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Sample records for legacy organochlorine oc

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  2. Spatial variations in the seasonality of organochlorine pesticides (OC) in Arctic air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, H.; Blanchard, P. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Li, H.; Fellin, P. [AirZOne, Mississauga (Canada); Rosenberg, B.; Stern, G. [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg (Canada); Barrie, L. [Environment Div., Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Under the Canadian-managed Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), air samples were collected at three Canadian Arctic sites, namely Alert, Nunavut (1992-ongoing); Tagish, Yukon (Dec 1992 - Mar 1995) and Kinngait, Nunavut (Mar 1994 - Feb 1996, Oct 2000 - Sep 2002), as well as Dunai Island, Russia (Apr 1993 - May 1995) and Amderma, Russia (1999-2001) to assess the levels, transport pathways and potential sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic. A simultaneous sampling period exists between March 1994 and April 1995 at Alert, Tagish, Kinngait and Dunai Island. Spatial comparisons of organochlorine pesticide (OC) seasonality from this concurrent sampling period is presented in this study.

  3. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Fisk, A.T.; Borgaa, K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The trophic status and biomagnification of persistent OCs within the near-shore Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web from Barrow, AK is discussed. - Stable isotope values (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. β-HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. γ-HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is

  4. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: legacy organochlorine contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (ΣPCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ΣDDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD and p,p'-DDT, α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and BB-153), 18 showed statistically significant average yearly declines of -4.4% (range: -2.0 to -10.8%/year) among subadult polar bears (i.e. femalespolar bear tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Nistara; Gulland, Frances; Ylitalo, Gina M; DeLong, Robert; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2015-12-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs), like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), are widespread marine pollutants resulting from massive historical use and environmental persistence. Exposure to and health effects of these OCs in the marine environment may be examined by studying California sea lions (Zalophus californianus ), which are long lived, apex predators capable of accumulating OCs. We evaluated PCB and DDT levels in 310 sea lions sampled between 1992 and 2007: 204 individuals stranded along the coast of central California, 60 healthy males from Washington State, and 46 healthy females from southern California. Lipid-normalized contaminant concentrations were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression to ascertain temporal trends; differences between stranded and healthy sea lions; and association of organochlorines with sex, age, and presence of cancer or fatal infectious disease. Concentrations of the contaminants in stranded adults decreased over time in the study period (adjusted for sex, as adult males had higher mean blubber concentrations than adult females and juveniles). Cancer was almost eight and six times more likely in animals with higher summed PCBs and DDTs, compared to those with lower levels (95% CI 5.55-10.51 and 4.54-7.99, respectively). Fatal infectious diseases were similarly seven and five times more likely in animals with higher contaminant burdens (95% CI 4.20-10.89 and 3.27-7.86, respectively). Mean contaminant loads were significantly higher in stranded sea lions than in healthy live captured animals ( p  lions, raising concerns for humans and other animals eating tainted seafood. While environmental exposure to these organochlorines appears to be decreasing over time based on levels in sea lion tissues, their persistence in the environment and food web for all predators, including humans, and the associated serious health risks, warrant monitoring, possibly through sentinel

  6. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  7. Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistara Randhawa

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Organochlorine contamination has significant associations with health outcomes in California sea lions, raising concerns for humans and other animals eating tainted seafood. While environmental exposure to these organochlorines appears to be decreasing over time based on levels in sea lion tissues, their persistence in the environment and food web for all predators, including humans, and the associated serious health risks, warrant monitoring, possibly through sentinel species like marine mammals.

  8. Over 100-year sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the continental shelf of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yizhi; Wang, Xinhong; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Ya, Miaolei

    2016-12-01

    Historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in two dated sediment cores (DH05 and DH11) collected from the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on marine sediment over the past century. The concentrations and fluxes of 15 PAHs were in the range of 28.6-96.5 ng g -1 and 7.6-35.2 ng cm -2 yr -1 in DH05 (1920s-2009), 18.8-76.4 ng g -1 and 13.9-30.9 ng cm -2 yr -1 in DH11 (1860s-2009). The sedimentary records of PAHs in the two cores generally reflected the economic development and energy consumption change in China. Identification of sources suggested that PAHs in ECS were predominantly from petrogenic origin and various combustion sources. A change of source from low- and moderate-temperature combustion to high-temperature combustion process was observed. Although a production ban of technical HCH and DDT was imposed in China in 1983, their sedimentary fluxes display increasing trends or strong rebounds from 1980s to 1990s as recorded in the core profiles. High proportions of DDD + DDE and γ-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly derived from early residuals. Temporal trends of PCBs presented relative high levels from 1970s to 1980s and high proportions of PCB congeners with 3-6 chlorines atoms indicated industrial sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing a Screening Model to Establish Human Risk from Glacial Meltwater Release of Legacy Organochlorine Pollutants at the Silvretta Glacier in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (OCPs) banned globally by the Stockholm Convention in 2004 are reemerging from melting glaciers in numerous alpine ecosystems. Despite the known OCP influx from glaciers, a study of human risk from uptake of pesticides in glacial meltwater has never been attempted. Our study qualifies human uptake routes and quantifies risk utilizing published meltwater data from the Silvretta Glacier in the Swiss Alps in combination with methodology established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Relatively high concentrations of OCPs in Silvretta glacier meltwater reflect proximity to use near high density populations and provide the best estimate of a 95th percentile human risk scenario. This screening level model assesses direct PCB risk to humans through consumption of fish tissue and meltwater. Our model shows a risk for both cancer and non-cancer disease impacts to children with lifetime exposure to glacial meltwater and an average local fish consumption. For adults with an abbreviated 30 year exposure timeframe, the risk for non-cancer effects is negligible and cancer effects are only barely above screening level. Populations that consume higher quantities of local fish are at greater risk, with additional challenges borne by children. Further direct study into the individual level risk to Swiss residents from glacial meltwater pollution is deemed necessary by our screening study.

  10. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); M. Murcia (Mario); A. Iñiguez (Andrés); E. Vizcaino (Esther); O. Costa (Olga); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); M. Basterrechea (Mikel); A. Lertxundi (Aitana); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); M. Gascon (Mireia); F. Goñi-Irigoyen (Fernando); J.O. Grimalt (Joan O.); A. Tardón (Adonina); F. Ballester (Ferran)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective: We examined the relationship

  11. Organochlorine insecticides lindane and dieldrin and their binary mixture disturb calcium homeostasis in dopaminergic PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, H.J.; Westerink, R.H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Current hypotheses link long-term environmental exposure of humans to persistent organochlorine (OC) insecticides lindane (HCH) and dieldrin (HEOD) to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Primary adverse neurological effects of these insecticides are directed

  12. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alzaga, B.; Lacasaña, M.; Hernández, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polych......BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides...... selected from public schools of the study area. OCs compounds were determined in serum samples by GC/ECD. Anthropometric measures were obtained during sample collection. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, parental occupation, residential history, lifestyle and frequency of food consumption...

  13. OCS in He droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebenev, V.

    2000-06-01

    Phenomenon of superfluidity of para-hydrogen (pH{sub 2}){sub 1-17} and helium {sup 4}He{sub 1-7000} systems doped with an OCS chromophore molecule was investigated in this work. The study of such systems became possible after the development of the depletion spectroscopy technique in helium droplets. The droplets can be easily created and doped with up to 100 particles such as OCS, para-hydrogen or ortho-hydrogen molecules and {sup 4}He atoms. The measured infrared depletion spectra give the information about the temperature of the droplets and their aggregate state. The depletion spectrum of OCS in pure {sup 4}He droplets was comprehensively studied. The rovibrational OCS spectrum shows well resolved narrow lines. The spectrum is shifted to the red relative to the corresponding gas phase spectrum and the rotational constant of OCS in {sup 4}He droplet is three times smaller than that for free molecule. Different models of OCS rotation in the helium environment were discussed. It was shown that the shapes of the rovibrational lines are defined mainly by inhomogeneous broadening due to the droplet size distribution. The sub-rotational structure of the OCS rovibrational lines was revealed in microwave-infrared double resonance experiments. This structure arises due to the interaction of the OCS with the He environment. However, the information obtained in the experiments was not enough to understand the nature of this interaction. (orig.)

  14. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  15. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of otitis media among Greenlandic Inuit children while exposure to organochlorines remain insignificant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to environmental levels of organochlorines (OCs) has been demonstrated to have immunotoxic effects in humans. We investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to OCs and the occurrence of otitis media (OM) among Inuit children in Greenland. METHODS: We...

  16. A study on biochemical changes in the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) following exposure to sublethal doses of organochlorine pesticide (endosulfan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryavanshi, U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Nigam, S.; Badesab, S.

    Endosulfan, a broad-spectrum non-systemic organochlorine (OC) pesticide is extensively used to control a wide variety of pests in agriculture, horticulture and public health programmes. Biochemical changes occurring in the metabolically active...

  17. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  18. ORGANOCHLORINES IN CHRYSICHTHYS NIGRODIGITATUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    environmental pollution monitoring because they concentrate pollutants in their tissues directly from water and through their diet, thus ... pollution in the aquatic environment [4]. Besides evaluating organochlorines in the muscle .... spiked standards and monitoring of detector response. Blank runs were made for background.

  19. OCS National Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, G.J.; Karpas, R.M.; Slitor, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Minerals Management Service's (MMS) Outer Continental Shelf Information Program (OCSIP) is responsible for making available to affected coastal States, local governments, and other interested parties data and information related to the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Program. Since its establishment through Section 26 of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) Amendments of 1978, OCSIP has prepared regional summary reports, updates, and indexes on leasing, exploration, development, and production activities to fulfill the mandates of the OCSLA Amendments. The OCSIP receives many requests for out-of-print summary reports, updates, and indexes. The purpose of the OCS National Compendium is to consolidate these historical data and to present the data on an OCS-wide and regional scale. The single-volume approach allows the reader access to historical information and facilitates regional comparisons. The fold-out chart in the front of this publication provides the reader with a timeline (January 1988--November 1990) of events since publication of the last Compendium. Some of the events are directly related to the 5-year Oil and Gas Program, whereas others may or may not have an effect on the program. A predominantly graphic format is used in the report so that the large accumulation of data can be more readily comprehended. In some cases, it is not possible to update information through October 21, 1990, because of the nature of the data. For example, production data normally lags 3 months. 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  20. Organochlorine contaminants in seven species of Arctic seabirds from northern Baffin Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Norstrom, Ross J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Karnovsky, Nina J.; Duffe, Jason; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined in liver and fat of seven species of seabirds (Alle alle, Uria lomvia, Cepphus grylle, Rissa tridactyla, Pagophila eburnea, Larus hyperboreus, and Fulmaris glacialis) collected in May/June 1998 from the Northwater Polynya in northern Baffin Bay. OC concentrations ranged over an order of magnitude between seabird species and OC groups, with PCBs having the highest concentrations followed by DDT, chlordane, HCH and ClBz. Positive relationships between δ 15 N (estimator of trophic level) and OC concentrations (lipid basis) were found for all OC groups, showing that trophic position and biomagnification significantly influence OC concentrations in Arctic seabirds. Concentrations of a number of OCs in particular species (e.g., HCH in P. eburnean) were lower than expected based on δ 15 N and was attributed to biotransformation. P. eburnea and F. glacialis, which scavenge, and R. tridactyla, which migrate from the south, were consistently above the δ 15 N-OC regression providing evidence that these variables can elevate OC concentrations. Stable isotope measurements in muscle may not be suitable for identifying past scavenging events by seabirds. OC relative proportions were related to trophic position and phylogeny, showing that OC biotransformation varies between seabird groups. Trophic level, migration, scavenging and biotransformation all play important roles in the OCs found in Arctic seabirds. - Concentrations of organochlorides in high Arctic seabirds are influenced by trophic level, migration, scavenging and biotransformation

  1. Occurrence and distribution of halogenated flame retardants in an urban watershed: Comparison to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-12-01

    Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore. Several alternative HFRs were detected in water and sediments. Dechlornane Plus stereoisomers (syn- and anti-DP) were detected in all samples, exhibiting relatively high concentrations in water, sediments and SPM. The maximum syn-DP concentrations in water, sediments and SPM were 24.30 ng/L, 2.48 ng/g dry wt. and 7774 ng/g dry wt., respectively. 1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HxBBz) and tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) were routinely detected. PBDE concentrations were relatively low and often non-detectable. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 0.017 to 8.37 ng/L in water, 9.86-27.92 ng/g dry wt. in SPM, and 6.48-212.3 ng/g dry wt. in sediments. Congener and isomer patterns suggested no recent inputs of PBDEs or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Rainfall was found to be an important factor influencing temporal and spatial patterns of DPs, BTBPE, PBDEs and some organochlorines in surface water. Land use index was found to be important for several organochlorines, but not HFRs. The observed sediment-water partitioning behavior of the studied HFRs and legacy POPs was highly dependent on chemical hydrophobicity. The data demonstrate that the studied HFRs have a relatively high affinity for SPM and bottom sediments. For example, the log K OC,OBS for TBECH, syn-DP and anti-DP and BTBPE in bottom sediments ranged between 8.1 and 9.6. The findings will aid future

  2. CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oana Docea

    Full Text Available The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants with bioaccumulative and lipophilic characteristics. They can act as endocrine disruptors and perturb cellular mechanisms. Prolonged exposure to OCs has been associated with different pathological manifestations. CYP genes are responsible for transcribing enzymes essential in xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, polymorphisms in these genetic sequences a. alter the metabolic pathways, b. induce false cellular responses, and c. may provoke pathological conditions. The main aim of this review is to define the interaction between parameters a, b and c at a mechanistic/molecular level, with references in clinical cases. Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Cytochrome P450, Genetic polymorphisms, Pathogenesis, Environmental pollutants

  3. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface ...

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegria, Henry [Chemistry Department, California Lutheran University, 60 West Olsen Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (United States)]. E-mail: halegria@clunet.edu; Bidleman, Terry F. [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Meteorological Service of Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON L0L 1N0 (Canada); Figueroa, Miguel Salvador [Area de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University Autonoma de Chiapas, Carretera a Puerto, Madero Km. 2, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, Henry; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  6. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  8. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  9. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  10. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Mafumi; Abe, Takao; Nakatsu, Susumu; Kawauchi, Sakio; Sano, Akihiko; Horii, Akira; Kano, Yasumasa; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats

  11. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical...

  12. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  13. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded

  14. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific

  15. Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Ravindran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

  16. Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs in Sediments Collected from the East Coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCs and PCBs concentration were analyzed in sediments from east coast of Thailand. The samples were collected in April 2013 and were analyzed by GC/ECD. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations were detected in sediments in the range of 1.06-3.71 ng/g calculated on dry weight basis. T-DDTs concentrations were the highest in OCs group compared to other groups in most of the samples. PCBs concentrations were detected in sediments in the range of 0.04-3.03 ng/g calculated on dry weight basis. This study suggests that there is no correlation between the results of different stations but proximity to the sources of contamination may be the most important determining factor for the dominance of these contaminants. Probably this contamination seems to be localized due to the presence of urban runoff, municipal sewage, industrial waste, outflow from agricultural area and chemical spill.

  17. Different organochlorine contaminant profiles in groups of flounders (Platichthys flesus) from sampling locations around Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Rønsholdt, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Flounders (Platichthys flesus) from the waters around Denmark were analysed for their organochlorine (OC) profile to study whether fish from the same genetic population could be separated into characteristic subpopulations, based on their feeding grounds. The chemical analysis of fish liver...... provided a data set of 16 OC compounds in 94 samples from 2004 to 2006. Except for hexachlorocyclohexane, OC compounds were intercorrelated, indicating similar environmental fate and bioaccumulation. OC profiles are less affected than absolute concentrations by potentially confounding biological factors...... validation, with only few misclassifications. This statistical separation likely reflects location-specific pollutant patterns in sediments and biota, even on the relatively small scale of this study. Thus, despite the lack of genetic differences, characteristic subpopulations of flounders could...

  18. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychloronaphthalenes in Nuuk, South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) were measured for the first time in Nuuk, Greenland in 2004 and 2005. The annual mean concentrations af the measured OCs were: α-HCH 20.2 pg m-3, Υ-HCH (lindane) 5......) and the penta-PCNs (18% of the annual mean). A seasonal trend for ∑PCNs was not observed. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature and anthropogenic CO in order to obtain information about their transport pattern. Positive correlations were found between CO...... contaminated surfaces as an important factor for the observed variations in concentrations....

  19. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  20. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in Brazilian human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, T. [INCQS/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Braga, A.M.C.B.; Rosa, J.M. [CESTEH/ENSP/FIOCRUZ, RJ (Brazil); Kypke, K.; Malisch, R. [State Inst. for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Breastfeeding has been intensively encouraged, especially in developing countries, due to its beneficial properties, i.e., increase infant immune factors and resistance to chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes or allergies. In addition, human exposure to environmental pollution has led the scientific community to study the pathways of these contaminants and the possible risks they pose to human health. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCs), in special, has been the subject of great interest during recent years given their potential toxicity, resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation through the food chain. The major source of OC has been agriculture and public health campaigns to vector control. General population exposure occur mainly through the diet and human milk can be an indicator of exposure since OCs are lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate in adipose tissue and breastfeeding is the main pathway of elimination through the fatty fraction of milk. In this study pooled samples of mothers living in the capitals of two different states of Brazil were evaluated in order to assess the trends of human exposure to persistent pollutants.

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  3. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva Stanislava; Stancheva Mona; Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE) were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus), golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus) and silverside (Atherina boyeri). Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near...

  4. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  5. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity <5 PSU). The average concentration of the OC in the sediments was 44.75 ng g(-1), among which the group of the alicyclic compounds presented the greatest concentrations. The average value of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments of the system was 0.90%. The sediments collected inside the lagoon had an average OC concentration of 18.97 ng g(-1), and the predominant type of sediment was fine to very fine sand. The average OC concentration in the sediments collected in the agricultural drains was 75.69 ng g(-1), where fine sediments (silt) were predominant. The presence of methoxychlor, endrin and heptachlor suggested that these compounds were continuously used in the system, even though their use is forbidden in Mexico.

  6. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  7. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L01 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alegria, Henry A. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Geography, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, 140 7th Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario L01 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM = 1.6 ng g{sup -1}), endosulfans (0.16 ng g{sup -1}), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g{sup -1}). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher F{sub DDTe} = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. - Chemical profiles of residues and soil-air fugacities are used to assess the potential of soil as a source of organochlorine pesticides to the air of Mexico.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Bidleman, Terry F.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM = 1.6 ng g -1 ), endosulfans (0.16 ng g -1 ), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g -1 ). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher F DDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. - Chemical profiles of residues and soil-air fugacities are used to assess the potential of soil as a source of organochlorine pesticides to the air of Mexico.

  10. JSpOC Mission System Application Development Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R.; Reele, P.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Golf, B.

    2012-09-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is the program of record tasked with replacing the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities by the end of FY2015 as well as providing additional Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Command and Control (C2) capabilities post-FY2015. To meet the legacy replacement goal, the JMS program is maturing a government Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure that supports the integration of mission applications while acquiring mature industry and government mission applications. Future capabilities required by the JSpOC after 2015 will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new SSA data sources. To support the post FY2015 efforts, the JMS program is partnering with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to build a JMS application development environment. The purpose of this environment is to: 1) empower the research & development community, through access to relevant tools and data, to accelerate technology development, 2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to the developer community, 3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and 4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. The application development environment will consist of both unclassified and classified environments that can be accessed over common networks (including the Internet) to provide software developers, scientists, and engineers everything they need (e.g., building block JMS services, modeling and simulation tools, relevant test scenarios, documentation, data sources, user priorities/requirements, and SOA integration tools) to develop and test mission applications. The developed applications will be exercised in these

  11. Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division for Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)]. E-mail: jan.o.bustnes@nina.no; Miland, Oystein [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division for Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Fjeld, Magnus [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division for Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Erikstad, Kjell Einar [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division for Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-07-15

    The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we provide additional evidence that OCs are having ecological effects in the glaucous gull population at Bear Island in the Norwegian Arctic, and compare the effects of the four major OCs found in the glaucous gulls: HCB, oxychlordane, DDE and PCBs, which made up >95% of measured OCs. Firstly; it has previously been shown that gulls with high levels of PCBs in their blood spent more time away from the nest site during incubation than gulls with low levels. Here we reanalyzed the data and found that PCBs (P<0.02) and oxychlordane (P<0.05) were positive and significantly related to time away from the nest site, while DDE and HCB were not related to this trait. Secondly, among females which bred in an area where fish dominated the diet, and thus had high flight costs during feeding, early chick growth was negatively related to maternal levels of all four OCs, especially HCB and DDE (P<0.01). On the contrary, among females breeding in an area where the diet was dominated by eggs and young from nearby seabird colonies, and thus feeding costs were low, there were no effects of OC levels on early chick growth. This indicates that additional stress may be fundamental in causing reproductive effects of OCs in this population. Finally, during three breeding seasons we examined the probability of adults returning to the breeding grounds in the subsequent season, as a function of blood concentration of the four OCs. Overall, return rate from one year to the next was negatively related to blood residues of oxychlordane (P=0.02), but not significantly related to the other three compounds. Further support

  12. Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Miland, Oystein; Fjeld, Magnus; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2005-01-01

    The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we provide additional evidence that OCs are having ecological effects in the glaucous gull population at Bear Island in the Norwegian Arctic, and compare the effects of the four major OCs found in the glaucous gulls: HCB, oxychlordane, DDE and PCBs, which made up >95% of measured OCs. Firstly; it has previously been shown that gulls with high levels of PCBs in their blood spent more time away from the nest site during incubation than gulls with low levels. Here we reanalyzed the data and found that PCBs (P<0.02) and oxychlordane (P<0.05) were positive and significantly related to time away from the nest site, while DDE and HCB were not related to this trait. Secondly, among females which bred in an area where fish dominated the diet, and thus had high flight costs during feeding, early chick growth was negatively related to maternal levels of all four OCs, especially HCB and DDE (P<0.01). On the contrary, among females breeding in an area where the diet was dominated by eggs and young from nearby seabird colonies, and thus feeding costs were low, there were no effects of OC levels on early chick growth. This indicates that additional stress may be fundamental in causing reproductive effects of OCs in this population. Finally, during three breeding seasons we examined the probability of adults returning to the breeding grounds in the subsequent season, as a function of blood concentration of the four OCs. Overall, return rate from one year to the next was negatively related to blood residues of oxychlordane (P=0.02), but not significantly related to the other three compounds. Further support

  13. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.T.; Lee, T.K.M.; Chen, K.; Wong, H.L.; Zheng, J.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Lo, K.K.W.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  15. Construction of a genetically engineered microorganism that simultaneously degrades organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jijian; Liu, Ruihua; Song, Wenli; Yang, Yao; Cui, Feng; Qiao, Chuanling

    2012-02-01

    Field contamination with pesticide mixtures of organophosphates (OPs) and organochlorines (OCs) is becoming global issues to be solved urgently. The strategy of utilizing engineered microorganisms that have an ability to simultaneously degrade OPs and OCs has increasingly received great interest. In this work, an OP degradation gene (mpd) and an OC degradation gene (linA) were simultaneously introduced into Escherichia coli by using two compatible plasmids, resulting in strains with both OP degradation and OC degradation capabilities. To overcome the potential substrate uptake limitation, MPH was displayed on the cell surface of Escherichia coli using the N- and C-terminal domains of ice nucleation protein (INPNC) as an anchoring motif. The surface localization of INPNC-MPH was verified by cell fractionation, Western blot, proteinase accessibility, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, both LinA and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were functionally co-expressed in the MPH-displaying Escherichia coli. The engineered Escherichia coli degraded OPs as well as OCs rapidly, and it can be easily monitored by GFP fluorescence.

  16. Recent strategies for removal and degradation of persistent & toxic organochlorine pesticides using nanoparticles: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manviri; Shanker, Uma; Jassal, Vidhisha

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) are the most hazardous class of pesticides, therefore, banned or restricted in several countries. The major sources of OCs include food industries, agriculture and sewage wastes. Their effluents discharged into the water bodies contain extremely high concentration of OCs which ultimately causes environmental concern. Because of their high persistence, toxicity and potential to bioaccumulation, their removal from wastewater is imperative. The degradation techniques are now advanced using nanomaterials of various kinds. During the last few years, nanoparticles such as TiO 2 and Fe are found to be excellent adsorbents and efficient photocatalysts for degrading more or less whole OCs as well as their toxic metabolites, which opens the opportunities for exploring various other nanoparticles as well. It is noteworthy that such methodologies are economic, fast and very efficient. In this review, the detailed information on different types of OC pesticides, their metabolites, environmental concern and present status on degradation methods using nanoparticles have been reviewed. An attempt has also been made to highlight the research gaps prevailing in the current research area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the study of organochlorine contaminants in albatrosses and petrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Barquete, Viviane; Taniguchi, Satie; Ryan, Peter G; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2014-06-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in albatrosses and petrels collected off southern Brazil were compared with concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, as well as OCs concentrations, exhibited a high degree of variability among individuals and overlap among species. δ(13)C values reflected latitudinal differences among species, with lower values found in Wandering and Tristan Albatrosses and higher values found in Black-browed and Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatrosses and White-chinned Petrels. Some relationships were found between OCs and stable isotopes, but in general a partial 'uncoupling' was observed between OCs concentrations and stable isotopes ratios (especially for δ(15)N). δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in Procellariiformes tissues during the non-breeding season appear to be a better indicator of foraging habitats than of trophic relationships, which may partially explain the high degree of variability between concentrations of OCs and stable isotopes ratios in birds with a diversified diet and wide foraging range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  19. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  20. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , heptachlor and endosulfan were determined in water and sediment samples of freshwater systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa that receive runoff from agricultural lands and effluents from industries. The organochlorine ...

  1. Altmetrics, Legacy Scholarship, and Scholarly Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When using alternative metrics (altmetrics to investigate the impact of a scholar’s work, researchers and librarians are typically cautioned that altmetrics will be less useful for older works of scholarship. This is because it is difficult to collect social media and other attention retroactively, and the numbers will be lower if the work was published before social media marketing and promotion were widely accepted in a field. In this article, we argue that altmetrics can provide useful information about older works in the form of documenting renewed attention to past scholarship as part of a scholar’s legacy. Using the altmetrics profile of the late Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, often referred to as “the father of modern transplantation”, we describe two cases where altmetrics provided information about renewed interest in his works: a controversy about race and genetics that shows the ongoing impact of a particular work, and posthumous remembrances by colleagues which reveal his scholarly legacy.

  2. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus and silverside (Atherina boyeri. Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near Varna City, Bulgaria and compared the results to the levels in other aquatic ecosystems. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, HCB, HCBD, DDT and its two main metabolites DDE and DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. The OCPs levels in the wild fish were found in the order DDTs > PCBs. The other contaminants HCB and HCBD were not detected or were below the analytical detection limit. Among the pesticides, essentially only the metabolites p, p’- DDE and p, p’- DDD were found.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Gardner, Susan C; Urbán R, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports unique data on concentrations of several classes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in blubber biopsies from healthy living fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico, one of the most isolated and unstudied population in the world. OC levels in this population were generally lower than levels reported in fin whales from other regions. The rank order of OCs were SigmaDDTs (range from 300 to 2400 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaPCBs (range from 40 to 290 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaHCHs (range from or = SigmaCHLORs (from Gulf of California fin whales, health effects in individuals could readily translate into population-level effects. Future research on this topic will be necessary to better understand the role that these compounds may have on the health of this population.

  4. Creating legacy through evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Lynghøj, Hanne; Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    is how to stimulate cultural legacy in certain directions through the emphasis of specific values in the strategic objectives and evaluation criteria. Another perspective is how, to whom and for what purpose evaluation results are reported and implemented, and thus how evaluation may affect design, aims...

