WorldWideScience

Sample records for leg segment kit

  1. LocoKit - A Construction Kit for Exploration of Morphology of Legged Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    . This is however not always easy, since robots are often built as a fixed system with a limited possibility of changing the morphology without redesign a significant part of the robot. This work is focusing on the creation of a robotic construction kit specifically aimed at easing the process of constructing......Producing steady stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain is a big challenge in robotics. In addressing this challenge, it is often desirable to experiment with different morphologies and see how they influence on the way the robot walks...... legged robots. This is accomplished by giving the creator the possibility to easily do morphological changes to the robot even after it have been build, to see how it effects the robot’s ability to walk in unknown terrain....

  2. LocoKit - A Construction Kit for Exploration of Morphology of Legged Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Producing steady stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain is a big challenge in robotics. In addressing this challenge, it is often desirable to experiment with different morphologies and see how they influence on the way the robot walks...... legged robots. This is accomplished by giving the creator the possibility to easily do morphological changes to the robot even after it have been build, to see how it effects the robot?s ability to walk in unknown terrain....

  3. The odd-skipped family of zinc finger genes promotes Drosophila leg segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Irene; Green, Ryan B; Dunaevsky, Olga; Lengyel, Judith A; Rauskolb, Cordelia

    2003-11-15

    Notch signaling controls formation of joints at leg segment borders and growth of the developing Drosophila leg. Here, we identify the odd-skipped gene family as a key group of genes that function downstream of the Notch receptor to promote morphological changes associated with joint formation during leg development. odd, sob, drm, and bowl are expressed in a segmental pattern in the developing leg, and their expression is regulated by Notch signaling. Ectopic expression of odd, sob, or drm can induce invaginations in the leg disc epithelium and morphological changes in the adult leg that are characteristic of endogenous invaginating joint cells. These effects are not due to an alteration in the expression of other genes of the developing joint. While odd or drm mutant clones do not affect leg segmentation, and thus appear to act redundantly, bowl mutant clones do perturb leg development. Specifically, bowl mutant clones result in a failure of joint formation from the distal tibia to tarsal segment 5, while more proximal clones cause melanotic protrusions from the leg cuticle. Together, these results indicate that the odd-skipped family of genes mediates Notch function during leg development by promoting a specific aspect of joint formation, an epithelial invagination. As the odd-skipped family genes are involved in regulating cellular morphogenesis during both embryonic segmentation and hindgut development, we suggest that they may be required in multiple developmental contexts to induce epithelial cellular changes.

  4. Influence of “J”-Curve Spring Stiffness on Running Speeds of Segmented Legs during High-Speed Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the linear leg spring model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness have been broadly used as template models to investigate bouncing gaits for legged robots with compliant legs. In addition to these two models, the other stiffness leg spring models developed using inspiration from biological characteristic have the potential to improve high-speed running capacity of spring-legged robots. In this paper, we investigate the effects of “J”-curve spring stiffness inspired by biological materials on running speeds of segmented legs during high-speed locomotion. Mathematical formulation of the relationship between the virtual leg force and the virtual leg compression is established. When the SLIP model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness and with “J”-curve spring stiffness have the same dimensionless reference stiffness, the two-segment leg model with “J”-curve spring stiffness reveals that (1 both the largest tolerated range of running speeds and the tolerated maximum running speed are found and (2 at fast running speed from 25 to 40/92 m s−1 both the tolerated range of landing angle and the stability region are the largest. It is suggested that the two-segment leg model with “J”-curve spring stiffness is more advantageous for high-speed running compared with the SLIP model and with constant spring stiffness.

  5. Influence of "J"-Curve Spring Stiffness on Running Speeds of Segmented Legs during High-Speed Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runxiao; Zhao, Wentao; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Shunqi

    2016-01-01

    Both the linear leg spring model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness have been broadly used as template models to investigate bouncing gaits for legged robots with compliant legs. In addition to these two models, the other stiffness leg spring models developed using inspiration from biological characteristic have the potential to improve high-speed running capacity of spring-legged robots. In this paper, we investigate the effects of "J"-curve spring stiffness inspired by biological materials on running speeds of segmented legs during high-speed locomotion. Mathematical formulation of the relationship between the virtual leg force and the virtual leg compression is established. When the SLIP model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness and with "J"-curve spring stiffness have the same dimensionless reference stiffness, the two-segment leg model with "J"-curve spring stiffness reveals that (1) both the largest tolerated range of running speeds and the tolerated maximum running speed are found and (2) at fast running speed from 25 to 40/92 m s -1 both the tolerated range of landing angle and the stability region are the largest. It is suggested that the two-segment leg model with "J"-curve spring stiffness is more advantageous for high-speed running compared with the SLIP model and with constant spring stiffness.

  6. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  7. Stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg with the self-stable region in slow and fast running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Oh Seok; Ha, Sung Mok; Lee, Dong Ha [Convergence Research Center for WellnessDaegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and TechnologyDaegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we propose the stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg that can have a self-stable region in slow and fast running. This proposition can contribute to reducing the control effort and enhancing the locomotion energy efficiency for the compliant three segment legged robot in slow and fast running. Previous research indicated that the running self-stable region of the spring-mass system is located in a relatively fast running region and that of the two segment leg is located in a relatively slow running region. In this paper, we analyze the stiffness characteristics of the spring-mass system and the two segment leg to explain the previous research results. From this analysis, we propose the stiffness characteristics of the compliant three segment leg with a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We further design the compliant three segment leg based on this proposition and check its structural stability. We examine the running self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg to determine whether it has a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We also examine the walking self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg.

  8. High performance p-type segmented leg of misfit-layered cobaltite and half-Heusler alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Le Thanh; Van Nong, Ngo; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Viet, Man Hoang; Balke, Benjamin; Han, Li; Stamate, Eugen; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • p-type segmented leg of oxide and half-Heusler was for the first time demonstrated. • The maximum conversion efficiency reached a value of about 5%. • The results are among the highest reported values so far for oxide-based legs. • Oxide-based segmented leg is very promising for generating electricity. - Abstract: In this study, a segmented p-type leg of doped misfit-layered cobaltite Ca 2.8 Lu 0.15 Ag 0.05 Co 4 O 9+δ and half-Heusler Ti 0.3 Zr 0.35 Hf 0.35 CoSb 0.8 Sn 0.2 alloy was fabricated and characterized. The thermoelectric properties of single components, segmented leg, and the electrical contact resistance of the joint part were measured as a function of temperature. The output power generation characteristics of segmented legs were characterized in air under various temperature gradients, ΔT, with the hot side temperature up to 1153 K. At ΔT ≈ 756 K, the maximum conversion efficiency reached a value of ∼5%, which is about 65% of that expected from the materials without parasitic losses. The long-term stability investigation for two weeks at the hot and cold side temperatures of 1153/397 K shows that the segmented leg has good durability as a result of stable and low electrical resistance contacts

  9. Biomechanical Modeling of Split-leg Squat and Heel Raise on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.; Humphreys, Brad; Funk, Justin; Funk, Nathan; Dewitt, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. Computational models currently use OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. Subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the loads on the body. Multiple exercises are performed and evaluated during a test session such as a full squat, single leg squat, heel raise and dead lift. Variables for these exercises include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data from free weights are compared to the resistively loaded exercise

  10. High performance p-type segmented leg of misfit-layered cobaltite and half-Heusler alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Snyder, Gerald Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    %, which is about 65% of that expected from the materials without parasitic losses. The long-term stability investigation for two weeks at the hot and cold side temperatures of 1153/397 K shows that the segmented leg has good durability as a result of stable and low electrical resistance contacts. 2015...

  11. Venogram - leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebogram - leg; Venography - leg; Angiogram - leg ... into a vein in the foot of the leg being looked at. An intravenous (IV) line is ... vein. A tourniquet may be placed on your leg so the dye flows into the deeper veins. ...

  12. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    a given device to help formulate exercise prescriptions and other operational considerations. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) laboratory and NSBRI-funded researchers by developing and implementing well-validated computational models of exercises with advanced exercise device concepts. This report focuses specifically on lower-body resistance exercises performed with the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device as a deliverable to the AEC Project.

  13. Collimator kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    A collimator kit having a number of parts which may be assembled in various combinations to provide focusing collimators with different performance characteristics for radioisotope imaging apparatus is described

  14. A YAC contig spanning a cluster of human type III receptor protein tyrosine kinase genes (PDGFRA-KIT-KDR) in chromosome segment 4q12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spritz, R.A.; Strunk, K.M.; Lee, S.T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-15

    The authors have mapped five genes encoding protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 4. PTK4 and TYRO4, which encode nonreceptor intracellular PTKs, are located at 4p12 and 4q13, respectively. The other three genes, PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR, encode type III transmembrane receptor PTKs for known ligands. The authors have developed a contig of 29 yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) spanning approximately 2 Mb of DNA at 4q12 that includes PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR, and have used this YAC contig to map 12 different sequence-tagged sites in this region. PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR thus constitute a cluster of genes at 4q12 encoding closely related type III receptor PTKs. Mutations of the human KIT gene result in piebaldism, an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  16. Leg Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 31, ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/leg-swelling/basics/definition/SYM-20050910 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  17. Compression Stockings for Treating Venous Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Benigni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to treat venous leg ulcers, it is recommended to use high pressure compression (30–40 mmHg at the ankle. Compression stockings which are not operator dependant could be the best option because of their pressure control. However 30–40 mmHg compression stockings are often hard to put on. Putting two lower pressure compression stockings over each other could be a good therapeutic alternative. Objectives. To compare the in vitro pressures given by the manufacturers of 2 antiulcer kits with the in vivo interface pressures measured in healthy subjects and to evaluate the stiffness and friction indices from those kits based on the interface pressure in order to assess their clinical properties. Material and Methods. Using a Kikuhime pressure device, interface pressure was measured in 12 healthy subjects at the reference point B1. One stiffness index (Static Stiffness Index (SSI and a friction index have been calculated. Results. Mediven Ulcer kit gets the recommended pressures whereas Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit does not for treating a venous leg ulcer. Jobst’s Ulcer Care transmits entirely the pressure in relation to a friction index close to 1. Conclusion. This antiulcer kit study underlines that in vivo and in vitro pressures can be different (Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit and Mediven Ulcer kit. In order not to lose pressure, it is important to take into account the friction index when superimposing two stockings.

