. This dataset further improves the current database on reported levels of a number of contaminants and provides additional background information on potential metabolic processes in killer whales from British and Irish waters.

  2. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  3. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  4. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. M. Mahugija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health.

  5. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticid...

  6. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Meeker, John D; Missmer, Stacey A; Altshul, Larisa; Vitonis, Allison F; Ryan, Louise; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not...

  7. Contaminants and energy expenditure in an Arctic seabird: Organochlorine pesticides and perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with metabolic rate in a contrasted manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévin, Pierre; Tartu, Sabrina; Ellis, Hugh I; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Parenteau, Charline; Herzke, Dorte; Angelier, Frédéric; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2017-08-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimal energetic cost of living in endotherms, is known to be influenced by thyroid hormones (THs) which are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in birds and mammals. Several environmental contaminants may act on energy expenditure through their thyroid hormone-disrupting properties. However, the effect of contaminants on BMR is still poorly documented for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between three groups of contaminants (organochlorines (OCs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and mercury) with metabolic rate (MR), considered here as a proxy of BMR and also with circulating total THs (thyroxine (TT4) and triiodothyronine (TT3)) in Arctic breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard, during the chick rearing period. Our results indicate a negative relationship between the sum of all detected chlordanes (∑CHLs) and MR in both sexes whereas perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrA) and MR were positively related in females only. MR was not associated with mercury. Additionally, levels of TT3 were negatively related to ∑CHLs but not to PFTrA. The findings from the present study indicate that some OCs (in both sexes) and some PFASs (only in females) could disrupt fine adjustment of BMR during reproduction in adult kittiwakes. Importantly, highly lipophilic OCs and highly proteinophilic PFASs appear, at least in females, to have the ability to disrupt the metabolic rate in an opposite way. Therefore, our study highlights the need for ecotoxicological studies to include a large variety of contaminants which can act in an antagonistic manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in human serum and milk using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focant, Jean-François; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Patterson, Donald G

    2004-11-01

    A new method using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-IDTOFMS) for the simultaneous measurement of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and brominated flame retardants is presented. In contrast to the reference methods based on classical GC/MS, a single injection of the extract containing all compounds of interest results in accurate identification and quantification. Using GCxGC ensures the chromatographic separation of most compounds, and TOFMS allows mass spectral deconvolution of coeluting compounds as well as the use of (13)C-labeled internal standards for quantification. Isotope ratio measurements of the most intense ions for both native and labels ensure the required specificity. The use of this new method with an automated sample preparation procedure developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the analysis of human serum and milk compared favorably to conventional isotope-dilution one-dimensional gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-IDHRMS) for the different human serum and milk pools tested. The instrumental detection limits ranged between 0.5 pg/microL and 10 pg/microL and the method detection limits ranged between 1 and 15 pg/microL (N = 59 analytes). The reproducibility of the method was almost as good as with GC-IDHRMS, the relative standard deviations ranging between 1 and 11% for OCPs measured in human serum. OCP, PBDE, and PCB levels measured using the two methods were highly correlated, and the deviations between the two methods were below 20% for most analytes with concentrations above 1 ng/g milk lipids.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere.

  10. Consumption of foods of animal origin as determinant of contamination by organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls: results from a population-based study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Sangil, Marta; Alvarez-León, Eva E; Hernández-Rodríguez, Guayarmina; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-11-01