  5. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Geraldine; Terouanne, Beatrice; Mauvais, Pascale; Michel, Serge; Rahmani, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Many persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been implicated in adverse effects, that is, reproductive and developmental effects, in man and in wildlife alike. It has been hypothesized that these so-called xeno-hormones could be responsible for the increased incidence in various male sexual differentiation disorders such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, low sperm counts and quality. In this report, OCs, called endocrine disrupters, were tested for their interaction with the androgen receptor. The stable prostatic cell line PALM, which contains a human androgen receptor (hAR) expression vector and the reporter MMTV-luciferase, was used to characterize the response of hAR to OC and was compared with synthetic androgen compound R1881. We found that all the OC pesticides tested were able to shift the agonist [ 3 H]-R1881 from its binding site to the AR in competitive binding assays. In addition, these compounds antagonize - in a dose-dependent manner - the AR-mediated transcription by synthetic AR ligand R1881. None of the pesticides reacted as agonists. These results demonstrate that OC endocrine activities in vivo probably result from direct and specific binding to the AR ligand-binding domain. Although the antagonistic potential of OC pesticides is lower than that of hydroxyflutamide, they are capable of disrupting the male hormone signaling pathway. Because these chemicals are extremely persistent and tend to bioaccumulate, these results support the hypothesis that the recent increase in the incidence of male sexual disorders could be due to long exposure to ubiquitous OC pesticides found in the environment

  6. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p'-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 microg/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., SigmaPCBs 688 to 245 to 182 microg/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 microg/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and

  7. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p?-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 ??g/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., ???PCBs 688 to 245 to 182 ??g/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 ??g/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and northern

  8. Toxic deposition monitoring network data listing for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and precipitation 1989 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Ontario environment ministry established a toxics deposition network in 1987 to monitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and furans in air and precipitation. Monitoring sites are located along each Canadian shoreline of the Great Lakes. Data are presented from the 1989 and 1990 air and precipitation monitoring results for PCBs and OCs. The sampling and analytical methods, data screening methods, and codes used in the data tables are explained. Each data listing is identified by station name, and individual sample records are listed consecutively by sample collection date. Each sample record includes a heading consisting of several field sample collection information data fields and a number of analytical results. PCBs are listed by congener group (up to nonachlorobiphenyl) and as a congener group sum. The OCs measured include Heptachlor, Aldrin, Mirex, chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane. 3 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Hypospadias in offspring is associated with chronic exposure of parents to organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Michalis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kovatsi, Leda; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Heretis, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2014-10-15

    We have currently evaluated the possible association between hypospadias and exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. For this purpose, we measured the dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (DAPs) in the hair and blood, as well as OC pesticides (DDTs, HCHs) in the hair collected from children with hypospadias and their parents. The concentration of HCHs in the hair samples obtained from mothers was higher than that previously reported for people working in open cultivations, while the concentration of DDTs in the hair samples obtained from mothers, fathers and their children with hypospadias was much higher than that previously reported for occupationally exposed individuals. The DMP concentration in hair samples obtained from mothers was much higher not only from that reported for the general population, but even higher than that reported for occupationally exposed individuals. Furthermore, SUMDEPs and SUMDAPs in the hair samples obtained both from the hypospadiac boys, as well as from their parents were higher than the corresponding values previously reported for the general population. Our study supports the hypothesis that organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide exposure may be a potential risk factor for hypospadias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common dolphins (Delphinus sp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockin, K.A. [Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC (New Zealand)], E-mail: k.a.stockin@massey.ac.nz; Law, R.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham on Crouch, Essex CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Duignan, P.J.; Jones, G.W. [New Zealand Wildlife Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Porter, L. [AgriQuality Limited, PO Box 31 242, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mirimin, L. [University College Cork, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, North Mall, Distillery Fields, Cork (Ireland); Meynier, L. [New Zealand Wildlife Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Orams, M.B. [Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    Trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in tissues collected from stranded and bycaught common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters between 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and silver (Ag) were determined in blubber, liver and kidney tissue. PCBs (45 congeners) and a range of OC pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites DDE and DDD were determined in blubber samples. Cr and Ni were not detected in any of the samples and concentrations of Co, Sn and Pb were generally low. Concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.17 to 110 mg/kg wet weight. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, HCB, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were present at the highest concentrations. Sum DDT concentrations in the blubber ranged from 17 to 337 and 654 to 4430 {mu}g/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. Similarly, {sigma}45CB concentrations ranged from 49 to 386 and 268 to 1634 {mu}g/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. The mean transmission of {sigma}DDTs and ICES7CBs between a genetically determined mother-offspring pair was calculated at 46% and 42%, respectively. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides determined in the present study are within similar range to those reported for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhyncus hectori) from inshore New Zealand waters.

  12. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in elementary school yards along the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miersma, Nick A; Pepper, Christopher B; Anderson, Todd A

    2003-01-01

    A reconnaissance study was undertaken to determine potential contaminant exposures to children through soil from elementary school playgrounds. Soil samples were collected from areas along the Texas-Mexico border, inland areas (soils from elementary school yards in cities/towns within the state of Texas), and three National Parks (one on the border, one in Tennessee, and one in Washington). The present study focused on organochlorine (OC) pesticides as the potential contaminants of concern because of their historical (and possibly current) use, and their importance as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDE and heptachlor were the most frequently detected OCs (69 and 63%, respectively), although heptachlor concentrations in soil never exceeded 5 ppb. Relatively higher concentrations of DDE were observed in agricultural areas along the border (50-60 ppb in soils from McAllen, Palmview, and San Benito) than in other soils. However, a school yard in Lubbock, TX had the highest OC concentration observed (70 ppb dieldrin). These results may be due to historical agriculture activity prior to the banning of OC pesticides such as DDT in the early 1970s, as well as the more recent use of DDT in Central and South America for malaria control.

  14. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-05-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for summation operator PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and summation operator PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE.

  15. Toxic deposition monitoring network data listing for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and precipitation, 1989 and 1990. Report No. ARB-107-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The toxic deposition network was established in late 1987 to monitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/PCDFs) in air and precipitation. This report gives the 1989 and 1990 air and precipitation monitoring results for PCBs and OCs. Data from the site at Shallow Lake are incomplete because the site was closed in October 1990. Trace metal data are reported as part of the APIOS monitoring program.

  16. Revisiting Legacy Software System Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadka, R.

    2016-01-01

    Legacy software systems are those that significantly resist modification and evolution while still being valuable to its stakeholders to the extent that their failure has a detrimental impact on business. Despite several drawbacks of legacy software systems, they are still being extensively used in

  17. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  18. Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; Braune, B.M.; O'Hara, T.M.; Elkin, B.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs in Arctic fox are lower than reported in other Arctic populations and unlikely to cause significant impairment of reproductive success. - Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by δ 15 N) is positively correlated with increasing δ 13 C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominately marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) > chlordane-related compounds (ΣCHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) ≥chlorobenzenes (ΣClBz) > DDT-related isomers (ΣDDT). In liver, ΣCHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by ΣPCB > TOX > ΣHCH > ΣClBz > ΣDDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of δ 15 N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While ΣPCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs

  19. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s...

  20. Organochlorines in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Liza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorines in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Liza grandisquamis from Lagos Lagoon and Agboyi Creek, Nigeria. A. B. Williams, O. O. Ayejuyo. Abstract. Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and mullet (Liza grandisquamis) were sampled from Lagos Lagoon and Agboyi Creek and analysed for alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, ...

  1. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... Objectives: The present study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the organochlorine pesticide and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in the surface sediments of the Grand-Lahou lagoon. (Côte d'Ivoire). Methodology and Results: Sediment samples were collected during ...

  2. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transfer of organochlorine residues in the food chain and its distribution in the trophic levels was influenced by habitat, environmental conditions, feeding habit and biochemical composition of individual populations. The total residual concentration of OCPs in shellfish and fish ranged between 0.16 ppm and 0.69 ppm.

  3. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    info/index.php/jasem http://www.bioline.org.br/ja. Occurrence of organochlorine and .... Data analysis involved analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test to test for significance of variations using GraphPad. Instat software (GraphPad Software, Inc.

  4. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  5. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  6. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Rigét, Frank F

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical......), energy absorption (J) and time (s) biomechanical properties than fat winter foxes (all pbones from fasting which is in agreement with previous studies. Further, it should be kept in mind when studying bone tissues in Arctic mammals also in order to avoid...

  7. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...... between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations....

  8. Brief communication: Organochlorine pesticides in an archived firn core from Law Dome, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bigot

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were, for the first time, quantified in archived firn cores from East Antarctica representative of 1945–1957 and 1958–1967 (current era, C.E.. The core sections were melted under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, and the meltwater was analysed. Methods allowed quantification of hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlor, trans-chlordane, dieldrin and endrin. While the core presented evidence of nominal contamination by modern-use chemicals, indicating handling and/or storage contamination, legacy OCP concentrations and deposition rates reported are orders of magnitude lower than those from Arctic regions, lending support for their validity. The study further provides a description of equipment used and suggests methods to overcome logistical challenges associated with trace organic contaminant detection in polar regions.

  9. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Miquel; Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers

  10. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  11. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (age and lower cognitive function (Pinteractioncognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile), the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years) vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years), while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles). Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in prospective studies.

  12. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  13. Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the Archean atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF) in geological samples would provide a record of the past atmospheric composition, though the mechanism of photochemical S-MIF is still poorly understood [1]. We determined the high-precision UV absorption spectra of SO2 isotopologues [2......] and calculated isotope fractionation factor of SO2 photolysis as a function of wavelength. Using these results, we show that the estimated fractionation factors give mass independent distributions and are highly sensitive to the atmospheric concentrations of O2, O3, CO2, H2O, CS2, NH4, N2O, H2S, OCS and SO2...... itself, because these molecules can modify spectra of actinic UV flux. Although various UVshielding scenarios can be considered, we found that the negative ¿33S observed in all the Archean sulfate deposits [1,3] could be expected only when OCS was present in the atmosphere. This is because OCS uniquely...

  14. Organochlorines in urban soils from Central India: probabilistic health hazard and risk implications to human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupander; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Rai, Premanjali; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-04-21

    This study presents distribution of organochlorines (OCs) including HCH, DDT and PCBs in urban soils, and their environmental and human health risk. Forty-eight soil samples were extracted using ultrasonication, cleaned with modified silica gel chromatography and analyzed by GC-ECD. The observed concentrations of ∑HCH, ∑DDT and ∑PCBs in soils ranged between < 0.01-2.54, 1.30-27.41 and < 0.01-62.8 µg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the recommended soil quality guidelines. Human health risk was estimated following recommended guidelines. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD), non-cancer risk or hazard quotient (HQ) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for humans due to individual and total OCs were estimated and presented. Estimated LADD were lower than acceptable daily intake and reference dose. Human health risk estimates were lower than safe limit of non-cancer risk (HQ < 1.0) and the acceptable distribution range of ILCR (10 -6 -10 -4 ). Therefore, this study concluded that present levels of OCs (HCH, DDT and PCBs) in studied soils were low, and subsequently posed low health risk to human population in the study area.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in soils of Mexico and the potential for soil-air exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in soils and their potential for soil-air exchange was examined. The most prominent OCs were the DDTs (Geometric Mean, GM=1.6 ng g(-1)), endosulfans (0.16 ng g(-1)), and toxaphenes (0.64 ng g(-1)). DDTs in soils of southern Mexico showed fresher signatures with higher FDDTe=p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDE) and more racemic o,p'-DDT, while the signatures in the central and northern part of Mexico were more indicative of aged residues. Soil-air fugacity fractions showed that some soils are net recipients of DDTs from the atmosphere, while other soils are net sources. Toxaphene profiles in soils and air showed depletion of Parlar 39 and 42 which suggests that soil is the source to the atmosphere. Endosulfan was undergoing net deposition at most sites as it is a currently used pesticide. Other OCs showed wide variability in fugacity, suggesting a mix of net deposition and volatilization. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2016-02-01

    The composition of organochlorine compounds (OCs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and little egret (Egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family Ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (Aiguabarreig, Ebro River). These two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of OCs. Cattle egret essentially feeds on dry grassy habitats and follow cattle or other large animals whereas little egret feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans captured in shallow waters. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of the sampled eggs was studied and the results were consistent with these species feeding habits. In both species, the compounds accumulated the most were the less volatile and more lipophilic, e.g. PCB congeners of higher chlorination, DDT and metabolites. The distinct foraging species preferences were reflected in significant higher concentrations in little egret than cattle egret of all pollutant groups analysed. These differences were statistically significant for DDTs and PCBs (p < 0.015 and p < 0.047, respectively), e.g. the p,p'-DDE and PCB concentrations were 6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively, in the former than the latter. This strong contrast indicates that in remote environments aquatic riverine ecosystems are more efficient OC reservoirs than the terrestrial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic and organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, G. W.; Walla, M. D.; Bidleman, T. F.; Barrie, L. A.

    1991-06-01

    In February-April 1988 we collected air samples at Alert in the Canadian Arctic (82.5°N, 62.3°W) to determine the types, concentrations, and vapor-particle relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated compounds, Organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Samples were taken using a glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam train and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass selective and electron capture detection. PAH and oxygenated compounds included dibenzofuran, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, 9-fluorenone, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthenes, pyrene, chrysene, benzopyrenes, indeno[cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, 2-methyl phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, and anthracene (given in order of relative abundance, highest to lowest). OC compounds included hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, PCB, polychlorocamphenes, chlordanes, and the dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) group (given as above). The concentration ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH (5.2-9.8) and trans- to cis-chlordane (0.78-1.29) are reported. Compounds having estimated liquid-phase saturation vapor pressure (pL0) ≥ 10-3 Pa at the average sampling temperature (245 K) were almost entirely gaseous. Those from 10-6 ≤ pL0 ≤ 10-3 Pa were distributed between the particle and gas phases, whereas little or no gaseous component was evident for compounds having pL0 ≤ 10-6 Pa. The particle-vapor distribution of PAH and OC compared favorably to the Junge-Pankow model.

  18. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  19. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drooge, Barend van; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for ΣPCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors

  20. Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the Archean atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    also has absorption band in lethal UVC region like ozone, thus could be an alternative UV-shielding molecule in an ozonefree reducing atmosphere. The decline of OCS might have coursed the late Archean Pongola glaciation (2.9 Ga) and possibly resulted in UV crisis of terrestrial and shallow water...

  1. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  2. Organochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): Role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coat, Sophie, E-mail: coatsophie@gmail.com [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Monti, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.monti@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Legendre, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.legendre@umontreal.ca [Departement de Sciences Biologique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bouchon, Claude, E-mail: claude.bouchon@univ-ag.fr [EA 926 DYNECAR, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, UFR Sciences, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP592, 97159 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex (France); Massat, Felix, E-mail: fmassat@ladrome.fr [LDA26, laboratoire Departemental d' Analyses de la Drome, 27 avenue Lautagne, 26000 Valence (France); Lepoint, Gilles, E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be [MARE Centre, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, Bat. B6, 4000 Sart Tilman, Belgique (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to {beta}-HCH. - Highlights: > We measured OC pesticides and stable isotope ratios in a tropical stream. > Results showed a strong and ubiquitous contamination of the entire food web. > Diadromous juveniles strongly accumulated pollutants when they re-enter the river. > The most persistent pollutant (chlordecone) was related to species diet and habitat. > {beta}-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. - This paper determines the bioaccumulation and transfer processes of organochlorine pesticides within the stream food web in Guadeloupe (Caribbean).

  3. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  5. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  6. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  7. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F; Alvarado, Víctor; Angeles, Felipe; Galarza, Alfredo Avila; Bandala, Erick R; Hinojosa, Idolina de la Cerda; Estrada, Ignacio Galindo; Reyes, Guillermo Galindo; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Zamora, Jose Vinicio Macías; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Espinoza, Elias Ramirez

    2009-02-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in air across Mexico was investigated by deploying passive samplers at eleven stations across the country during 2005-2006. Integrated samples were taken over three-month periods and quantified for DDT compounds, endosulfans, toxaphenes, components of technical chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dieldrin. Enantiomers of chiral chlordanes and o,p'-DDT were determined on chiral stationary phase columns as an indicator of source and age. Results are discussed in combination with pumped air samples taken at four other stations in southern Mexico during 2002-2004. DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and toxaphene were the most abundant OCs detected in all sampling sites. Atmospheric concentrations of SigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD + o,p'-DDD) ranged from 15 to 2360 pg m(-3) with the highest concentrations found in southern Mexico and the lowest found in northern and central Mexico. A fresher DDT residue was observed at sites with greater DDT use and in the southern part of the country, as shown from the higher FDDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and nearly racemic o,p'-DDT. This agrees with the former heavy use of DDT in the endemic malarious area of the country. A local hotspot of endosulfan was identified at an agricultural area in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, with a annual mean concentration of SigmaENDO (endosulfans I + II + endosulfan sulfate) = 26,800 pg m(-3). At this site, higher concentrations of SigmaENDO were recorded during the winter (November to February) and spring (February to May) periods. From back trajectory analysis, this coincides with a shift in the air mass coming from the Pacific Ocean (May to November) to the inland agricultural area (November to May). The elevated SigmaENDO observed is likely due to the local agricultural usage. HCHs, chlordanes, transnonachlors, and dieldrin were more evenly distributed across the country likely due to

  8. Immune function biomarkers in children exposed to lead and organochlorine compounds: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi-Osius Nadia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different organochlorines and lead (Pb have been shown to have immunomodulating properties. Children are at greater risk for exposure to these environmental toxicants, but very little data exist on simultaneous exposures to these substances. Methods We investigated whether the organochlorine compounds (OC dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs and Pb were associated with immune markers such as immunoglobulin (Ig levels, white blood cell (WBC, counts of lymphocytes; eosinophils and their eosinophilic granula as well as IgE count on basophils. The investigation was part of a cross-sectional environmental study in Hesse, Germany. In 1995, exposure to OC and Pb were determined, questionnaire data collected and immune markers quantified in 331 children. For the analyses, exposure (OC and Pb concentrations were grouped in quartiles (γ-HCH into tertiles. Using linear regression, controlling for age, gender, passive smoking, serum lipids, and infections in the previous 12 months, we assessed the association between exposures and immune markers. Adjusted geometric means are provided for the different exposure levels. Results Geometric means were: DDE 0.32 μg/L, ΣPCBs 0.50 μg/L, HCB 0.22 μg/L, γ-HCH 0.02 μg/L and Pb 26.8 μg/L. The ΣPCBs was significantly associated with increased IgM levels, whereas HCB was inversely related to IgM. There was a higher number of NK cells (CD56+ with increased γ-HCH concentrations. At higher lead concentrations we saw increased IgE levels. DDE showed the most associations with significant increases in WBC count, in IgE count on basophils, IgE, IgG, and IgA levels. DDE was also found to significantly decrease eosinophilic granula content. Conclusion Low-level exposures to OC and lead (Pb in children may have immunomodulating effects. The increased IgE levels, IgE count on basophils, and the reduction of

  9. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10 3 and 50x10 3 dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10 3 and 5x10 3 dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p 3 dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1

  10. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  11. Organochlorine Compounds and Ultrasound Measurements of Fetal Growth in the INMA Cohort (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vizcaino, Esther; Costa, Olga; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; Guxens, Mònica; Gascon, Mireia; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. We examined the relationship between prenatal OC concentrations and fetal anthropometry. We measured 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (138, 153, and 180) in 2,369 maternal and 1,140 cord serum samples in four Spanish cohorts (2003-2008). We used linear mixed models to obtain longitudinal growth curves for estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and femur length (FL) adjusted by parental and fetal characteristics. We calculated standard deviation (SD) scores of growth at 0-12, 12-20, and 20-34 weeks of gestation as well as size at gestational week 34 for the four parameters. We studied the association between OCs and the fetal outcomes by cohort-specific linear models and subsequent meta-analyses. PCBs were associated with a reduction in AC up to mid-pregnancy, and BPD and FL from gestational week 20 onward. An inverse association was also found between HCB and AC growth in early pregnancy. The reduction of these parameters ranged from -4% to -2% for a doubling in the OC concentrations. No association between 4,4´-DDE and fetal growth was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between prenatal exposure to some PCBs and HCB and fetal growth: AC during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, and BPD and FL later in pregnancy. Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Murcia M, Iñiguez C, Vizcaino E, Costa O, Fernández-Somoano A, Basterrechea M, Lertxundi A, Guxens M, Gascon M, Goñi-Irigoyen F, Grimalt JO, Tardón A, Ballester F. 2016. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort (Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:157-163; http://dx.doi.org/10

  12. Legacy Chlordane in Soils from Housing Areas Treated with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 ERDC/EL TR-09-20 ii Abstract: Chlordane was used for termite prevention in Air Force housing areas, where it was sprayed...gardens, and also for underground treatment of building foundations for termite treatment/prevention. The USEPA canceled above-ground uses in 1978...xenobiotic compounds (Semple et al. 2001). These materials are rich in nutrients and have diverse microbial floras, including bacteria, actinomycetes, and

  13. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in liver and fat of birds of prey from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hela, D G; Konstantinou, I K; Sakellarides, T M; Lambropoulou, D A; Akriotis, T; Albanis, T A

    2006-05-01

    The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), cyclodienes (Cycls), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in livers and subcutaneous fat tissues of six Accipitridae and four Falconidae bird species from different areas in Greece. This is the first report of persistent organochlorine (OC) pollutants in birds of prey tissues presented for Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean region. Accumulation patterns of OCs found in birds suggested that the predominant contaminants were p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-1,1-ethylene (DDE) and PCBs, whereas Cycls and HCHs occurred at low concentrations only. Concentration values of p,p'-DDE ranged from nondetected to 19,518.72 ng/g wet wt in livers and from nondetected to 2679.19 ng/g wet wt in fat. Total PCB levels ranged from 1.01 to 7419.43 ng/g and from 3.25 to 490.10 ng/g wet weight for liver and fat samples, respectively. Higher-chlorinated PCBs such as 118, 138, 153, and 180 predominated in both the liver and subcutaneous fat samples, a pattern comparable to that observed in birds from other European countries. No significant differences in mean concentrations of OCs are detected between species. Hepatic concentrations were in general higher than the fat concentrations showing depleted fat stores in most birds. Concentration ranges were also found in lower or similar levels to those reported for birds in other regions. Variation of OCs levels in bird tissues could be due to different causes of death, with a subsequent effect on body lipid levels, and different feeding and migration habits. The liver PCB levels reported in this study are below the concentrations currently believed to exert mortality or ecotoxicological effects. On the contrary, in some cases p,p'-DDE concentrations were higher than the reported effect values for birds of the same families and could be associated with sublethal effects.

  14. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  15. Contamination of persistent organochlorines in sediments from Mekong River Delta, South Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Minh Nguyen; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, A.; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Center for Marine Environmental Studies; Hung, Viet Pham [Hanoi National Univ., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cach, Tuyen Bui [Univ. for Agriculture and Forestry, Hochiminh (Viet Nam)

    2004-09-15

    Mekong River is the longest river in southeastern Asia, which flows a distance of almost 4800 km from China through Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. The Mekong River basin with an area of nearly 800 thousand square kilometers is an important habitat for approximately 60 million people. Mekong River delta in South Vietnam, which is inhabited by about 20 million people, is one of the most highly productive agriculture lands in the world. Rice production is major economical sector in Mekong delta contributing half of the rice production in Vietnam - approximately 35 million tons annually. On the other hand, development of agriculture in Mekong delta raised some concern on environmental quality and disturbance on ecosystem. For example, intensive use of organochlorine (OC) insecticides such as DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs may lead to considerable residues in the agriculture land. Moreover, relative persistence of such chemicals together with natural processes like evaporation and run-off, might enhance their ubiquitous distribution in environment, food chains and eventually bio-accumulate in humans. In Vietnam, despite official ban on the usage of OCs on 1995, there have been evidences of recent uses of such chemicals, particularly DDT, throughout the country. It can be anticipated that similar situation may occur in Mekong River delta due to high population density and intensive agriculture activities in this region. Despite this fact, no comprehensive study, to evaluate the status of contamination by persistent OCs in this region, has been made in recent years. In this study, we collected sediments from different locations along Mekong River and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCB and PCBs in order to elucidate the recent contamination status, their usage pattern as well as to evaluate potential pollution sources of these chemicals to the river.

  16. Toxic influence of organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides on cellular metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), organochlorine (OC), and carbamate (CB) compounds, are widely used in agricultural and indoor purposes. OP and CB act as acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that affect lots of organs such as peripheral and central nervous systems, muscles, liver, pancreas, and brain, whereas OC are neurotoxic involved in alteration of ion channels. There are several reports about metabolic disorders, hyperglycemia, and also oxidative stress in acute and chronic exposures to pesticides that are linked with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In this respect, there are several in vitro and in vivo but few clinical studies about mechanism underlying these effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for the years 1963-2010 and resulted in 1652 articles. After elimination of duplicates or irrelevant papers, 204 papers were included and reviewed. Results indicated that OP and CB impair the enzymatic pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein within cytoplasm, mitochondria, and proxisomes. It is believed that OP and CB show this effect through inhibition of AChE or affecting target organs directly. OC mostly affect lipid metabolism in the adipose tissues and change glucose pathway in other cells. As a shared mechanism, all OP, CB and OC induce cellular oxidative stress via affecting mitochondrial function and therefore disrupt neuronal and hormonal status of the body. Establishing proper epidemiological studies to explore exact relationships between exposure levels to these pesticides and rate of resulted metabolic disorders in human will be helpful.

  17. Metabolic concentration of lipid soluble organochlorine burdens in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales through migration and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Waugh, Courtney A; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-08-20

    Southern hemisphere humpback whales undertake the longest migrations and associated periods of fasting of any mammal. Fluctuations in lipid energy stores are known to profoundly affect the toxicokinetics of lipophilic organochlorine compound (OC) burdens. Results from blubber biopsy sampling of adult, male humpback whales at two time points of the annual migration journey revealed dramatic concentration effects for the majority of OC compounds. The observed concentration effect was, however, not linear with measured average blubber lipid loss indicating significant redistribution of OCs and hence the importance of alternate lipid depots for meeting the energetic demands of the migration journey. Applying lipophilic OC burdens as novel tracers of whole-body lipid dynamics, the observed average concentration index suggests an average individual weight loss of 13% over 4 months of the migration journey. This value is based upon lipid derived energy and is in good agreement with previous weight prediction formulas. Notably, however, these estimates may greatly underestimate individual weight loss if significant protein catabolism occurs. Biomagnification factors between migrating southern hemisphere humpback whales and their principal prey item, Antarctic krill, closely resembled those of baleen whales feeding on herbivorous zooplankton in the Arctic. This study emphasizes the importance of considering prolonged periods of food deprivation when assessing chemical risks posed to wildlife. This is of particular importance for Polar biota adapted to extremes in ecosystem productivity.

  18. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine ...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  19. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  20. Characterization of population exposure to organochlorines: A cluster analysis application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Guimarães (Raphael Mendonça); S. Asmus (Sven); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to show the results from a cluster analysis application in the characterization of population exposure to organochlorines through variables related to time and exposure dose. Characteristics of 354 subjects in a population exposed to organochlorine pesticides residues

  1. Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water and sediments from Agboyi Creek, Lagos. AB Williams. Abstract. Microlayer water, mixed layer water, epipellic and benthic sediments were collected from Agboyi Creek, Lagos to analyse organochlorine pesticide residues. Sampling was conducted between December ...

  2. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  3. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  4. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes δ15N, δ13C, and δD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001–2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes δ15N, δ13C, and δD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p’-DDE (100%), p,p′-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p′-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 μg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in δ13C and δ15N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, δD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. δD values also were negatively and significantly correlated with DDE concentrations in carcass

  5. Relationships among aural abscesses, organochlorine compounds, and vitamin a in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Brown, Justin; Steffen, David; Jones, Delbert; Roberston, John; Holladay, Steven

    2008-10-01

    Aural abscesses are a common health problem in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), and they have been associated with high body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds, which are known disruptors of vitamin A. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of pathologic lesions in box turtles were correlated with increased and decreased levels of hepatic OC compounds and vitamin A, respectively. A graded scale for the pathologic changes observed in tissue samples collected from abscessed and nonabscessed box turtles over a 2-yr period (2003-04) was developed, and the levels of OC compounds and vitamin A in livers collected from the same turtles were determined through chemical analysis. Sixty-eight turtles (40 with aural abscesses and 28 without) were included in the study. Relationships between variables were analyzed using Spearman's Rank Correlation Test, where Pturtles was 0.35+/-0.83 ppm (range 0-5.81 ppm), and mean+/-SD vitamin A level was 72.8+/-98.6 ppm (range 0-535.7 ppm). There was no correlation between pathologic score and total hepatic OC compound concentration (r = -0.18, P = 0.16). However, pathologic score was positively correlated with o,p'-DDT (r = 0.25, P = 0.05). Vitamin A was positively correlated with pathologic score (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), which was contrary to the expected result. There was no linear correlation between vitamin A and total hepatic OC compound concentration (r = -0.04, P = 0.75). However, a nonlinear regression provided a significant fit (r(2) = 0.12, P = 0.02), indicating an initial increase in vitamin A as the OC compound burden increased, followed by a decline as OC compound levels increased further. The hepatic OC compound residue concentrations in these box turtles were lower compared to levels found in freshwater aquatic turtles but similar to levels in other terrestrial reptile species. This study provides mixed results in support of a role of OC compounds, presumably of

  6. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries.

  7. Incidence of organochlorine pesticides and the health condition of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) at Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified and quantified organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues in the plasma of 28 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings from a dense population in Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico, during the 2001 breeding season. Sixteen OC pesticides were identified and quantified. α-, β-, δ- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptaclor, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan-sulfate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone were the OCs found in the plasma of nestlings, ranging from 0.002 to 6.856 pg/μl (parts per billion). No differences were found in the concentration of pesticides between genders (P > 0.05). In our work, the concentrations detected in the plasma were lower than those reported to be a threat for the species and that affect the survival and reproduction of birds. The presence of OC pesticides in the remote Laguna San Ignacio osprey population is an indication of the ubiquitous nature of these contaminants. OCs are apparently able to travel long distances from their source to the study area. A significant relationship between hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and OC concentrations were found suggesting that a potential effect on the health of chicks may exist in this osprey population caused by the OC, e.g. anemia. The total proteins were positively correlated with α-BHC, endosulfan I, and p,p'-DDD. It has been suggested that OC also affects competitive interactions and population status over the long term in vertebrate species, and our results could be used as reference information for comparison with other more exposed osprey populations.