  18. Exploit Kit traffic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis

    2017-01-01

    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  19. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  20. Night Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night leg cramps By Mayo Clinic Staff Night leg cramps, also called nocturnal leg cramps, are painful, involuntary contractions or spasms of muscles in your legs, usually occurring when you're in bed. Night ...

  1. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  2. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  3. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent claudication; Vaso-occlusive disease of the legs; Arterial insufficiency of ...

  4. ProjectorKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigel, Martin; Boring, Sebastian; Steimle, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have developed interaction concepts based on mobile projectors. Yet pursuing work in this area - particularly in building projector-based interactions techniques within an application - is cumbersome and time-consuming. To mitigate this problem, we contribute ProjectorKit, a flexible ...... open-source toolkit that eases rapid prototyping mobile projector interaction techniques....

  5. Personalized Thematic Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Spanish at the K-5 level is a passion of mine, and the author would like to share some of the practical applications that she finds most rewarding and effective. She has found enthusiastic response to the creation of detailed language learning kits that are rooted in storytelling, but expanded to include home-made board games,…

  6. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  9. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  10. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  12. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  13. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  14. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  15. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  17. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to the items listed above, a vehicle kit should include: -fire extinguisher. -booster cables and tow rope. -compass and road maps. -shovel. -tire repair kit and pump. -extra clothing to keep dry. - ...

  18. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  20. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification packaging...

  1. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle......-like front legs based on biological investigation. As a result, each leg consists of three main segments which were built using 3D printing. The segments were combined with in total four active DOFs in order to mimic locomotion and object manipulation of the beetle. Kinematics analysis of the leg was also...

  2. Leg lengthening - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100127.htm Leg lengthening - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... with lengthening procedures are the bones of the leg, the tibia and the femur. Surgical treatment may ...

  3. Arterial bypass leg - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100155.htm Arterial bypass leg - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Overview The arteries which supply blood to the leg originate from the aorta and iliac vessels. Review ...

  4. Leg lengthening and shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002965.htm Leg lengthening and shortening To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to ...

  5. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-12

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  6. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  7. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...... this methodology in the early phases of this large scale research and development process....

  8. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  9. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  10. Asphyxia screening kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidi, A; Khuan, L Y; Mansor, W

    2012-01-01

    Infant asphyxia is a condition due to insufficient oxygen intake suffered by newborn babies. A 4 to 9 million occurrences of infant asphyxia are reported each year by WHO. Early diagnosis of asphyxia is important to avoid complications such as damage to the brain, organ and tissue that could lead to fatality. This is possible with the automation of screening of infant asphyxia. Here, a non-invasive Asphyxia Screening Kit is developed. It is a Graphical User Interface that automatically detects asphyxia in infants from early birth to 6 months from their cries and displays the outcome of analysis. It is built with Matlab GUI underlied with signal processing algorithms, capable of achieving a classification accuracy of 96.03%. Successful implementation of ASK will assist to screen infant asphyxia for reference to clinicians for early diagnosis. In addition, ASK also provides an interface to enter patient information and images to be integrated with existing Hospital Information Management System.

  11. Kit de pràctiques basat en microcontrolador PIC

    OpenAIRE

    Verdaguer Estarlich, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    Aquest treball consisteix en el disseny i prototipat d‟un kit de pràctiques com a suport a la docència, basat en l‟arquitectura PIC. El microcontrolador escollit per a la implementació és el PIC18F4550, el qual reuneix les característiques necessàries per a la necessitat requerida. El kit compta amb diversos dispositius, els de sortida com són díodes LED, visualitzador 7 segments, display LCD; i d‟altres d‟entrada: teclat hexadecimal, interruptors, optoacobladors i un convertidor analòg...

  12. What's In Your Emergency Kit?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-04

    An emergency kit can help you survive during a disaster. This podcast discusses supplies to include in your kit.  Created: 12/4/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 12/20/2012.

  13. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  14. Skin perfusion pressure measured by isotope washout in legs with arterial occlusive disease. Evaluation of different tracers, comparison to segmental systolic pressure, angiography and transcutaneous oxygen tension and variations during changes in systemic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Trap-Jensen, J; Bagger, H

    1983-01-01

    in legs with arterial occlusions at two levels or more; (4) In 47 legs with AOD, the SPP on the calf or on the thigh was compared with transcutaneously measured pO2. The two different methods correlated statistically significant, but the scatter was great; (5) During induced variations in systemic blood...... that 99Tcm is as suitable as the 131I- -labelled tracers in estimating the SPP. The SPP is significantly correlated to skin blood flow, to systolic blood pressure, to tc pO2 and to angiographic findings. Correction of SPP for systemic blood pressure changes can be made in proportion with the measured...... variations in systemic mean blood pressure, but only for groups of patients....

  15. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea; Adderley, Una

    2016-01-15

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0 in 1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20 in 1000 people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 116 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 63 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 43 studies and the further review of 20 full publications. Of the 20 full articles evaluated, four systematic reviews were updated and four RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 23 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 13 interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, compression stockings for prevention of recurrence, compression bandages and stockings to treat venous leg ulcers, laser treatment (low level), leg ulcer clinics, pentoxifylline, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery for prevention of recurrence, superficial vein surgery to treat venous leg ulcers, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical negative pressure.

  16. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  17. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    balanced itself in 31) using a tabular ctontrol sclwnme. With only thUiee actuated degrees it used a shuffling gait to balance that reminds one of Charlie ... Chaplin . * The present study explores the control of a physical one-legged hopping machine. The objective of using a machine with only one leg was to

  18. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  19. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  20. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  1. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  2. MIBI: preparation and evaluation of lyophilization kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockmann, T.M.B.; Rezende, M.E.X.; Moraes, D.W.; Braga, G.A.; Muradian, J.; Marques, F.L.N.; Dias Neto, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The lyophilization kits of MIBI- 99m Tc were obtained by its own synthesis. The quality control showing the high stability of kits was mentioned. the bio-distribution, evaluated in dogs, was identical to that presented by the radiopharmaceutical with the import kit. The obtained results, allowing the prepare of lyophilization kits for medical use were also presented. (C.G.C.)

  3. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  5. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Ioachimescu, Octavian C

    2015-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an urge to move, and associated with uncomfortable sensations in the legs (limbs). Restless legs syndrome can lead to sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia, and occasionally excessive daytime sleepiness, all leading to significant morbidity. Brain iron deficiency and dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disorder, along with other nondopaminergic systems, although the exact mechanisms are still. Intensive care unit patients are especially vulnerable to have unmasking or exacerbation of restless legs syndrome because of sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disturbance, immobilization, iron deficiency, and use of multiple medications that can antagonize dopamine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hotspot mutations in KIT receptor differentially modulate its allosterically coupled conformational dynamics: impact on activation and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaure Chauvot de Beauchêne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinase KIT controls many signal transduction pathways and represents a typical allosterically regulated protein. The mutation-induced deregulation of KIT activity impairs cellular physiological functions and causes serious human diseases. The impact of hotspots mutations (D816H/Y/N/V and V560G/D localized in crucial regulatory segments, the juxtamembrane region (JMR and the activation (A- loop, on KIT internal dynamics was systematically studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The mutational outcomes predicted in silico were correlated with in vitro and in vivo activation rates and drug sensitivities of KIT mutants. The allosteric regulation of KIT in the native and mutated forms is described in terms of communication between the two remote segments, JMR and A-loop. A strong correlation between the communication profile and the structural and dynamical features of KIT in the native and mutated forms was established. Our results provide new insight on the determinants of receptor KIT constitutive activation by mutations and resistance of KIT mutants to inhibitors. Depiction of an intra-molecular component of the communication network constitutes a first step towards an integrated description of vast communication pathways established by KIT in physiopathological contexts.

  7. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  8. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  9. Remote Storage. SPEC Kit 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    A 1977 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey gathered information and documentation on remote storage for selected library materials, including type and size of facilities, selection processes for transferring materials, operating procedures, and record-changing activities. A summary of the survey results included in this kit reports…

  10. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  11. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  12. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  13. CERN’s FMC Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Cattin, M; Serrano, J; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the renovation of controls and data acquisition electronics for accelerators the BE-CO-HT section at CERN has designed a kit based on carriers and mezzanines following the VITA FPGAMezzanine Card (FMC) standard. Carriers exist in VME64x and PCIe form factors, with a PXIe carrier underway. Mezzanines include an Analog to Digital Converter, a Time to Digital Converter, a fine delay generator and a Digital Input/Output. All of the designs are licensed under the CERN Open Hardware Licence and commercialised by companies. This paper discusses the benefits of this carrier mezzanine strategy and of the Open Hardware based commercial paradigm. It also explains the design of each layer of the FMC kit, from the hardware to the gateware and the Linux device driver. In addition, several tools to help designers developing gateware for mezzanines and new concepts such as the Self-Describing Bus (SDB) and the fmcbus are presented. Lastly, some of the plans for the future of the FMC kit and Open Hardware Re...

  14. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  15. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  16. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  17. [Lipedema of the leg associated with dermatomyositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, M; Cerović, S

    1999-01-01

    Lipedema represents a form of lipodistrophy, which consists of abnormal accumulation of fat in subcutaneous tissue of the lower limbs with consecutive development of lymphostasis and lymphedema. The aim of this article was to review one clear case of lower limbs lipedema, of unusual occurrence and appearance, which was associated with dermatomyositis. A moderately manifested lipedema in 8 years old little girl was reported with its expressive segmental distribution to upper and lower legs, without significant increase in its size during last 10 years and without signs of lymphostasis. The hereditary influence was not confirmed. Histological examination of lipedematous tissue revealed significant presentation of immune component of the disease. According to the available literature, association between lipedema and dermatomyositis, lower limbs lipedema with segmental distribution as noticed above and its appearance as a consequence of corticosteroid therapy have not yet been published.

  18. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  19. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  20. The Free Universal Construction Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephensen, Jan Løhmann; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing economic accessibility of 3D printers, the lessons learned and the logics cultivated on digital Web 2.0 now seems applicable to the world of material things. Released in early 2012 by the artist groups F.A.T. and Sy-lab, the Free Universal Construction Kit is a set of 3D...... drawings that enable everyone with access to a 3D printer to make connectors, “the missing links”, between intellectual property restricted toys like LEGO, Tinkertoys, and Fischertechnik. However, when describing this project as “reverse engineering as a civic activity”, it seems obvious that F...