    The level of contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and dietary habits and food consumption was extensively studied in the population from the Canary Islands (Spain). Because foodstuffs of animal origin are well known to be prominent contributors to these contaminants, the current study aimed to assess the role of the dietary intake of animal products as a probability factor for increased serum POPs. The intake of animal products (dietary variables) as a determining factor for serum POP levels was investigated using multivariate statistical models. Our results showed that while poultry, rabbit, and cheese consumption increases the probability of having high levels of non-DDT-derivative pesticides, sausage, yogurt, lard, and bacon consumption decreases the probability of having high levels of these pesticides. In addition, poultry, rabbit, eggs, cream, and butter consumption increased the probability of having detectable levels of marker PCB, while dairy desserts decreased the probability of having detectable levels of these PCBs. On the contrary, sausage and meat consumption increased the probability of having detectable levels of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The current results confirm that dietary intake of foodstuffs of animal origin is a relevant risk factor for the accumulation of POPs (and therefore their serum levels). Our study indicates that the analysis of dietary patterns may be useful for identifying those individuals that will probably present a high body burden of POPs. Because POPs can exert deleterious effects on human health, the identification of populations at risk of being highly contaminated is mandatory in order to implement policies that minimize the exposure to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides residues and PCBs in benthic organisms of the inner shelf of the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Gorni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven benthic samples of the inner shelf area of São Sebastião, Brazil, were collected between April 1994 and August 1998 and analysed for seventeen chlorinated pesticide residues and PCBs congeners. Pesticide residues and PCBs congeners levels were low (ng/g and predominantly found in the crustacean samples. DDE was the most frequently residue with a maximum of 9,7 ng/g followed by HCHs with maximum of 17,1ng/g. As for the PCBs, the heavier congeners predominate: CB 138,153,170, 180 and 183. Maximum total PCBs was 17,4 ug/g in a crab sample. Higher levels of PCBs are related to feeding habits and local inputs of raw sewage or land runoff. Although EPA and FDA (U.S.A below the guidelines for human consumption propose these levels, they do show that even in marine areas without intense agricultural or industrial activities these compounds are present at detectable levels.Trinta e sete amostras de bentos da área interna do Canal de São Sebastião, Brasil, foram coletadas entre Abril de 1994 e Agosto de 1998 e analisadas quanto aos níveis de resíduos de 17 pesticidas organoclorados os congêneres dos PCBs. Os níveis de resíduos de organoclorados e PCBs foram baixos( ng/g e encontrados com maior freqüência nas amostras de crustáceos. DDE foi o resíduo de pesticida encontrado com mais freqüência apresentado um máximo de 9,7 ng/g seguido dos isômeros de HCHs com um máximo de 17,1 ng/g. No caso dos PCBs os congêneres mais pesados foram os predominantes: CB 138, 153, 170, 180 e 183. O valor máximo de PCBs totais foi de 17,4 ug/g numa amostra de crustáceo. Níveis maiores de PCBs estão associados aos hábitos alimentares e introduções pontuais de esgotos e água de drenagem urbana. Apesar dos níveis observados estarem abaixo dos recomendados para consumo humano pela EPA e da FDA( U.S.A ,eles demonstram que mesmo em área marinhas costeiras sem agricultura intensiva ou atividades industriais de porte , estes compostos org

  12. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus and silverside (Atherina boyeri. Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near Varna City, Bulgaria and compared the results to the levels in other aquatic ecosystems. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, HCB, HCBD, DDT and its two main metabolites DDE and DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. The OCPs levels in the wild fish were found in the order DDTs > PCBs. The other contaminants HCB and HCBD were not detected or were below the analytical detection limit. Among the pesticides, essentially only the metabolites p, p’- DDE and p, p’- DDD were found.

  13. Analysis of Organochlorine Residues in River Benue at Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-20

    Dec 20, 2015 ... Keywords: Electron capture detector, Gas Chromatography, Liquid-liquid extraction, Nigeria, Organochlorine,. River Benue. INTRODUCTION ... pesticides are transported from an application area to other locations in the environment. ..... extraction and liquid chromatography-ion trap-tripple stage mass ...

  14. Analysis of Organochlorine Residues in River Benue at Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) concentrations along the Benue River at NASME and at Benue Brewery were studied during both wet and dry seasons. A total of 12 water samples were collected and determinations were made. Gas chromatography/electron capture detector was used for OCPs analysis. In these ...

  15. Organochlorine residues in tissues of marine fauna along the coast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings highlight evidence of pollution of marine fauna at the Kenyan coastal sites. It is necessary to have thorough waste management programs as a strategy to minimize marine pollution. KEY WORDS: Environmental samples; Marine samples; Kenya-Mombasa coastline; Marine fauna, Organochlorine, Pesticides.

  16. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds ( 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  17. Legacy and Current-Use Insecticides in Agricultural Sediments from South China: Impact of Application Pattern on Occurrence and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Junjie; Xiong, Jingjing; Yi, Xiaoyi; You, Jing

    2017-05-31

    Legacy and current-use insecticides were analyzed in sediments collected from a typical rice-planting region in South China. Total concentrations of insecticides varied from 1.63 to 775 ng g -1 with mean and median values of 67.0 and 11.5 ng g -1 , respectively. Pyrethroids predominated pesticide composition (31.7%), followed by organophosphates (23.0%) and fiproles (20.8%). Sediment risk analysis showed that pyrethroids, fiproles, and abamectin posed significant risk to benthic invertebrates in one-third of sediments. Different distributions of pyrethroids and organophosphates in urban and agricultural areas were consistent with their application patterns, whereas legacy organochlorine pesticides showed no region-specific distribution because of rapid transition of land use pattern from agricultural to urban areas. Likely illegal use of pyrethroids and fipronil caused serious ecological risks in agricultural waterways. Pyrethroids and fipronil were restricted to use in paddy fields, but their occurrence and risk in agricultural waterways were high, calling for better measures to regulate the illegal use of insecticides.