  8. Influence of life-history parameters on organochlorine concentrations in free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Prince William Sound, AK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, G M; Matkin, C O; Buzitis, J; Krahn, M M; Jones, L L; Rowles, T; Stein, J E

    2001-12-17

    Certain populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been extensively studied over the past 30 years, including populations that use Puget Sound, WA, the inside waters of British Columbia, Southeastern Alaska and Kenai Fjords/Prince William Sound, Alaska. Two eco-types of killer whales, 'transient' and 'resident', occur in all of these regions. These eco-types are genetically distinct and differ in various aspects of morphology, vocalization patterns, diet and habitat use. Various genetic and photo-identification studies of eastern North Pacific killer whales have provided information on the male-female composition of most of these resident pods and transient groups, as well as the approximate ages, reproductive status and putative recruitment order (birth order) of the individual whales. Biopsy blubber samples of free-ranging resident and transient killer whales from the Kenai Fjords/Prince William Sound, AK region were acquired during the 1994-1999 field seasons and analyzed for selected organochlorines (OCs), including dioxin-like CB congeners and DDTs. Concentrations of OCs in transient killer whales (marine mammal-eating) were much higher than those found in resident animals (fish-eating) apparently due to differences in diets of these two killer whale eco-types. Certain life-history parameters such as sex, age and reproductive status also influenced the concentrations of OCs in the Alaskan killer whales. Reproductive female whales contained much lower levels of OCs than sexually immature whales or mature male animals in the same age class likely due to transfer of OCs from the female to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Recruitment order also influenced the concentrations of OCs in the Alaskan killer whales. In adult male residents, first-recruited whales contained much higher OC concentrations than those measured in non-first-recruited (e.g. second recruited, third recruited) resident animals in the same age group. This study provides

  9. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and problems of rural power situation in India. Writing books of science for children is his major preoccupation now. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla. 2. AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. Electrical power supply has grown enormously during this century. In 1950 the total capacity of generators producing.

  10. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on

  11. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  12. Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.

  13. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 69-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  15. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - The AC System that he Helped to Usher in. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 54-69. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. The Legacy of S Chandrasekhar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 4. The Legacy of S. Chandrasekhar Remembering a Giant of Our Times. Kameshwar C Wali. General Article Volume 2 Issue 4 April 1997 pp 19-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. From Event Planning to Legacy Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The importance of legacy and legacy planning is increasing in the event industry. Mega-events are becoming so expensive to host that the opportunity costs decreases the amount of potential future hosts. The events aim to surpass the costs by creating positive legacies, impacts that last longer than the event itself. Small-events can also have legacies and the positive affects can be even more significant than with the mega-events. Event planning must change to legacy planning in the future, b...

  18. Prenatal organochlorine compound exposure, rapid weight gain, and overweight in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-02-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

  19. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were measured directly for 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C. Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7.4 for hexachlorobenzene to 10.1 for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Measured values were compared to values calculated as KowRT/H (where R is the ideal gas constant [8.314 J mol(-1) K(-1)], T is absolute temperature, and H is Henry's law constant) were, in general, larger. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air (deltaHoa) were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to 105 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). Activity coefficients in octanol (gamma(o)) were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures (pL(o)), and these were in the range of 0.3 to 12, indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and -10 degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.

  20. The influence of ecological processes on the accumulation of persistent organochlorines in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Olof

    1999-09-01

    Several ecological problems influences the fate, transport, and accumulation of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in aquatic ecosystems. In this thesis, I have focused on two processes, namely (i) the food chain bioaccumulation of OCs, and (ii) the trophic status of the aquatic system. To test the biomagnification theory, I investigated PCB concentrations in planktonic food chains in lakes. The concentrations of PCB on a lipid basis did not increase with increasing trophic level. Hence, I could give no support to the theory of biomagnification. Instead, lipid content explained most of the variation in PCB accumulation in these food chains. PCBs were differentially fractionated in the food chains, the relative amount of high molecular weight PCBs increased with increasing trophic level, indicating congener specific differences in either the accumulation or the elimination of PCBs at the different trophic levels. In another study, I investigated the relationship between OC concentrations and trophic level, measured as {delta}{sup 15}N, in a specific predatory fish population. The dry weight OC concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N were related, indicating effects of prey choice on the OC accumulation. However, here also, lipid content explained the major part of the variation in OC concentrations, independent of trophic level (e. g. {delta}{sup 15}N). I investigated the effects of trophic status, measured as Tot-P concentration in water, on the concentrations of OCs in water, planktonic food chains and sediment in lakes. The dry weight concentrations of PCBs in phytoplankton were negatively related to the trophic status of the lakes. However, this relationship was explained by the decreasing lipid content of phytoplankton with lake trophic status. The phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes had lower lipid content than phytoplankton in oligotrophic lakes, possibly due to inter- and intraspecific differences in lipid content due to nutrient stress. The sediment accumulation and

  1. A new mechanistic framework to predict OCS fluxes from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogée, Jérôme; Sauze, Joana; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Genty, Bernard; Van Diest, Heidi; Launois, Thomas; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes at large scales are needed to improve our predictions of the current and future global CO2 cycle. Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been proposed as a new tracer of photosynthetic gross primary productivity (GPP), as the uptake of OCS from the atmosphere is dominated by the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme abundant in leaves that also catalyses CO2 hydration during photosynthesis. However soils also exchange OCS with the atmosphere, which complicates the retrieval of GPP from atmospheric budgets. Indeed soils can take up large amounts of OCS from the atmosphere as soil microorganisms also contain CA, and OCS emissions from soils have been reported in agricultural fields or anoxic soils. To date no mechanistic framework exists to describe this exchange of OCS between soils and the atmosphere, but empirical results, once upscaled to the global scale, indicate that OCS consumption by soils dominates OCS emission and its contribution to the atmospheric budget is large, at about one third of the OCS uptake by vegetation, also with a large uncertainty. Here, we propose a new mechanistic model of the exchange of OCS between soils and the atmosphere that builds on our knowledge of soil CA activity from CO2 oxygen isotopes. In this model the OCS soil budget is described by a first-order reaction-diffusion-production equation, assuming that the hydrolysis of OCS by CA is total and irreversible. Using this model we are able to explain the observed presence of an optimum temperature for soil OCS uptake and show how this optimum can shift to cooler temperatures in the presence of soil OCS emission. Our model can also explain the observed optimum with soil moisture content previously described in the literature as a result of diffusional constraints on OCS hydrolysis. These diffusional constraints are also responsible for the response of OCS uptake to soil weight and

  2. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom and suspended sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Mary C.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Foreman, William T.

    2004-01-01

    A method applicable for the determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, including total toxaphene as a complex mixture, and 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures as Aroclor equivalents--Aroclor 1016/1242, 1254, and 1260--in soil, aquatic bottom sediment, and suspended sediment is described. Method performance data are presented. The solvent system is designed to extract simultaneously selected OC pesticides and PCBs from the same sample matrix. The compounds are extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, followed by partial isolation using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to remove inorganic sulfur and large naturally present molecules from the sediment extract. The aliquot of extract collected from the GPC for OCs (OC pesticides and PCBs) is split into two sample fractions by alumina/silica combined-column chromatography, followed by Florisil adsorption chromatography to remove interfering compounds in the second fraction. The OC fractions are analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). This report is limited to the determination of selected OC pesticides and PCBs by GC/ECD using this method. Interim reporting levels (IRLs) have been set at 0.400 to 3.12 micrograms per kilogram for 18 individual OC pesticides, 200 micrograms per kilogram for toxaphene, and 4.04 to 4.68 micrograms per kilogram for the PCBs, based on a sample size of 25-gram equivalent dry weight. These reporting levels may change following additional determinations of method detection limits.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  4. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  5. Levels of organochlorine insecticide residues in cowpea grains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ife, Nigeria were analysed for their organochlorine insecticides (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Endrin, Chlordane and Endosulfan) content. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption safety status of these food items. Qualitative and ...

  6. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  7. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E.; Castro-Chan, Ricardo A.; Rivero-Pérez, Norma E.; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Griselda K.; Geissen, Violette; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (60 years) had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product. PMID:25310541

  8. Vertical distribution of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Nichols, Peter D; Schlabach, Martin; Noad, Michael; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxic lipophilic organochlorine (OC) compounds, accumulate in the blubber tissue of marine mammals. Toxicological sampling methods most frequently target only the superficial blubber layer. Vertical distribution of these contaminants through the blubber mantle may, however, not be homogenous and could reflect any dissemination of lipids and fatty acids (FAs). It is therefore critical to assess stratification patterns in a species of interest as a quality control measure for interpretation of toxicological data. Here, we analysed and compared the distribution of lipids, FAs, and OCs in the outermost and innermost blubber layer of southern hemisphere humpback whales. FA stratification was evident for short-chain (≤18) monounsaturated fatty acids (SC-MUFA), which were concentrated in the outer layer, consistent with the thermoregulatory role of this blubber layer. This stratification was, however, not reflected in OC distribution, which was similar in the inner and outer blubber layers of male humpback whales. By comparison, a noticeable gradient in total blubber lipid from the outer to the inner layer was observed in two lactating females, which coincided with higher lipid normalised contaminant levels in the inner layer. This study contains the most comprehensive assessment of humpback whale blubber stratification to date, however, further investigation of biological and ecological influencing factors is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Becker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An extensive database of organochlorine (OC pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994–2005 suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003–2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC indicate a shift from primary sources, to more "weathered" secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from "new" sources.

  10. Storage of organochlorine inseticides in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wassermann

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a survey on OCI storage in people in Bahia, Brasil. In this survey 11 samples of adipose tissue were taken from people who underwent splenectomy for hepato splenic schistosomiasis. In these patients, total DDT averaged 10.66 ppm as compared to 4,83 ppm of total DDT found in presumably healthy people. The difference was statistically significant. It is considered that the increased DDT storage in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiass may be the result of a reduced metabolzation of p,p'-DDT and reduced excretion of its metabolites. Another possíbility is the increased exposure to organochlorine nsectedes by hepatosplenc patients who frequently come from irrigation zones, where these compounds are more used in intensive cultivatíon.

  11. On the differences between 1.5oC and 2oC of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement of 2015 has resulted in a drive to limit global warming to 2oC with an aim for a lower 1.5oC target. It is therefore vital that we understand some of the differences we would expect between these two levels of global warming. My research uses coupled climate model projections to investigate where and for what variables we can differentiate between worlds of 1.5oC and 2oC global warming. I place a particular focus on climate extremes and population exposure to those extremes. I have found that there are perceptible benefits in limiting global warming to 1.5oC as opposed to 2oC through reduced frequency and intensity of heat extremes, both over land and in ocean areas where thermal stress on coral has resulted in bleaching. Differences in high and low precipitation extremes between the 1.5oC and 2oC global warming levels are projected for some regions. I have also examined how "scalable" changes from the 1.5oC to 2oC level are. In areas of the world such as Eastern China I find that changes in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations will influence the level of change projected at 1.5oC and 2oC, such that past warming is likely to be a poor indicator of future changes. Overall, my research finds clear benefits to limiting global warming to 1.5oC relative to higher levels.

  12. Legacies of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project of World War II mobilized thousands of people, including many of the nation's leading physicists, and extensive material resources to design, develop, and manufacture the world's first nuclear weapons. It also established sprawling new facilities for the production of fissionable fuels - notably at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. It left a set of powerful legacies in the context of the Cold War - endowing scientists with conscience-taxing responsibilities in the nuclear arms race; promoting enormous patronage of academic research by defense and defense-related federal agencies, notably the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission; and turning its wartime facilities into major national laboratories that advanced the fields of high-energy and nuclear physics and stimulated local industrial economies but that in some cases, notably at Hanford, severely polluted the surrounding environment with radioactive waste and disrupted the livelihoods of native peoples. ``Legacies of the Manhattan Project''

  13. A new threat to public health: organochlorines and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R H

    1992-01-01

    Ambient levels of persistent toxic chemicals, chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, have reached levels high enough to affect the health of children. The organochlorines (PCBs, DDT and the dioxin family) accumulate in human adipose tissue. Pregnant women pass the contamination to their fetuses. The developing nervous system is the most vulnerable. Neurobehavioral deficits, including short-term memory loss, are detected in children born to mothers at the high end of the distribution curve of organochlorines. Humans are not alone in their susceptibility to these subtle effects. Wildlife exposed to the same spectrum of organochlorines as humans suffer a variety of behavioral changes. Rats and Rhesus monkeys fed diets containing the organochlorines under laboratory conditions exhibit behavioral changes that persist into adulthood. For humans, food provides 80 percent of organochlorine contamination. Meat, fish, dairy and commercial fruit are the main sources. A vegetarian diet including unsprayed fruit minimizes contamination. The ultimate solution to this public health problem is elimination of the organochlorines from the environment.

  14. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  15. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study (ENNS), 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Fréry, Nadine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Deschamps, Valérie; Göen, Thomas; Garnier, Robert; Guldner, Laurence

    2014-02-15

    Although most organochlorine (OC) pesticides were banned in France in the 1970s and 1980s, they remain a source of public concern. Because of their high persistence in the environment, they are still detected in foodstuffs, leading to continued human exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of serum organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the French adult population and to identify the main risk factors for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The selected OC pesticides (HCB, DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCB and γ-HCH) were measured in serum samples collected in 2006-2007 from 386 persons (aged 18-74 years) randomly selected among the participants in the clinical and biological component of the French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé [ENNS]), a cross-sectional survey carried out in the general population. Collected data included biological samples, socio-demographic characteristics, and data about environmental and occupational exposure factors. Of the six OC pesticides investigated, the highest concentrations were observed for HCB, β-HCH and DDE. Median serum concentrations were as follows: 22.8 ng/g lipid for HCB, 0.74 and 27.0 ng/g lipid, respectively, for α- and ß-HCH, and 3.8 and 104.6 ng/g lipid, respectively, for DDT and DDE. Lindane (γ-HCH) was detected in approximately 10% of the sample. OC pesticide levels in serum in French adults were higher (except for DDT and DDE) than those observed in American, Canadian and German populations and generally lower than or in the same range as those observed in other European countries. The low serum DDT/DDE ratio in the present study (3.7%) would suggest that the concentrations observed for these two OC pesticides were mainly the result of past exposure. The most important predictors of serum DDE, HCB and β-HCH concentrations among the French adult population included individual factors (age, gender

  16. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    were altered by p, p' DDE, MXC, and flutamide. Interestingly, immune-related gene networks were suppressed by all three chemicals. The data suggest that p, p' DDE and flutamide affected more genes in common with each other than either chemical with MXC, consistent with studies suggesting that p, p' DDE is a more potent anti-androgen than MXC. These data demonstrate that reproductive health was not affected by these specific dietary treatments, but rather the immune system, which may be a significant target of organochlorine pesticides. The interaction between the reproductive and immune systems should be considered in future studies on these legacy and persistent pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Higher atmospheric levels and contribution of black carbon in soil-air partitioning of organochlorines in Lesser Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Sweetman, Andrew James; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2018-01-01

    Due to influence of wind patterns (monsoon and westerlies) and anthropogenic activities, lower stretch of Himalaya is at direct exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Current study was designed to monitor atmospheric concentrations of long lived organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using polyurethane passive air sampling in the Lesser Himalayan Region (LHR) of Pakistan. Levels of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs and ∑PCBs were observed in a range between 3 and 210 pg m -3 , 0.75-67.1 pg m -3 and 8.49-458 pg m -3 , respectively. Though, air mass trajectories over LHR indicated long range transport as atmospheric source input which was further explained by Clausius-Clapeyron plots between ln P and inverse of temperature (1000/T; K) where all OCPs and most of the PCBs have shown insignificant relationship (r 2  = 5E-06-0.41; p-value = 0.06-0.995). However, local source emissions and valley transport may also implicate based on spatial distribution and altitudinal patterns. Additionally, soil-air partitioning of organochlorines was assessed using octanol-air partition (K OA ) and black carbon-air partition (K BC ) based models. Regression results indicated combined influence of both organic matter (r 2  = 0.298-0.85) and black carbon (r 2  = 0.31-0.86) via absorption and adsorption, respectively in soil-air partitioning of OCs in LHR. This paper sheds light on the atmospheric concentrations of OCs and help in better understanding of the processes involved in fate and transport of organic pollutants in Himalayan region. Further investigations are required to understand the role of carbon moieties in fate and transport of other groups of organic pollutants at higher altitudes of Himalayan region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Joergensen, M.P.; Moeller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, J. de; Glasius, M

    2004-09-20

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found. Year-to-year variation in metal levels at one location was larger than the geographical variation. Metal levels were within the range of previous published results for narwhals from Arctic Canada. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in blubber of narwhals were dependent on age and sex. Females showed decreasing OC concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels, indicating a temporal decrease of {sigma}PCBs. {sigma}PCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size/age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which they became relatively stable. {delta}{sup 15} N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummannaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in

  19. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  20. Status of the OCS Bragg-Spectrometer for SODART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiebicke, H.J.; Halm, I.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1998-01-01

    OCS, the Bragg spectrometer for the SODART X-ray telescope onboard the SPECTRUM-RONTGEN-GAMMA (SRG) satellite has been completed. Preliminary results of his performance are presented.......OCS, the Bragg spectrometer for the SODART X-ray telescope onboard the SPECTRUM-RONTGEN-GAMMA (SRG) satellite has been completed. Preliminary results of his performance are presented....

  1. Prediction of OCS Grades and Fitness Report Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alan W.; And Others

    The report describes research designed to improve personnel decisions which the Navy must make relative to the input and output of Officer Candidate School (OCS). Officers making the first decision consider all relevant applications data in deciding on men to be accepted and rejected for entry into OCS; those making the second determine the best…

  2. Trend and climate signals in seasonal air concentration of organochlorine pesticides over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin; Cao, Zuohao; Dove, Alice; Zhang, Lisheng

    2010-08-01

    Following worldwide bans or restrictions, the atmospheric level of many organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over the Great Lakes exhibited a decreasing trend since the 1980s in various environmental compartments. Atmospheric conditions also influence variation and trend of OCPs. In the present study a nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with an additional process to remove the effect of temporal (serial) correlation was used to detect the temporal trend of OCPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes region and to examine the statistical significance of the trends. Using extended time series of measured air concentrations over the Great Lakes region from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network, this study also revisits relationships between seasonal mean air concentration of OCPs and major climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere. To effectively extract climate signals from the temporal trend of air concentrations, we detrended air concentrations through removing their linear trend, which is driven largely by their respective half-lives in the atmosphere. The interannual variations of the extended time series show a good association with interannual climate variability, notably, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study demonstrates that the stronger climate signals can be extracted from the detrended time series of air concentrations of some legacy OCPs. The detrended concentration time series also help to interpret, in addition to the connection with interannual variation of the NAO, the links between atmospheric concentrations of OCPs and decadal or interdecadal climate change.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  4. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  5. An Approach to Peabody's Gifts and Legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One in a collection of papers on self-made millionaire and educational philanthropist George Peabody offers a listing of his gifts and legacies, which fall into the categories of libraries, lyceums, athenaeum, art, music; science; model housing; education; exploration; patriotic causes; historical societies; hospitals; churches; legacies; and…

  6. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed

  7. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  8. A validatable legacy database migration using ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, T.H.; Wijbenga, J.P.; Balsters, H.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method used in a real-life case of a legacy database migration. The difficulty of the case lies in the fact that the legacy application to be replaced has to remain fully available during the migration process while at the same time data from the old system is to be integrated

  9. Factors Associated with Maternal Serum Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Organochlorines: A Descriptive Study of Parous Women in Norway and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde B Lauritzen

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs and organochlorines (OCs are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs.Serum from 424 pregnant women participating in the NICHD Scandinavian Successive Small-for-gestational Age (SGA births study was collected in 1986-1988, and analyses of two PFASs and six OCs were conducted. Associations between EDCs and geographic, time dependent, socio-demographic and pregnancy related variables were evaluated by using multivariable linear regression models.Previous breastfeeding duration, time since last breastfeeding period, sampling date and country of residence were important factors associated with serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Smoking status and pre-pregnancy BMI were negatively associated with PFOS, and maternal height was borderline negatively associated with PFOS and PFOA. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was negatively associated with PFOS in a sub-sample. Maternal serum levels of OCs were positively associated with maternal age, and negatively associated with previous breastfeeding duration and sampling date. Smoking had a consistently negative association with PCB 118 in a dose-dependent manner. Education level, pre-pregnancy BMI and alcohol consumption varied in importance according to the compound under study.Several maternal factors, including potentially modifiable factors, markers of pregnancy physiology and factors also related to perinatal outcomes were associated with EDC levels. Results from this study are relevant to

  10. Levels and patterns of persistent organochlorines in minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) stocks from the North Atlantic and European Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, K.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N

    2003-02-01

    Minke whales appear to be quite mobile and have multiple feeding areas in the NE Atlantic Ocean. - Regional variation in PCBs and organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations was examined using the blubber of 155 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) sampled in seven regions in the North Atlantic and European Arctic, including western and southeastern Greenland, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the Barents Sea. The levels and relative proportions of OCs were also used to examine the boundaries for North Atlantic minke whale stocks previously defined by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Concentrations of major OC groups ({sigma}PCB, 89.1-22 800 ng/g lipid; {sigma}DDT, 65.3-6280 ng/g lipid; {sigma}CHL, 33.3-2110 ng/g lipid) generally increased from west to east, while HCH concentrations ({sigma}HCH, <1-497 ng/g lipid) showed the opposite trend. Statistical comparison between six regions using sex-adjusted least squared mean concentrations showed that minke whales from the Barents Sea had significantly higher concentrations of {sigma}PCBs than those from the Vestfjorden/Lofoten, the North Sea, and west Svalbard, as well as significantly higher {sigma}DDT concentrations compared to west Greenland animals. The differences in concentrations suggest that west and southeast Greenland minkes may represent one group of whales, which are distinct from both the Jan Mayen minkes and those from other IWC defined stocks in northern European waters. Principal components analysis using proportions of 71 PCB congeners and 20 OC pesticides (of total OCs) did not reveal any major differences among groups although minkes from the North Sea were distinguished from those from Greenland waters by higher loadings of more highly chlorinated PCBs and recalcitrant OC pesticides. The general similarity in mean levels of {sigma}PCBs, {sigma}DDT and {sigma}CHL, as well as mean principal components analysis scores, among minkes sampled at Jan Mayen, Svalbard, Vestfjorden

  11. The O.C.: Our Guide to ALA in Anaheim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstark, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    For those who grew up in Orange County (O.C.), Disneyland is the metaphoric morsel of food that gets stuck between the teeth of someone one does not like. While D-land is a must-see for millions of visitors each year, there is much more to Anaheim. Although O.C. is portrayed on numerous reality TV shows as a mecca for rich white people with…

  12. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Eulaers, Igor [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jaspers, Veerle L.B., E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ntnu.no [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); WWF-Pakistan, Ferozpur Road, PO Box 5180, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005 Paris (France); Ambus, Per Lennart [Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 København K (Denmark); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ{sup 13}C; p = 0.50 for δ{sup 15}N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ{sup 13}C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of

  14. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g − 1 dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g − 1 dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g − 1 dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g − 1 dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g − 1 dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ 13 C; p = 0.50 for δ 15 N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ 13 C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in

  15. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paula F; Weinstock, Ruth S; Silverstone, Allen E; Sjödin, Andreas; Pavuk, Marian

    2017-11-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study, was undertaken in 2005-2007 to study environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and health outcomes among residents of Anniston, AL, United States. The examination of potential risks between these pollutants and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia) was the focus of this analysis. Participants were 548 adults who completed the survey and a clinic visit, were free of diabetes, and had a serum sample for clinical laboratory parameters as well as PCB and OC pesticide concentrations. Associations between summed concentrations of 35 PCB congeners and 9 individual pesticides and metabolic syndrome were examined using generalized linear modeling and logistic regression; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Pollutants were evaluated as quintiles and as log transformations of continuous serum concentrations. Participants were mostly female (68%) with a mean age (SD) of 53.6 (16.2) years. The racial distribution was 56% white and 44% African American; 49% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In unadjusted logistic regression, statistically significant and positive associations across the majority of quintiles were noted for seven individually modeled pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, oxychlor, tNONA, Mirex). Following adjustment for covariables (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, positive family history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, liver disease, BMI), significant elevations in risk were noted for p,p'-DDT across multiple quintiles (range of ORs 1.61 to 2.36), for tNONA (range of ORs 1.62-2.80) and for p,p'-DDE [OR (95% CI)] of 2.73 (1.09-6.88) in the highest quintile relative to the first. Significant trends were observed in adjusted logistic models for log 10 HCB [OR=6

  16. Partition distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in surface water, pore water and surface sediment samples collected from the uMngeni River, which is one of the largest rivers in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the analytes from water and pore water samples and ...

  17. Organochlorine Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels and compositions of organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil samples collected from a former formulation plant in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania, were determined. Extraction was performed by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was ...

  18. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...

  19. Analysis of Organochlorine Residues in River Benue at Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-20

    Dec 20, 2015 ... Keywords: Electron capture detector, Gas Chromatography, Liquid-liquid extraction, Nigeria, Organochlorine,. River Benue. INTRODUCTION ... pesticides are transported from an application area to other locations in the environment. ..... extraction and liquid chromatography-ion trap-tripple stage mass ...

  20. organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in soil around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    J. Sci. 38(3), 2012. 41. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND DEGRADATION PRODUCTS. IN SOIL AROUND A FORMER FORMULATION PLANT IN. MOROGORO MUNICIPALITY, TANZANIA. JAM Mahugija .... concentrated to 1 ml using a rotary evaporator, then using a very gentle stream of nitrogen to ca. 0.2 ml.

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in fish sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the organochlorine pesticide residues in fish sold in markets and fishing sites in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Pesticides are not only used in agriculture but also in public health for the prevention of malaria. However, pesticide residues may be found in foodstuffs. Contamination of foods by ...

  2. Partition distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... P (1987) Accumulation and distribution of biogenic and pollutant hydrocarbons, PCB′s and DDT in tissues of western .... removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and nonylphenols in a wetland. J. Soil Sediment 9. 180–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-009-0081-1.

  3. Organochlorines in common dolphins caught in shark nets during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of organochlorines were determined in blubber and liver samples from common dolphins inhabiting the coastal waters of the south-east coast of southern Africa. Liver levels of PCBs and DDTs are far lower and do not appear directly associated with those in blubber. In males, blubber residue ...

  4. Analysis of Organochlorine Residues in River Benue at Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) concentrations along the Benue River at NASME and at Benue Brewery were studied during both wet and dry seasons. A total of 12 water samples were collected and determinations were made. Gas chromatography/electron capture detector was used for OCPs analysis. In these ...

  5. Organochlorine residues in tissues of marine fauna along the coast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings highlight evidence of pollution of marine fauna at the Kenyan coastal sites. It is necessary to have thorough waste management programs as a strategy to minimize marine pollution. KEY WORDS: Environmental samples; Marine samples; Kenya-Mombasa coastline; Marine fauna, Organochlorine, Pesticides.

  6. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Ruiz-Suárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60. We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde. Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively. The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl and mid-altitude (520 masl locations had the highest levels of p,pʹ-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product.

  7. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. Copyright © 2015

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  9. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. The Development of an Automated Clean-up for Fat Extracts in the Routine Analysis of Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a new, automatic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC Clean-up step, in the methodology of sample preparation and multi-residue determination of organochlorine compounds (OCs in fish meat. 24 OCs were taken into study. In addition 7 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, 7 chlorobenzene compounds and one 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were investigated. The HPLC conditions were established in accordance with the validated traditional Clean-up step of the laboratory. The technique was applied on a dilution of analytes of interest in order to establish the period of time in which the compounds are eluted. Another set of experiments involved fish oil, in order to identify and separate the fat fraction from the analytes. To confirm the findings of the experiments mentioned above, extracts of fish samples obtained after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE were examined. The samples were spiked with the analytes of interest before HPLC clean-up step and quantified through Gas Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. A HPLC clean-up technique lasting 38 minutes/sample was developed. The method is not suitable for OCs such as Endosulfansulfat and Endrine Ketone due to the very low recovery results.Â

  11. Assisted Emulation for Legacy Executables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Emulation is frequently discussed as a failsafe preservation strategy for born-digital documents that depend on contemporaneous software for access (Rothenberg, 2000. Yet little has been written about the contextual knowledge required to successfully use such software. The approach we advocate is to preserve necessary contextual information through scripts designed to control the legacy environment, and created during the preservation workflow. We describe software designed to minimize dependence on this knowledge by offering automated configuration and execution of emulated environments. We demonstrate that even simple scripts can reduce impediments to casual use of the digital objects being preserved. We describe tools to automate the remote use of preserved objects on local emulation environments.  This can help eliminate both a dependence on physical reference workstations at preservation institutions, and provide users accessing materials over the web with simplified, easy-to-use environments. Our implementation is applied to examples from an existing collection of over 4,000 virtual CD-ROM images containing thousands of custom binary executables.