  1. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome.

  2. [Swollen leg with blisters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeiner, Ph; Templeton, A J; Vonesch, H J

    2005-10-05

    We report the case of a 84-year-old woman suffering from strong pain in her right leg initially resembling thrombosis of deep veins. Eight hours after admission a superficial blister developed at the calf with following hemorrhagic aspect and spontanous eruption of clear yellowish fluid. Later on a new blister appeared at the thigh. The patient died 33 hours after admission of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The latter was based on a necrotizing fasciitis. Streptoccus pyogenes (group A) could be cultivated from the blood and fluid of the blister. We discuss the clinical presentation of necrotizing fasciitis with "pain out of proportion" as characteristic complaint and the appropriate management.

  3. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  4. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  5. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  6. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  7. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C

    2015-01-01

    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT mutat...

  8. Building Use Policies. SPEC Kit 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Patrick

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) flyer/kit addresses some of the needs of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members regarding library building use and the aesthetics and well-being of the materials and people in the building. The kit draws upon documents gathered as part of a 1986 Quick-SPEC survey that dealt with food and…

  9. Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William

    2014-07-01

    Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.

  10. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  11. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries

  12. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  13. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  14. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estradiol RIA kit in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.; Lisse, K.; Bienert, R.; Flentje, H.; Koerner, H.; Wilken, T.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1985-01-01

    First clinical experience with a estradiol RIA kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research is reported. The kit was used for the daily control of estradiol level in patients, which were treated within the program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The time of incubation could be shortened by means of a double antibody technique and by use of a precipitation mixture to 2 h. The intraassay variation is 9.2%, the interassay variation is 15.1%, the recovery rate is 94%. The sensitivity of the test (B 0 -3SD) is about 120 pmol/l. The estradiol RIA kit satisfies clinical requirements. (author)

  16. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  18. Restless legs syndrome: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition, with negative effects on sleep and daytime activities that affect personal, family and occupational life. The overall impact of restless legs syndrome on quality of life is comparable to that of chronic and frustrating conditions such as depression and diabetes. Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may increase patients' suffering in terms of uncertainty, overuse or misuse of care services and lack of trust. Presenting a synthesis of the main topics in the literature on restless legs syndrome facilitates for a better understanding and its management in primary care settings.

  19. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  20. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...

  2. Endovenous management of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Seshadri; Kirk, Orla K; Jones, Tamekia L

    2013-04-01

    Compression is the current "standard" in the treatment of venous leg ulcers, and corrective surgery is ancillary. The emergence of safe and effective minimally invasive corrective techniques prompts a reappraisal of this paradigm. Among 192 consecutive limbs with venous leg ulcers, 189 were treated by (1) endovenous laser ablation (n = 30), (2) iliac vein stent placement (n = 89), or (3) both (n = 69). Residual deep reflux was not treated. No specialized wound care was used, and 38% of patients did not use stockings. Outcome measures were time to heal the ulcer and cumulative long-term healing. Sixty percent of the limbs were post-thrombotic. The median reflux segment score was 3 (range, 0-7). Thirty-seven percent had deep axial reflux. Median intravascular ultrasound-detected stenosis was 70% (range, 0%-100%) in stented patients. Sensitivity of venography to iliac vein obstruction was 52%. Postprocedural mortality was 0%, and 2% had deep venous thrombosis (ulcers approximately ≤1 inch in diameter had healed. Larger ulcers were slower in healing (P pressure). However, long-term ulcer healing was inferior in limbs with reflux segment score of ≥3 (P ulcers in this consecutive series achieved long-term healing with the described minimally invasive algorithm. Uncorrected residual reflux was not an impediment to ulcer healing. Ulcers sized ≤1 inch required no specialized or prolonged wound care. Compression was not necessary to achieve or maintain healing after interventional correction. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Topology ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierny, Julien; Favelier, Guillaume; Levine, Joshua A; Gueunet, Charles; Michaux, Michael

    2017-08-29

    This system paper presents the Topology ToolKit (TTK), a software platform designed for the topological analysis of scalar data in scientific visualization. While topological data analysis has gained in popularity over the last two decades, it has not yet been widely adopted as a standard data analysis tool for end users or developers. TTK aims at addressing this problem by providing a unified, generic, efficient, and robust implementation of key algorithms for the topological analysis of scalar data, including: critical points, integral lines, persistence diagrams, persistence curves, merge trees, contour trees, Morse-Smale complexes, fiber surfaces, continuous scatterplots, Jacobi sets, Reeb spaces, and more. TTK is easily accessible to end users due to a tight integration with ParaView. It is also easily accessible to developers through a variety of bindings (Python, VTK/C++) for fast prototyping or through direct, dependency-free, C++, to ease integration into pre-existing complex systems. While developing TTK, we faced several algorithmic and software engineering challenges, which we document in this paper. In particular, we present an algorithm for the construction of a discrete gradient that complies to the critical points extracted in the piecewise-linear setting. This algorithm guarantees a combinatorial consistency across the topological abstractions supported by TTK, and importantly, a unified implementation of topological data simplification for multi-scale exploration and analysis. We also present a cached triangulation data structure, that supports time efficient and generic traversals, which self-adjusts its memory usage on demand for input simplicial meshes and which implicitly emulates a triangulation for regular grids with no memory overhead. Finally, we describe an original software architecture, which guarantees memory efficient and direct accesses to TTK features, while still allowing for researchers powerful and easy bindings and extensions

  4. Leg pain and gynecologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lilly; Stevens, Erin E

    2013-09-01

    Gynecologic malignancies affect more than 83 000 women in the United States, each year. Because the disease involves the pelvis, many patients have side effects distal to this area in their lower extremities. The differential diagnosis of leg pain can be divided into vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal causes. In this review article, we address numerous etiologies of leg pain, reviewing the prevalence of disease, physical examination findings, diagnostic as well as treatment modalities.

  5. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent contents...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  7. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    encephalomyelitis was found in the affected kits. The lesions were most severe in the brainstem and cerebellum and consisted of neuronal degeneration and necrosis, neuronophagia, focal and diffuse gliosis, perivascular cuffs formed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, and segmental loss of Purkinje cells...

  8. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.

    1997-01-01

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  9. Diagnostic lumbosacral segmental nerve blocks with local anesthetics: a prospective double-blind study on the variability and interpretation of segmental effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.P.; Groen, G.J.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Selective spinal nerve infiltration blocks are used diagnostically in patients with chronic low back pain radiating into the leg. Generally, a segmental nerve block is considered successful if the pain is reduced substantially. Hypesthesia and elicited paresthesias

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders.

  11. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2012-11-01

    Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  13. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  14. Distraction Kits for Pain Management of Children Undergoing Painful Procedures in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Le May, Sylvie; Khadra, Christelle; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe; Charette, Sylvie; Charest, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Hélène; Bailey, Benoit; Villeneuve, Edith; Tsimicalis, Argerie

    2017-12-01

    To assess the feasibility, usefulness, and acceptability of using distraction kits, tailored to age, for procedural pain management of young children visiting the emergency department and requiring a needle-related procedure. A pre-experimental design was piloted. A kit, tailored to age (infants-toddlers: 3 months-2 years; preschoolers: 3-5 years), was provided to parents before their child's needle-related procedure. Data was collected to assess feasibility, usefulness, and acceptability of the kits by parents and nurses. Pain was measured pre-, peri-, and postprocedure using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale. A total of 25 infants and toddlers (mean age: 1.4 ± .7 years) and 25 preschoolers (mean age: 4.0 ± .9) participated in the study. Parents and nurses considered the kits useful and acceptable for distraction in the emergency department, especially in the postprocedural period. Addition of more animated and interactive toys to the kits was suggested. In the infants-toddlers group, mean pain scores were 1.6 ± 2.5 preprocedure, 7.1 ± 3.0 periprocedure, and 2.5 ± 2.5 postprocedure. In the preschoolers group, mean pain scores were 1.6 ± 3.0 preprocedure, 4.8 ± 3.4 periprocedure, and 2.0 ± 3.2 postprocedure. Distraction kits were deemed useful and acceptable by parents and emergency nurses. They are an interesting nonpharmacologic option for nurses to distract children, giving them a sense of control over their pain and improving their hospital experience. Future research should address the feasibility of distraction kits for a broader population of patients and a variety of painful procedures. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  16. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  17. Tool Kit Helps Digitize Tide Gauge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Albin; Pons, Frédéric; Moron, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    The Numérisation des Niveaux d'Eau (NUNIEAU) is an integrated and automated MATLAB computer program tool kit for digitizing, transforming, and validating paper records of sea level variations, called marigrams (Figure 1a), that can cut in half the time required to digitize paper records. This tool kit developed in 2004 by F. Pons is currently obtainable by request from the developer, but will be available online on the IMPLIT (Impact des événements extremes sur les hydro-systèmes du litoral méditerranéen français) Web site in early 2006.

  18. Cross-legged Gods and One-legged Foresters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrovskaia, N.I.

    The present article is a re-evaluation of a marvellous element in a medieval Welsh romance, Chwedl Iarlles y Ffynnawn ‘Tale of the Lady of the Fountain’, also known as Owein. One of the characters encountered by the hero is a one-eyed one-legged dark giant forester who appears to have a particular

  19. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  20. Identification of the contribution of the ankle and hip joints to multi-segmental balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Schouten, A.C.; Van der Kooij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human stance involves multiple segments, including the legs and trunk, and requires coordinated actions of both. A novel method was developed that reliably estimates the contribution of the left and right leg (i.e., the ankle and hip joints) to the balance control of individual subjects.