  18. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pesticides and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes the recent research on pesticide exposure and child neurobehavioral development with a focus on in-utero exposure to organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. Recent studies on in-utero exposure to the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its breakdown product, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene, indicate that exposure is associated with poorer infant (6 months and older) and child neurodevelopment. Yet, the studies differ on the domain of development that is affected. Research on organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment is limited but suggests some negative association of exposure and neurodevelopment at certain ages. Two reports agree that increased levels of organophosphate exposure in utero result in greater numbers of abnormal reflexes in neonates and studies in older infants and young children also point to a negative association with development. In young children (2-3 years) two separate studies observed an increase in maternally reported pervasive developmental disorder with increased levels of organophosphate exposure. Given that the literature suggests a link between organochlorine and in-utero pesticide exposure and impaired child neurodevelopment, clinicians should educate parents about prevention of exposure, especially in populations living in agricultural areas or where household use is common.

  20. Grau de exposição a praguicidas organoclorados em moradores de aterro a céu aberto Levels of exposure to organochlorine pesticides in open-air dump dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Santos Filho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o grau de exposição interna aos praguicidas organoclorados (POP dos moradores de um atêrro a céu aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de aferição simultânea e controlado, cujo fator de estudo foi residir em área contaminada por POP e o efeito foi a concentração sanguínea dessas substâncias. A população de estudo foi de 238 pessoas residentes em um aterro a céu aberto (Pilões, no município de Cubatão, SP; e a população de controle ficou dimensionada em 258 pessoas, também residentes no mesmo município (Cota 200. Foram analisados os praguicidas HCB, p-p'DDT, p-p'DDE, p-p'DDD, o-p'DDT, a HCH; b HCH; g HCH; Aldrin; Dieldrin; Endrin; Heptaclor; Heptaclor-epoxi e Mirex. RESULTADOS: Os teores médios sangüíneos de HCB em Pilões foram de 4,66 µg/L, 155 vezes maior que a média na Cota 200 (0,03 µg/L. Em Pilões, os teores médios de DDT total foram de 3,71 µg/L, duas vezes maior do que na Cota 200 (1,85 µg/L e o HCH total apresentou concentrações sangüíneas seis vezes maiores em Pilões, 0,84 µg/L, contra 0,13 µg/L. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se associação positiva entre residir em Pilões e apresentar teores sangüíneos de POP, com risco muitas vezes maior quando comparado a localidades sem a presença desses contaminantes.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the degree of internal exposure to organochlorine pesticides (persistent organic pollutants, POP among inhabitants of an open-air dump. METHODS: This was an observational study with simultaneous measurement and control, in which the criterion for subjects was that they dwelled in an area contaminated by POP and the effect of such contamination was the concentration of such substances into the blood. The study population consisted of 238 people living on an open-air dump in Pilões, in the municipality of Cubatão, SP, Brazil, and the control population was formed by 258 people, also resident in that municipality, in the Cota 200 district. The following

  1. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  2. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment-an Armenian case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Šír, M.; Honzajková, Z.; Komprda, J.; Čupr, P.; Petrlík, J.; Anakhasyan, E.; Simonyan, L.; Kubal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2012), s. 1944-1952 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Obsolete organochlorinated pesticides * Obsolete organochlorinated pesticides * Gradient sampling * Emissions * Diffusivity-based calculations * Health risks * Stockholm Convention Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.618, year: 2012

  3. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment-an Armenian case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorská, Alice; Šír, M.; Honzajková, Z.; Komprda, J.; Čupr, P.; Petrlík, J.; Anakhasyan, E.; Simonyan, L.; Kubal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2012), s. 1944-1952 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Obsolete organochlorinated pesticide s * Obsolete organochlorinated pesticide s * Gradient sampling * Emissions * Diffusivity-based calculations * Health risks * Stockholm Convention Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.618, year: 2012