  12. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

  13. Natural formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil: challenges to understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Laturnus, Frank; Fahimi, Isabelle; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Heal, Mathew R; Matucha, Miroslav; Schoeler, Heinfried; Schroll, Reiner; Svensson, Teresia

    2005-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic acids in the environment. Moreover...

  14. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticid...

  15. Legacy material work-off project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T.J.; Baker, D.H. IV

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and its subcontractors recently completed a nine-month legacy material clean-up effort. Legacy materials were defined as chemicals, hazardous, non-hazardous, and both hazardous and radioactive (mixed), that no longer served a programmatic use and had no identified individual owner within the Laboratory. Once personnel identified the legacy materials, the items were transferred to Solid Waste Operation's (EM-SWO) control. Upon completing this process, the responsible division-level manager was required to certify that all non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous materials and acceptable mixed legacy materials had been identified and transferred to EM-SWO for proper handling or disposal. The major expense in this project was the cost of actual chemical and radiological analysis. This expense was the result of items not having an identified individual owner. The major benefit of this project is that LANL is now in an excellent position to implement its Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan, which requires the implementation of safe work practices, including requirements for removing unused items when vacating workspaces. Effective implementation of ISM will go a long way toward ensuring that legacy materials are no longer an issue at the Laboratory

  16. Organochlorines in wild mink (Mustela vison) from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaare, J.U.; Polder, A.; Brevik, E.M.; Kveseth, N.J.

    Levels of PCBs, DDE, and HCB have been determined in wild mink caught in the Norwegian counties of Sogn and Fjordane, Rogaland, and Hedmark. No significant differences were founds in organochlorine levels in wild mink from these counties, and the average level, based on fat weight, in abdominal adipose tissue was about 1 ppm DDE, 0.1 ppm HCB and for PCB ranging from 1 to 15 ppm.

  17. A cautionary tale of interpreting O-C diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarka, M.; Liska, J.; Dreveny, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Z CVn, an RR Lyrae star that shows long-term cyclic variations of its pulsation period. A possible explanation suggested from the shape of the O-C diagram is the light travel-time effect, which we thoroughly examine. We used original photometric and spectroscop...

  18. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... program covers a wide range of field and laboratory studies in biology, chemistry, and physical oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals...

  19. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  20. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, M; Brudnowska, B; Falandysz, J; Wakimoto, T

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCBz and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 59 soil samples collected in Poland in 1990-1994 to understand the scale of contamination, spatial distribution and sources of these compounds. Identification and quantification of organochlorines were carried out using HRGC-ECD (63Ni) and HRGC-LRMS. All soil samples were contaminated by DDTs, PCBs and HCHs, while HCBz and CHLs were absent in a few samples. DDTs dominated as organochlorine residues in Polish soil and on the concentration of other insecticides was two orders of magnitude lower. Percentage composition of DDTs (about 60% of p,p'-DDT) indicates a very slow metabolism of DDT in Polish soils. Spatial distribution of HCHs in Poland is similar to distribution of DDTs, while HCBz and CHLs are rather evenly distributed. PCBs concentrations in soil of the Former Soviet Union Army Base are 10 times higher then in urban soils, and 100 times higher then in cultivated and forests soils.

  1. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother's age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds.

  3. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  4. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Federal OCS offshore area has been limited in the past decade, recently there has been renewed interest in..., both offshore and onshore. This RFI seeks to determine the level of industry interest in a possible...-gathering step is important to ensure that all pertinent information is assessed in determining whether to...

  5. Analyses of organochlorine pesticides residues in eels (Anguilla anguilla from Lake Garda using Gas chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Garda is located in Insubria region, that is known for being the most populated and industrialized area of Italy (Camusso et al., 2001. Therefore, the Lake water, and also the fish species present, could be affected by environmental contamination.  European eel (Anguilla anguilla are considered as suitable matrix for biomonitoring environmental contaminants in European water (Belpaire et al., 2007, being widespread in many European waters and highly contaminated by lipophilic compounds, due to the high lipid content (up to 40% (Larsson et al., 1991. Moreover, eel is an edible species (its farming currently supplies approximately 45,000 tons/year (Nielsen et al., 2008, so it also represents a public health issue. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of fourteen organochlorine pesticides (OCs in forty-five eels (Anguilla anguilla from Lake Garda, using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE procedure for the analytes extraction and Gas chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS for the analysis of OCs. GC-MS/MS analysis was developed and validated according to the SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines.  Uncontaminated eel sample (previously checked for the presence of OCs and considered blank with a concentration of compounds < Limit of Detection were used for all procedure's optimization steps. For all the OCs analysed, satisfactory results were achieved. Regarding eel samples, several pesticides were detected, but DDTs (DDT and its metabolites were found with the highest prevalence (92 %. The concentration rage was from not detected (n.d. to 19000 ng g-1. Although DDTs levels in the environment are declining (Albaiges et al., 2011, they continue to bioaccumulate in tissues of human and animal and biomagnify in food chains.

  6. Legacy and Current-Use Insecticides in Agricultural Sediments from South China: Impact of Application Pattern on Occurrence and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanli; Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Junjie; Xiong, Jingjing; Yi, Xiaoyi; You, Jing

    2017-05-31

    Legacy and current-use insecticides were analyzed in sediments collected from a typical rice-planting region in South China. Total concentrations of insecticides varied from 1.63 to 775 ng g -1 with mean and median values of 67.0 and 11.5 ng g -1 , respectively. Pyrethroids predominated pesticide composition (31.7%), followed by organophosphates (23.0%) and fiproles (20.8%). Sediment risk analysis showed that pyrethroids, fiproles, and abamectin posed significant risk to benthic invertebrates in one-third of sediments. Different distributions of pyrethroids and organophosphates in urban and agricultural areas were consistent with their application patterns, whereas legacy organochlorine pesticides showed no region-specific distribution because of rapid transition of land use pattern from agricultural to urban areas. Likely illegal use of pyrethroids and fipronil caused serious ecological risks in agricultural waterways. Pyrethroids and fipronil were restricted to use in paddy fields, but their occurrence and risk in agricultural waterways were high, calling for better measures to regulate the illegal use of insecticides.

  7. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Éric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning S.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We rep...

  8. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Meeker, John D; Missmer, Stacey A; Altshul, Larisa; Vitonis, Allison F; Ryan, Louise; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not...

  9. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  10. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs.......04) and SigmaCHL (p polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  11. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch - Founder of Medical Microbiology. Jaya S Tyagi. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 20-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, James

    1990-01-01

    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  13. George Peabody's (1795-1869) Educational Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    During his career, George Peabody financially supported educational endeavors and went beyond the accumulation of money to leave for one's children. His support began in the mid-1800s and his educational legacy remains. He established: (1) a $2 million Peabody Education Fund to promote public schools and teacher training in 12 civil war devastated…

  14. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  15. Asutosh Mukhopadhyay and his Mathematical Legacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this article, we describe the life and career of the versatile genius, Asutosh Mukhopadhyay. The article offers a few glimpses of his mathe- matical talent and contributions to mathemat- ics, and of his efforts to propagate and foster the study of and research in mathematics. 1. Introduction. The legacy of Asutosh ...

  16. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  17. Residue analysis of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in fatty matrices by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Woo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Song, Sung-Ok; Shim, Jae-Han

    2006-01-01

    A multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of 22 organochlorine (OCs) and organophosphorus (Ops) pesticides (including isomers and metabolites), representing a wide range of physicochemical properties, was developed in fatty matrices extracted from meat. Pesticides were extracted from samples with acetonitrile/n-hexane (v:v, 1:1). The analytical screening was performed by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection (ECD). The identification of compounds was based on their retention time and on comparison of the primary and secondary ions. The optimized method was validated by determining accuracy (recovery percentages), precision (repeatability and reproducibility), and sensitivity (detection and quantitation limits) from analyses of samples fortified at 38 to 300 ng/g levels. Correlation coefficients for the 22 extracted pesticide standard curves (linear regression analysis, n = 3) ranged from 0.998 to 1.000. Recovery studies from 2 g samples fortified at 3 levels demonstrated that the GC-ECD method provides 64.4-96.0% recovery for all pesticides except 2,4'-DDE (44.6-50.4%), 4,4'-DDE (51.1-57.5%) and 2,4'-DDT (50.0-51.2%). Both repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviation values were < 20% for all residues. Detection limits ranged from 0.31 to 1.27 ng/g and quantification limits were between 1.04 and 4.25 ng/g. The proposed analytical method may be used as a simple procedure in routine determinations of OCs and Ops in meat. It can also be applied to the determination of pesticide multi-residues in other animal products such as butter and milk.

  18. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  19. Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs are important in the development of conditions predisposing to diabetes as well as of type 2 diabetes itself. We recently reported that low dose POPs predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a nested case-control study. The current study examined if low dose POPs predicted future adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among controls without diabetes in that study.The 90 controls were diabetes-free during 20 years follow-up. They were a stratified random sample, enriched with overweight and obese persons. POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2 sera included 8 organochlorine (OC pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB. Body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment value for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were study outcomes at 2005-06 (year 20. The evolution of study outcomes during 18 years by categories of serum concentrations of POPs at year 2 was evaluated by adjusting for the baseline values of outcomes plus potential confounders. Parallel to prediction of type 2 diabetes, many statistically significant associations of POPs with dysmetabolic conditions appeared at low dose, forming inverted U-shaped dose-response relations. Among OC pesticides, p,p'-DDE most consistently predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 after adjusting for baseline values. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene also significantly predicted higher triglycerides. Persistent PCBs with ≥7 chlorides predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 with similar dose-response curves.Simultaneous exposure to various POPs in the general population may contribute to development of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, common precursors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases

  20. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  1. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833μg /kg, heptachlor 0.695μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.283μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.108μg /kg, dieldrin 0.040 μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014μg /kg, endrin 0.018μg /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.340μg /kg, α-endosulfan 0.162μg /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.101μg /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315μg /kg, heptachlor 0.530μg /kg, dieldrin 0.050μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.233μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.070μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043μg /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.115μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.128μg /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of γ-HCH and δ-HCH in the kidney were 0.435μg /kg and 0.107μg /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135μg /kg in

  2. Screening of the presence organophosphates and organochlorines pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides is commonly used to improve the quality of agricultural product, especially in vegetables and fruits. Due to pesticide residues in the product become a concern to consumer health, monitoring and analysis of pesticide residues in agriculture product need to be established. The certified reference material (CRM) is often benefited to obtain accurate results in analysis. It is required as the quality control to improve quality assurance of the testing results. Unfortunately in Indonesia, the development of matrix CRM for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits is still limited. This study is aimed to determine the type of commodity and target analyte to be employed in the development of CRM for pesticides in vegetables and fruits. As the preliminary study, the screening of 11 commodities of fresh vegetables and fruits has been conducted to review the information about the presence of organophosphates (OPs) and organochlorines (OCs) in the sample. In this analysis, QuEChERS technique was used in the extraction process and the qualitative analysis was evaluated by using GC-MS. The results showed that strawberry and celery contain residues of pesticide chlorpyrifos. Further analysis of the commodity celery from seven different places has been conducted, resulting that from 3 of all 7 samples (43%) were positive containing chlorpyrifos. Therefore, the development of CRM for chlorpyrifos in celery will be our next research project.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in catfish, Tachysurus thalassinus (Ruppell, 1835), from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Y.S.A.; Das, Pranab; Shaheen, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide concentrations in fish were lower than recommended for human consumption. - Organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, lindane, and heptachlor) were measured in muscle tissue of catfish (Tachysurus thalassinus) during the dry and wet season. Catfish were collected from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal during October-December 1997 and May-July 1998. Tissue residues were analyzed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The pesticide residues levels were found in order of Σ DDT>Heptachlor>Lindane>Aldrin. Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in all samples during dry season, as compared with the wet season, primarily due to elevated lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation and linear relationship was observed between the pesticide residues (ΣDDT and ΣOCs) and lipid content of fishes. However, the concentrations of pesticide residues in the muscle were found to be lower than the FAO/WHO [(1993) Food standards programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission, vol. 9 (4) pp. 149-158] recommended permissible limit for human consumption

  4. Verification and the safeguards legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perricos, Demetrius

    2001-01-01

    of Iraq was a case of late detection of undeclared activities, the case of DPRK was a case of prompt detection of discrepancies in the initial declaration through implementation of modem detection techniques, such as environmental sampling, and access to information. Access to the Security Council became important in view of the protracted process of non-compliance. The Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC 540) agreed in 1997 incorporates the results of the efforts to strengthen the safeguards system and as such provides the possibility for more transparency by the States and more access to locations by the inspectors on the basis of information. It does not provide the broad and intrusive access rights as in the case of Iraq, since such rights are unprecedented and the result of a cease-fire arrangement involving the Security Council. But the expectations are that the broad implementation of the Additional Protocol will result in an effective and efficient safeguards verification system for the future. The on-site verification systems on a national, regional or multinational basis that have been put into operation in the past or are being discussed by States for the implementation of disarmament and non-proliferation conventions related to weapons of mass destruction whether nuclear, chemical or biological, have benefited and will benefit in the future from the guiding experience - both from the strengths and weaknesses -of the IAEA verification system. This is hopefully a legacy for the future of verification

  5. Issues Associated with Tritium Legacy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the issues associated with the treatment of legacy materials linked to research into tritium over many years and also of materials used to contain or store tritium. The aim of the work is to recover tritium where practicable, and to leave the residual materials passively safe, either for disposal or for continued storage. A number of materials are currently stored at AWE which either contain tritium or have been used in tritium processing. It is essential that these materials are characterised such that a strategy may be developed for their safe stewardship, and ultimately for their treatment and disposal. Treatment processes for such materials are determined by the application of best practicable means (BPM) studies in accordance with the requirements of the Environment Agency of England and Wales. Clearly, it is necessary to understand the objectives of legacy material treatment / processing and the technical options available before a definitive BPM study is implemented. The majority of tritium legacy materials with which we are concerned originate from the decommissioning of a facility that was operational from the late 1950's through to the late 1990's when, on post-operative clear-out (POCO), the entire removable and transportable tritium inventory was moved to new, purpose built facilities. One of the principle tasks to be undertaken in the new facilities is the treatment of the legacy materials to recover tritium wherever practicable, and render the residual materials passively safe for disposal or continued storage. Where tritium recovery was not reasonably or technically feasible, then a means to assure continued safe storage was to be devised and implemented. The legacy materials are in the following forms: - Uranium beds which may or may not contain adsorbed tritium gas; - Tritium gas stored in containers; - Tritide targets for neutron generation; - Tritides of a broad spectrum of metals manufactured for research / long

  6. Temperature-dependence of soil/air partition coefficients for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides over a temperature range of -30 to +30 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-07-01

    The soil/air partition coefficients (K(SA)) for two polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) and six organochlorine pesticides (OCs) were determined by a solid-phase fugacity meter over a wide temperature range of -30 to +30 degrees C in a paddy field soil. Literature values for PAHs and OCs obtained by the same method were 1.9-5.1 times of present values at +20 degrees C. Experimentally determined K(SA) ranged over six orders of magnitude, with log K(SA) from 4.5 for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane at +30 degrees C to 10.4 for trans-nonachlor at -20 degrees C. Separate linear regressions of log K(SA) and reciprocal absolute temperature were employed at temperatures above 0 degrees C and below 0 degrees C. The calculated enthalpies associated with the phase transfer from the soil to the air (DeltaH(SA)) over 0 to +30 degrees C range from 78 to 108 kJmol(-1), which are in a good agreement with the literature values.

  7. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes, generally done with the most recent software releases. The trigger response simulation is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities and should be done with the same software release with which data were recorded. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulation scheme within the ATLAS software framework were examined and a proof-of-concept simulation chain has been successfully implemented. One of the greatest challenges was the choice of a data format which promises long term compatibility with old and new software releases. Over the time periods envisaged, data...

  8. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  9. Combination Bands of the Nonpolar OCS Dimer Involving Intermolecular Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M.; Oliaee, J. Norooz; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2012-06-01

    Spectra of the nonpolar carbonyl sulfide in the region of the OCS ν_1 fundamental band were observed in a supersonic slit-jet apparatus. The expansion gas was probed using radiation from a tunable diode laser employed in a rapid-scan signal averaging mode. Three bands centered at 2085.906, 2103.504, and 2114.979 cm-1 were observed and anlysed. The rotational assignment and fitting of the bands were made by fixing the lower state parameters to those for the ground state of nonpolar (OCS)_2, thus confirming that they were indeed combination bands of the of the most stable isomer of OCS dimer. The band centered at 2085.906 cm-1 is a combination of the forbidden A_g intramolecular mode plus the geared bend intermolecular mode and that centered at 2114.979 cm-1 is a combination of the allowed B_u intramolecular mode plus the intermolecular van der Waals stretch. The combination at 2103.504 cm-1 can be assigned as a band whose upper state involves four quanta of the intramolecular bend or the B_u intramolecular mode plus two quanta of the intermolecular torsional mode. Isotopic work is needed to conclusively identify the vibrational assignment of this band. Our experimental frequencies for the geared bend and van der Waals modes are in good agreement with a recent high level ab initio calculation by Brown et al. J. Brown, Xiao-Gang Wang, T. Carrington Jr. and Richard Dawes, Journal of Chemical Physics, submitted.

  10. Soil-Air exchange controls on background atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, A.; Dachs, J.; Jones, K. C.; Barceló, D.

    2011-12-01

    Soils are the major terrestrial reservoir of persistent organic pollutants, and thus net volatilization from soil, when it happens, may exert a control on the atmospheric occurrence and variability of organic pollutants. Here, we report and discuss the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the atmosphere and in soils, their measured fugacities in soil, the soil-air partition coefficients (KSA) and soil-air fugacity ratios (fs/fa) in rural background areas of N-NE Spain and N-NW England. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in Spain and UK to assess seasonal variability and differences between sampling sites. KSA values were significantly dependent on soil temperature and soil organic matter quantity, and to a minor extent on organic matter type. HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in soil are close to equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere at rural background areas of Spain with a tendency to volatilize and deposit during warm and cold periods, respectively. The mixture of HCH and DDT found in the atmosphere is clearly strongly influenced by the mixture of HCH and DDT which escapes from soil, with significant correlations between them (r2 ranging between 0.63-0.76 and p-level<0.001 for the Ebro sampling sites), thus suggesting a close coupling of air and soil concentrations, demonstrating that net volatilization from soil control the atmospheric levels of OCPs in the Northern Spain background atmosphere. Conversely, soils at rural UK sites were usually a sink for atmospheric DDT and HCH, but not for HCB. The negative statistically significant relationship found between log KSA and the log (fs/fa) ratio, suggests that high latitude regions, due to the high soil organic matter content and lower temperatures, will act as larger traps and accumulate more atmospheric OCPs. Thus, the extent to which soils are secondary sources to the atmosphere

  11. Soil-Air exchange controls on background atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrerizo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are the major terrestrial reservoir of persistent organic pollutants, and thus net volatilization from soil, when it happens, may exert a control on the atmospheric occurrence and variability of organic pollutants. Here, we report and discuss the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB, hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT in the atmosphere and in soils, their measured fugacities in soil, the soil-air partition coefficients (KSA and soil-air fugacity ratios (fs/fa in rural background areas of N-NE Spain and N-NW England. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in Spain and UK to assess seasonal variability and differences between sampling sites. KSA values were significantly dependent on soil temperature and soil organic matter quantity, and to a minor extent on organic matter type. HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in soil are close to equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere at rural background areas of Spain with a tendency to volatilize and deposit during warm and cold periods, respectively. The mixture of HCH and DDT found in the atmosphere is clearly strongly influenced by the mixture of HCH and DDT which escapes from soil, with significant correlations between them (r2 ranging between 0.63–0.76 and p-level<0.001 for the Ebro sampling sites, thus suggesting a close coupling of air and soil concentrations, demonstrating that net volatilization from soil control the atmospheric levels of OCPs in the Northern Spain background atmosphere. Conversely, soils at rural UK sites were usually a sink for atmospheric DDT and HCH, but not for HCB. The negative statistically significant relationship found between log KSA and the log (fs/fa ratio, suggests that high latitude regions, due to the high soil organic matter content

  12. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Assem O; Khairy, Mohammed A; Mahmoud, Mahmoud R

    2017-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels, distribution and toxicological potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge samples from several WWTPs in the Alexandria area, Egypt. The POPs of interest were 26 PCBs and 16 OCPs. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) using deuterated organochlorines as internal standards. Total concentrations of OCPs and Σ7 PCBs (ICES) in sludge ranged from 44.2 to 489 μg/kg dw. and 5,600 to 11,000 μg/kg dw., respectively. The highest concentration levels were found for PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and HCB, in this order. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. Seasonal variations were observed for OCPs with higher levels in summer, which reflects more usage in warmer climates. Composite profiles of OCP metabolites indicated new inputs of lindane and technical endosulfan and earlier usage of DDT and technical chlordane. Contamination levels of OCPs and PCBs for Egyptian sludge can be categorized as moderate to high compared to other countries worldwide. The OCP content in none of the samples exceeded limits set by the European Commission for use of sludge in agriculture; while all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were higher by one order of magnitude than the upper limit for land application.

  14. A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

    2014-07-01

    Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  16. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  17. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  18. Requalification of Legacy Radioactive Waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandt, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Paulina; Spicher, Gottfried; Filss, Martin; Schauer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • Large stocks of legacy radioactive waste exist, which do not comply with the requirements of the Konrad repository. • Requalification campaigns with thousands of waste packages have successfully been carried out. • Quality assurance plans contain all necessary steps of specific (requalification) campaigns and optimize the procedures for each campaign in advance. • When sophisticated measurement equipment was needed an iterative procedure was adopted. Repeated evaluations of the nondestructive res. destructive measurements limited the measures to the necessary limit.

  19. Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present performance data relating to the use of migration in a system we are creating to provide web access to heterogeneous document collections in legacy formats. Our goal is to enable sustained access to collections such as these when faced with increasing obsolescence of the necessary supporting applications and operating systems. Our system allows searching and browsing of the original files within their original contexts utilizing binary images of the original media. The system uses static and dynamic file migration to enhance collection browsing, and emulation to support both the use of legacy programs to access data and long-term preservation of the migration software. While we provide an overview of the architectural issues in building such a system, the focus of this paper is an in-depth analysis of file migration using data gathered from testing our software on 1,885 CD-ROMs and DVDs. These media are among the thousands of collections of social and scientific data distributed by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO on legacy media (CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP over the past 20 years.

  20. A legacy building model for holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla

    2014-06-01

    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  1. The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Dorn

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent battle reported from Washington about proposed national testing program does not tell the most important political story about high stakes tests. Politically popular school accountability systems in many states already revolve around statistical results of testing with high-stakes environments. The future of high stakes tests thus does not depend on what happens on Capitol Hill. Rather, the existence of tests depends largely on the political culture of published test results. Most critics of high-stakes testing do not talk about that culture, however. They typically focus on the practice legacy of testing, the ways in which testing creates perverse incentives against good teaching. More important may be the political legacy, or how testing defines legitimate discussion about school politics. The consequence of statistical accountability systems will be the narrowing of purpose for schools, impatience with reform, and the continuing erosion of political support for publicly funded schools. Dissent from the high-stakes accountability regime that has developed around standardized testing, including proposals for professionalism and performance assessment, commonly fails to consider these political legacies. Alternatives to standardized testing which do not also connect schooling with the public at large will not be politically viable.

  2. Estimation of dietary intake of PCB and organochlorine pesticides for children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Højgård, A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine substances, including a number of organochlorine pesticides and PCB, are monitored in food, including meat, fish and dairy products. The substances are slowly degradable and therefore persist for long periods in the environment, where they accumulate in the fatty tissues...... pesticides and 0.9 μg/day for the indicator PCB-sum. People with a relatively high intake of these substances (the 95th percentile) are estimated to consume approximately twice as much. In general, the highest contributions to the intake of the organochlorine environmental contaminants are from fish, meat...

  3. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions

  4. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  5. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  6. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  7. Vacuolating encephalitis in mice infected by human coronavirus OC43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomy, Helene; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2003-01-01

    Involvement of viruses in human neurodegenerative diseases and the underlying pathologic mechanisms remain generally unclear. Human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV) can infect neural cells, persist in human brain, and activate myelin-reactive T cells. As a means of understanding the human infection, we characterized in vivo the neurotropic and neuroinvasive properties of HCoV-OC43 through the development of an experimental animal model. Virus inoculation of 21-day postnatal C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice led to a generalized infection of the whole CNS, demonstrating HCoV-OC43 neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence. This acute infection targeted neurons, which underwent vacuolation and degeneration while infected regions presented strong microglial reactivity and inflammatory reactions. Damage to the CNS was not immunologically mediated and microglial reactivity was instead a consequence of direct virus-mediated neuronal injury. Although this acute encephalitis appears generally similar to that induced by murine coronaviruses, an important difference rests in the prominent spongiform-like degeneration that could trigger neuropathology in surviving animals

  8. Contaminants and energy expenditure in an Arctic seabird: Organochlorine pesticides and perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with metabolic rate in a contrasted manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévin, Pierre; Tartu, Sabrina; Ellis, Hugh I; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Parenteau, Charline; Herzke, Dorte; Angelier, Frédéric; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2017-08-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimal energetic cost of living in endotherms, is known to be influenced by thyroid hormones (THs) which are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in birds and mammals. Several environmental contaminants may act on energy expenditure through their thyroid hormone-disrupting properties. However, the effect of contaminants on BMR is still poorly documented for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between three groups of contaminants (organochlorines (OCs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and mercury) with metabolic rate (MR), considered here as a proxy of BMR and also with circulating total THs (thyroxine (TT4) and triiodothyronine (TT3)) in Arctic breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard, during the chick rearing period. Our results indicate a negative relationship between the sum of all detected chlordanes (∑CHLs) and MR in both sexes whereas perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrA) and MR were positively related in females only. MR was not associated with mercury. Additionally, levels of TT3 were negatively related to ∑CHLs but not to PFTrA. The findings from the present study indicate that some OCs (in both sexes) and some PFASs (only in females) could disrupt fine adjustment of BMR during reproduction in adult kittiwakes. Importantly, highly lipophilic OCs and highly proteinophilic PFASs appear, at least in females, to have the ability to disrupt the metabolic rate in an opposite way. Therefore, our study highlights the need for ecotoxicological studies to include a large variety of contaminants which can act in an antagonistic manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential gene expression pattern in human mammary epithelial cells induced by realistic organochlorine mixtures described in healthy women and in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F

    2016-03-30

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been associated with breast cancer development and progression, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well known. In this work, we evaluated the effects exerted on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by the OC mixtures most frequently detected in healthy women (H-mixture) and in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC-mixture), as identified in a previous case-control study developed in Spain. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profile of human kinases (n=68) and non-kinases (n=26) were tested at concentrations similar to those described in the serum of those cases and controls. Although both mixtures caused a down-regulation of genes involved in the ATP binding process, our results clearly indicate that both mixtures may exert a very different effect on the gene expression profile of HMEC. Thus, while BC-mixture up-regulated the expression of oncogenes associated to breast cancer (GFRA1 and BHLHB8), the H-mixture down-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor genes (EPHA4 and EPHB2). Our results indicate that the composition of the OC mixture could play a role in the initiation processes of breast cancer. In addition, the present results suggest that subtle changes in the composition and levels of pollutants involved in environmentally relevant mixtures might induce very different biological effects, which explain, at least partially, why some mixtures seem to be more carcinogenic than others. Nonetheless, our findings confirm that environmentally relevant pollutants may modulate the expression of genes closely related to carcinogenic processes in the breast, reinforcing the role exerted by environment in the regulation of genes involved in breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of legacy phosphorus and its spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hezhen; Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Shi, Liuhua; Wang, Yue; Ren, Xiaoyu; Bai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    A phosphorus resource crisis threatens the security of global crop production, especially in developing countries like China and Brazil. Legacy phosphorus (legacy-P), which is left behind in agricultural soil by over-fertilization, can help address this issue as a new resource in the soil phosphorus pool. However, issues involved with calculating and defining the spatial distribution of legacy-P hinder its future utilization. To resolve these issues, this study applied remote sensing and ecohydrological modeling to precisely quantify legacy-P and define its spatial distribution in China's Sanjiang Plain from 2000 to 2014. The total legacy-P in the study area was calculated as 579,090 t with an annual average of 38,600 t; this comprises 51.83% of the phosphorus fertilizer applied annually. From 2000 to 2014, the annual amount of legacy-P increased by more than 3.42-fold, equivalent to a 2460-ton increase each year. The spatial distribution of legacy-P showed heterogeneity and agglomeration in this area, with peaks in cultivated land experiencing long-term agricultural development. This study supplies a new approach to finding legacy-P in soil as a precondition for future utilization. Once its spatial distribution is known, legacy-P can be better utilized in agriculture to help alleviate the phosphorus resource crisis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  12. Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine accumulation in birds from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the role of the south Asian region as a source of pollution for wintering migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Minh, Tu Binh; Fukuda, Kayo; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Titenko, Alexei M