  1. SunWise[R] Meteorologist Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The SunWise Program is designed to help meteorologists raise sun safety awareness by addressing the science of the sun, the risk of overexposure to its ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and what students and their families can do to protect themselves from overexposure. This Tool Kit has been designed for use all over the United States and its…

  2. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  3. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  4. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  5. Triloogiasse astub Kits viiuliga / Mart Kivastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivastik, Mart, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uut näidendit maalikunstnik Elmar Kitsest "Kits viiuli ja õngega", mida esitab ühendus R.A.A.A.M Aarne Üksküla lavastuses sel suvel Viinistus. Peaosa mängib Aleksander Eelmaa, kunstnik Pille Jänes

  6. Development of MIBI kit for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, S.B.; Ab-Wahid, M.

    1998-01-01

    99m Tc-isonitriles have been shown to be a very promising substitute for Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) for myocardial perfusion imaging. In this study, the lyophilized kit of Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) was prepared and labeled with 99m Tc. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit's stannous content, boiling time during labeling, and the volume of 99m Tc used during reconstitution were also investigated. The radiochemical purity (RCP) determination of the labeled product was analyzed by HPLC, solvent-extraction, TLC and ITLC-SG chromatographic methods in various systems. Animal biodistribution study performed in rats indicated the 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation in the myocardial is up to 3 hours with little or no redistribution. Toxicity studies performed indicate no clinical signs of abnormality in mice at injected dose equivalent in amount of 100 times the human dose in proportion to body weight. Stability studies of the labeled complex performed at room temperature showed no change in radiochemical purity (> 95%) 6 hours post-preparation. Compatibility and comparative studies were done using both MINT and commercially available MIBI kits and 99m Tc generator eluates. From the results obtained the MINT produced MIBI kits were found to be comparable in quality to that of commercials. (author)

  7. Back Pain with Leg Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Bar, Negev; Eisenberg, Elon

    2017-07-01

    The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy. In addition, there are other pathologies distal to the nerve root that could be relevant to patients with back pain and leg pain such as plexus and peripheral nerve involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of back pain with leg pain can still be challenging. In this article, we present a patient with back and leg pain. The patient appears to have a radicular pain syndrome, but has no neurological impairment and shows signs of myofascial involvement. Is there a single diagnosis or indeed two overlapping syndromes? The scope of our article encompasses the common diagnostic possibilities for this type of patient. A discussion of treatment is beyond the scope of this article and depends on the final diagnosis/diagnoses made.

  8. Kan leg skabe fremtidens vindere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Dansk Boldspil Union skruer ned for den præstationsorienterede tilgang til børnefodbold. I stedet skal børnenes leg med bolden i fokus. Målet er at forhindre massivt frafald i børne- og ungdomsfodbolden og højne niveauet hos topspillerne....

  9. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang

    2016-01-01

    A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to...

  10. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  11. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    This book is about using recent developments in the fields of data analytics and data visualization to frame new ways of identifying target groups in media communication. Based on a mixed-methods approach, the authors combine psychophysiological monitoring (galvanic skin response) with textual...... content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  12. Supplementary angiography when lumbar angiograms fail to demonstrate the vessels to the leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Praestholm, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    The peripheral run-off arteries were insufficiently visualized due to occlusions in the aorto-iliac segments in studies of 10 patients (15 legs) in 183 consecutive aorto-femoral angiograms. Guided by a combination of the Doppler technique and fluoroscopy, the non-opacified and pulseless common...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3600 - Partially fabricated denture kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mold, by partially polymerizing the resin denture base materials while the materials are in contact...: Evaluation and Testing,’ ” and (2) “OTC Denture Reliners, Repair Kits, and Partially Fabricated Denture Kits...

  14. KIT safety management. Annual report 2013; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for licensing procedures, industrial safety organization, control of environmental protection measures, planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, extensive radiation protection support and the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2013. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2013. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM. Due to changes in the organization of the infrastructural service units in KIT, KSM has been cancelled at the end of 2013. Its tasks will mainly be covered in 2014 by the new founded service unit Safety and Environmental (Sicherheit und Umwelt, SUM). The departments Campus Security, Fire Brigade and Information Technology have been transferred to the Service Unit General Services (Allgemeine Services, ASERV).

  15. Development of Safety Kit for Industrial Radiography Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Ahmad; Amry Amin Abas

    2011-01-01

    A safety kit for industrial radiography has been developed. The safety kit that consist of a set of technical rod and various size of base that can be used in radiograph of pipe with diameter between half and one and half inch with utilization of collimator. With the kit, radiographers will not having anymore problem to use collimator in their work. The paper discuss about the technical measures of the safety kit and the importance of introducing it to the industry. (author)

  16. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”. A...

  17. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  18. Kinematic primitives for a quadruped robot walk and trot with compliant legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thomas Sprowitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2 to 3 primitives than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (4 primitives, although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  19. A comparison of one-legged and two-legged countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A J; Roebroeck, M.E.; Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1985-01-01

    Ten well-trained male volleyball players performed one-legged and two-legged vertical countermovement jumps. Ground reaction forces, cinematographic data, and electromyographic data were recorded. Jumping height in one-legged jumps was 58.5% of that reached in two-legged jumps. Mean net torques in

  20. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional, or...

  1. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presence...

  2. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter. ...

  3. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine Safety...

  4. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall be...

  5. Home Pregnancy Test Kits: How Readable Are the Instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Carol Ann

    At the conclusion of their study on home pregnancy test kits, Valinas and Perlman (1982) suggested that the instructions accompanying the kits be revised to make them easier to read. A study was undertaken to determine the readability of the printed instructions accompanying five home pregnancy test kits (Daisy II, Answer, Acu-Test, Predictor, and…

  6. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary ingredients...

  7. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presenc...

  8. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  9. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop H; Sussman, Mark A

    2018-04-10

    Rationale: Biological significance of c-Kit as a cardiac stem cell marker and role(s) of c-Kit+ cells in myocardial development or response to pathologic injury remain unresolved due to varied and discrepant findings. Alternative experimental models are required to contextualize and reconcile discordant published observations of cardiac c-Kit myocardial biology and provide meaningful insights regarding clinical relevance of c-Kit signaling for translational cell therapy. Objective: Demonstration of c-Kit myocardial biology through combined studies of both human and murine cardiac cells. Advancing understanding of c-Kit myocardial biology through creation and characterization of a novel, inducible transgenic c-Kit reporter mouse model that overcomes limitations inherent to knock-in reporter models, providing perspective to reconcile disparate viewpoints on c-Kit biology in the myocardium. Methods and Results: In vitro studies confirm a critical role for c-Kit signaling in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells. Activation of c-Kit receptor promotes cell survival and proliferation in stem cells and cardiomyocytes of either human or murine origin. For creation of the mouse model, the cloned mouse c-Kit promoter drives Histone2B-EGFP (H2BEGFP) expression in a doxycycline inducible transgenic reporter line. The combination of c-Kit transgenesis coupled to H2BEGFP readout provides sensitive, specific, inducible, and persistent tracking of c-Kit promoter activation. Tagging efficiency for EGFP+/c-Kit+ cells is similar between our transgenic versus a c-Kit knock-in mouse line, but frequency of c-Kit+ cells in cardiac tissue from the knock-in model is 55% lower than our transgenic line. The c-Kit transgenic reporter model reveals intimate association of c-Kit expression with adult myocardial biology. Both cardiac stem cells and a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes express c-Kit in uninjured adult heart, upregulating c-Kit expression in response to pathologic stress

  10. Leg regeneration is epigenetically regulated by histone H3K27 methylation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshimasa; Bando, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Taro; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2015-09-01

    Hemimetabolous insects such as the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus regenerate lost tissue parts using blastemal cells, a population of dedifferentiated proliferating cells. The expression of several factors that control epigenetic modification is upregulated in the blastema compared with differentiated tissue, suggesting that epigenetic changes in gene expression might control the differentiation status of blastema cells during regeneration. To clarify the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation during regeneration, we focused on the function of the Gryllus Enhancer of zeste [Gb'E(z)] and Ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene on the X chromosome (Gb'Utx) homologues, which regulate methylation and demethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), respectively. Methylated histone H3K27 in the regenerating leg was diminished by Gb'E(z)(RNAi) and was increased by Gb'Utx(RNAi). Regenerated Gb'E(z)(RNAi) cricket legs exhibited extra leg segment formation between the tibia and tarsus, and regenerated Gb'Utx(RNAi) cricket legs showed leg joint formation defects in the tarsus. In the Gb'E(z)(RNAi) regenerating leg, the Gb'dac expression domain expanded in the tarsus. By contrast, in the Gb'Utx(RNAi) regenerating leg, Gb'Egfr expression in the middle of the tarsus was diminished. These results suggest that regulation of the histone H3K27 methylation state is involved in the repatterning process during leg regeneration among cricket species via the epigenetic regulation of leg patterning gene expression. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  12. Thick legs - not always lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  13. [Comparison of arterial blood sample kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaf, N; Giner, J; Codina, E; Feixas, T; González, M; Casan, P

    2004-08-01

    Most inaccuracies in the analysis of gases and electrolytes in arterial blood samples are due to preanalytic factors, among which is the type of equipment used for blood collection. Our objective was to compare arterial blood gas sample kits used under clinical conditions and to evaluate the impact of delay in estimation on variability in results. In 2 types of study we compared 5 kits (Radiometer's Pico 70, Becton Dickinson's Preset, SIMS Portex's Pro-Vent, SIMS-Concord's Pulsator, and Marquest's Quick ABG). In the first study kitsyringe assignment was randomized for collecting arterial blood samples from 160 consecutive patients to evaluate practical aspects of using them and the presence of bubbles in the samples taken. The second study evaluated the effects of delays of 30 and 60 minutes in estimation and of the type of heparin used in 54 blood samples. The kits which produced the fewest bubbles, gave samples with the greatest stability, and had the least impact on ion concentration were Radiometer's Pico 70 and SIMS-Portex's Pro-vent.

  14. The challenges of lean manufacturing implementation in kitting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansuri, A. F. H.; Rose, A. N. M.; Nik Mohamed, N. M. Z.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-10-01

    Literature studies shows that lean manufacturing goes way back with the original founder Eli Whitney in year 1799. The main purpose of lean manufacturing is to identify and eliminate waste in production. The application of lean manufacturing can be carried out in any industrial processes with regards to the understanding of lean principles, theories and practices. Kitting is one of the important aspects in a successful production. The continuous supply of materials from store to production has to be systematic and able to achieve lean standard for it to be successful. The objective of this paper is to review the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly. Previous papers show that, the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly may be beneficial to the organization such as reduce in space occupancy, part shortages, lead time and manpower. Based on previous research, some industries may tend to change between kitting and line stocking which are due to lack of understanding when implementing kitting and causes longer lead time and materials overflow in store. With a proper understanding on what to kit, where to kit, how to kit, why to kit and who kits the material with a standardised process flow may ensure the success of kitting.