  4. Pesticide concentrations in water and in suspended and bottom sediments in the New and Alamo rivers, Salton Sea Watershed, California, April 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Lawrence A.; Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This report contains pesticide concentration data for water, and suspended and bed sediment samples collected in April 2003 from twelve sites along the New and Alamo Rivers in the Salton Sea watershed, in southeastern California. The study was done in collaboration with the California State Regional Water Quality Control Board, Colorado River Region, to assess inputs of current-use pesticides associated with water and sediment into the New and Alamo Rivers. Five sites along the New River and seven sites along the Alamo River, downstream of major agricultural drains, were selected and covered the lengths of the rivers from the international boundary to approximately 1.5 km from the river mouths. Sampling from bridges occurred at seven of the twelve sites. At these sites, streamflow measurements were taken. These same sites were also characterized for cross-stream homogeneity by measuring dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and suspended solids concentration at several vertical (depths) and horizontal (cross-stream) points across the river. Large volume water samples (200?300 L) were collected for isolation of suspended sediments by flow-through centrifugation. Water from the outflow of the flow-through centrifuge was sampled for the determination of aqueous pesticide concentrations. In addition, bottom sediments were sampled at each site. Current-use pesticides and legacy organochlorine compounds (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD) were extracted from sediments and measured via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic carbon and percentage of fines were also determined for suspended and bottom sediments. Cross-stream transects of dissolved constituents and suspended sediments showed that the rivers were fairly homogeneous at the sites sampled. Streamflow was higher at the outlet sites, with the Alamo River having higher flow (1,240 cfs) than the New River (798 cfs). Twelve current-use pesticides, one legacy organochlorine compound (p

  5. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS ON INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETS: BLENDER, SOXHLET, ASE, MICROWAVE AND SFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory studies dietary exposure to a diverse group of semi-volatile pesticides by analyzing 24 hour duplicate composite diets. The pesticides of interest include organochlorines, organophosphates, anilines, and triazines. Currently, there ...

  6. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    restriction on the usage of OCPs in developed countries during the .... use. Approximately 0.5 ml of anhydrous sodium sulphate was placed at the top of the column to absorb any water in the sample. The column was pre-eluted with 15 ml of light petroleum ... samples into clean wide-mouth plastic containers and covered.

  8. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mean concentrations of the contaminants in feeds and eggs were as follows, respectively: aldrin 0.62 and 2 mg/kg, dieldrin 0.71 and 1.3 mg/kg, total DDT 6.68 and 8.14 mg/kg, total endosulfan 3.53 and 3.74 mg/kg, total HCHs 0.91 and 1.21 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 12.2 and 0.59 mg/kg, fenitrothion 4.9 and 0.64 ...

  9. Sampling device optimization for organochlorine pesticides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the water column was compared with respect to the following chemical and physical properties of the contaminant: the relative molecular length, the degree of chlorination, and the Henry's law constant. The solvent/membrane systems accumulated contaminants to high levels and readily approached equilibrium fast.

  10. Assessment of contamination by organochlorine pesticides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    OCPs) in Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum samples commercially sold in Nigeria. OCPs were detected in all the samples analysed using Hewlett-. Packard (HP 6890) gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector ...

  11. ORGANOCHLORINES IN CHRYSICHTHYS NIGRODIGITATUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    environmental pollution monitoring because they concentrate pollutants in their tissues directly from water and through their diet, thus ... pollution in the aquatic environment [4]. Besides evaluating organochlorines in the muscle .... spiked standards and monitoring of detector response. Blank runs were made for background.

  12. Importance and toxicological effects of organophosphorus pesticides: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kazemi; A. M. Tahmasbi; R. Valizadeh; A. A. Naserian; M. M. Moheghi; A. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is an estimate of the likelihood or probability of an adverse impact on the environment resulting from human activities such as applying of pesticides against of target pests (insects, plant pathogens, weeds, nematodes, microbes, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish and so on) in the agriculture. Since the Withdrawal of organochlorine pesticides from use, organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) have become the most widely used pesticides available today in the entire world e...