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in whole body soft tissue homogenates and in muscles of resident and migratory birds collected from Lake Baikal, Russia. The residue pattern in both resident and migratory birds was in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > CHLs. OC concentrations in migratory birds varied, depending on the feeding habit. The maximum levels of OCs were found in piscivores, followed by insectivores, omnivores, and herbivores. OC residue levels in Lake Baikal birds were lower than those in the Great Lakes region as well as in other lakes in Europe and Japan. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in most of the migratory birds collected in the spring were higher than for those collected in the autumn, indicating a notable accumulation in wintering grounds. Compilation and analysis of the available data in fish and birds from Asia suggested that the tropical and subtropical regions in south Asian countries may be a source of pollution for the wintering accumulation of migratory birds from Lake Baikal. Relatively higher compositions of alpha- and gamma-HCH in total HCHs, p,p'-DDT in total DOTs were observed in some migratory species, indicating recent exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Lake Baikal or wintering areas. PCB isomer patterns were different between residents and migrants, with the predominance of lower chlorinated congeners in migratory species, suggesting recent PCB accumulation in stopover sites during wintering. TEQ concentrations of toxic non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in common terns from Lake Baikal were comparable to those reported in some species from Japan, the United States, and Europe. Relative contributions of non-ortho coplanar congeners to toxic equivalents (TEQs) were predominant, in which CB-126 accounted for the highest toxicity contribution. Estimated TEQ

  13. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, Veerle [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be; Maervoet, Johan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, Tom [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, Stefan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, Paul [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  14. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in eggs of little owls (Athene noctua) from Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, Veerle; Covaci, Adrian; Maervoet, Johan; Dauwe, Tom; Voorspoels, Stefan; Schepens, Paul; Eens, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Residues of brominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 40 eggs of little owls (Athene noctua), a terrestrial top predator from Belgium. The major organohalogens detected were PCBs (median 2,600 ng/g lipid, range 790-23000 ng/g lipid). PCB 153,138/163, 170, 180 and 187 were the predominant congeners and constituted 71% of total sum PCBs. PBDEs were measurable in all samples, but their concentrations were much lower than for PCBs, with a range from 29-572 ng/g lipid (median 108 ng/g lipid). The most prevalent PBDE congeners in little owl egg samples were BDE 47, 99 and 153. This profile differs from the profile in marine bird species, for which BDE 47 was the dominant congener, indicating that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than marine birds. The fully brominated BDE 209 could be detected in one egg sample (17 ng/g lipid), suggesting that higher brominated BDEs may accumulate in terrestrial food chains. Brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 was determined in all egg samples, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 ng/g lipid (median 1.3 ng/g lipid). Additionally, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) could be identified and quantified in only two eggs at levels of 20 and 50 ng/g lipid. OCPs were present at low concentrations, suggesting a rather low contamination of the sampled environment with OCPs (median concentrations of sum DDTs: 826 ng/g lipid, sum chlordanes: 1,016 ng/g lipid, sum HCHs: 273 ng/g lipid). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) were also found at low median levels of 134 and 3.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. Concentrations of most analytes were significantly higher in eggs collected from deserted nests in comparison to addled (unhatched) eggs, while eggshell thickness did not differ between deserted and addled eggs. No significant correlations were found between eggshell thickness and the analysed organohalogens. - PBDEs are measurable

  15. Regional differences and sources of organochlorine pesticides in soils surrounding chemical industrial parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Wang, T.Y.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were investigated in 105 soil samples collected in vicinity of the chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. OCP concentrations significantly varied

  16. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  17. Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornero, Victoria; Borrell, Assumpcio; Aguilar, Alex; Forcada, Jaume; Lockyer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause-effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans. - Organochlorine contaminants and retinoids in common dolphins

  18. Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08071 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: victoriatornero@ub.edu; Borrell, Assumpcio [Department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08071 Barcelona (Spain); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08071 Barcelona (Spain); Forcada, Jaume [Biological Sciences Division, NERC, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom); Lockyer, Christina [Age Dynamics, Huldbergs Alle 42, DK-2800 Kongens, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-03-15

    The effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause-effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans. - Organochlorine contaminants and retinoids in common dolphins.

  19. Current trends of some organochlorinated pesticides in Yamuna River sediments around Delhi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, A; Sarkar, A

    Organochlorinated pesticides viz. DDTs, HCHs, and Cyclodiene compounds have been detected in the sediment samples of Yamuna River around Delhi, India during the three seasons namely pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. Five sampling sites were...

  20. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  1. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum...

  2. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and female reproductive function in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ernst, Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The biopersistent organochlorine pollutants dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be detected in humans worldwide. The chemicals can cross the placenta and may interfere with endogenous hormonal homeostasis. OBJEC...

  3. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  4. Fingerprinting of Compound-Specific Chlorine Isotopologue Distribution of Organochlorines by GC-HRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a method to measure compound-specific chlorine isotopologue distribution of organochlorines for source identification and apportionment. Complete chlorine isotopologues of individual model organochlorines were detected by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The measured relative abundances (RAmea), simulated relative abundances (RAsim), and relative variations between RAmea and RAsim (${\\Delta}$RA) were obtained on basis of the detected MS sign...

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in poultry meats of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty poultry meat samples from four large companies were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine pesticides. Homogenized samples were mixed with silica sand and anhydrous sodium sulfate, and extracted with ethyl acetate followed by n-hexane: MTBE. Clean up of samples were done by silica sulphuric acid and analyzed by GC-ECD, and confirmed by GC-MS. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were 0.5, 0.5 and 0.7, and 2.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ng/g, respectively. The calibration curves were linear and the correlation coefficients (r2 were 0.991, 0.992 and 0.997 for DDE, DDD and DDT, respectively and the recoveries for them were 76%, 78% and 80%. DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD were detected in 28 (70%, out of 40 samples and ranged 0.039-0.769 mg/kg.

  6. The Legacy of Utah's Country Schools, 1847-1896. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    This section of the Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier Project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and sponsored by the Mountain Plains Library Association, traces the development of schools in Utah during the Territorial Period (1847-1896). Following a discussion of the influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  7. La Terre sous l'Océan

    OpenAIRE

    Vanney, Jean-René

    2007-01-01

    Parmi les acquisitions actuelles en matière de géomorphologie océanique, trois voies prometteuses sont choisies en guise d'introduction à ce numéro thématique qui lui est consacré : 1) l'agencement et l'énergie des reliefs en fonction de la vitesse de création et destruction crustale (céléro-dépendance) ; 2) le démantèlement des grands versants par des processus gravitaires de grande ampleur ; 3) le conditionnement interactif de l'environnement global. La seconde partie reconstitue trois séri...

  8. Immunoscintigraphy of ovarian carcinoma using OC 125 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon

    1990-03-01

    Immunoscintigraphy (ISG) with I-131 labeled OC 125 F (ab')2 fragments was studied in 7 patients for primary diagnosis and follow up of ovarian cancer. Total body planar photoscans with a scintillation camera were performed three to seven days after antibody application and results were compared with operation and/or computed tomography (CT) examination. By the region of interest technique, the tumor to background ratio was calaulated in vivo. Results are as follows. 1) The sensitivity of ISG and CT for detection of 14 tumor sites which were confirmed with histopathology were 100 % and 57.1 % and the sensitivity for the detection of omental metastasis were 100 % and 20 % respectively. 2) There were no correlation between the serum CA 125 levels and tumor to background antibody uptake ratio. 3) Tumor to background antibody uptake ratio were progressively increased from day 3 to day 7. (author)

  9. [Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jie; Lai, Mao-Xiang

    2013-04-01

    To determine the contents of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum and provide scientific foundation for the quality control and standard establishment. GC-MS method with selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to analyze the contents of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum. The samples were extracted with acetone and ultrasonic vibrations, and the analytical samples were purified by anhydrous sodium sulfate-anhydrous magnesium sulfate -PSA -C18-PestiCarb -phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Eight kinds of organochlorine pesticide were detected simultanously. Small amounts of OP-DDT were detected in samples 1, 4, 5, 6, 11 and 12, no organochlorine pesticide residue was detected in other samples. The RSD of precision ranged from 0.89% to 2.21%, and the average recovery ranged from 85.33% to 103.70%, with the RSD less than 4%. The contents of organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum are less than 0.2 ppm. This method is sensitive, good purifying, and suitable for analyzing organochlorine pesticide residues in the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum.

  10. Phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides by aquatic macrophytes and algae in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ghazala; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Iqbal, Shakir; Yasar, Abdullah; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Mahfooz, Yusra; Baqar, Mujtaba

    2017-10-03

    Extensive use of Pesticides in agriculture and its surface runoff in river water is a major environmental concern. The present study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes, Pistia strateotes and algae (Chaetomorpha sutoria, Sirogonium sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. Water and plant samples were extracted by liquid phase and solid phase extraction respectively and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven treatments (T1-T11) with and without plants were used for phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. During the experiment, P. strateotes, E. crassipes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) showed the highest removal efficiency with 62 (71% root, 29% shoot), 60 (67% root, 33% shoot), and 58% respectively for organochlorine and 76 (76% root, 24% shoot), 68 (69% root, 31% shoot), and 70% respectively for pyrethroids for the respective aquatic plants. Dissipation rate constant of treatments with plants (T2, T3, T5, T6, T8, and T9) was significantly higher (p plants (T10 and T11, control) for both organochlorine and pyrethroid. The bioconcentration factor of pyrethroid treatments (T3, T6, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of organochlorine treatments (T2, T5 and T8). The removal efficiency of E. crassipes, P. strateotes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for pyrethroids was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to that of organochlorine.

  11. Portuguese Cistercian Churches - An acoustic legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiel G.; Lanzinha, João C. G.; Martins, Ana M. T.

    2017-10-01

    The Cistercian Order (11th century) stands out as an apologist of the simplicity and austerity of the space. According to the Order of Cîteaux, only with an austere space, without any distractions, the true spiritual contemplation is achieved. This Order was an aggregator and consolidator pole during the Christian Reconquest. Thus, as it happens with other Religious Orders, Cîteaux has a vast heritage legacy. This heritage is witness, not only of the historical, but also social, political, and spiritual evolution. This legacy resumes the key principles to an austere liturgy, which requirements, in the beginning, are based on the simplicity of worship and of the connection between man and God. Later, these requirements allowed the development of the liturgy itself and its relation with the believers. Consequently, it can be concisely established an empirical approach between the Cistercian churches and the acoustics conditioning of these spaces. This outcome is fundamental in order to understand the connection between liturgy and the conception of the Cistercian churches as well as the constructed space and its history. So, an analysis of these principles is essential to establish the relation between acoustic and religious buildings design throughout history. It is also a mean of understanding the knowledge of acoustics principles that the Cistercian Order bequeathed to Portugal. This paper presents an empirical approach on Cistercian monastic churches acoustics. These spaces are the place where the greatest acoustic efforts are concentrated and it is also the space where the liturgy reaches greater importance. On the other hand, Portugal is a country which has an important Cistercian legacy over several periods of history. Consequently, the Portuguese Cistercian monastic churches are representative of the development of the liturgy, the design of spaces and of the acoustic requirements of their churches since the 12th century until the 21st century and it is of

  12. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time

  13. Legacy Nitrate Impacts on Groundwater and Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A. J.; Juckem, P. F.; Miller, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Decades of recharge of high-nitrate groundwater have created a legacy—a mass of high-nitrate groundwater—that has implications for future nitrate concentrations in groundwater and in streams. In the United States, inorganic nitrogen fertilizer applications to the land surface have increased ten-fold since 1950, resulting in sharp increases in nitrate concentrations in recharging groundwater, which pose a risk to deeper groundwater and streams. This study assesses the factors that control time lags and eventual concentrations of legacy nitrate in groundwater and streams. Results from the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Project are presented which elucidate nitrate trends in recharging groundwater, delineate redox zones and assess groundwater and stream vulnerability to legacy nitrate sources on a regional scale. This study evaluated trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals based on groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams at 20 study sites across the United States. Median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years, from 4 to 7.5 mg N/L. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the redox zones encountered along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams. Delineating redox zones on a regional scale is complicated by the spatial variability of reaction rates. To overcome this limitation, we applied logistic regression and machine learning techniques to predict the probability of a specific redox condition in groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Fox-Wolf-Peshtigo study area in Wisconsin. By relating redox-active constituent concentrations in groundwater samples to indicators of residence time and/or electron donor availability, we were able to delineate redox zones on a regional scale

  14. Radioactive legacies from medicine and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, R.; Rodriguez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the unintended disposal of radioactive legacies (waste from medicine, industry or private persons) radioactive material occasionally enters the disposal ways of conventional waste. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and the Swiss accident Insurance Fund (Swiss) are the licensing authorities and regulatory agencies of the handling with radioactive materials for non-nuclear use. The aim is to avoid such incidents with concrete measures and so to preserve men and environment from the negative effect of not correctly disposed radioactive waste. (orig.)

  15. Eventscapes and the creation of event legacies

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.; Lee, I.S.; King, Katherine; Shipway, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Attention is directed to the difference in event legacies created by mega-events which often cause dramatic physical changes in urban environments and those which accompany events which leave very little imprint on the landscape where they are held. The Tour Down Under cycle race, which is held annually in South Australia, is examined as an example of the latter. The spatial pattern of the event and the range of settings which support it are presented as an eventscape by drawing on concepts s...

  16. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise

  17. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  19. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  20. Legacy management: An old challenge with a new focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; ); Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham

    2017-01-01

    The NEA Expert Group on Legacy Management (EGLM) aims to promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations. NEA member countries share their experiences and approaches on legacy management and have submitted case studies to the EGLM that illustrate the common challenges and approaches of many countries. The first report of the expert group will be based on these case studies and will be released in late 2017. A new, broader focus on decommissioning and legacy management issues within the NEA is expected to take shape in early 2018, carrying forward the mission to develop and promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations

  1. Thermal-Conductivity Studies of Macro-porous Polymer-Derived SiOC Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Li, Y. M.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Wu, J. Q.; Xu, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional reticular macro-porous SiOC ceramics structure, made of spherical agglomerates, has been thermally characterized using a freestanding sensor-based method. The effective thermal conductivity of the macro-porous SiOC ceramics, including the effects of voids, is found to be to at room temperature, comparable with that of alumina aerogel or carbon aerogel. These results suggest that SiOC ceramics hold great promise as a thermal insulation material for use at high temperatures. The measured results further reveal that the effective thermal conductivity is limited by the low solid-phase volume fraction for the SiOC series processed at the same conditions. For SiOC ceramics processed under different pyrolysis temperatures, the contact condition between neighboring particles in the SiOC networks is another key factor influencing the effective thermal conductivity.

  2. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  3. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  4. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past.

  5. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Alvarez, David A.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Torres, Leticia; Patino, Reynaldo; Mesa, Matthew G.; Grove, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated occurrence, transport pathways, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010, foodweb sampling at three sites along a gradient of contaminant exposure near Skamania (Washington), Columbia City (Oregon) and Longview (Washington) included water (via passive samplers), bed sediment, invertebrate biomass residing in sediment, a resident fish species (largescale suckers [Catostomus macrocheilus]), and eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus). This paper primarily reports fish tissue concentrations. In 2009, composites of fish brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues revealed that overall contaminant concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples from all three sites ranged from < 1 to 400 nanograms per gram of wet tissue. Several chemical classes, including PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were detected at all sites and in nearly all fish tissues sampled. In 2010, only fish livers were sampled and inter-site concentration differences were not as pronounced as in 2009. Chemical concentrations in sediments, fish tissues, and osprey eggs increased moving downstream from Skamania to the urbanized sites near Columbia City and Longview. Numerous organochlorine (OC) pesticides, both banned and currently used, and PBDEs, were present at each site in multiple media and concentrations exceeded environmental quality benchmarks in some cases. Frequently detected OC compounds included hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, and oxyfluorofen. Biomagnification of BDE47, 100, 153, and 154 occurred in largescale suckers and osprey eggs. Results support the hypothesis that contaminants in the environment lead to

  6. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Missmer, Stacey A; Altshul, Larisa; Vitonis, Allison F; Ryan, Louise; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2009-07-14

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid), as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of ART outcomes in relation to organochlorine exposure.

  7. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  8. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Estes, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Σ) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (ΣDDTs, Σchlordane cyclodienes, Σother cyclodienes, and Σchlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by ΣDDTs and Σchlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldi-chloroethylene (p,p′DDE) composed 52 to 66% of ΣDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but ΣPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with δ15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of ΣPCBs and p,p′DDE among species and locations.

  9. Short-term temperature-dependent air-surface exchange and atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes and organochlorine pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.G.M.; Burnett, V.; Harner, T.; Jones, K.C.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, some of which have been banned for a number of years, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured at a U.K. site over periods of 6 h for 7 days resulting in 28 samples. Mean concentrations of the pesticides were {alpha}-HCH 90 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {gamma}-HCH 500, {rho},{rho}{prime}-DDE 8, dieldrin 63, endrin 22, and HCB 39. PCN mean homologue concentrations were {sub 3}CNs 67 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {sub 4}CNs 78, {sub 5}CNs 5, {sub 6}CNs 0.6, {sub 7}CNs 0.6, and {Sigma}PCNs 152. TEQ concentrations for those PCNs ascribed TEF values ranged between 0.36 and 3.6 fg m{sup {minus}3} which corresponds to {approximately}3.0--30% of the TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs at the same site. All the compounds measured, except HCB, exhibited a strong temperature-dependent diurnal cycling. Results from Clausius-Clapeyron plots show that pesticide concentrations were controlled by temperature-driven air-surface recycling throughout the first 5 days when stable atmospheric conditions were dominant, while during the last 2 days advection became more influential as more unstable and cooler weather started to influence the site. PCN concentrations were controlled primarily by a mixture of recycling and advection throughout the first 5 days and then by advection in the final 2 days, suggesting that there are ongoing emissions from diffuse point sources of PCNs into the U.K. atmosphere. This study provides further evidence of the rapid air-surface exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and shows how different factors alone or in combination can produce rapid changes in the atmospheric concentrations of past and present SOCs.

  10. Influence of contamination by organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls on the breeding of the spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mauro; González, Luis M; Oria, Javier; Sánchez, Roberto; Arroyo, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated temporal and regional trends of organochlorine (OC) pesticide (including polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]) levels in eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) collected in Spain between 1972 and 2003. Levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs varied significantly (p = 0.022) among regions (central, western, and Doñana), being higher in Doñana than in the central and western populations (DDE: 1.64 +/- 5.56, 0.816 +/- 1.70, and 1.1 +/- 2.66 microg/g, respectively; PCBs: 1.189 +/- 5.0, 0.517 +/- 1.55, and 0.578 +/- 1.75 microg/g, respectively). Levels of DDE decreased with time, but a significant interaction was observed between region and time. In Doñana, egg volume and breadth as well as Ratcliffe Index were significantly lower after DDT use (p = 0.0018) than during the pre-DDT period (p = 0.0018); eggs were significantly smaller overall than in the other two regions (p = 0.04) and were smaller when DDE levels increased, even when controlling for regional differences (p = 0.04). Productivity in Doñana was significantly lower than in the other regions (p < 0.001). Clutch size in Doñana varied according to DDE concentrations (p = 0.01), with the highest DDE concentrations found in clutches consisting of one egg. When considering eggs with DDE levels greater than 3.5 microg/g, a significant effect of DDE on fertility was found (p = 0.03). Clutches with DDE levels greater than 4.0 microg/g had a higher probability of hatching failure (p = 0.07) and produced fewer fledglings (p = 0.03). If we consider 3.5 microg/g as the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level, the proportion of sampled clutches that exceeded that level in Doñana (29%) was significantly higher than in other regions (p < 0.001). These eggs showed a mean percentage of thinning of 16.72%. Contamination by OCs, mainly DDE, could explain, at least in part, the low productivity of the Spanish Imperial Eagles in Doñana.

  11. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. Copyright

  12. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  13. Cassini: The Journey and the Legacy

    KAUST Repository

    Porco, Carolyn

    2018-01-15

    An international mission to explore, in depth, the Saturnian system ヨthe planet Saturn and its magnetosphere, glorious rings, and many moons- begun over 27 years ago. After seven years of development, the Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997, spent seven years trekking to Saturn, and finally entered Saturn orbit in the summer of 2004. In the course of its 13 years orbiting this ring world, Cassini returned over 450 thousand images, 635GB of data, and invaluable insights on the solar systemメs most splendid and scientifically rich planetary system. In this lecture, Carolyn Porco, the leader of the imaging science team on NASA\\'s Cassini mission, will delight her audience with a retrospective look at what has been learned from this profoundly successful mission and what its final legacy is likely to be.

  14. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  15. The Phenomenal Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Kushari Dyson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to a generation of Bengalis who received Tagore as an acknowledged classic of their tradition, I grew up reading his books, listening to his music, watching his dance-dramas, and writing poetry under the inspiration of his words. This youthful appreciation of Tagore eventually led to a deeper understanding of his stature as an artist and thinker, but it was only when I entered Tagore studies in a more formal manner that I realized how truly spectacular his achievements were from an international perspective. Tagore was fortunate in that his time, place, and circumstances allowed him to give a good run to the natural versatility and fecundity of his genius. He has thereby secured a rich and diverse legacy for us, which tends to mean different things to different groups of people.

  16. Could Freemium Models Work for Legacy Newspapers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has ...... not secured the revenues that industry players hoped for. This article discusses a number of the main principles of the freemium strategy and tactics, and highlights the critical points for legacy newspaper organisations.......The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has...

  17. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  18. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia; Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos; Fernandes, Daniella R.; Souza Avelar, Andre de; Erthal Santelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  19. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  20. Natural Organochlorines as Precursors of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters in Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Saparin, Norliza; Teh, Huey Fang; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Md Zain, Mohd Zairey Bin; Neoh, Bee Keat; Md Noor, Ahmadilfitri; Tan, Chin Ping; Lai, Oi Ming; Appleton, David Ross

    2018-01-31

    During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chlorine source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut, and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. Analysis of thermal decomposition and changes during refining suggested that these naturally present organochlorine compounds in palm oils and perhaps in other vegetable oils are precursors of 3-MCPD esters. Enrichment and dose-response showed a linear relationship to 3-MCPD ester formation and indicated that the sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are the most active precursors of 3-MCPD esters.

  1. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  2. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  3. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  4. [Size distributions of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in Shanghai atmospheric particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hua; Wei, Nan-Nan; Liu, Wei; Lin, Jun; Fan, Xue-Bo; Yao, Jian; Geng, Yan-Hong; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Size distributions of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric particles with size range from 7.20 microm, collected in Jiading District, Shanghai were determined. For estimating size distribution of SOC in these atmospheric particles, a method of determining (OC/EC)(pri) in atmospheric particles with different sizes was discussed and developed, with which SOC was estimated. According to the correlation between OC and EC, main sources of the particles were also estimated roughly. The size distributions of OC and SOC showed a bi-modal with peaks in the particles with size of 3.0 microm, respectively. EC showed both of a bi-modal and tri-modal. Compared with OC, EC was preferably enriched in particles with size of 3.00 microm) accounted for 41.4% and 43.5% of corresponding OC. Size distributions of OC, EC and SOC showed time-dependence. The correlation between OC and EC showed that the main contribution to atmospheric particles in Jiading District derived from light petrol vehicles exhaust.

  5. Determination of the dipole moment of OCS with a microwave absorption cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, H.A.; Ruitenberg, G.

    The electric dipole moment of OCS has been measured with a resonance cavity as a Stark absorption cell. The result: μOCS = 0.7149 ± 0.0003. Debye agrees well with the dipole moment data obtained with an electric resonance beam experiment.

  6. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS measured remotely by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Toon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric OCS abundances have been retrieved from infrared spectra measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL MkIV Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometer during 24 balloon flights and during nearly 1100 days of ground-based observations since 1985. Our spectral fitting approach uses broad windows to enhance the precision and robustness of the retrievals. Since OCS has a vertical profile similar in shape to that of N2O, and since tropospheric N2O is very stable, we reference the OCS observations to those of N2O, measured simultaneously in the same air mass, to remove the effects of stratospheric transport, allowing a clearer assessment of secular changes in OCS. Balloon measurements reveal less than 5 % change in stratospheric OCS amounts over the past 25 years. Ground-based measurements reveal a springtime peak of tropospheric OCS, followed by a rapid early-summer decrease, similar to the behavior of CO2. This results in a peak-to-peak seasonal cycle of 5–6 % of the total OCS column at northern mid-latitudes. In the long-term tropospheric OCS record, a 5 % decrease is seen from 1990 to 2002, followed by a 5 % increase from 2003 to 2012.

  7. 46 CFR 35.20-40 - Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics-T/OC. 35.20-40 Section 35.20-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-40 Maneuvering characteristics—T/OC. For each ocean and coastwise tankship of 1,600 gross tons or...

  8. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  9. OCLI-023, a Novel Pyrimidine Compound, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Alveolar Bone Resorption In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jung Ihn

    Full Text Available An abnormal increase in osteoclast differentiation and activation results in various bone-resorptive diseases, including periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis. Chemical compounds containing pyrimidine ring have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes. Therefore, in order to identify an antiresorptive agent, we synthesized a series of pyrimidine ring-containing chemical compounds, and found that OCLI-023 suppressed the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts in vitro. OCLI-023 directly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced differentiation of bone marrow macrophages into osteoclasts, without a cytotoxic response. OCLI-023 also downregulated the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast markers as well as inhibited the formation of actin rings and resorption pits. OCLI-023 attenuated the RANKL-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling pathways. In a mouse model of periodontitis, ligature induced an increase of distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ and alveolar bone crest (ABC in the second molar, and OCLI-023 significantly reduced it. Histological analysis showed ligature-induced increase of osteoclast numbers was also significantly reduced by OCLI-023. These data demonstrated the inhibitory effect of OCLI-023 on osteoclast differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in vitro, as well as on ligature-induced bone loss in vivo, and OCLI-023 can be proposed as a novel anti-resorptive compound.

  10. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) measured remotely by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Geoffrey C.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Sung, Keeyoon

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric OCS abundances have been retrieved from infrared spectra measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) MkIV Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer during 24 balloon flights and during nearly 1100 days of ground-based observations since 1985. Our spectral fitting approach uses broad windows to enhance the precision and robustness of the retrievals. Since OCS has a vertical profile similar in shape to that of N2O, and since tropospheric N2O is very stable, we reference the OCS observations to those of N2O, measured simultaneously in the same air mass, to remove the effects of stratospheric transport, allowing a clearer assessment of secular changes in OCS. Balloon measurements reveal less than 5 % change in stratospheric OCS amounts over the past 25 years. Ground-based measurements reveal a springtime peak of tropospheric OCS, followed by a rapid early-summer decrease, similar to the behavior of CO2. This results in a peak-to-peak seasonal cycle of 5-6 % of the total OCS column at northern mid-latitudes. In the long-term tropospheric OCS record, a 5 % decrease is seen from 1990 to 2002, followed by a 5 % increase from 2003 to 2012.

  11. Definition of the Floating System for Phase IV of OC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.

    2010-05-01

    Phase IV of the IEA Annex XXIII Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) involves the modeling of an offshore floating wind turbine. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which are needed by the OC3 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  12. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A K; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Shikha

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, various environmental issues have aroused a concern on the pollution of pesticides in rivers and in their various intercompartments. Multiple residues of pesticides discharged from industries or as a result of extensive use of agrochemicals in agriculture have been monitored. These pesticide residues contaminate the river ecosystem and its intercompartments such as sediments, and aquatic biota, and make it harmful to humans when they contaminate food and drinking water. The pesticide contamination in water, sediments, and aquatic biota has been reported to be beyond the acceptable range. The most commonly found pesticides are organochlorine, namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others. The paper discusses the general description, classification, and toxicity of pesticides; it also aims to create public awareness among people and appraise them with various alternate methods to combat the problem of pesticide contamination. An attempt has also been made to elucidate the findings of various works on pesticides in aquatic system and to highlight the challenging aspects of pesticide contamination, which have not attracted the attention of investigators yet.

  13. Polyetherimide Nanofibres as Sorbents for Organochlorinated Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoš Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun polyetherimide (PEI nanofibres were fixed on a steel wire solid phase microextraction (SPME assembly. The basic properties of the prepared nanofibres were determined by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, adsorption, and SEM. The analytical performance of prepared PEI SPME fibres was compared with three commercially available SPME fibres, 7 μm PDMS, 100 μm PDMS, and DVB/Carboxene/PDMS. As model water pollutants, persistent organochlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH and chlorobenzene (ClB were chosen as model water pollutants. The fibres were compared in the headspace- (HS- SPME mode of GC-MS/MS instrumentation. The comparison omitted other method parameters and focused exclusively on the extraction time variability. Lab-made PEI SPME fibres showed significantly better response for the target compounds than the other tested fibres from industrial production. Based on the results, the extraction time could be shortened from 50 to 10 min, if PEI SPME fibres were used as a modification of existing analytical protocol.