  15. Adoption of the Healthy Heart Kit by Alberta family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Raphaël; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Scott, Shannon D; Karunamuni, Nandini; Rodgers, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK) is a risk management and patient education kit for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the promotion of CV health. There are currently no published data examining predictors of HHK use by physicians. The main objective of this study was to examine the association between physicians' characteristics (socio-demographic, cognitive, and behavioural) and the use of the HHK. All registered family physicians in Alberta (n=3068) were invited to participate in the "Healthy Heart Kit" Study. Consenting physicians (n=153) received the Kit and were requested to use it for two months. At the end of this period, a questionnaire collected data on the frequency of Kit use by physicians, as well as socio-demographic, cognitive, and behavioural variables pertaining to the physicians. The questionnaire was returned by 115 physicians (follow-up rate = 75%). On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the mean score of Kit use was 61 [SD=26]. A multiple linear regression showed that "agreement with the Kit" and the degree of "confidence in using the Kit" was strongly associated with Kit use, explaining 46% of the variability for Kit use. Time since graduation was inversely associated with Kit use, and a trend was observed for smaller practices to be associated with lower use. Given these findings, future research and practice should explore innovative strategies to gain initial agreement among physicians to employ such clinical tools. Participation of older physicians and solo-practitioners in this process should be emphasized.

  16. Image Segmentation Algorithms Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...

  17. Screening of Kit inhibitors: suppression of Kit signaling and melanogenesis by emodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Jin; Jeong, Daeyoung; Park, Woo-Kyu; Kong, Jae Yang; Choi, Gildon; Kim, Hojeong; Kang, Sangjin; Cho, Heeyeong

    2010-02-01

    In search of novel antipigmentation agents, a set of 3,840 compounds with natural-like synthetic or natural origin were screened against Kit (stem cell factor receptor). Emodin from the seed of Cassia tora and baicalin from Scutellariae radix showed potent inhibitory effects (IC(50) = 4.9 and 9.0 microM, respectively) on the phosphorylation of Kit. Emodin also blocked other receptor tyrosine kinase activities, such as epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR-1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor b (PDGFR-b). In contrast to emodin, aloe-emodin did not inhibit Kit activity at all. Emodin also blocked the cellular kinase activities of Kit and its down-stream p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in MO7e cells and human primary melanocytes. Emodin strongly suppressed the melanin synthesis triggered by stem cell factor (SCF) treatment. Also, emodin showed almost no toxicity up to 10 microM on cultured melanocytes as reported previously by other researchers. The results indicate that emodin is a good candidate for the development of antipigmentation agents since it can radically block the differentiation and proliferation of pigment cells by reducing Kit signaling. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Fetal endoscopic myelomeningocele closure preserves segmental neurological function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Renate J.; Heep, Axel; Maurits, Natalia M.; Cremer, Reinhold; Hoving, Eelco W.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM:   Our aim was to compare the effect of prenatal endoscopic with postnatal myelomeningocele closure (fetally operated spina bifida aperta [fSBA]) versus neonatally operated spina bifida aperta [nSBA]) on segmental neurological leg condition. METHOD:   Between 2003 and 2009, the fetal surgical

  19. Intercalary bone segment transport in treatment of segmental tibial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Amin, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications of intercalary bone segment transport in the treatment of segmental tibial defects. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with segmental tibial defects who were treated with intercalary bone segment transport method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from September 1997 to April 2001. Subjects and methods: Thirteen patients were included in the study who had developed tibial defects either due to open fractures with bone loss or subsequent to bone debridement of infected non unions. The mean bone defect was 6.4 cms and there were eight associated soft tissue defects. Locally made unilateral 'Naseer-Awais' (NA) fixator was used for bone segment transport. The distraction was done at the rate of 1mm/day after 7-10 days of osteotomy. The patients were followed-up fortnightly during distraction and monthly thereafter. The mean follow-up duration was 18 months. Results: The mean time in external fixation was 9.4 months. The m ean healing index' was 1.47 months/cm. Satisfactory union was achieved in all cases. Six cases (46.2%) required bone grafting at target site and in one of them grafting was required at the level of regeneration as well. All the wounds healed well with no residual infection. There was no residual leg length discrepancy of more than 20 mm nd one angular deformity of more than 5 degrees. The commonest complication encountered was pin track infection seen in 38% of Shanz Screws applied. Loosening occurred in 6.8% of Shanz screws, requiring re-adjustment. Ankle joint contracture with equinus deformity and peroneal nerve paresis occurred in one case each. The functional results were graded as 'good' in seven, 'fair' in four, and 'poor' in two patients. Overall, thirteen patients had 31 (minor/major) complications with a ratio of 2.38 complications per patient. To treat the bone defects and associated complications, a mean of

  20. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT, with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL. After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4- with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99mTc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli, the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99mTc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99mTc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99mTc-CFT by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar um kit de Tc

  1. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, prestlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group than the left TLE group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Optimization of Effective Segmented Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Hoang Ngan

    Au5.3Ge40.7/PbTe-SrTe with n-leg Bi2Te3/PbTe/SiGe. The results could provide a guideline to develop high efficiency segmented thermoelectric generators. Based on these theoretical results, segmentation of half-Heusler alloys and Bi2Te3 materials was selected for further study. Firstly, the joining...

  3. Quinine for Nocturnal Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Wells, George; Lau, Anita

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE With respect to the use of quinine for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps, to determine whether the findings of a previously performed meta-analysis of published data are altered with the addition of unpublished data, and whether publication bias is present in this area. DESIGN A meta-analysis of eight (four published and four unpublished) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, seven of which had a crossover design. SETTING Randomized trials that were available as of July 1997. SUBJECTS Ambulatory patients (659) who suffered from regular nocturnal leg cramps. MAIN RESULTS When individual patient data from all crossover studies were pooled, persons had 3.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15, 5.05) fewer cramps in a 4-week period when taking quinine compared with placebo. This compared with an estimate of 8.83 fewer cramps (95% CI 4.16, 13.49) from pooling published studies alone. The corresponding relative risk reductions were 21% (95% CI 12%, 30%) and 43% (95% CI 21%, 65%), respectively. Compared with placebo, the use of quinine was associated with an increased incidence of side effects, particularly tinnitus. Publication bias is present in the reporting of the efficacy of quinine for this indication, as almost all published studies reported larger estimates of its efficacy than did unpublished studies. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that quinine is efficacious in the prevention of nocturnal leg cramps. However, its benefit may not be as large as reported from the pooling of published studies alone. Given the side effect profile of quinine, nonpharmacologic therapy (e.g., regular passive stretching of the affected muscle) is the best first-line treatment. For persons who find this ineffective and whose quality of life is significantly affected, a trial of quinine is warranted. Prescribing physicians must closely monitor the risks and benefits in individual patients. Publication bias is present in this area even though there is

  4. The KIT gene in familial mastocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tourlaki, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    Familial cutaneous mastocytosis is an exceptional condition of unknown etiology. In this study we report the largest series of patients with familial cutaneous mastocytosis without other manifestations (18 affected subjects from seven unrelated families), and we investigate the role of germ-line KIT mutations in the pathogenesis of the disease. The mean age at onset was 5.4 years (range from birth to 22 years), and the clinical behavior was variable over a mean follow up period of 15.1 years ...

  5. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  6. Leg fluid accumulation during prolonged sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Rubianto, Jonathan; Popovic, Milos; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2016-08-01

    The accumulation of fluid in the legs due to sedentariness can be a health risk in extreme cases. Negative health impacts associated with leg fluid accumulation include leg edema and risk of blood clots. Furthermore, fluid accumulating in the legs is accompanied by fluid shift into the upper body which is also associated with health risks such as: increased blood pressure when lying down, respiratory problems in people with heart failure, and increased sleep apnea. Understanding the pattern by which fluid accumulates in the legs can aid in the development of devices for reducing leg fluid accumulation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course of fluid accumulation over a two-and-half-hour seated period. Non-obese participants with sleep apnea and no other co-morbidities were included in the sample as part of a larger study. Leg fluid was measured continuously using a method of bioelectrical impedance. Participants were first asked to lie supine for 30 minutes as a washout, and then sat with their legs still for two and a half hours. The main finding of this study is that the pattern of leg fluid accumulation differed in the first 45 minutes compared to the latter 105 minutes. In the first 45 minutes, fluid accumulated according to first order exponential function. In the latter period, fluid accumulated according to a linear function. The initial exponential accumulation is likely due to the large increase in capillary pressure caused by rapid blood flow into the legs due to gravity, leading to substantial filtration of blood plasma into the tissue spaces. The latter linear portion likely represents continued slow filtration of fluid out of the vasculature and into the tissue spaces. This is the first study to show that fluid accumulation in the legs is a combination of an exponential and linear functions. The linear increase identifies that there is no foreseeable point in which leg fluid stops accumulating while sitting for prolonged periods.

  7. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (pleg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (pleg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra

    2017-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Personal Computer-less (PC-less) Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Fushilat, I.

    2018-02-01

    The need of microcontroller training kit is necessary for practical work of students of electrical engineering education. However, to use available training kit not only costly but also does not meet the need of laboratory requirements. An affordable and portable microcontroller kit could answer such problem. This paper explains the design and development of Personal Computer Less (PC-Less) Microcontroller Training Kit. It was developed based on Lattepanda processor and Arduino microcontroller as target. The training kit equipped with advanced input-output interfaces that adopted the concept of low cost and low power system. The preliminary usability testing proved this device can be used as a tool for microcontroller programming and industrial automation training. By adopting the concept of portability, the device could be operated in the rural area which electricity and computer infrastructure are limited. Furthermore, the training kit is suitable for student of electrical engineering student from university and vocational high school.