  13. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  14. MONITOREO DE RESIDUOS DE PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS EN CAMARÓN (Penaeus vannamei DEL ÁREA COSTERA DE LA BAHÍA CARTAGENA (COLOMBIA MONITORAMENTO RESÍDUOS DE PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS EM CAMARÃO (Penaeus vannamei A ÁREA DA BAÍA COSTEIRA DE CARTAGENA (COLÔMBIA MONITORING OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN SHRIMP (Penaeus vannamei FROM THE COASTAL AREA OF CARTAGENA BAY COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ E JARAMILLO

    2010-12-01

    limite de detecção de todos os pesticidas organoclorados estão dentro da faixa de 0,1 a 13 ng g-1. A concentração de resíduos de pesticidas organoclorados em camarão foi inferior ao limite máximo permitido para os animais aquáticos, recomendado pela FAO.The utilization of organochlorine pesticides for pest control chemical has been of great interest on residue contamination from biológical organisms in the environment. Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei samples were monitored as bioindicators for assessment of the water quality in coastal waters along the Cartagena Bay. Twenty-seven samples were collected from 3 sample stations during january, june and november of 2008. The retention times of the extracts of Shrimp were compared with standard mix of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Gas chromatography equipped with an microelectron capture detector was used as instrumental technique. The aim of this paper was determinate the residual contamination for organochlorine pesticides in shrimp muscle obtained in Cartagena's Beaches. The limit of detection of all organochlorine pesticides compounds was at the range of O.1-13 ngg-1. The concentration of organochlorine pesticides residues in shrimp was lower than the maximum residue limit for aquatic animals as recommended by the FAO.

  15. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  17. How Do We Advise the Pest Control Industry in the Post-Organochlorine Era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R.J. French

    1991-01-01

    Given the banning of organochlorines for use as termiticides in North America, and with the possibility of such bans occurring in future in Australia and elsewhere, how do we as entomologists advise the pest control industry in termite control? A brief historical review of pesticide bans and the relevance of these bans to the present situation are discussed....

  18. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific

  19. Evaluation of Patterns and Spatial Trends of Pesticide Residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides pollution data obtained from samples collected from Vikuge farm, Coast Region, Tanzania between 2000 and 2003 by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of the data sets for pesticide residues in water, soil and sediments samples from Vikuge has shown ...

  20. Evaluation of Patterns and Spatial Trends of Pesticide Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. This paper reports on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides pollution data obtained from samples collected from Vikuge farm, Coast Region, Tanzania between 2000 and 2003 by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of the data sets for pesticide residues in water, soil and sediments samples from ...

  1. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and Watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by ...

  2. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane: ...

  3. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  4. pesticides distribution in surf ce w ters nd sediments of lotic nd lentic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-12-12

    Dec 12, 2016 ... Organochlorine phosphates (OCPs). Organochlorine pesticides are known to be very stable, resistant to natural breakdown, lipo-soluble compounds that are capable of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the fatty parts of biological organisms (Adeyemi et al.,. 2011; Ogbeide et al., 2015). The health.

  5. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  6. Assessment of human health risk from organochlorine pesticide residues in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Avaliação de risco à saúde humana por resíduos de pesticidas organoclorados em Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ildes R. Fróes Asmus

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a heath risk assessment in Cidade dos Meninos, an area contaminated with organochlorine pesticide residues located in the county (municipality of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR risk assessment methodology was applied. The following organochlorine compounds exceeded the established limits and were considered target pollutants: HCH and its isomers (in eggs, milk, and soil; DDT and its metabolites; trichlorobenzenes; trichlorophenols; dioxins and furans (eggs and soil. For all the substances studied (with the exception of trichlorophenols, the estimated doses exceeded the minimum risk levels for chronically exposed children and adults. According to the ATSDR classification, the area was considered an "urgent public health hazard" because of its high and serious exposure to substances that are dangerous to human health.Cidade dos Meninos é uma área localizada no Município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, onde ocorreu contaminação ambiental por deposição de pesticidas organoclorados. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo de avaliação de risco para a saúde da população residente, utilizando-se a metodologia de avaliação de risco à saúde da Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Os seguintes compostos organoclorados superaram as normas estabelecidas e foram considerados contaminantes de interesse: hexaclorociclohexano (HCH e seus isômeros (ovo, leite, solo; tricloro-bis-(clorofenil-etano (DDT e seus metabólitos (ovo, leite, solo; triclorobenzenos (solo; triclorofenóis (solo; dioxinas e furanos (ovo, solo. Para todos os compostos estudados, exceto triclorofenóis, na situação de exposição crônica, as doses estimadas estavam acima dos níveis mínimos de risco à saúde, para crianças e adultos. A área foi classificada como de perigo urgente para a saúde pública por exposição de

  7. Recuperação de áreas contaminadas por pesticidas organoclorados na Cidade dos Meninos, município de Duque de Caxias, RJ Recovery of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Buosi