  14. Phytoremediation of organochlorine pesticides: Concept, method, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanvi; Singh, Dileep K

    2017-09-02

    Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants. Processes known to be involved in phytoremediation of OCPs include phytoaccumulation, rhizoremediation, and phytotransformation. Vegetation has been accounted to considerably amplify OCP elimination from soil, in contrast to non-planted soil, attributable to both, uptake within plant tissues and high microbial degradation of OCP within the root zone. Developing transgenic plants is a promising approach to enhance phytoremediation capabilities. Recent advances in the application of phytoremediation technique for OCPs, including uptake by plants and plant-microbe association in the rhizosphere for the enhanced degradation and mineralization of these pollutants, is presented in this review. Additionally, some attempts to improve this technique using transgenesis and role of certain enzymes are also discussed.

  15. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  16. Legacy Interventions With Patients with Co-Occurring Disorders: Legacy Definitions, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Felina C; Cheung, Monit

    2017-12-06

    Individuals with co-occurring disorders tend to avoid interaction with others. To instill hope, legacy intervention aims to highlight past experiences while managing life stressors for a positive outlook. Participants take part in legacy activities-crafting tangible projects and recording one's life events-in order to actualize a personal sense of legacy. This pre-posttest research tested whether legacy intervention in a partial hospital program (PHP) on reframing past experiences through creative activities could increase life satisfaction and self-efficacy among adults with co-occurring substance misuse and mental health symptoms. Eighty consented patients with co-occurring disorders were randomly assigned to two groups with 62 participants continuing: 37 in legacy intervention (LI) and 25 in partial hospital program only (PHP-only). LI participants were engaged in both PHP and legacy activities. Ten group sessions were held over the course of five weeks for cohorts of 10-15 adult patients in each intervention. Sense of legacy was measured to ensure that LI patients received the appropriate legacy dosage. With RANOVA analyses between and among three time points, life satisfaction was significantly higher in the LI group with group interaction effect over time. In terms of self-efficacy, both groups showed positive changes but no significant difference could be found between the two groups over time and the interaction (time X group) effect was not significant. The legacy definitions gathered from the LI group were consistent with existing literature and showed three additional themes: children's involvement, concreteness, and life continuation after death.

  17. Improvement of coverage and utilization of EmOC services in southwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M T; Hossain, M M; Islam, M A; Haque, Y A

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh has implemented safe motherhood programs throughout the country supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) aimed at reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the interventions on the UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) process indicators in Khulna division, Bangladesh. Of the 71 government health facilities in Khulna division, 32 were providing comprehensive and 20 were providing basic EmOC services. Another 4 facilities were providing comprehensive or basic EmOC services during the first three-quarters but became non-functional during the last quarter. EmOC data, from January to December 2002, were collected from all these 56 facilities to determine the levels of EmOC process indicators relative to the UN guidelines and compared with baseline data from 1998 to 1999. There were 1.04 and 0.64 comprehensive and basic EmOC facilities respectively per 500,000 population. When compared with the baseline data, the coverage of comprehensive EmOC services was substantially increased from 0.23 to 1.04 per 500,000 population, which achieves the minimum UN standards but the coverage of basic EmOC services remained the same. The data also showed that, compared with the baseline survey, the proportion of births at the EmOC facilities increased 119% from 5.3% to 11.7% (pEmOC after the interventions, there was significant improvement in all the EmOC process indicators in Khulna division. However, most of the process indicators are still far from the minimum recommended UN standards. Efforts should continue to keep the EmOC facilities functional 24/7 while increasing the number of basic EmOC facilities, and improving utilization of services to reach the minimum UN standards. Community mobilization should be directed to understand the danger signs and utilization of services at functional facilities when necessary. Further research to identify

  18. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  19. [Measuring workplace climate: reliability and validity of the 12-item Organizational Climate Scale (OCS-12)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoe; Haratani, Takashi; Toshima, Yutaka; Shima, Satoru; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Fukasawa, Kenji; Ohba, Sayo; Sato, Emi; Hirota, Yasuko

    2004-11-01

    In order to investigate the reliability and validity of the short version of the 30-item Organizational Climate Scale (OCS-30; Toshima and Matsuda, 1992, 1995), a self-administered questionnaire was conducted in a sample of 819 employees of two medium-sized private companies in Japan by using the OCS-30, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ), and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The OCS has two subscales, i.e., the Tradition Scale (TS) and the Organizational Environment Scale (OES). The organizational climate perceived by each worker can be grouped into four categories based on the subscale scores: low TS and high OES (Active), high TS and high OES (Governed), low TS and low OES (Disorganized), and high TS and low OES (Reluctant). Principal component analysis for the OCS-30 was submitted (varimax rotation, the number of factors = 2), and 6 items for each factor, with factor loadings greater than 0.50, were selected for the short version, which constituted the 12-item Organizational Climate Scale (OCS-12). Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients of the two subscales of the OCS-12 were acceptable; 0.63 for the TS and 0.71 for the OES. Both two subscales of the OCS-12 were significantly correlated with the GHQ-12 and many subscales of the GJSQ, which indicated the good constructive validity of the OCS-12. Among 4 types of organizational climate categorized by the OCS-12, the "Active" group showed the lowest job stress scores. It is suggested that the OCS-12 could be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing workers' perception of workplace climate.

  20. Thermal Properties of SiOC Glasses and Glass Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Christina; Reitz, Andreas; Stein, Peter; Albert, Barbara; Riedel, Ralf; Ionescu, Emanuel

    2018-02-10

    In the present study, the effect of the chemical and phase composition on the thermal properties of silicon oxide carbides (SiOC) has been investigated. Dense monolithic SiOC materials with various carbon contents were prepared and characterized with respect to their thermal expansion, as well as thermal conductivity. SiOC glass has been shown to exhibit low thermal expansion (e.g., ca. 3.2 × 10 -6 K -1 for a SiOC sample free of segregated carbon) and thermal conductivity (ca. 1.5 W/(m∙K)). Furthermore, it has been observed that the phase separation, which typically occurs in SiOC exposed to temperatures beyond 1000-1200 °C, leads to a decrease of the thermal expansion (i.e., to 1.83 × 10 -6 K -1 for the sample above); whereas the thermal conductivity increases upon phase separation (i.e., to ca. 1.7 W/(m∙K) for the sample mentioned above). Upon adjusting the amount of segregated carbon content in SiOC, its thermal expansion can be tuned; thus, SiOC glass ceramics with carbon contents larger than 10-15 vol % exhibit similar coefficients of thermal expansion to that of the SiOC glass. Increasing the carbon and SiC content in the studied SiOC glass ceramics leads to an increase in their thermal conductivity: SiOC with relatively large carbon and silicon carbides (SiC) volume fractions (i.e., 12-15 and 20-30 vol %, respectively) were shown to possess thermal conductivities in the range from 1.8 to 2.7 W/(m∙K).

  1. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  2. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  3. An assessment of mine legacies and how to prevent them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    of AMD is felt well beyond the mining district and the costs of prevention and remediation were found to be significant. Apart from environmental legacies, the mine also left a number of socio-economic legacies including: limited access to non-polluted water that results in San Sebastian residents...... devoting a high proportion of their income in obtaining water, lost opportunities due to the cessation of mining, uncertain land tenure situation and increasing growth of ASGM activities that exacerbate already existing environmental pollution due to use of mercury. The study also found that the state......The study seeks to enrich the growing literature on mine legacies by examining a case study of a small abandoned mine in Latin America. Using a combination of Rapid Rural Appraisal and secondary source analysis, this study assessed some of the most damaging legacies of the San Sebastian mine...

  4. Legacy System Wrapping for Department of Defense Information System Modernization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    This document explains the activities, benefits, problems, and issues in using the object-oriented technique of software wrapping to support the migration from legacy information systems to modernized systems...

  5. The multidrug transporter MATE1 sequesters OCs within an intracellular compartment that has no influence on OC secretion in renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guerrero, L J; Evans, K K; Dantzler, W H; Wright, S H

    2016-01-01

    Secretion of organic cations (OCs) across renal proximal tubules (RPTs) involves basolateral OC transporter (OCT)2-mediated uptake from the blood followed by apical multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE)1/2-mediated efflux into the tubule filtrate. Whereas OCT2 supports electrogenic OC uniport, MATE is an OC/H(+) exchanger. As assessed by epifluorescence microscopy, cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that stably expressed human MATE1 accumulated the fluorescent OC N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium (NBD-MTMA) in the cytoplasm and in a smaller, punctate compartment; accumulation in human OCT2-expressing cells was largely restricted to the cytoplasm. A second intracellular compartment was also evident in the multicompartmental kinetics of efflux of the prototypic OC [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) from MATE1-expressing CHO cells. Punctate accumulation of NBD-MTMA was markedly reduced by coexposure of MATE1-expressing cells with 5 μM bafilomycin (BAF), an inhibitor of V-type H(+)-ATPase, and accumulation of [(3)H]MPP and [(3)H]NBD-MTMA was reduced by >30% by coexposure with 5 μM BAF. BAF had no effect on the initial rate of MATE1-mediated uptake of NBD-MTMA, suggesting that the influence of BAF was a secondary effect involving inhibition of V-type H(+)-ATPase. The accumulation of [(3)H]MPP by isolated single nonperfused rabbit RPTs was also reduced >30% by coexposure to 5 μM BAF, suggesting that the native expression in RPTs of MATE protein within endosomes can increase steady-state OC accumulation. However, the rate of [(3)H]MPP secretion by isolated single perfused rabbit RPTs was not affected by 5 μM BAF, suggesting that vesicles loaded with OCs(+) are not likely to recycle into the apical plasma membrane at a rate sufficient to provide a parallel pathway for OC secretion. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  7. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  8. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Nagarajan, R.; Chaphadkar, S.; Pal, S.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    . 195-200, 1997 Pergamou Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved PlI: S0043-1354(96)00210-2 0043-1354/97 $17.00 + 0.00 CONTAMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE ARABIAN SEA ALONG... environment by 1 2 8 4 6 6 r 8 g 11o 11 12 various organochlorine pesticides can be envisaged Stetion nos from the fact that there are 232 industries situated it-,c. ~AUlr,. ~l)le~.,. iml~,l, rff~t-am" along the west coast of India. About 0.6 x 109m...

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Naser Haji Samoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  11. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  12. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian

    2014-01-01

    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  13. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  14. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  15. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  16. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  17. The intangible legacy of the Indonesian Bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nuraini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sama-Bajau, or Bajo diaspora, extends from the southern Philippines and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo to the eastern part of Indonesia. The Indonesian Bajo, now scattered along the coasts of Sulawesi (Celebes and East Kalimantan, the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and Maluku, were once mostly nomadic fishermen of the sea or ocean freight carriers. Today, the Bajo are almost all fishermen and settled. Their former and present ways of life made them favour intangible forms of culture: it is impossible to transport bulky artefacts when moving frequently by boat, or when living in stilt houses, very close to the sea or on a reef. It is therefore an intangible legacy that is the essence of the Bajo’s culture. Sandro healers have a vast range of expertise that allows them to protect and heal people when they suffer from natural or supernatural diseases. On the other hand, music and especially oral literature are very rich. In addition to song and the pantun poetry contests, the most prestigious genre is the iko-iko, long epic songs that the Bajo consider to be historical rather than fictional narratives. The Bajo’s intangible heritage is fragile, since it is based on oral transmission. In this article, I give a description of this heritage, dividing it into two areas: the knowledge that allows them to “protect and heal” on the one hand, and to “distract and relax”, on the other.

  18. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  19. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and PCB's: A continuing problem for the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Clark, D.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    In general. decreases in OC contamination in North America are unmistakable. This is documented by the NPMP. but. more importantly. it is borne out by improvements in the reproduction and population status of the brown pelican. bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and osprey. However, some OC contamination still persists, and several species, particularly predatory birds and insectivorous bats, continue to be vulnerable. Current OC problems in North America result from present and past usage and from industrial contamination. In addition, some studies suggest that some migrant bird species that winter south of the U.S. border are exposed to higher levels of OC pesticide than non-migrants. However, heavy OC pesticide contamination is known to exist in Arizona, New Mexico, and in southern California where migratory birds might stop during migration. At this time, we do not have the information to assess specifically the sources of contamination for most migrant species. From the number of recent OC problems identified in North America, it is apparent that OC's are not confined to the past and that we must continue to monitor and study OC's during this decade. However, current administrative, management, and research priorities are being directed toward the search for potential impacts of newer pesticides, air pollution. industrial waste, and other contaminants. Although it is necessary to build a body of scientific data on these types of contaminants, we feel that we cannot neglect continued work on OC's for which harmful effects impacting our wildlife resources are already known.

  1. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological...... record. The calculated isotopic fractionation factors for SO2 photolysis give mass independent distributions that are highly sensitive to the atmospheric concentrations of O2, O3, CO2, H2O, CS2, NH3, N2O, H2S, OCS, and SO2 itself. Various UV-shielding scenarios are considered and we conclude...... that the negative 33S observed in the Archean sulfate deposits can only be explained by OCS shielding. Of relevant Archean gases, OCS has the unique ability to prevent SO2 photolysis by sunlight at >202 nm. Scenarios run using a photochemical box model show that ppm levels of OCS will accumulate in a CO...

  2. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993).

  4. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    2001-01-01

    statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals...

  5. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic have shown high concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, and organochlorines in the blood and fatty tissue of the Inuit. This is attributed in particular to their high consumption of the meat and blubber of marine mammals. In the present...

  6. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  7. How Do We Advise the Pest Control Industry in the Post-Organochlorine Era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R.J. French

    1991-01-01

    Given the banning of organochlorines for use as termiticides in North America, and with the possibility of such bans occurring in future in Australia and elsewhere, how do we as entomologists advise the pest control industry in termite control? A brief historical review of pesticide bans and the relevance of these bans to the present situation are discussed....

  8. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waliszewski Stefan M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  10. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  11. Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, A.; Borrell, A.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The interpretation of the spatial and temporal patterns of variation in organochlorine concentrations in marine mammal populations is complex because of the lack of wide-scale, long-term surveys. Therefore the results from several surveys must be combined and this causes undesired heterogeneity due

  12. Evaluation of the quality of measurement of organochlorine contaminants in the marine environment: the QUASIMEME experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in marine environmental test materials have been included in QUASIMEME Laboratory Performance Studies since 1996. The methods of data assessment include the Cofino model, which provides a sound basis for obtaining a reliable assigned value from the wide range of data

  13. Influence of drying of biosludge on organochlorine compounds from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Purwar, M; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, Satnam

    2012-01-01

    Pulp and paper industry is one of the major sources of man-made generation of organochlorine compounds. During biological treatment of wastewater, part of organochlorine compounds is discharged with treated effluent and part is retained on biomass and disposed of as waste activated sludge. Due to presence of these compounds, the disposal of biosludge from pulp and paper industry has become an issue. The estimation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) compounds after drying and grinding resulted in 49% lower concentration of AOX due to stripping of purgeable compounds. These purgeable compounds are not released at 60 degrees C in aqueous medium during estimation of purgeable organic halogen (POX) compounds. Dispersion of sludge by sonication overcomes the loss of POX compounds and results in higher concentration ofAOX compounds. The drying of biosludge samples at 45, 100 degrees C and in presence of sun light resulted in 20.1, 49.0 and 29.6% removal of purgeable AOX compounds, respectively. The lab scale sorption study using dichloromethane (as volatile organochlorine compound) reveal that biosludge from pulp and paper industry is a good adsorbent of volatile organochlorine compounds and results in poor release of these compounds during estimation of POX compounds.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bringas, Laura M.; Ponce-Velez, Guadalupe; Botello, Alfonso V.; Calva B, Laura G.; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaias Hazamamberth; Diaz Gonzalez, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher than 10 years. Sediments were studied in November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July 2002, from the lacustric zone of Metzitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine possible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. The p,p'-DDD and δ-HCH were detected in the tilapias tissue. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the international limits for freshwater benthic fauna, although lindane, γ-HCH, was near the limit. The fish was above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993). (author)

  15. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    . In a linear regression analysis, the concentrations of organochlorines, mercury and selenium increased with maternal age. Concentrations of mercury and cadmium increased with the consumption of marine mammals, and cadmium was associated with smoking. The contaminants are potentially toxic for several organ...

  16. Economic Consequences of Restricting the Use of Organochlorine Insecticides on Cotton, Corn, Peanuts, and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Velmar W.; And Others

    The Department of Agriculture continually reviews needs for insecticides and recommends those which are effective with least hazard to people and the environment. This report estimates the economic effects of reducing the use of organochlorine insecticides. Using data from a 1966 Economic Research Service Survey, the report concludes that these…

  17. Chloride – a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laturnus, F.; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2008), s. 119-125 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 36Chloride * Volatile Organochlorines * VOCl Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2008

  18. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  19. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  20. 78 FR 59968 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...; MMAA104000] Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Oregon... BOEM by Principle Power, Inc. (Principle Power) to acquire an OCS commercial wind lease; (2) solicit... from Principle Power for a commercial wind lease on the OCS offshore Oregon. Principle [[Page 59969...

  1. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  2. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... the availability of and requests comments on the Proposed 5-Year OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for..., including the public, to assist in the preparation of a 5-Year OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017...

  3. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and atmosphere under various CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Behrendt, Thomas; Yi, Zhigang; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    A new continuous integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer and an automated soil chamber system were used to investigate the exchange processes of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and the atmosphere under laboratory conditions. The exchange patterns of OCS between soils and the atmosphere were found to be highly dependent on soil moisture and ambient CO2 concentration. With increasing soil moisture, OCS exchange ranged from emission under dry conditions to an uptake within an optimum moisture range, followed again by emission at high soil moisture. Elevated CO2 was found to have a significant impact on the exchange rate and direction as tested with several soils. There is a clear tendency toward a release of OCS at higher CO2 levels (up to 7600 ppm), which are typical for the upper few centimeters within soils. At high soil moisture, the release of OCS increased sharply. Measurements after chloroform vapor application show that there is a biotic component to the observed OCS exchange. Furthermore, soil treatment with the fungi inhibitor nystatin showed that fungi might be the dominant OCS consumers in the soils we examined. We discuss the influence of soil moisture and elevated CO2 on the OCS exchange as a change in the activity of microbial communities. Physical factors such as diffusivity that are governed by soil moisture also play a role. Comparing KM values of the enzymes to projected soil water CO2 concentrations showed that competitive inhibition is unlikely for carbonic anhydrase and PEPCO but might occur for RubisCO at higher CO2 concentrations.

  4. Application of static and dynamic enclosures in determining DMS and OCS fluxes in Sphagnum peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic enclosure measurements with S-free air used as sweep gas. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable between 5 and 500 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1). The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Measurements using both techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat is a source of both DMS and OCS. Results suggested that OCS is produced in surface peat but it is taken up from the atmosphere by Sphagnum mosses. However, the net effect of both processes is that OCS uptake exceeds emission. The dynamic enclosure technique is adequate to measure rates of emissions of S gases which are produced in peatlands but not consumed, as long as attention is paid to the rate of sweep flow.

  5. Analysis of the premitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) the lack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  6. A Review of Graphite Irradiation Creep Data from the "OC-Series" of Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Mark A. [MARAD Co. Ltd., Washington, DC (United States); Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The OC-Series graphite irradiation creep experiments were conducted in the early 1970s in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) at ORNL. The OC Series consisted of 5 experiments, Capsules 1, 3 and 5 were irradiated at 900°C and Capsules 2 and 4 were irradiated at 600°C. Each capsule contained four columns of specimens, two loaded in compression and two un-loaded. The loaded columns had specimens of different diameter to generate two stress levels, 13.8 MPa and 20.7 MPa. Some of the data from these experiments were presented in extended abstracts at a Carbon Conference (Kennedy et al, 1977: Kennedy and Eatherly, 1979). The data presented some challenges to the accepted approach to irradiation induced creep in graphite adopted in the UK, specifically lateral creep strain behaviour and the effect of irradiation induced creep strain on material properties, e.g. CTE and Poisson’s Ratio. A recent review of irradiation induced creep (Davies & Bradford, 2004) included an anlaysis of the available OC-series data (Mobasheran, 1990) and led to a request to ORNL for an examination of the original OC-Series dataset. An initial search of the ORNL archive revealed additional data from the OC-Series experiment including previously unknown irradiation annealing experiments. This report presents a re-analysis of the available data from the OC-Series archive.

  7. The scientific legacy of Howard Vincent Malmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Howard Malmstadt was a true giant of Analytical Chemistry and clearly one of the most influential analytical chemists of the last 50 years. Howard, through his own work and that of his students (first generation) and their students (second generation) and their students' students (third generation) changed the course of Analytical Chemistry. His research interests were broad and ranged from analytical solution chemistry (titrimetry and reaction rates) and electrochemistry to atomic and molecular spectroscopy, chemical instrumentation, clinical chemistry and automation. Howard was also one of the most innovative and influential educators of our time. He changed forever the analytical curriculum through his many books on Electronics for Scientists, most written in conjunction with Chris Enke and Stan Crouch. Their texts and short courses went from pioneering the application of tube-based analog electronics (servo systems and operational amplifiers) in scientific measurements to the impact that integrated circuits and digital electronics would have on laboratory measurements. He strongly believed in the importance of 'hands-on' in education. To this end, he expended considerable personal effort and time to see not only the development and commercialization of an effective laboratory infrastructure to support education in analog and digital electronics, but also oversaw the development of modular instrumentation for spectroscopy. Over the years he received many awards from the Analytical Chemistry community for his outstanding efforts and contributions to teaching and research. Many of Howard's students went on into academia. They and their students now represent the ongoing legacy for analytical chemistry that evolved from Howard's laboratory at Illinois. A remarkable diversity of research programs are underway in their laboratories. Topics range from atomic, laser, mass, and Raman spectroscopy to detection technology, analytical education, micro

  8. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Symons, Robert; Fürst, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human milk has been used as a surrogate for the assessment of body burden and exposure to persistent lipophilic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). With the exception of restricted use of mirex, the use of persistent, lipophilic OCPs has been banned in Australia since the 1980s. The decline of human body burden of OCPs following their ban in many industrialised countries is well recorded worldwide from the 1970s until the 1990s though little is known on whether these trends are continuing. In this study, 157 human milk samples collected during 2002 and 2003 as well as 24 samples collected in 1993 were analysed as 20 regional pools for 17 OCPs. OCPs were detected in all pooled human milk samples from 2002/03 typically with highest concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (mean+/-standard deviation; median concentration 311+/-174; 279 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) (80+/-173; 21 ng g(-1) lipid). Other OCPs consistently detected included dieldrin (16+/-6; 17 ng g(-1) lipid), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (18+/-16; 14 ng g(-1) lipid), transnonachlor (11+/-5; 9 ng g(-1) lipid) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (9+/-6; 7 ng g(-1) lipid). The results from this study indicated that following a substantial decline of OCP concentrations from the early 1980s to the 1990s, little decline could be observed since then. Furthermore the use of multivariate statistics indicated some regional trends with slightly higher levels of the broadly used insecticides DDT and HCH in both historic and recent samples from Melbourne, whereas, sample pools collected from mothers that lived in rural Queensland and New South Wales as well as Adelaide and Sydney showed comparatively higher levels of heptachlor and dieldrin - both of which have been used for termite treatment. These results indicate that even 20 years after the discontinuation of usage, historical use of OCPs rather than exposure via global transport of OCPs is

  11. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Karunaratne, Senani B; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B; Singh, Brajesh K

    2017-04-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios.

  12. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh

    2006-01-01

    challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...... control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components.......We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...

  13. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh

    2006-01-01

    We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...... challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...... control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components....

  14. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose

    2013-01-01

    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  15. Legacy to Industry 4.0: A Profibus Sniffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye Mamo, Fesseha; Sikora, Axel; Rathfelder, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Legacy industrial communication protocols are proved robust and functional. During the last decades, the industry has invented completely new or advanced versions of the legacy communication solutions. However, even with the high adoption rate of these new solutions, still the majority industry applications run on legacy, mostly fieldbus related technologies. Profibus is one of those technologies that still keep on growing in the market, albeit a slow in market growth in recent years. A retrofit technology that would enable these technologies to connect to the Internet of Things, utilize the ever growing potential of data analysis, predictive maintenance or cloud-based application, while at the same time not changing a running system is fundamental.

  16. Size Effect Studies of the Creep Behaviour of 20MnMoNi55 at Temperatures from 700 {sup o}C to 900 {sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompholz, K.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D

    2000-11-01

    One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess size and scale effects in plastic flow and failure. This includes an experimental programme devoted to characterising the influence of specimen size, strain rate, and strain gradients at various temperatures. One of the materials selected was the forged reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906). Among others, a size effect study of the creep response of this material was performed, using geometrically similar smooth specimens with 5 mm and 20 mm diameter. The tests were done under constant load in an inert atmosphere at 700 {sup o}C, 800 {sup o}C, and 900 {sup o}C, close to and within the phase transformation regime. The mechanical stresses varied from 10 MPa to 30 MPa, depending on temperature. Prior to creep testing the temperature and time dependence of scale oxidation as well as the temperature regime of the phase transformation was determined. The creep tests were supplemented by metallographical investigations.The test results are presented in form of creep curves strain versus time from which characteristic creep data were determined as a function of the stress level at given temperatures. The characteristic data are the times to 5% and 15% strain and to rupture, the secondary (minimum) creep rate, the elongation at fracture within the gauge length, the type of fracture and the area reduction after fracture. From metallographical investigations the austenitic phase contents at different temperatures could be estimated. From these data also the parameters of the regression calculation (e.g. Norton's creep law) were obtained. The evaluation revealed that the creep curves and characteristic data are size dependent of varying degree, depending on the stress and temperature level, but the size influence cannot be related to corrosion or orientation effects or to macroscopic heterogeneity (position effect) of

  17. Fluctuating concentrations of organochlorine pollutants during a breeding season in two antarctic seabirds: Adelie Penguin and Southern Fulmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Franeker, van J.A.; Ruiter-Dijkman, de E.M.

    1998-01-01

    During the reproductive cycle significant fluctuations of concentrations of organochlorine pollutants were detected in blood and uropygial oil from Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and southern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialoides) from Hop Island, Antarctica. In the Adelie penguin, concentrations of

  18. Natural formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil--challenges to understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturnus, Frank; Fahimi, Isabelle; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Heal, Mathew R; Matucha, Miroslav; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Schroll, Reiner; Svensson, Teresia

    2005-07-01

    The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic acids in the environment. Moreover, both groups are produced in higher amounts by natural chlorination of organic matter, e.g. by soil microorganisms, marine macroalgae and salt lake bacteria, and show similar metabolism pathways. Elucidating the origin and fate of these organohalogens is necessary to implement actions to counteract environmental problems caused by these compounds. While the anthropogenic sources of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines are relatively well-known and within human control, knowledge of relevant natural processes is scarce and fragmented. This article reviews current knowledge on natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soils, with particular emphasis on processes in the rhizosphere, and discusses future studies necessary to understand the role of forest soils in the formation and degradation of these compounds. Reviewing the present knowledge of the natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil has revealed gaps in knowledge regarding the actual mechanisms behind these processes. In particular, there remains insufficient quantification of reliable budgets and rates of formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil (both biotic and abiotic processes) to evaluate the strength of forest ecosystems regarding the emission and uptake of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines, both on a regional scale and on a global scale

  19. New Media, Legacy Media and Misperceptions Regarding Sourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Diel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resource dependence theory and related theories of management suggest online-only news media may displace legacy news media, but until that happens the two systems are likely to be dependent on the same resource: news. This quantitative content analysis finds that the systems exist as parallel but distinctly separate entities. Websites associated with legacy news media such as newspapers publish mostly hard news or news analysis in the form of original work. New, online-only news media publish mostly unoriginal features, but the origins of much of the content published by onlineonly media are unclear.