  10. Immunohistochemistry of a choroidal melanoma: nestin, CD34 and CD117÷c-kit labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Voinea, Liliana Mary

    2014-01-01

    In a case of choroidal melanoma (CM) in a 70-year-old male patient, was firstly aimed at studying the processes of angiogenesis by use of nestin and CD34 antibodies. Anti-CD117÷c-kit antibodies were further considered for their progenitor cells specificity. Choroidal melanoma was histopathologically confirmed. Nestin-positive endothelia were found in the CM and the adjacent retina, but not in endothelia elsewhere in that eye. Nestin-positive non-pigmentary cells were found within the CM. Filopodia-projecting endothelial tip cells (ETCs), nestin- and CD34-positive were found in the CM. CD34-positive ETCs were also found in the iridial stroma. There were found two different immune patterns of the retinal Müller cells (MCs). They were nestin-positive in the retina adjacent to the tumor, but negative in any other part of retina. On the other hand, CD117÷c-kit antibodies labeled MCs as follows: (a) discontinuously, or continuously, in the retina adjacent to the CM; (b) only the inner segments of the MCs were labeled in the retina unrelated to the CM. While nestin could be a reliable marker for retinal damage, the CD117÷c-kit phenotype of MCs still needs further investigations. Antiangiogenic therapy appears as a good choice for tumor therapy.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administer required drugs) 4 Needles (sizes necessary to administer required drugs) 6 50% Dextrose injection... dose ampule or equivalent 2 Nitroglycerin tablets 10 Basic instructions for use of the drugs in the kit... administer required medications) 4 Analgesic, non-narcotic, tablets, 325 mg 4 Antihistamine tablets, 25 mg 4...

  12. To Kit or Not to Kit? Evaluating and Implementing Science Materials and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ellen; Melin, Jacque; Bair, Mary

    2016-01-01

    With the release of the "Next Generation Science Standards," many schools are reexamining the science materials they are using. Textbook companies and kit developers are eager to meet the demand for "NGSS"-aligned teaching materials. Teacher may have been asked to serve on a science curriculum committee, or to evaluate current…

  13. Segmentation and segment connection of obstructed colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Mario; Truyen, Roel; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2004-05-01

    Segmentation of colon CT images is the main factor that inhibits automation of virtual colonoscopy. There are two main reasons that make efficient colon segmentation difficult. First, besides the colon, the small bowel, lungs, and stomach are also gas-filled organs in the abdomen. Second, peristalsis or residual feces often obstruct the colon, so that it consists of multiple gas-filled segments. In virtual colonoscopy, it is very useful to automatically connect the centerlines of these segments into a single colon centerline. Unfortunately, in some cases this is a difficult task. In this study a novel method for automated colon segmentation and connection of colon segments' centerlines is proposed. The method successfully combines features of segments, such as centerline and thickness, with information on main colon segments. The results on twenty colon cases show that the method performs well in cases of small obstructions of the colon. Larger obstructions are mostly also resolved properly, especially if they do not appear in the sigmoid part of the colon. Obstructions in the sigmoid part of the colon sometimes cause improper classification of the small bowel segments. If a segment is too small, it is classified as the small bowel segment. However, such misclassifications have little impact on colon analysis.

  14. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  15. Opportunities of the energy revolution. Scientific contributions to the KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breh, Wolfgang; Schaetzler, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    ''Opportunities for energy revolution'' was the title under which the KIT Energy Center of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in May 2012 held its first annual meeting. The meeting covered the whole Topic of the KIT Energy Center. The present proceedings give those interested the opportunity to delve into the contributions and to provide a differentiated picture of the challenges and opportunities of the energy transition.

  16. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  17. 3D MRI analysis of the lower legs of treated idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L Duce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV is the commonest form of clubfoot. Its exact cause is unknown, although it is related to limb development. The aim of this study was to quantify the anatomy of the muscle, subcutaneous fat, tibia, fibula and arteries in the lower legs of teenagers and young adults with CTEV using 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and thus to investigate the anatomical differences between CTEV participants and controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The lower legs of six CTEV (2 bilateral, 4 unilateral and five control young adults (age 12-28 were imaged using a 3T MRI Philips scanner. 5 of the CTEV participants had undergone soft-tissue and capsular release surgery. 3D T1-weighted and 3D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA images were acquired. Segmentation software was used for volumetric, anatomical and image analysis. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were performed. The volumes of the lower affected leg, muscle, tibia and fibula in unilateral CTEV participants were consistently smaller compared to their contralateral unaffected leg, this was most pronounced in muscle. The proportion of muscle in affected CTEV legs was significantly reduced compared with control and unaffected CTEV legs, whilst proportion of muscular fat increased. No spatial abnormalities in the location or branching of arteries were detected, but hypoplastic anomalies were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combining 3D MRI and MRA is effective for quantitatively characterizing CTEV anatomy. Reduction in leg muscle volume appears to be a sensitive marker. Since 5/6 CTEV cases had soft-tissue surgery, further work is required to confirm that the treatment did not affect the MRI features observed. We propose that the proportion of muscle and intra-muscular fat within the lower leg could provide a valuable addition to current clinical CTEV classification. These measures could be useful for clinical care and guiding treatment pathways, as

  18. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Tool Kit, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on desensitized optimal filtering techniques and a navigation and sensor fusion tool kit using advanced filtering techniques is proposed. Research focuses...

  19. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  20. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  1. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  2. Platinum coat color in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is caused by a mutation in an autosomal copy of KIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L; Kozysa, A; Kharlamova, A V; Gulevich, R G; Perelman, P L; Fong, H W F; Vladimirova, A V; Oskina, I N; Trut, L N; Kukekova, A V

    2015-04-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) demonstrates a variety of coat colors including platinum, a common phenotype maintained in farm-bred fox populations. Foxes heterozygous for the platinum allele have a light silver coat and extensive white spotting, whereas homozygosity is embryonic lethal. Two KIT transcripts were identified in skin cDNA from platinum foxes. The long transcript was identical to the KIT transcript of silver foxes, whereas the short transcript, which lacks exon 17, was specific to platinum. The KIT gene has several copies in the fox genome: an autosomal copy on chromosome 2 and additional copies on the B chromosomes. To identify the platinum-specific KIT sequence, the genomes of one platinum and one silver fox were sequenced. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified at the first nucleotide of KIT intron 17 in the platinum fox. In platinum foxes, the A allele of the SNP disrupts the donor splice site and causes exon 17, which is part of a segment that encodes a conserved tyrosine kinase domain, to be skipped. Complete cosegregation of the A allele with the platinum phenotype was confirmed by linkage mapping (LOD 25.59). All genotyped farm-bred platinum foxes from Russia and the US were heterozygous for the SNP (A/G), whereas foxes with different coat colors were homozygous for the G allele. Identification of the platinum mutation suggests that other fox white-spotting phenotypes, which are allelic to platinum, would also be caused by mutations in the KIT gene. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Leg blood flow during static exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Persson, J

    1982-01-01

    Leg blood flow was studied with the constant infusion dye technique during static exercise of the thigh muscles (quadriceps) and during hand-grips at 15 and 25-30% of MVC. Blood flow and oxygen uptake in the leg increased in quadriceps exercise and reached their highest values (around 1.21/min and 165 ml/min respectively) at 25-30% of MVC, whereas leg vascular resistance decreased. Regional circulatory adaptations and the oxygen uptake - leg blood flow relationship were in close agreement with the responses found in dynamic leg exercise. In view of the marked rise in intramuscular pressure previously observed during quadriceps contractions, a restriction of blood flow and an increased vascular resistance had been expected. Involuntary activation of leg muscles other than the quadriceps may explain the finding. Contractions of the contralateral quadriceps induced a slight increase in leg blood flow, whereas hand-grips had no influence on blood flow or vascular resistance in the leg. The distribution of the cardiac output during static contractions is discussed, and it is concluded that during hand-grips the increase in blood flow is predominantly distributed to the upper part of the body.

  4. Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Broström, Stig

    Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed er et rigt felt med mange perspektiver, indgangsvinkler og nuancer. I denne bog kædes leg og det eksperimenterende og skabende sammen som to gensidigt forbundne fænomener og belyses i pædagogisk og didaktisk perspektiv. Desuden beskrives potentialet i båd...

  5. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-01-11

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e. exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 y) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 mmHg vs. 104 ± 9 mmHg; p<0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 mmHg vs. 101 ± 10 mmHg; p<0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single-leg and double-leg (267 ± 150 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm vs. 214 ± 169 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm; p=0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (p<0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3 ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1 ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  6. Effect of leg length on ROM, VJ and leg dexterity in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, M A; Nevill, A M; Dekker, K; Brown, D D; Clarke, F; Pelly, J; Koutedakis, Y

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the associations between leg length and specific ballet movements in different skill groups. Volunteers were from an undergraduate dance programme (n=18), a pre-professional school (n=43) and from an elite classical ballet company (n=45). Individual data were collected for anthropometry, vertical jump, leg dexterity, and leg active and passive ROM. ANCOVA identified both main effects as significant with regard to vertical jump (gender Peffects with gender, skill or leg length. Active and passive range of motion noted gender (P=0.001) and skill (Peffects of leg length on fundamental ballet skills. The longer legs that benefit vertical jump have a negative influence on range of motion and leg dexterity except for highly skilled dancers, who through skill, seem to have overcome the effects of some of these dichotomies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  7. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  8. School-to-Work Jump-Start Equity Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This starter kit is a resource for state and local school-to-work (STW) directors, educators, parents, students, business and community, and economic development organizations serving all students through STW. The kit begins with four articles: "STW and Gender Equity: Opportunity for or Barrier to Economic Parity?" (Katherine Hanson, Joyce…

  9. Mobilizing Rural Communities to Prevent Childhood Obesity: A Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Carol A.; Lobb, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The tool kit Mobilizing Rural Communities to Prevent Childhood Obesity is the product of a seven-state multidisciplinary research project focused on enhancing obesity prevention efforts by integrating community coaching into the work of rural community coalitions. The interactive tool kit is available at no cost both in print form and online, and…

  10. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhaoui, Faycel

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  11. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 Section 878.3925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. ...