    2004-06-01

    investigated and found out that after the factory closure piles of residues were left behind causing the contamination of the soils. Analyses of foliar tissues and soil were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis e Corymbia citriodora (Hook. K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Jhonson, with the objective of evaluating the potential of the species as phytoremediator of contaminated soils by organochlorines pesticides. A composite soil sample and five samples of leaves were collected in each one of the studied places. Three leaf samples from C. citriodora and two from E. grandis were analized for pesticides organochlorines by gas chromatography. Both species grew on the same conditions, with average heights of 9,1 e 16,8 m and average diameters of 7,8 and 15,95 cm for E. grandis and C. citriodora, respectively. The average height and diameter of C. citriodora were similar to those found for other stands in the Atlantic forest region while the E. grandis was a little bellow those averages. The presence of organochlorine pesticides was detected in the leaves at low concentrations but the concentrations in the soils were high, being greater in the E. grandis plantation. These results were compared to previous analyses and suggested that the species can function as phytoremediators especially the C. citriodora.

  8. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alzaga, B.; Lacasaña, M.; Hernández, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polych......BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides...... selected from public schools of the study area. OCs compounds were determined in serum samples by GC/ECD. Anthropometric measures were obtained during sample collection. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, parental occupation, residential history, lifestyle and frequency of food consumption...

  9. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend fruits and vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Missmer, Stacey A; Altshul, Larisa; Vitonis, Allison F; Ryan, Louise; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2009-07-14

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid), as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of ART outcomes in relation to organochlorine exposure.

  11. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  12. Prevention and control of contaminants of industrial processes and pesticides in the poultry production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The reduction in levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in food of animal origin in the past 30 years has been achieved especially by controlling entrance via the feed chain. A further reduction was achieved by registration and use of less persistent pesticides both for direct treatment of

  13. Levels and distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of cleaned sample extracts were performed using gas chromatography- ... toxicity and bioaccumulation) most of the organochlorine pesticides were banned in the 1990s and replaced by organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroids and carbamates which are readily ... for other applications and they function well.

  14. Status of Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil After Clean up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    in soil, implying risks and concerns for public health and the environment. INTRODUCTION ... and transportation of pesticides are usually responsible as ... environmental characteristics. Contaminations involving organochlorine pesticides are of great concern due to their high persistence in the environment and possible ...

  15. Pesticides, Persecution and Legal Protection Population effects on birds of prey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkes, Margit; Butter, Maureen (ed.).

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the effects of pesticides, persecution and legal protection from a population perspective. In the past, legal hunting and organochlorine pesticides severely affected raptor populations. What lessons can be learned for the future? Is a second mass extinction, by other

  16. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  17. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  19. Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    . However, combined statistical analysis of the eight most abundant persistent pesticides showed that pesticide levels in breast milk were significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism (p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The association between congenital cryptorchidism and some persistent pesticides in breast milk...... birth cohort, we performed a case-control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. RESULTS: Eight organochlorine......-endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals...

  20. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva Stanislava; Stancheva Mona; Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE) were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus), golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus) and silverside (Atherina boyeri). Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near...

  1. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat From Slaughterhouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty one beef (n=136) and camel (n=15) meat samples comprising mainly of adipose tissue were collected from animals slaughtered in 13 districts in Kenya for analysis of organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide residues. Gas chromatographic method (GLC) and ECD and FID was used for ...