  20. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  1. After the Fall: The RHESSI Legacy Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Zarro, Dominic M.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2017-08-01

    Launched in 2002 the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) continues to observe the Sun with a nearly 50% duty cycle. During that time the instrument has recorded ~100,000 solar flares in energies from 4 keV to over 10 MeV.with durations of 10s to 1000s of seconds. However, for the reasons of the decline of the solar cycle, possible failure of the instrument, or the absence of funding, our operational phase will end someday. We describe here our plans to continue to serve this dataset in raw, processed, and analyzed forms to the worldwide solar community to continue our legacy of a stream of rich scientific results.We have and are providing a stream of quicklook lightcurves, spectra, and images that we mainly serve through a web interface as well as the data in raw form to be fully analyzed within our own branch of Solar Software written in IDL. We are in the process of creating higher quality images for flares in multiple energy bands on relevant timescales for those whose needs can be met without further processing. For users with IDL licenses we expect this software to be available far into the unknowable future. Together with a database of AIA cutouts during all SDO-era flares, along with software to recover saturated images by using the AIA diffraction fringes, these will be a highly used resource.We also are developing additional tools and databases that will increase the utility of RHESSI data to members of the community with and without either IDL licenses or full access to the RHESSI database. We will provide a database of RHESSI x-ray visibilities obtained during flares at a >4 second cadence over a broad range of detectable energies. With our IDL software those can be rendered as images for times and energies of nearly the analysts's choosing. And going beyond that we are converting our imaging procedures to the Python language to eliminate the need for an IDL license. We are also developing methods to allow the customization of these

  2. Nuclear legacy: Students of two atomic cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Battelle Memorial Institute operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Within PNNL is the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) assigned to work on improving the safe operations of 67 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors in nine countries. One major mission of this program has been Chernobyl NPP activities, both for the operating plant, and for the Chernobyl Shelter. In conjunction with the activities at Chernobyl, several Battelle staff members have been living in Slavutych (the city closest to Chernobyl) for periods of up to two years. Through these personal relationships, Battelle began to take personal interest in students in Slavutych. In 1999 Battelle used private funding to support 20 students from Slavutych, Ukraine; and 20 students from Richland, Washington, U.S.A., in authoring a book called Nuclear Legacy: Students of Two Atomic Cities. This hard-bound book was researched, and written, entirely by these 40 13-to-15-year-old students. It is an amazing book, which describes the past, the present, and the future of two nuclear cities - Slavutych near Chernobyl, and Richland, near Hanford. It was written in two languages, with every article translated into both English and Ukrainian. It was published in June, 2000, and has now sold more than 2,600 copies in 14 countries. The book is primarily an educational publication designed to teach students how to write and publish a book on a sensitive subject - nuclear. It is not a political statement. However, the student researched and written articles do discuss politically sensitive nuclear topics in straightforward detail. The moving first hand accounts through the eyes of these young people of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, and interviews with scientists and engineers who worked on the 1940's Manhattan Project in the United States, make the book a unique collaboration on two nuclear cultures. What started as a one-semester project took a full

  3. Assessment of human health risk from organochlorine pesticide residues in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Asmus,Carmen Ildes R. Fróes; Alonzo,Herling Gregorio Aguilar; Palácios,Marisa; Silva,Alexandre Pessoa da; Filhote,Maria Isabel de Freitas; Buosi,Daniela; Câmara,Volney de Magalhães

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a heath risk assessment in Cidade dos Meninos, an area contaminated with organochlorine pesticide residues located in the county (municipality) of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) risk assessment methodology was applied. The following organochlorine compounds exceeded the established limits and were considered target pollutants: HCH and its isomers (in eggs, milk, and soil); DDT and...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a one-off global survey of bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    During the Danish Galathea 3 expedition, bivalve samples were collected at the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Ghana, South Africa, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Zealand, Chile, US Virgin Islands, Boston, Newfoundland and Shetland Islands and analysed for organochlorines and PAHs. Concentration...... in terms of PCB and PAH levels, while other Greenland samples came closest to representing PAH background levels. Several locations had undetectable organochlorine levels, including Hobart and Chile, which had the lowest Sigma PAH concentrations (

  5. Local meanings of a sport mega-event's legacies : Stories from a South African urban neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, Maikel; van den Bergh, Marjolein; van Eekeren, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Studies on sport mega-events and their legacies often seem only loosely connected to local experiences. Stories on sport mega-event legacy appear as a setting-the-scene or function as a reference to illustrate specific types of legacy. However, stories themselves are never the primary focus in these

  6. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.20 Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. (a...

  7. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the effects of urbanization on the environment with soil legacy and current-use insecticides: a case study in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; He, Zai-Cheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic events on the rapid urbanized environment, the levels of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use insecticides (CUPs), i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), pyrethroids and organophosphates in soil of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and surrounding areas were examined. Spatial concentration distributions of legacy OCPs and CUPs shared similar patterns, with higher concentrations occurred in the central PRD with more urbanization level than that in the PRD's surrounding areas. Furthermore, relatively higher concentrations of OCPs and CUPs were found in the residency land than in other land-use types, which may be attributed to land-use change under rapid urbanization. Moderate correlations between gross domestic production or population density and insecticide levels in fifteen administrative districts indicated that insecticide spatial distributions may be driven by economic prosperity. The soil-air diffusive exchanges of DDTs and HCHs demonstrated that soil was a sink of atmospheric o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT, and was a secondary source of HCHs and p,p'-DDT to atmosphere. The soil inventories of DDTs and HCHs (100 ± 134 and 83 ± 70 tons) were expected to decrease to half of their current values after 18 and 13 years, respectively, whereas the amounts of pyrethroids and organophosphates (39 and 6.2 tons) in soil were estimated to decrease after 4 and 2 years and then increase to 87 and 1.0 tons after 100 years. In this scenario, local residents in the PRD and surrounding areas will expose to the high health risk for pyrethroids by 2109. Strict ban on the use of technical DDTs and HCHs and proper training of famers to use insecticides may be the most effective ways to alleviate the health effect of soil contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 2. Annotated bibliography for OCS oil and gas impact studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The volume is the second of two volumes to the final report, Potential Impacts of OCS Oil and Gas Activities on Fisheries. The volume presents an annotated bibliography of published and grey literature related to OCS oil and gas activity impacts of finfish and shellfish in marine and estuaring waters. The studies presented in the bibliography include those related to the following pollutants or impact-causing activities: Rig/reef effects, Drilling discharges (muds or cuttings), Oil (petroleum hydrocarbons), Trace metals, Produced water, Habitat alteration, Debris, Rig placement (avoidance), Pipelines, and Socioeconomic effects. The studies are listed alphabetically by the primary author's last name. An index is provided to help the reader identify studies related to a specific impact

  10. Portable Cathode-Air Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator (OC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Missions on the International Space Station and future space exploration will present significant challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of onboard oxygen resources. Exploration vehicles will require lightweight, compact, and portable oxygen concentrators that can provide medical-grade oxygen from the ambient cabin air. Current pressure-swing adsorption OCs are heavy and bulky, require significant start-up periods, operate in narrow temperature ranges, and require a liquid water feed. Lynntech, Inc., has developed an electrochemical OC that operates with a cathode-air vapor feed, eliminating the need for a bulky onboard water supply. Lynntech's OC is smaller and lighter than conventional pressure-swing OCs, is capable of instant start-up, and operates over a temperature range of 5-80 C. Accomplished through a unique nanocomposite proton exchange membrane and catalyst technology, the unit delivers 4 standard liters per minute of humidified oxygen at 60 percent concentration. The technology enables both ambient-pressure operating devices for portable applications and pressurized (up to 3,600 psi) OC devices for stationary applications.

  11. The Hydraulic Project Włocławek: Design, Studies, Construction and Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hydraulic Project Włocławek was commissioned in 1970 as the first barrage of the Lower Vistula Cascade (LVC. The purpose of the LVC was to create an important source of hydro-energy and inland navigation route connecting central Poland with the port city of Gdańsk. Along the Lower Vistula (LV important cities and industrial centres are located. The Włocławek project still remains the only barrage on the LV thus creating a number of problems. The paper presents the basic hydrological and hydraulic data for the Vistula river, and describes the Włocławek project, hydraulic model investigations conducted in the design phase, the construction of the project and the main problems, attendant on its use, including the winter flood of 1982 in the upper part of the Włocławek reservoir. The paper ends with conclusions on project construction and exploitation. The next barrage downstream from Włocławek is proposed.

  12. A Risk-Based Characterization of Sediment Contamination by Legacy and Emergent Contaminants of Concern in Coastal British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    Sediments have long been used to help describe pollution sources, contaminated sites, trends over time, and habitat quality for marine life. We collected surficial sediments from 12 sites at an average seawater depth of 25 m in three near-urban areas of the Salish Sea (British Columbia, Canada) to investigate habitat quality for marine life, including heavily contaminated killer whales. Samples were analyzed using high-resolution instrumentation for a wide variety of congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The top six contaminant classes detected in sediments were ∑PCB > ∑PBDE > ∑PCDD/F > DDT > ∑HBCDD > ∑PCN. Near-urban harbor sediments had up to three orders of magnitude higher concentrations of contaminants than more remote sites. With limited tools available to characterize biological risks associated with complex mixtures in the real world, we applied several available approaches to prioritize the pollutant found in our study: (1) sediment quality guidelines from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment where available; (2) US NOAA effects range low and other international guidelines; (3) total TEQ for dioxin-like PCBs for the protection of mammals; and (4) the calculation of risk quotients. Our findings provide an indication of the state of contamination of coastal environments in British Columbia and guidance for chemical regulations and priority setting, as well as management actions including best-practices, dredging, disposal at sea, and source control. In this regard, the legacy PCB and the emergent PBDEs should command continued priority monitoring.

  13. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  14. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain, banana, ...

  15. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTACT: The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of. Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain,.

  16. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  17. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  18. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  19. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  20. Bridging the gap between legacy services and Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissyandé, Tegawendé; Réveillère, Laurent; Bromberg, Yérom-David

    2010-01-01

    itself. In this paper, we introduce a generative language based approach for constructing wrappers to facilitate the migration of legacy service functionalities to Web Services. To this end, we have designed the Janus domain-specific language, which provides developers with a high-level way to describe...

  1. Forging Links between the Web and Legacy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Noleen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses why information technology managers are exploring the economic and strategic advantages of Web technology and finding that legacy systems still have an important role. Presents benefits: centralized management, reduced cost of ownership, wide user access; models of Web-to-host access; the Citrix thin client model; and future of…

  2. BOKO HARAM IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: A MAUDUDIAN LEGACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    colonialism and slavery” (2010, 168). Without question, colonial legacy contributed to the ... is the nature and mode of Shari'a implementation that is the issue. (2003, 144). This alludes to the influence of .... Syria, Iraq, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria,. South Africa, Kenya as well as elsewhere (2003, 533 ...

  3. Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy implications for post-event safety and security. EC Perry, A Chunderduth, C Potgieter. Abstract. The trepidation over crime and safety concerns emerged as one of the main issues in relation to South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, prominent in the ...

  4. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  5. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  6. The Kemper History Project: From Historical Narrative to Institutional Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2017-01-01

    An "institutional legacy" can be understood as knowledge, values, and shared experiences transmitted by or received from a college or university for the benefit of all who have taught, served, researched, and/or learned there. This article describes a year-long, collaborative writing project carried out by one university to chronicle two…

  7. An object-oriented framework for managing cooperating legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H; de Brock, EO

    2003-01-01

    We describe a general semantic framework for precise specification of so-called database federations. A database federation provides for tight coupling of a collection of heterogeneous legacy databases into a global integrated system. Our approach to database federation is based on the UML/OCL data

  8. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  9. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  10. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The study was intended to provide the Mineral Management Service (MMS) with an analytical tool to evaluate possible economic impacts from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development. In particular, the study was designed to provide MMS staff who work on lease sale Energy Impact Statements with an objective technique for estimating the impacts to coastal communities from events that might occur as a result of lease sales: oil spills, onshore construction, and construction of platforms offshore. The project had several specific objectives: (1) provide profiles of 1982 socio-economic conditions in coastal communities, including an analysis of the relative importance of the tourist industry in each coastal county; (2) develop a methodology for determining the effects of OCS development on coastal recreation; and recommend mitigation measure that may reduce the negative effect of OCS development on coastal recreation using gravity and economic effects models.

  11. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  13. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  14. Organochlorine compounds and the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine in soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Makarov, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    Chloride ions in soil may interact with soil organic matter and form organochlorine compounds in situ. The biotic chlorination of soil organic substances takes places under aerobic conditions with participation of H2O2 forming from peroxidases released by soil microorganisms (in particular, by microscopic fungi). The abiotic chlorination results also from the redox reactions with the participation of Fe3+/Fe2+ system, but it develops several times slower. Chlorination of soil organic substances is favored by Cl- coming to soil both from natural (salinized soil-forming rocks and groundwater, sea salt) and anthropogenic sources of chlorides, i.e., spills of saline water at oil production, road deicing chemicals, mineral fertilizers, etc. The study of the biogeochemical chlorine cycle should take into account the presence of organochlorine compounds in soils, in addition to transformation and migration of chloride ions.

  15. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs......), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexacyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene] and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds. To ensure that the BMD value in skull represented the mineral status of the skeletal system in general, we compared BMD values in femur...... and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p sampled in the supposed pre-organochlorine/PBDE period (1892...

  16. Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

  17. Organochlorine Pesticides in Gonad, Brain, and Blood of Mice in Two Agricultural Areas of Sinaloa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Ernestina; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises-Giovanni; Herrera-Moreno, Maria-Nancy; Rodriguez-Meza, Guadalupe-Durga; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector-A; Bucio-Pacheco, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    The adverse effect of pesticides on non-target wildlife and human health is a primary concern in the world, but in Mexico, we do not know which wildlife species are at the greatest risk. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticides in mice of two agricultural fields in Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guasave. Procedures of extraction, analysis, and quantification were followed according to the modified EPA 8081b method. In three mouse tissues (gonad, brain, and blood), γBHC and decachlorobiphenyl with a frequency higher than 50% and endosulfan sulfate with 43% were observed. The wildlife fauna living in agricultural areas are at great risk due to: (1) diversity of the chemicals used for pest control, like mice, and (2) variety of organochlorine pesticides in direct or indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals and humans (toxic effects and accumulation).

  18. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  19. Contamination of some aquatic species with the organochlorine pesticide chlordecone in Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Coat, Sophie; Bocquene, Gilles; Godard, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Martinique is a French overseas department whose economy relies heavily on agriculture. Organochlorine pesticides, mainly chlordecone, were used for banana cultivation to eradicate banana weevil over a period of 40 years. Chlordecone is chemically stable,and has a strong affinity for fatty tissues. It is therefore able to bioaccumulate in animals and thereby represent a threat to ecosystems and man. Soils from banana plantations in Martinique are heavily contaminated with chlordecone. Possibl...

  20. Persistent organochlorines in high-Antarctic fish; Persistente chlororganische Verbindungen in hochantarktischen Fischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, S.

    1997-11-01

    24 chlorinated hydrocarbons from different classes (PCB, HCH, DDT, Chlordane, Hexachlorobenzene and Octachlorostyrene) were analyzed in four species of high-Antarctic fish (Aethotaxis mitopteryx, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Trematomus lepidorhinus, and Chinodraco myersi). The concentrations were in the order of 1 {mu}g/kg wet weight or 10 {mu}g/kg lipid weight, respectively. Highest concentrations were measured for HCB in all species. The species showed different distribution patterns for the organochlorines studied. Compared with concentrations in fish from other regions the organochlorine levels measured in Antarctic fish are rather low. It is unlikely that the burden of organochlorines will cause any toxic effects in high-Antarctic fish yet. Nevertheless, with regard to the sensitive Antarctic ecosystem, even small concentrations carry a high risk of harm for Antarctic life. Environmental pollution in Antarctica should be observed with a monitoring program using standardized methods. For this purpose, the fish species studied are very useful as bioindicators for organochlorine contamination. (orig.) [Deutsch] 24 persistente Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe verschiedener Schadstoffgruppen (PCB, HCH, DDT, Chlordan, Hexachlorbenzol und Octachlorstyrol) wurden in vier hochantarktischen Fischarten (Aethotaxis mitopteryx, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Trematomus lepidorhinus und Chionodraco myersi). Die Konzentrationen der nachgewiesenen Schadstoffe im Ganzfisch liegen jeweils in der Groessenordnung von 1 {mu}g/kg Feuchtgewicht bzw. 10 {mu}g/kg Lipidgewicht mit erheblichen Schwankungen je nach Schadstoff und Art. Die Spezies zeigen artspezifische Schadstoffverteilungsmuster. Die Konzentrationen sind gegenueber denen in Fischen aus Gebieten mit staerkerem zivilisatorischem Einfluss eher niedrig. Die Fremstoffbelastungen der hochantarktischen Fische fuehren wahrscheinlich noch nicht zu messbaren toxischen Effekten bei den Fischen. Dennoch geht von den Schadstoffen in Hinblick auf das

  1. Preparation of reference material for organochlorine pesticides in a herbal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yiu Chung; Wong, Siu Kay; Kam, Tat Ting

    2008-12-01

    The development of reference material for four organochlorine pesticides, namely hexachlorobenzene and three isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), in a ginseng root sample is presented. Raw materials (Panax ginseng) were purchased from a local market and confirmed to contain certain levels of incurred organochlorine pesticide residues by a validated gas chromatography-mass selective detection method. A total of more than 300 bottles each containing 25 g of samples were prepared after the materials had been freeze-dried, milled and thoroughly mixed. The homogeneity and stability of samples from randomly selected bottles were verified and the reference values were characterized using a highly precise isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID-GCMS) method that was recently developed by our laboratory. The purity of standard organochlorine chemicals was determined against certified reference materials to establish the accuracy of the ID-GCMS analysis. The concentrations (+/- expanded uncertainty) of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in the reference material were 0.198 +/- 0.015, 0.450 +/- 0.022, 0.213 +/- 0.011 and 0.370 +/- 0.032 mg kg(-1), respectively. A portion (70 bottles) of the samples was also used in a proficiency testing (PT) scheme for assessing the testing capabilities of field laboratories. The consensus mean values of the PT obtained from the 70 participants were on the same order but deviated by -2.7 to -14.1% from those of the assigned reference values. Because of the wide spread of participants' data (relative standard deviation ranging from 44 to 56%), the PT results were not included in the calculation of the assigned values of the reference materials. The materials served as suitable reference materials to ascertain the quality control and validation processes for the

  2. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Dušanka J.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Sac...

  3. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk and placenta in Tohoku, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Oka, T.; Sugawara, N.; Ohba, T.; Kameo, S.; Satoh, H. [Environmental Heath Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Saitoh, Y. [Miyagi Prefectural Inst. of Piblic Health and Environment (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Recently, we have started a birth cohort study to examine the effects of exposure to persistent organochemical pollutants and heavy metals on neurodevelopment in Japanese children, The Tohoku Study of Child Development. In this cohort study, biological samples, including maternal peripheral blood, cord blood, placenta, cord tissue, and breast milk have been collected from more than six hundred mother-infant pairs for chemical determinations. The growth of infants has been monitored using neurodevelopmental tests, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, and others. Exposures to dioxin and related compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and several heavy metals were assessed. Additionally, since perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides may affect the neurodevelopment of children, we examined the effects of those pesticides in the cohort study. In the present study, several organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in human breast milk and placenta from 20 mothers to identify the major pesticide compounds found in the cohort subjects. The relationship between pesticides in breast milk and the placenta was analyzed to examine the utilization of the placenta as the material for exposure assessment. Some information regarding the factors affecting the contamination of breast milk and the placenta with organochlorine pesticides are also discussed.

  5. Organochlorine residues in adipose tissue of chamois from the Catalan Pyrenees, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, R.; Riu, J.L.; Puigdemont, A.; Arboix, M. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

    1990-04-01

    Organochlorine chemicals have been found to be present in aquatic and terrestrial mammal species. Although some of these animals are not edible or not specially important as a source of proteins for human or domestic animals, the detection of accumulated organochlorine compounds in their bodies is useful to control the grade of extension and to monitor the evolution of these xenobiotics in biosphere. Data on this subject in south-west European non-migratory mammalian wildlife are for the most part unknown. The chamois or izard (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a typical inhabitant of many euroasiatic high mountains. There are two subspecies of chamois in Spain. The pyrenean chamois is fortunately present in sufficient number in some zones of the Catalan Pyrnees, that its hunting for population control is allowed during a short period of the year. The Natural Park of Cadi-Moixero is one of these zones. Only an insignificant part of its soil is dedicated to agricultural uses, and no industries are found inside or near its domain. The purpose of this work is to present organochlorine residue data for chamois collected in this zone.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  7. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species.

  8. [Levels and distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the air, pine needles, and human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Darija; Romanić, Snjezana Herceg

    2010-09-01

    This review presents the findings on the distribution and levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) all over the world, based on measurements in samples of air, human milk and pine needles. The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health has been conducting research in all three matrices for many years, and this review summarises its results too. Significant decrease in concentrations of organochlorine compounds has been seen after the legal ban of their use, but that decresing trend has been slowed down and they are still found in all samples. In general, higher PCB levels are found in samples from urban locations, pesticides levels are higher in samples from locations where has been their probable usage in agriculture, while HCB levels are usually indicator of industrial activity.γ-HCH has been found in the highest concentration in air and pine needles samples, while in humans DDE and β-HCH are the most abundant compounds. Indicator PCB congeners are also differently present in environment and humans: in air and pine needles lower-chlorinated, more volatile PCB congeners have higher concentrations while in humans that goes for more persistent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners. Among toxic ortho-substituted PCB congeners in human and environmental samples the most abundant is PCB-118 while three non-ortho substituted congeners (PCB-77, PCB-126 and PCB-169) that are the most toxic ones are rarely detected. From organochlorine pesticides, DDD is found in lowest concentrations in all samples.

  9. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lu

    Full Text Available DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment.

  10. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian; Sun Quanhui; Song Jie; Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Hale, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. ΣTEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with ΣPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  12. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  13. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  14. Contribution of methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides to the toxicity of a contaminant mixture based on Canadian Arctic population blood profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Masson, Sheila; Wade, Mike J; Nakai, Jamie; Alwis, Ramona; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Black, Paleah; Bowers, Wayne J; Chu, Ih; Vincent, Renaud

    2009-02-10

    Human populations are simultaneously exposed to a variety of anthropogenic contaminants. However, despite extensive literature on animal exposure to single compounds, data on the toxicity of complex mixtures are scarce. The Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM) was formulated to contain the 27 most abundant contaminants in the same relative proportions found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed from the first day of gestation until weaning with methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or organochlorines pesticides (OCs) administered either separately or together in the NCM. An additional control group for hypothyroxinemia was included by dosing dams with the goitrogen 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU). Offspring growth, survival, serum thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels, thyroid gland morphology, brain taurine content and cerebellum and hippocampus protein expression patterns resulting from such exposures were monitored. Pups' increased mortality rate and impaired growth observed in the NCM treatment group were attributed to MeHg, while decreased circulating thyroxine levels and perturbations of thyroid gland morphology were mostly attributable to PCBs. Interestingly, despite comparable reduction in serum thyroxine levels, PCBs and PTU exposures produced markedly different effects on pup's growth, serum TSH level and brain taurine content. Analysis of cerebellum and hippocampus protein expression patterns corroborated previous cerebellum gene expression data, as contaminant co-exposure in the NCM significantly masked the effects of individual components on protein two-dimensional electrophoresis patterns. Identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS of differentially expressed proteins involved notably in neuronal and mitochondrial functions provided clues on the cellular and molecular processes affected by these contaminant mixtures.

  15. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  16. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Van Meter

    Full Text Available Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy. The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.

  17. Influence of Elevated CO2 on the Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS, COS) Exchange between Plants, Soils and the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, R.; Behrendt, T.; Yi, Z.; Andreae, M. O.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a sulfur-containing trace gas with an atmospheric concentration of about 500 ppt. As it has some impact on the tropospheric greenhouse effect as well as on the stratospheric cooling effect by aerosols, its biogeochemical cycling if of high interest. Furthermore, in view of the close similarities between the assimilation of CO2 and OCS, terrestrial vegetation is regarded as the main global sink for OCS. Within this context, there is an increasing interest to use OCS as a proxy for CO2 to study ecosystem or global CO2 fluxes, exploiting the parallels between CO2 and OCS uptake by plants. However, the exchange of OCS between an ecosystem and the atmosphere does not only depend on vegetation but also on soils. We investigated the exchange processes between soils and the atmosphere and report on the impact of high but realistic CO2 concentrations on soil/atmosphere exchange and its relation to the soil water content. Not only competitive inhibition (same enzymes for CO2 and OCS uptake) but an influence on OCS production could be found. We compare these environmental effects on soils with the exchange processes between plants and the atmosphere demonstrating similar effects reaching from competitive inhibition to production of OCS.

  18. Composition, distribution, and potential toxicity of organochlorine mixtures in bed sediments of streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Murray, Karen; VanAlstyne, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of organochlorine compounds have the potential for additive or interactive toxicity to organisms exposed in the stream. This study uses a variety of methods to identify mixtures and a modified concentration-addition approach to estimate their potential toxicity at 845 stream sites across the United States sampled between 1992 and 2001 for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bed sediment. Principal-component (PC) analysis identified five PCs that account for 77% of the total variance in 14 organochlorine compounds in the original dataset. The five PCs represent: (1) chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin; (2) p,p′-DDT and its degradates; (3) o,p′-DDT and its degradates; (4) the pesticide degradates oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide; and (5) PCBs. The PC analysis grouped compounds that have similar chemical structure (such as parent compound and degradate), common origin (in the same technical pesticide mixture), and(or) similar relation of concentrations to land use. For example, the highest concentrations of chlordane compounds and dieldrin occurred at urban sites, reflecting past use of parent pesticides for termite control. Two approaches to characterizing mixtures—PC-based mixtures and unique mixtures—were applied to all 299 samples with a detection of two or more organochlorine compounds. PC-based mixtures are defined by the presence (in the sample) of one or more compounds associated with that PC. Unique mixtures are defined as a specific combination of two or more compounds detected in a sample, regardless of how many other compounds were also detected in that sample. The simplest PC-based mixtures (containing compounds from 1 or 2 PCs) commonly occurred in a variety of land use settings. Complex mixtures (containing compounds from 3 or more PCs) were most common in samples from urban and mixed/urban sites, especially in the Northeast, reflecting high concentrations of multiple chlordane, dieldrin, DDT

  19. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Cabrera, Felix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dominguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the 'Canary Islands Nutrition Survey' (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  20. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  1. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy... (BOEMRE) is reopening the comment period on the RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore...

  2. A four-dimensional compound-model morphed potential for the OC:HBr complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2010-07-14

    A parameterized compound-model morphed intermolecular potential energy surface has been generated for the dimer OC:HBr. This morphed potential is determined by fitting experimentally available gas phase spectroscopic data and found to have a global minimum with a well depth of 564(5) cm(-1) and linear (16)O(12)C-H(79)Br geometry having center of mass to center of mass distance R = 4.525(7) A. The linear isomers (12)C(16)O-H(79)Br and (16)O(12)C-(79)BrH are determined with a corresponding well depth of 273(7) and 269(2) cm(-1) having R = 4.35(4) and 4.24(3) A, respectively. This results in a DeltaE of 293(9) cm(-1) between the global potential energy minimum and the minima in the two higher energy isomers. The generated potential is compared with the corresponding OC:HCl morphed potential. Differences in the morphing parameters are attributed to different contributions to the interaction energy. It is found that the counterpoise method successfully corrected the basis set superposition error in OC:HCl, but was under corrected by 16(7)% in OC:HBr.

  3. 75 FR 82055 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Nantucket and extending approximately 31 nm seaward, south to the 60 meter depth contour, then east... Smart from the Start OCS renewable energy initiative, which was announced by Secretary Ken Salazar on... Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and extending approximately 31 nm seaward, south to the 60 meter depth...

  4. [Characteristics and sources apportionment of OC and EC in PM1.1 from Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-juan; Guo, Zhao-bing; Liu, Feng-ling; Rui, Mao-ling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Guo, Zi-yan

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of OC and EC in PM1.1 collected from Nanshi (NS) and Nanhua (NH) in 2011 were analyzed using DRI Model 2001A Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer. In addition, source apportionment was simultaneously evaluated. The results showed that the annual average concentrations of OC and EC in PM1.1 were 10. 10 μg x m(-3) and 2.52 μg x m(-3) in NS area, and 11.22 μg x m(-3) and 3.12 μg x m(-3) in NH area, respectively. This result indicated that OC and EC pollution in NH was more serious than that in NS area. Meanwhile, the concentrations of OC and EC in winter and spring were obviously higher compared to those in summer in these two sampling sites, which was mainly ascribed to the increased coal combustion and the unfavorable emission condition of air pollutants in summer and spring. We noted that the SOC/TOC value was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. In addition, the SOC concentration was observed to show a positive correlation with ozone concentrations, which indicated that the photochemical reaction was a main way of SOC formation in autumn.

  5. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of SiOC-Carbon Nanotube Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil; Cologna, Marco; Raj, Rishi; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-02-01

    Rechargeable battery anodes made from crystalline Si-based nanostructures have been shown to possess high experimental first cycle capacities (3000 mAh/g), but face challenges in sustaining these capacities beyond initial cycles mainly due to large volume expansion (400 percent) and chemical degradation (pulverization). Polymer-derived ceramic SiOC due to its high thermodynamic stability and nano domain structure could present a viable alternative. Additionally, functionalization of SiOC with carbon nanotubes could result in increased electronic and ionic conductivities in the ceramic. Here, we demonstrate synthesis and electrochemical characterization of SiOC-CNT composite coatings for use in Li-ion battery anode. Materials characterization performed using electron microscopy, Infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests non-covalent functionalization of CNT with oxygen moieties in SiOC. Sustained battery capacities of over 700 mAh/g and first cycle columbic efficiencies of about 75 percent were achieved. Future work will involve determination of lithium ion intercalation sites characterized by electron microscopy whereas cyclic voltammetry analysis will access the sequential change in anode chemistry.