  12. The Early Literacy Kit: A Handbook and Tip Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant-Cohen, Betsy; Ghoting, Saroj Nadkarni

    2010-01-01

    This innovative and practical kit, put together by two well-known specialists in the field of early literacy, contains everything storytime presenters for children from birth to age five and their parents or caregivers need to spread the word about school readiness skills to adult caregivers. The kit includes: (1) An accessible handbook with a…

  13. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL MEDIA KIT PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEMP, JERROLD E.; LEWIS, RICHARD B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO PLAN, PRODUCE, EVALUATE, AND ARRANGE FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF A KIT OF MATERIALS FOR USE IN DEMONSTRATING AVAILABLE AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN EDUCATION. FOLLOWING THE PRODUCTION OF THE KITS, QUESTIONNAIRES WERE COMPLETED BY USERS AND AUDIENCES. REACTIONS WERE FAVORABLE, AND COMMERCIAL…

  15. Gluteus medius strengthening and the use of the Donatelli Drop Leg Test in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Ashok L; Mease, Samuel J; Donatelli, Robert; Zelicof, Steven

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate and strengthen the posterior segment of the gluteus medius. A technical description of a novel examination and rehabilitation protocol. The gluteus medius, primarily a hip abductor, serves several important functions in the athlete. Weakness of the gluteus medius has been linked to injuries in the shoulder and iliotibial band, as well as ankle instability. Though previously treated as a homogenous muscle, recent studies of the gluteus medius show three segments with distinct function and activation - the anterior, middle, and posterior. Current rehabilitation protocol focuses primarily on the anterior and middle segments, neglecting the posterior. We propose a three-stage protocol for strengthening and rehabilitation of the injured athlete and the Drop Leg Test, which can be used to identify weakness in the posterior segment of the gluteus medius. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A decrease in ubiquitination and resulting prolonged life-span of KIT underlies the KIT overexpression-mediated imatinib resistance of KIT mutation-driven canine mast cell tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Kuroki, Shiori; Kurita, Sena; Miyamoto, Ryo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Kyoichi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    Overexpression of KIT is one of the mechanisms that contributes to imatinib resistance in KIT mutation-driven tumors. Here, the mechanism underlying this overexpression of KIT was investigated using an imatinib-sensitive canine mast cell tumor (MCT) line CoMS, which has an activating mutation in KIT exon 11. A KIT-overexpressing imatinib-resistant subline, rCoMS1, was generated from CoMS cells by their continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of imatinib. Neither a secondary mutation nor upregulated transcription of KIT was detected in rCoMS1 cells. A decrease in KIT ubiquitination, a prolonged KIT life-span, and KIT overexpression were found in rCoMS1 cells. These events were suppressed by withdrawal of imatinib and were re-induced by re‑treatment with imatinib. These findings suggest that imatinib elicited overexpression of KIT via suppression of its ubiquitination. These results also indicated that imatinib-induced overexpression of KIT in rCoMS1 cells was not a permanently acquired feature but was a reversible response of the cells. Moreover, the pan deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor PR619 prevented imatinib induction of KIT overexpression, suggesting that the imatinib-induced decrease in KIT ubiquitination could be mediated by upregulation and/or activation of deubiquitinating enzyme(s). It may be possible that a similar mechanism of KIT overexpression underlies the acquisition of imatinib resistance in some human tumors that are driven by KIT mutation.

  17. Anti-phase action between the angular accelerations of trunk and leg is reduced in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiro; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Masani, Kei; Nozaki, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Quiet standing posture in humans has often been modeled as a single inverted pendulum pivoting around the ankle joint. However, recent studies have suggested that anti-phase action between leg and trunk segments plays a significant role in stabilizing posture by reducing the acceleration of the center of mass (COM) of the body. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that anti-phase action is attenuated in the elderly compared to the young. The anterior-posterior movements of leg and trunk segments were measured using 4 laser displacement sensors from 22 healthy young subjects (age range, 20-35 years) and 38 healthy elderly subjects (age range, 57-80 years) standing quietly for 30s twice. To focus on the segmental action between trunk and legs, we applied constraints (i.e., wooden splints) on each segment. We found that the velocity and acceleration of the COM (standard deviation of the time series was evaluated) were significantly higher for the elderly subjects than for young subjects. The increase in the acceleration of the COM resulted not only from an increase in the angular acceleration of the segments but also from the reduction of their anti-phase relationship, as demonstrated by an index that quantifies the degree of cancelation between both segments. We conclude that the degree of anti-phase action between trunk and leg segments during quiet standing is smaller for elderly subjects than for young subjects, and that this change of the anti-phase action due to aging resulted in increased COM acceleration in the elderly subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simple narcotic kits for controlled-substance dispensing and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, J R; Levy, D A; Eagle, C J

    1994-04-01

    Operating rooms require a storage, dispensing and accounting system for restricted drugs which satisfies narcotics control authorities and is compatible with efficient care of patients. We describe narcotic kits containing fentanyl-morphine-midazolam, alfentanil-midazolam and sufentanil-midazolam, for general operating rooms, and two kits with larger quantities of fentanyl and sufentanil for cardiac operating rooms. The container for each kit is a video cassette holder which has a foam-rubber liner with sculpted depressions for each ampoule. Sealed kits are delivered each morning from pharmacy to the locked narcotics cupboard in the recovery room. On request, the recovery room nurse unlocks the cupboard and the anaesthetist signs out the required kit(s) for the day. A drug utilization form is enclosed with each kit, on which the anaesthetist records the amount of drug administered to each patient, and before returning the kit to the locked narcotics cupboard, the total amount of each drug used, discarded, and returned. Used kits are collected the following morning by a pharmacy technician who reconciles the contents and drug form of each kit. More than 40 staff anaesthetists and a similar number of residents have used the system for seven years, during which time 130,000 patients have passed through the operating rooms. Detection of one case of drug diversion by a staff anaesthetist was made partly by the control system, but mainly by behavioural changes. The system is simple, inexpensive, and effective and has been well received by the departments of pharmacy, anaesthesia, and nursing.

  19. DETECTION OF SPECIFIC CHROMOSOMAL REARRANGEMENT IN LEUKEMIA PATIENTS BY mDx HEMAVISION KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Pajič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mDx HemaVision kit is a qualitative multiplex and nested Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test designed to detect 28 different translocations or chromosomal rearrangement, found to be specific for particular subtypes of leukemia. The presence or absence of the specific mRNA transcripts or cDNA segments after the reverse transcription of the fusion or abnormal genes, appeared after chromosomal rearrangements, could be determined by the kit.Patients and methods. The usefulness of the kit was tested on the 26 RNA samples of patients with acute leukemia and seven patients with chronic mieloproliferative diseases and by comparison of the results between mDx HemaVision kit and standardized RT-PCR protocol for the specific mRNA transcripts of the t(9;22(q34;q11, t(8;21(q22;q22, t(15;17(q21;q21 and t(4;11(q21;q23. The RNA samples were isolated from mononuclear cells of the bone marrow after Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and with a High Pure RNA isolation kit. The cDNA synthesis and Polymerase Chain Reaction were performed as described in mDx HemaVisoin’s or standardized RT-PCR’s protocols. The PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, by staining with etidium bromide and by visualization under UV light.Results. We obtained 100% concordance of the results by both methods. Specific BCR-ABL mRNA transcripts were found in four chronic myeloid leukemia patients, one in B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL and one with bifenotipic leukemia (BAL patient. AML1-ETO mRNA transcript of the t(8;21(q22;q22 was identified in two patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. The CBF β /MYH11 mRNA transcript specific for inv16(p13;q22 was obtained in AML patient with abnormal eozinofiles in bone marrow. MLL/AF4 mRNA transcript of the t(4;11(q21;q23 was found in the girl with B-ALL and in patient with B-ALL after treatment. In patients with B-ALL we found MLL/AF10 cDNA segment specific for t(10

  20. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. PMID:20617018

  1. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  2. Trunk anomalies in the centipede Stigmatogaster subterranea provide insight into late-embryonic segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    We describe and analyze naturally occurring anomalies in the segmental structures of the trunk in an isolated population of the geophilomorph centipede Stigmatogaster subterranea. Recorded anomalies include mispaired tergites, shrunk segments, variously deformed sclerites, bifurcated trunk, and defects of spiracles and sternal pore areas. One specimen has a perfect segmentally patterned trunk, but with an even number of leg-bearing segments, representing the first record of such a phenotype in adult centipedes. We interpret these anomalies as the effects of perturbation of specific morphogenetic processes in trunk segmentation, occurring at different embryonic stages. The variety of segmental anomalies found in this population provides insights into the developmental process of segmentation and its evolution in geophilomorph centipedes. Variation in dorsal mispairing anomalies demonstrates that segments, as traditionally defined in arthropod morphology, are not the effective developmental units throughout embryogenesis.

  3. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  4. Sipunculans and segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups-Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages.

  5. Leg pain (Osgood-Schlatter) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leg pain in older children or young adolescents can occur for many reasons. An Osgood-Schlatter lesion results from continued trauma to the anterior tibial bone and causes a visible lump below the knee.

  6. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  7. Sturge-Weber syndrome - legs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervous system (neurocutaneous) and is associated with Port Wine Stain, red vascular markings on the face and other parts of the body (shown here on the legs). This is an unusual case, due to the large size of the lesion ( ...

  8. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You will need to change the dressing on your limb. This will help ...

  9. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting re...

  10. Efficiency and Speed in Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    which we substitute into (4.42) : ( -mv s J O=-km+ mvc -k __ c __ V v 2 c c 46 (4.43) (4.44) (4.45) (4.46) to fInd the switching curve m 3 s...Legged Mechanisms. IVSS. Traverse City, MI Muench, P., Alexander, J., Quinn, R., & Aschenbeck, K. (2005) Pneumatic Spring for Legged Walker. SPIE

  11. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  12. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  13. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  14. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  15. Dumpster Optics: teaching and learning optics without a kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Judy; Magnani, Nancy; Robinson, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and renewed emphasis on STEM education in the U.S. have resulted in the development of many educational kits for teaching science in general and optics in particular. Many teachers do not have funding to purchase kits and practical experience has shown that even costly kits can have poorly written and misleading instructions and may include experiments that would not work in a classroom. Dumpster Optics lessons are designed to use inexpensive, commonly found materials. All lessons have been field-tested with students. We will describe the development of the lessons, provide examples of field testing experiences and outline possible future activities.