  3. A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

    2014-07-01

    Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Assessing the effects of urbanization on the environment with soil legacy and current-use insecticides: a case study in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; He, Zai-Cheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic events on the rapid urbanized environment, the levels of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use insecticides (CUPs), i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), pyrethroids and organophosphates in soil of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and surrounding areas were examined. Spatial concentration distributions of legacy OCPs and CUPs shared similar patterns, with higher concentrations occurred in the central PRD with more urbanization level than that in the PRD's surrounding areas. Furthermore, relatively higher concentrations of OCPs and CUPs were found in the residency land than in other land-use types, which may be attributed to land-use change under rapid urbanization. Moderate correlations between gross domestic production or population density and insecticide levels in fifteen administrative districts indicated that insecticide spatial distributions may be driven by economic prosperity. The soil-air diffusive exchanges of DDTs and HCHs demonstrated that soil was a sink of atmospheric o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT, and was a secondary source of HCHs and p,p'-DDT to atmosphere. The soil inventories of DDTs and HCHs (100 ± 134 and 83 ± 70 tons) were expected to decrease to half of their current values after 18 and 13 years, respectively, whereas the amounts of pyrethroids and organophosphates (39 and 6.2 tons) in soil were estimated to decrease after 4 and 2 years and then increase to 87 and 1.0 tons after 100 years. In this scenario, local residents in the PRD and surrounding areas will expose to the high health risk for pyrethroids by 2109. Strict ban on the use of technical DDTs and HCHs and proper training of famers to use insecticides may be the most effective ways to alleviate the health effect of soil contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Organochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): Role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coat, Sophie, E-mail: coatsophie@gmail.com [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Monti, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.monti@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Legendre, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.legendre@umontreal.ca [Departement de Sciences Biologique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bouchon, Claude, E-mail: claude.bouchon@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Massat, Felix, E-mail: fmassat@ladrome.fr [LDA26, laboratoire Departemental d' Analyses de la Drome, 27 avenue Lautagne, 26000 Valence (France); Lepoint, Gilles, E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be [MARE Centre, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, Bat. B6, 4000 Sart Tilman, Belgique (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to {beta}-HCH. - Highlights: > We measured OC pesticides and stable isotope ratios in a tropical stream. > Results showed a strong and ubiquitous contamination of the entire food web. > Diadromous juveniles strongly accumulated pollutants when they re-enter the river. > The most persistent pollutant (chlordecone) was related to species diet and habitat. > {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. - This paper determines the bioaccumulation and transfer processes of organochlorine pesticides within the stream food web in Guadeloupe (Caribbean).

  6. The influence of tomato processing on residues of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides and their associated dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiler, Emilie; Jørs, Erik; Bælum, Jesper; Huici, Omar; Alvarez Caero, Maria Mercedes; Cedergreen, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Due to the increasing food demand, the use of pesticides in agriculture is increasing. Particularly in low income countries poor training among farmers, combined with the use of obsolete pesticides may result in a high risk for the consumers. In this study six organochlorines and five organophosphates were analyzed in 54 samples of tomatoes from small scale farmers in Bolivia. The analyses were done on unprocessed, stored, washed and peeled tomatoes. The cumulated risk associated with consumption of the tomatoes after different storage times and processing treatments was evaluated using the Hazard Index (HI) for acute risk assessment. All 11 pesticides were detected in the analyses although several of them are obsolete and included in the Stockholm convention ratified by Bolivia. The organochlorines were found in the μg pesticide/kg tomato range and below the HI, while the organophosphates were present in the mg pesticide/kg tomato range and most often above the HI. The low organochlorine concentrations were not significantly affected by time or treatment, but storage significantly decreased the concentrations of organophosphates. Washing decreased the initial concentrations to between 53% (malathion) down to 2% (ethyl parathion), while peeling had a larger effect reducing the initial concentrations to between 33% (malathion) and 0.7% (chlorpyriphos). Both the acute and chronic cumulative risk assessment of organophosphates showed a dietary risk for unprocessed tomatoes three days after harvest. For children, also the consumption of washed tomatoes constituted a dietary risk. To reduce the dietary risk of pesticide residues in Bolivia, there is an urgent need of farmer education and introduction of less hazardous pesticides as well as resources for surveillance and enforcement of legislation in order to ensure public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal Organochlorine and Methylmercury Exposure and Memory and Learning in School-Age Children in Communities Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Orenstein, Sara T.C.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg) are environmentally persistent with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, especially among populations with commonly experienced low levels of exposure, research on neurodevelopmental effects of these toxicants has produced conflicting results. Objectives: We assessed the association of low-level prenatal exposure to these contaminants with memory and learning. Methods: We studied 393 chi...

  8. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  9. Composition, distribution, and potential toxicity of organochlorine mixtures in bed sediments of streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Murray, Karen; VanAlstyne, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of organochlorine compounds have the potential for additive or interactive toxicity to organisms exposed in the stream. This study uses a variety of methods to identify mixtures and a modified concentration-addition approach to estimate their potential toxicity at 845 stream sites across the United States sampled between 1992 and 2001 for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bed sediment. Principal-component (PC) analysis identified five PCs that account for 77% of the total variance in 14 organochlorine compounds in the original dataset. The five PCs represent: (1) chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin; (2) p,p′-DDT and its degradates; (3) o,p′-DDT and its degradates; (4) the pesticide degradates oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide; and (5) PCBs. The PC analysis grouped compounds that have similar chemical structure (such as parent compound and degradate), common origin (in the same technical pesticide mixture), and(or) similar relation of concentrations to land use. For example, the highest concentrations of chlordane compounds and dieldrin occurred at urban sites, reflecting past use of parent pesticides for termite control. Two approaches to characterizing mixtures—PC-based mixtures and unique mixtures—were applied to all 299 samples with a detection of two or more organochlorine compounds. PC-based mixtures are defined by the presence (in the sample) of one or more compounds associated with that PC. Unique mixtures are defined as a specific combination of two or more compounds detected in a sample, regardless of how many other compounds were also detected in that sample. The simplest PC-based mixtures (containing compounds from 1 or 2 PCs) commonly occurred in a variety of land use settings. Complex mixtures (containing compounds from 3 or more PCs) were most common in samples from urban and mixed/urban sites, especially in the Northeast, reflecting high concentrations of multiple chlordane, dieldrin, DDT