  6. 76 FR 30184 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Interim Policy Leasing for Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    .... These three blocks are located on the Atlantic OCS in the Official Protraction Diagram NG 17- 06..., deployment of small-scale ocean current devices, and operations of a deployment vessel on the potential... will be carried out during the EA process and will be completed before a final decision is made on...

  7. Laser-induced field-free alignment of the OCS molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriot, V; Tzallas, P; Benis, E P; Hertz, E; Lavorel, B; Charalambidis, D; Faucher, O

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical alignment of jet-cooled OCS molecules induced by a short laser pulse. The alignment is measured through the orientational contribution of the optical Kerr effect using a second weak laser pulse as a probe. Maximum alignment is observed at conditions close to saturation of ionization. The results are analysed with a quantum mechanical model solving for the rotational dynamics

  8. 77 FR 75656 - Research Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Lease for Renewable Energy on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Virginia, Request for... obtain a lease under 30 CFR 585.238 for renewable energy research activities, including the siting of two... production of renewable energy within and around the Wind Energy Area (WEA) offshore Virginia, identified by...

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy of Two Isomers of the OCS-CS_{2} Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaee, J. N.; Dehghany, M.; Afshari, Mahin; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2009-06-01

    A second isomer of OCS-CS_{2} complex, with a nonplanar cross-shaped structure, has been studied for the first time by analysing an infrared band in the region of the OCS stretching vibration (2062 cm^{-1}). This isomer has C_{s} symmetry and the observed band consists of purely c-type rotational transitions. The ground state rotational parameters are found to be A=0.07306 cm^{-1}, B=0.03325 cm^{-1} and C=0.02879 cm^{-1}, in good agreement with a previous semi-empirical calculation. In addition, a hybrid band with a- and b-type rotational transitions has been assigned to be due to the known planar form of OCS-CS_{2}, as previously studied by microwave spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer to probe a pulsed supersonic jet expansion. Calculations indicate that the planar isomer of OCS-CS_{2} is the lowest in energy, in contrast to CO_{2}-CS_{2} where the crossed form is believed to be the lowest. J. J. Newby, M. M. Serafin, R. A. Peebles and S. A. Peebles, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 487 (2005). C. C. Dutton, D. A. Dows, R. Eikey, S. Evans and R. A. Beaudet, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6904 (1998).

  10. The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Gaunt, Eleanor; Rossen, John W. A.; Templeton, Kate E.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; van der Hoek, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unknown to what extent the human coronaviruses (HCoVs) OC43, HKU1, 229E and NL63 infect healthy children. Frequencies of infections are only known for hospitalized children. Objectives: Comparing infection frequencies in children who have mild infections with frequencies in

  11. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0011] Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore... Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida EA'' to: Program Manager, Office of...

  12. 33 CFR 135.103 - Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.103 Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil. (a) A fee of $.03 per... paragraph (a) of this section applies whenever the unobligated Fund balance is less than $200,000,000. (d...

  13. Fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from pacific OCS facilities. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In January 1989, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) conducted a study using the latest approved methods for emission screening and sampling solely on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel in order to determine platform emission rates more representative of that region. The study was designed and reviewed throughout its conduct by a Quality Review Board (QRB) composed of air resource agencies and industry. Representatives from the Tri-county Air Pollution Control Districts and the MMS actively participated at these meetings. Some participants expressed concerns about some of the methods used and the study results. ABB's thorough responses to these questions and comments were submitted to all reviewers before the printing of the final report, and are contained in appendices of the study final report now available to the public. The results of the MMS study show that the average emission factors for the Pacific OCS oil and gas facilities measured in 1989 are 3.5 times lower than those Pacific OCS facilities sampled in the 1979 API/Rockwell study, and 7.8 times lower than the Gulf of Mexico OCS facilities sampled in the same 1979 study. Efforts to determine the quantitative effect of inspection and maintenance programs on controlling emissions were inconclusive

  14. OC3 -- Benchmark Exercise of Aero-Elastic Offshore Wind Turbine Codes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passon, P.; Kuhn, M.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Camp, T.; Larsen, T. J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper introduces the work content and status of the first international investigation and verification of aero-elastic codes for offshore wind turbines as performed by the "Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration" (OC3) within the "IEA Wind Annex XXIII -- Subtask 2".

  15. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  16. (Resurveying Mediterranean Rural Landscapes: GIS and Legacy Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witcher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Legacy data have always been important for Mediterranean archaeologists. Over the past decade, one specific category of legacy data, that deriving from regional survey, has become particularly important. Not only has the scale of research questions become larger (requiring greater reliance on others' data, but the surface archaeological record is deteriorating (diminishing the ability to recover good data. The legacy data from many individual surveys have now been subject to digitisation and GIS analysis, successfully redeploying data collected for one purpose within new theoretical and interpretive frameworks. However, a key research focus is now comparative survey - using the results of many different Mediterranean surveys side-by-side to identify regional variability in settlement organisation, economy and demography. In order to overcome the significant methodological differences between these surveys, attention has focused on the documentation of metadata. Yet, many legacy data lack vital information about their creation and hence how they might be (reinterpreted and compared. GIS has been advanced as an environment in which to contain, order and analyse the data necessary for comparative survey. However, there is a danger that the technology will facilitate inappropriate use of these datasets in a way that fails to acknowledge and understand the very real differences between them. Here, emphasis is placed upon the use of GIS as a space for exploratory data analysis: a process that encompasses and emphasises the integral processes of digitisation, visualisation and simple analysis for the characterisation of datasets in order to derive an alternative form of metadata. Particular emphasis is placed upon the interaction of past human behaviour (e.g. in the Roman period and archaeological recovery (i.e. the behaviour of archaeologists in the present, or recent past; these two sets of 'social action' combine to create distinctive archaeological

  17. Two tales of legacy effects on stream nutrient behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, M.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Intensive agriculture has led to large-scale land use conversion, shortening of flow pathways and increased loads of nutrients in streams. This legacy results in gradual build-up of nutrients in agricultural catchments: in soil for phosphorus (biogeochemical legacy) and in the unsaturated zone for nitrate (hydrologic legacy), controlling the water quality in the long-term. Here we investigate these effects on phosphorus and nitrate stream concentrations using high-frequency (10-5 - 100 Hz) sampling with in situ wet-chemistry analysers and optical sensors. Based on our 5 year study, we observe that storm flow responses differ for both nutrients: phosphorus shows rapid increases (up to 3 orders of magnitude) in concentrations with stream flow, whereas nitrate shows both dilution and concentration effects with increasing flow. However, the range of nitrate concentrations change is narrow (up to 2 times the mean) and reflects chemostatic behaviour. We link these nutrient responses with their dominant sources and flow pathways in the catchment. Nitrate from agriculture (with the peak loading in 1983) is stored in the unsaturated zone of the Penrith Sandstone, which can reach up to 70 m depth. Thus nitrate legacy is related to a hydrologic time lag with long travel times in the unsaturated zone. Phosphorus is mainly sorbed to soil particles, therefore it is mobilised rapidly during rainfall events (biogeochemical legacy). The phosphorus stream response will however depend on how well connected is the stream to the catchment sources (driven by soil moisture distribution) and biogeochemical activity (driven by temperature), leading to both chemostatic and non-chemostatic responses, alternating on a storm-to-storm and seasonal basis. Our results also show that transient within-channel storage is playing an important role in delivery of phosphorus, providing an additional time lag component. These results show, that consistent agricultural legacy in the catchment (high

  18. Quantification of amine functional groups and their influence on OM/OC in the IMPROVE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Takahama, Satoshi; Dillner, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression to measure the four most abundant organic functional groups, aliphatic C-H, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH and carbonyl C=O, in atmospheric particulate matter. These functional groups are summed to estimate organic matter (OM) while the carbon from the functional groups is summed to estimate organic carbon (OC). With this method, OM and OM/OC can be estimated for each sample rather than relying on one assumed value to convert OC measurements to OM. This study continues the development of the FT-IR and PLS method for estimating OM and OM/OC by including the amine functional group. Amines are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and come from motor vehicle exhaust, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and vegetation among other sources. In this study, calibration standards for amines are produced by aerosolizing individual amine compounds and collecting them on PTFE filters using an IMPROVE sampler, thereby mimicking the filter media and collection geometry of ambient standards. The moles of amine functional group on each standard and a narrow range of amine-specific wavenumbers in the FT-IR spectra (wavenumber range 1 550-1 500 cm-1) are used to develop a PLS calibration model. The PLS model is validated using three methods: prediction of a set of laboratory standards not included in the model, a peak height analysis and a PLS model with a broader wavenumber range. The model is then applied to the ambient samples collected throughout 2013 from 16 IMPROVE sites in the USA. Urban sites have higher amine concentrations than most rural sites, but amine functional groups account for a lower fraction of OM at urban sites. Amine concentrations, contributions to OM and seasonality vary by site and sample. Amine has a small impact on the annual average OM/OC for urban sites, but for some rural sites including amine in the OM/OC calculations increased OM/OC by 0.1 or more.

  19. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  20. Variation in the OC locus of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes predicts extensive structural diversity in the lipooligosaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Lipooligosaccharide (LOS is a complex surface structure that is linked to many pathogenic properties of Acinetobacter baumannii. In A. baumannii, the genes responsible for the synthesis of the outer core (OC component of the LOS are located between ilvE and aspS. The content of the OC locus is usually variable within a species, and examination of 6 complete and 227 draft A. baumannii genome sequences available in GenBank non-redundant and Whole Genome Shotgun databases revealed nine distinct new types, OCL4-OCL12, in addition to the three known ones. The twelve gene clusters fell into two distinct groups, designated Group A and Group B, based on similarities in the genes present. OCL6 (Group B was unique in that it included genes for the synthesis of L-Rhamnosep. Genetic exchange of the different configurations between strains has occurred as some OC forms were found in several different sequence types (STs. OCL1 (Group A was the most widely distributed being present in 18 STs, and OCL6 was found in 16 STs. Variation within clones was also observed, with more than one OC locus type found in the two globally disseminated clones, GC1 and GC2, that include the majority of multiply antibiotic resistant isolates. OCL1 was the most abundant gene cluster in both GC1 and GC2 genomes but GC1 isolates also carried OCL2, OCL3 or OCL5, and OCL3 was also present in GC2. As replacement of the OC locus in the major global clones indicates the presence of sub-lineages, a PCR typing scheme was developed to rapidly distinguish Group A and Group B types, and to distinguish the specific forms found in GC1 and GC2 isolates.

  1. Geometry, mechanics, and dynamics the legacy of Jerry Marsden

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl; Patrick, George; Ratiu, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the broad range of Jerry Marsden’s mathematical legacy in areas of geometry, mechanics, and dynamics, from very pure mathematics to very applied, but always with a geometric perspective. Each contribution develops its material from the viewpoint of geometric mechanics beginning at the very foundations, introducing readers to modern issues via illustrations in a wide range of topics. The twenty refereed papers contained in this volume are based on lectures and research performed during the month of July 2012 at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, in a program in honor of Marsden's legacy. The unified treatment of the wide breadth of topics treated in this book will be of interest to both experts and novices in geometric mechanics. Experts will recognize applications of their own familiar concepts and methods in a wide variety of fields, some of which they may never have approached from a geometric viewpoint. Novices may choose topics that interest them among the ...

  2. Georges Lema\\^itre: Life, Science and Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitton, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper celebrates the remarkable life, science and legacy of Abb\\'e Georges Lema\\^itre, the Belgian cleric and professor of physics; he was the architect of the fireworks model for the origin of the universe. He died half a century ago, three days after learning that Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had discovered the cosmic microwave background. Despite being gravely ill from leukaemia, Lema\\^itre lucidly praised this news, which confirmed the explosive genesis of our universe.

  3. Legacy Radioactive Waste Management Program in the Netherlands: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ménard, Gaël

    2016-01-01

    Petten site legacy waste: • sorted on waste streams, from the less to the more heterogeneous; • footprint reduction by sorting according to activity; • first two waste streams: limited number of material; • characterized using gamma measurements and computational nuclide vectors. •Waste acceptance criteria: modus vivendi with the storage facility and third parties (based on characterization results); • More heterogeneous waste: more complex by definition → optimization, development and adaptation of the characterization

  4. The Legacy of the High Reliability Organizations Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrier, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    This article looks back over two decades of work pioneered by Todd LaPorte and colleagues, under the banner of High Reliability Theory (HRT). The article revisits the American roots of the Berkeley-based group and comments on its early and decisive fieldwork choices. It revisits some of the elements that emerged through the controversy around findings and implications of HRT. It discusses the legacy of HRT and the ethnographical impetus given to "normal operations" studies. The use of ethnogr...

  5. From Boston to the Balkans: Olmsted’s Emerald Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Luke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmsted on modern cultural tourism policies. The author explains the involvement of Olmsted in the founding of Yosemite National Park, and describes the influence of this experience on his later work on the Emerald Necklace parks project in Boston. This became a model for natural and cultural corridors worldwide, including those in the Balkans and Turkey.

  6. Paralympic Games: History and Legacy of a Global Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, David

    2018-05-01

    The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of marketing scholarship's legacy on nonprofit marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Wymer, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the d...

  8. The Roman Empire legacy of Galen (129-200 AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Ghabili, Kamyar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Balch, Margaret Wood; Cuceu, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Galen of Pergamum was the physician of Roman Emperors and contributed to our early understanding of medicine and anatomy. Herein, we present a short biography of Galen and review his multiple contributions to medicine and anatomy. Although it has been almost 2,000 years since Galen walked the streets of the Roman Empire, his legacy continues via multiple eponyms that bare his name.

  9. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  10. 78 FR 760 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New York, Request for... York Power Authority (NYPA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the... Offshore Wind Collaborative,'' a public-private entity consisting of NYPA, the Long Island Power Authority...

  11. 75 FR 68824 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maryland-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0038] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Maryland, and Invitation for Comments from... construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Maryland. The BOEMRE...

  12. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  13. OC5 Project Phase Ib: Validation of Hydrodynamic Loading on a Fixed, Flexible Cylinder for Offshore Wind Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Amy N.; Wendt, Fabian; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from Phase Ib of the Offshore Code Comparison, Collaboration, Continued with Correlation (OC5) project. OC5 is a project run under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Research Task 30, and is focused on validating the tools used for modelling offshore win...

  14. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS) decisions for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development. This review of MMS NEPA...

  15. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area... OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012-2017 Western Planning Area Lease Sales 229, 233, 238, 246, and 248; and Central Planning Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247; Final Environmental Impact...

  16. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... WPA Lease Sale 233 on the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2013-2014; Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233, and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231; Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area...

  17. 77 FR 68147 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012-2017 Western Planning Area Lease Sales 229, 233, 238, 246, and 248, and Central Planning Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247 Final Environmental Impact Statement... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area...

  18. 77 FR 2991 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...: 2007-2012; Western Planning Area (WPA) Sales 204, 207, 210, 215, and 218; Central Planning Area (CPA... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the 2007-2012 5-Year OCS Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  19. 75 FR 16833 - Preliminary Revised 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007-2012 AGENCY: Minerals Management Service... (MMS) requests comments on the Preliminary Revised 5-Year OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007... to the leasing schedule that reflect his balancing of the potential for discovery of petroleum with...

  20. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease... socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012-2017; Western Planning Area Lease... will focus on the potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas leasing, exploration...

  1. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... planning areas in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: Western Planning Area Lease Sales 229... effects of oil and natural gas leasing, exploration, development, and production in the WPA and CPA. BOEM... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning...

  2. 78 FR 62660 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales Eastern Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease... environmental effects of oil and natural gas leasing, exploration, development, and production in the EPA. The Final EIS incorporates by reference the analysis presented in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease...

  3. Let's drink and be merry: The framing of alcohol in the prime time American youth series The OC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulck, H. van den; Simons, N.; Gorp, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed the framing of alcohol consumption in the American adolescent drama series The OC. Method: All 51 episodes of Seasons 1 and 2 of The OC were coded for visual and verbal references to beverage use on the level of the scene (n = 1,895) and on the level of the drinking

  4. Architecture-driven Migration of Legacy Systems to Cloud-enabled Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of cloud computing, an increasing number of organizations view it as an important business strategy to evolve their legacy applications to cloud-enabled infrastructures. We present a framework, named Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe, for supporting the migration...... of legacy systems to cloud computing. The framework leverages the software reengineering concepts that aim to recover the architecture from legacy source code. Then the framework exploits the software evolution concepts to support architecture-driven migration of legacy systems to cloud-based architectures....... The Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe comprises of four processes: (i) architecture migration planning, (ii) architecture recovery and consistency, (iii) architecture transformation and (iv) architecture-based development of cloud-enabled software. We aim to discover, document and apply the migration...

  5. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Coakley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport mega-events (SMEs involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

  6. Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides in prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, during 1978-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi; Kumar, K Senthil; Masunaga, S; Iseki, N; Kasuga, S; Nakanishi, J

    2004-07-01

    Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides such as beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), were determined in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) collected from Lake Kasumigaura in 1978 to 2000. The organochlorine pesticides elucidated a 72.4% decrease in beta-HCH, from 42 (1978) to 11.6 ng/g fat (2000); an 89.6% decrease in HCB, from 1.64 (1978) to 0.17 ng/g fat (2000); and an 87.3% decrease in p,p'-DDE, from 97.5 (1978) to 12.4 ng/g fat (1992). After organochlorine pesticide prohibition in 1971, the declining trend of beta-HCH, HCB, and p,p'-DDE concentrations persisting in the prawns could be approximated by exponential equations.

  7. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Human Breast Milk from the Middle Governorates in Jordan in 2013/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Antary, Tawfiq M; Alawi, Mahmoud A; Estityah, Hussein; Haddad, Nizar

    2017-07-01

    One hundred samples of mother breast milk were gathered from six middle governorates and districts in Jordan in 2013/2014 to monitor Organochlorine pesticides pollutants. The results showed clearly that banned organochlorine pesticides are still detected in the monitored samples in low concentration despite banning of these persistent pollutants in Jordan since 36 years ago. However, the results indicated that 1% of the contaminated samples contained β-HCH, 5% γ-HCH, 3% p,p'-DDD, 2% heptachlor, 45% p,p'-DDE and 3% p,p'-DDT. In addition, these monitored samples had no residues of aldrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, HCB, o,p'-DD, o,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDE. In conclusion, there was a decline in the residues of Organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT group members.

  8. Riot control agents: the tear gases CN, CS and OC-a medical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, R J; McBride, D I

    2015-06-01

    2-Chloroacetophenone (CN), o-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile (CS) and oleoresin capsicum (OC) are common riot control agents. While serious systemic effects are uncommon, exposure to high concentrations may lead to severe complications and even death. The aim of this narrative review is to summarise all main aspects of the riot control agents CN, CS and OC toxicology, including mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features and management. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched for terms associated with CN, CS and OC toxicity in humans and those describing the mechanism of action, clinical features and treatment protocols. CN, CS and OC are effective lacrimating agents; evidence for toxicity, as measured by the threshold for irritation, is greatest for CN, followed by CS and OC. Typically, ocular and respiratory tract irritation occurs within 20-60 s of exposure. Ocular effects involve blepharospasm, photophobia, conjunctivitis and periorbital oedema. Following inhalation, effects may include a stinging or burning sensation in the nose, tight chest, sore throat, coughing, dyspnoea and difficulty breathing. Dermal outcomes are variable, more severe for CN and include dermal irritation, bulla formation and subcutaneous oedema. Removal from the contaminated area and fresh air is a priority. There is no antidote; treatment consists of thorough decontamination and symptom-directed supportive care. Ocular exposure requires thorough eye decontamination, an eye exam and appropriate pain management. Monitoring and support of respiratory function is important in patients with significant respiratory symptoms. Standard treatment protocols may be required with patients with pre-existing respiratory conditions. Dermal exposures may require systemic steroids for patients who develop delayed contact dermatitis. CN, CS and OC are effective riot control agents. In the majority of exposures, significant clinical effects are not anticipated. The irritant effects can be

  9. Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OC pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A; Bentley, V Raymond; Elliott, John E

    2003-06-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in western Oregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determine contaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrations in fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, and Biomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish species eaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samples of fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric mean residues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 microg g(-1) wet weight (ww), sigma PCBs 0.69 microg g(-1), 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg(-1), and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presented by River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggs from the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the Cascade Mountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and Northern Pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fish biomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fish eaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed), and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the large series of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification (0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for the migratory

  10. Quantum cascade laser spectroscopy of OCS isotopologues in 4He nanodroplets: A test of adiabatic following for a heavy rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Ty; Miller, Isaac; Raston, Paul L.

    2018-01-01

    We report high-resolution infrared spectra of OCS isotopologues embedded in helium nanodroplets that were recorded with a newly built spectrometer. For the normal isotopologue, we observed the relatively weak third bending overtone band, in addition to new high J transitions in the C-O stretching fundamental, which has previously been investigated by diode laser spectroscopy [S. Grebenev et al., J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4485 (2000)]. Similar to the gas phase, the overtone band is (only) 45 cm-1 higher in energy than the fundamental, and this leads to additional broadening due to rapid vibrational relaxation that is accompanied by the creation of real/virtual phonon excitations. We also observed spectra in the C-O stretching fundamental for several minor isotopologues of OCS, including 18OCS, O13CS, and OC33S, in addition to some new peaks for OC34S. A rovibrational analysis allowed for determination of the moment of inertia of helium (ΔIHe) that couples to the rotation of OCS for each isotopologue. In the context of the adiabatic following approximation, the helium density structure that follows the rotation of OCS should essentially remain unchanged between the isotopologues, i.e., there should be no dependence of ΔIHe on the gas phase moment of inertia of OCS (IG). While this behavior was expected for the "heavy" OCS rotor investigated here, we instead found an approximately linear 1:1 relation between ΔIHe and IG, which suggests partial breakdown of the adiabatic following approximation, making OCS the heaviest molecule for which evidence for this effect has been obtained.

  11. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  12. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  13. Simvastatin down-regulates differential genetic profiles produced by organochlorine mixtures in primary breast cell (HMEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; D Boada, Luis; Pestano, Jose; P Luzardo, Octavio; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; F Valerón, Pilar

    2017-04-25

    Women all over the world are exposed to an unavoidable contamination by organochlorine pesticides and other chemical pollutants. Many of them are considered as xenoestrogens and have been associated with the development and progression of breast cancer. We have demonstrated that the most prevalent pesticide mixtures found in healthy women and in women diagnosed with breast cancer modulates the gene expression in human epithelial mammary cells. Statins are well-known cholesterol-depleting agents acting as inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Since the early 1990s, it has been known that statins could be successfully used in cancer therapy, including breast cancer, but the exact mechanism behind anti-tumor activity of the statins remains unclear. In the present study we evaluated the effect of simvastatin in the gene expression pattern induced by realistic organochlorine mixtures found in breast cancer patients. The gene expression of 94 genes related with the cell signaling pathways were assessed. Our results indicate that simvastatin exerts a global down regulating effect on successfully determined genes (78.7%), thus attenuating the effects induced by organochlorine mixtures on the gene profile of human mammary epithelial cells. This effect was more evident on genes whose function is the ATP-binding process (that also were particularly up-regulated by pesticide mixtures). We also found that MERTK (a proto-oncogene which is overexpressed in several malignancies) and PDGFRB (a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family whose expression is high in breast-cancer cells that have become resistant to endocrine therapy) were among the genes with a higher differential regulation by simvastatin. Since resistance to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is closely related to MERKT, our findings would enhance the possible utility of statins in breast cancer treatment, i.e. improving therapeutic results combining statins with tyrosine Kinase inhibitors. Copyright

  14. Organochlorines in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Liza grandisquamis from Lagos Lagoon and Agboyi Creek, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and mullet (Liza grandisquamis were sampled from Lagos Lagoon and Agboyi Creek and analysed for alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, delta-BHC, heptachlor, heptachlor-epoxide (B, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, endosulfan 1, endosulfan 11, endosulfan sulphate, methoxychlor, p,p´-DDE, p,p´-DDD and p,p´-DDT. Sampling was conducted four times at the designated sites during the dry season months of December 2008 and February 2009 and the wet season months of May and September 2009. The muscle tissues and organs of the finfishes were subjected to cold extraction with petroleum ether/acetone (1:1 v/v mixture and clean-up on silica gel adsorbents. A gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD was used to detect and determine the organochlorines. The residue levels of the fishes were higher in the Lagos Lagoon than in Agboyi Creek while a higher concentration of the residues was observed during the dry season. The female fishes accumulated higher organochlorines than the male fishes. The order of residue accumulation in the organs of the fishes was gills > livers > large intestines > small intestines > kidneys > muscles. The dietary surveys indicated that the amount of fishes consumed ranged from 20 to 200 g/day, with a mean value of 40 g/day. The estimated daily intakes of the organochlorines were within the acceptable daily intakes while the levels of residues in the fishes were within the permissible residue limits.

  15. Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

    2014-02-15

    Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in μg·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ΣPCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ΣDDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ΣHCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Creating a career legacy map to help assure meaningful work in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Pamela S; Britton, Dorienda R; Coleman, Lael; Engh, Eileen; Humbel, Tina Kunze; Keller, Susan; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Menard, Johanna; Lee, Marlene A; Roberts-Turner, Renee; Walczak, Dory

    2015-01-01

    When nurses declare a professional legacy (or what they intend to be better in health care because of their efforts), they are likely to maintain a focus on achieving their legacy and to experience meaning in the process. We depict the legacy and involved steps in creating a legacy map, which is a concrete guide forward to intended career outcomes. Informed by the "meaningful work" literature, we describe a legacy map, its function, the process to create one, and the application of a legacy map to guide careers. We also describe an administrative benefit of the legacy map-the map can be used by team leaders and members to secure needed resources and opportunities to support the desired legacy of team members. Legacy mapping can be a self-use career guidance tool for nurses and other health care professionals or a tool that links the career efforts of a team member with the career support efforts of a team leader. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. WORLD CUP LEGACY AND PERTAINING IMPACTS ON SÃO PAULO CITY´S FUTURE

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    Marcos Vinicius Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legacies – structures that are built for events and which remain after the same - are one of the major positive aspects paraded by mega sporting events organizers. This study´s purpose is to analyze the current situation of legacies promised by the many governmental instances for the city of São Paulo - host city of Fifa´s 2014 World Cup – and prospect which legacies will become effective in the city. Preliminary assessments may raise construction concerns, alert the public to keep an eye on undertaken obligations and encourage official actions (Mangan, 2008, p. 1,871. Data was obtained from National Audit Court (TCU reports, Ministry and United Nations documents, in addition to testimonials and information gathered from some of Brazil´s major press media. Data analysis was conducted by classifying legacies according to tangible and intangible legacy concepts (Kaplanidou and Karadakis, 2010 followed by an analysis of promised legacies versus current status during the period of analysis. Finally, discussions as to most probable to come about legacies were presented. Results indicate that a portion of promised legacies stand a fair chance of achievement. On the other hand, other projects lag behind schedule or have been cancelled. Preliminary surveys suggest full completion of promised legacies is not possible, there has been an overuse of public resources as opposed to that planned, and provide indicatives as to the investment´s high opportunity cost.

  18. Efeitos tardios dos praguicidas organoclorados no homem Delayed effects of organochlorine pesticides in man

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    Mônica Vannucci Nunes

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se relacionar as informações disponíveis sobre os organoclorados e os efeitos crônicos provocados pela exposição. Os compostos organoclorados são os praguicidas mais persistentes já fabricados. Embora sejam geralmente eficientes no controle das pragas, são importantes poluentes ambientais e potenciais causas de problemas de saúde para o homem, tendo sido proibidos ou controlados na maioria dos países. Com poucas exceções, os efeitos tardios desses compostos sobre a saúde humana são difíceis de detectar, em função de dificuldades metodológicas e da extrapolação dos resultados. A genotoxicidade está entre os mais sérios dos possíveis danos causados por esses compostos e merece atenção especial, devido à natureza irreversível do processo. Outro ponto a ser considerado é o aumento na incidência de alterações no desenvolvimento do trato reprodutivo e na fertilidade masculina observada nas últimas décadas provavelmente decorrente do aumento da exposição intra-uterina a compostos estrogênicos e anti-androgênicos, como os organoclorados.Available information on organochlorines and the chronic effects of exposure to them are set out. Organochlorinated compounds are the most persistent pesticides and can be found in all ecosystems. Although they are generally efficient in pest control, they are also a potent environment pollutant and can provoke health problems in man. The evidences of the carcinogenic potential of organochlorines are controversial and insufficient, but they have been related to an increase in the incidence of some kinds of tumors, such as leukemia and solid tumors. Reproductive effects, due to anti-androgenic and estrogenic action, on embryonic virilization, the incidence of abortion and the frequency of prematurity, have also been observed. The accumulation of the organochlorines in the adipous tissue is positively correlated to the increase in aging and could be implicated in the

  19. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  20. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.