  10. Current pesticide profiles in blood serum of adults in Jiangsu Province of China and a comparison with other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chunxin; Chen, Minjian; Gao, Jiawei; Luo, Jia; Wu, Keqin; Dong, Tianyu; Zhou, Kun; He, Xiaowei; Hu, Weiyue; Wu, Wei; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Meeker, John D; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-05-01

    Although various pesticides were used globally, the pesticides profiles in human blood serum remain largely unknown. We determined pesticide exposure profiles using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in 200 human blood serum samples from the adult population in Jiangsu Province, China. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the articles investigating pesticide exposure and compare exposure data. Of the 88 pesticides, 76 were found in the blood serum of the population in Jiangsu Province. To the best of our knowledge, 58 pesticides were reported in human blood serum for the first time, and among these pesticides, parathion-methyl, pyrimethanil, fluacrypyrim, simazine, cloquintocet-mexyl and barban were debatable in more than half of the samples. By statistical comparison of the blood serum levels of pesticides between this study and other countries, we found the levels of several organochlorine pesticides were significantly higher in the female population of Jiangsu Province. Health risks related to the pesticide profiling were then revealed, which identified higher carcinogenic toxicity and teratogenic toxicity risk in the female adults of Jiangsu Province caused by organochlorine pesticide exposure. This study not only provides a high-throughput pesticide screening method for future studies of the exposome, but also presents the first human data on exposure to a number of pesticides. It may provide a knowledge database for the risk assessment and management of the pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  12. PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eel increase after frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Lammertse, N.; Koekkoek, J.; van Hattum, A.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    In several countries such as the Netherlands, consumption of eel from polluted waters is not allowed because the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exceed official tolerance limits. Few experiments have been carried out to assess if pre-treatment, such as cooking and frying would

  13. Organochlorine Pesticides And Pcbs In Human Breast Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and Fifty (150) samples of human breast milk (colostrums) collected from donors patronizing a postnatal center in Nigeria were analyzed for the levels of lindane, total DDT and total PCBs residues. Donors were stratified with respect to factors that may affect accumulation of these compounds such as age, ...

  14. Organochlorine pesticide compounds in organisms from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    in relation to the distribution of the compounds in different fish tissues, differences in the proportion of DDT and its metabolities DDW and DDD in the various organisms and the possible influence of suspended particulate matter on the availability of DDT...

  15. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Soil from Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 3 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  17. The sublethal effects of the organochlorines dieldrin and lindane on growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental exposure of the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae to organochlorines showed that dieldrin causes damage to sperm ultrastructure when viewed electronmicroscopically. Worms containing concentrations of 7,27 mg/kg dieldrin and higher showed more than 10% sperm damage. Exposure of Eisenia fetida to sublethal concentrations of lindane did not result in sperm damage but demonstrated an increase in growth and reproductive activity. It is argued that quantification of sperm damage and correlation with pesticide concentration could provide a useful tool for evaluating environmental quality. Furthermore, the effects of sublethal concentrations of pesticides that manifest themselves in increased growth and reproductive activity could affect ecological balances.

  18. Altmetrics, Legacy Scholarship, and Scholarly Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When using alternative metrics (altmetrics to investigate the impact of a scholar’s work, researchers and librarians are typically cautioned that altmetrics will be less useful for older works of scholarship. This is because it is difficult to collect social media and other attention retroactively, and the numbers will be lower if the work was published before social media marketing and promotion were widely accepted in a field. In this article, we argue that altmetrics can provide useful information about older works in the form of documenting renewed attention to past scholarship as part of a scholar’s legacy. Using the altmetrics profile of the late Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, often referred to as “the father of modern transplantation”, we describe two cases where altmetrics provided information about renewed interest in his works: a controversy about race and genetics that shows the ongoing impact of a particular work, and posthumous rem