  16. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    died from day 1-7, and only ~5% in RES-3. The risk of dying was approx. 4 times higher for a kit live-born into the one resource environment. RES-3 females were building better nests and stayed in the nest box longer around parturition than RES-1, which could explain the higher mortality in this group....... We discriminated between stillborn and live-born kits dying early using autopsy. The access to more than one resource (RES-3) of nest building material had a profound effect on kit mortality in the firs week of life compared to access to straw only (χ²(1) = 13.7, P

  17. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  18. Minimizing the cost of locomotion with inclined trunk predicts crouched leg kinematics of small birds at realistic levels of elastic recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Blickhan, Reinhard; Andrada, Emanuel

    2016-02-01

    Small birds move with pronograde trunk orientation and crouched legs. Although the pronograde trunk has been suggested to be beneficial for grounded running, the cause(s) of the specific leg kinematics are unknown. Here we show that three charadriiform bird species (northern lapwing, oystercatcher, and avocet; great examples of closely related species that differ remarkably in their hind limb design) move their leg segments during stance in a way that minimizes the cost of locomotion. We imposed measured trunk motions and ground reaction forces on a kinematic model of the birds. The model was used to search for leg configurations that minimize leg work that accounts for two factors: elastic recoil in the intertarsal joint, and cheaper negative muscle work relative to positive muscle work. A physiological level of elasticity (∼ 0.6) yielded segment motions that match the experimental data best, with a root mean square of angular deviations of ∼ 2.1 deg. This finding suggests that the exploitation of elastic recoil shapes the crouched leg kinematics of small birds under the constraint of pronograde trunk motion. Considering that an upright trunk and more extended legs likely decrease the cost of locomotion, our results imply that the cost of locomotion is a secondary movement criterion for small birds. Scaling arguments suggest that our approach may be utilized to provide new insights into the motion of extinct species such as dinosaurs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Preappointment testing for BRAF/KIT mutation in advanced melanoma: a model in molecular data delivery for individualized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounajjed, Taofic; Brown, Char L; Stern, Therese K; Bjorheim, Annette M; Bridgeman, Andrew J; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; McWilliams, Robert R; Flotte, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    The emergence of individualized medicine is driven by developments in precision diagnostics, epitomized by molecular testing. Because treatment decisions are being made based on such molecular data, data management is gaining major importance. Among data management challenges, creating workflow solutions for timely delivery of molecular data has become pivotal. This study aims to design and implement a scalable process that permits preappointment BRAF/KIT mutation analysis in melanoma patients, allowing molecular results necessary for treatment plans to be available before the patient's appointment. Process implementation aims to provide a model for efficient molecular data delivery for individualized medicine. We examined the existing process of BRAF/KIT testing in melanoma patients visiting our institution for oncology consultation. We created 5 working groups, each designing a specific segment of an alternative process that would allow preappointment BRAF/KIT testing and delivery of results. Data were captured and analyzed to evaluate the success of the alternative process. For 1 year, 35 (59%) of 55 patients had prior BRAF/KIT testing. The remaining 20 patients went through the new process of preappointment testing; results were available at the time of appointment for 12 patients (overall preappointment results availability, 85.5%). The overall process averaged 13.4 ± 4.7 days. In conclusion, we describe the successful implementation of a scalable workflow solution that permits preappointment BRAF/KIT mutation analysis and result delivery in melanoma patients. This sets the stage for further applications of this model to other conditions, answering an increasing demand for robust delivery of molecular data for individualized medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Segmented Thermoelectric Oxide-Based Module for High-Temperature Waste Heat Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Han, Li

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-performance thermoelectric (TE) oxide-based module using the segmentation of half-Heusler Ti0.3Zr0.35Hf0.35CoSb0.8Sn0.2 and misfit-layered cobaltite Ca3Co4O9+δ as the p-leg and 2% Al-doped ZnO as the n-leg. The maximum output power of a 4-couple segmented module at ΔT=700 K attai...

  1. Unraveling Pancreatic Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Yohann; de Mestier, Louis; Perez, Manuela; Avisse, Claude; Lévy, Philippe; Kianmanesh, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Limited pancreatic resections are increasingly performed, but the rate of postoperative fistula is higher than after classical resections. Pancreatic segmentation, anatomically and radiologically identifiable, may theoretically help the surgeon removing selected anatomical portions with their own segmental pancreatic duct and thus might decrease the postoperative fistula rate. We aimed at systematically and comprehensively reviewing the previously proposed pancreatic segmentations and discuss their relevance and limitations. PubMed database was searched for articles investigating pancreatic segmentation, including human or animal anatomy, and cadaveric or surgical studies. Overall, 47/99 articles were selected and grouped into 4 main hypotheses of pancreatic segmentation methodology: anatomic, vascular, embryologic and lymphatic. The head, body and tail segments are gross description without distinct borders. The arterial territories defined vascular segments and isolate an isthmic paucivascular area. The embryological theory relied on the fusion plans of the embryological buds. The lymphatic drainage pathways defined the lymphatic segmentation. These theories had differences, but converged toward separating the head and body/tail parts, and the anterior from posterior and inferior parts of the pancreatic head. The rate of postoperative fistula was not decreased when surgical resection was performed following any of these segmentation theories; hence, none of them appeared relevant enough to guide pancreatic transections. Current pancreatic segmentation theories do not enable defining anatomical-surgical pancreatic segments. Other approaches should be explored, in particular focusing on pancreatic ducts, through pancreatic ducts reconstructions and embryologic 3D modelization.

  2. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Tool Kit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop desensitized optimal filtering techniques and to implement these algorithms in a navigation and sensor fusion tool kit. These proposed...

  3. Detection of Fasciola gigantica antibodies using Pourquier ELISA kit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELISA) screening kit for Fasciola antibodies was conducted in breeding herds in two Local Government Areas of Adamawa state. The objectives were to determine the presence of Fasciola gigantica antibodies as a way of demonstrating the use ...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3570 - OTC denture repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3570 OTC denture repair kit. (a) Identification... powder and liquid glues, that is intended to be applied permanently to a denture to mend cracks or breaks...

  5. First-Aid Kits: Stock Supplies That Can Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and needs. A basic first-aid kit includes: Adhesive tape Elastic wrap bandages Bandage strips and "butterfly" ... to help children understand and use first-aid techniques. How to prevent medical emergencies. American College of ...

  6. Kennedy Space Center Medical Operations and Medical Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the emergency medical operations at Kennedy Space center, the KSC launch and landing contingency modes, the triage site, the medical kit, and the medications available.

  7. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    and Visocolor ECO test kits (Macherey-Nagel; Düren, Germany); eXact test strips ( Industrial Test Systems; Rock Hill, SC); and MQuant test strips...further evaluation in a second phase of testing. Cyantesmo paper was tested against 15 matrices, including baking soda , boric acid, brewer’s yeast...INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Commercially available test kits were evaluated in a two-phase process . In Phase I, a market survey was performed, and five

  8. Quality control for a group of pyrophosphate-Sn kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Hernandez, I.; Leyva, R.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control for a group of Pyrophosphate-Sn kits for labeling with 99 m Tc is carry out at the Isotope Center. A general discussion takes place about the instrumental techniques for the determination of the kit constituent such as ligands, Sn(II), water, etc, as well as the control table for the evaluation of the warranty time. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  9. An accurate method for quantifying and analyzing copy number variation in porcine KIT by an oligonucleotide ligation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho In-Cheol

    2007-11-01

    resolution quantification method using an oligonucleotide ligation assay to measure CNVs, and verified the reliability of genotype assignment for random animal samples using the nearest centroid sorting method. This new method will make it more practical to determine KIT CNV and to genotype the complicated Dominant White/KIT locus in pigs. This procedure could have wide applications for studying gene or segment CNVs in other species.

  10. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  11. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K

    2012-09-01

    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas.

  12. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola company travel health kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynne A; Bettinger, Julie; Dismukes, Roberta; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2002-01-01

    The Coca-Cola travel health kit has been used for about one decade for international travelers and required evaluation to see if the items contained were appropriate for the employees. Two hundred thirty-four travelers were sampled and filled out a voluntary survey including questions about demographic information, travel history, and usage and value of the contents of the travel health kit. One hundred eighty-one surveys were returned; 65% of the respondents were male, and the majority of travelers were between the ages of 36 and 45 years. The most useful items were analgesics and medications used for gastrointestinal problems. In general, the items identified as being the least useful were those requiring specialized use by a medical practitioner, such as needles and syringes. Suggestions of items to be added to the kit included vitamins, cough drops, sleep aids, and eye drops. A surprising result that Coca-Cola employees expressed the desire for brand name rather than generic items. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola Company travel health kit revealed it to be very useful to most corporate travelers. Suggestions that were made will be taken into consideration in designing a new kit, and consideration is being given to whether a basic travel health kit should be provided to which travelers can add other items depending on their personal needs.

  13. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health...

  14. Comparison of Leg Regeneration Potency Between Holometabolous Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Hemimetabolous Locusta migratoria manilensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Li, Hui; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-12-01

    After injury many insects could regenerate lost limb. In this study, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen, 1835) were chosen to compare the regeneration potency of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects. We employed the classical approach of surgical excision to verify the regeneration ability and to investigate the factors that affect the extent of regeneration. The results found that H. armigera could regenerate intact legs when the larval legs were excised at the first and second instar and that legs of adult H. armigera had a close relationship with their larval counterparts. However, the adult legs became malformed or disappeared when excised at other older instars. For the L. migratoria, we found the legs have weak partial regeneration ability when amputation was conducted at the joint of two segments. The regeneration potency might be stronger the more proximal the operation. Regeneration process had a negative impact on the larval development. This is the first report of complete leg regeneration capacity having a strong correlation with the instar but not with the position where amputation occurred for H. armigera, while for the L. migratoria, partial regenerative ability had a close relationship with the position where amputation occurred but not with instars. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  16. Radotinib induces high cytotoxicity in c-KIT positive acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Noh, Eui-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Yi; Jo, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Yunsuk; Koh, SuJin; Baek, Jin Ho; Min, Young Joo; Kim, Hawk

    2017-06-05

    Previously, we reported that radotinib, a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induced cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the effects of radotinib in the subpopulation of c-KIT-positive AML cells were unclear. We observed that low-concentration radotinib had more potent cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive cells than c-KIT-negative cells from AML patients. To address this issue, cell lines with high c-KIT expression, HEL92.1.7, and moderate c-KIT expression, H209, were selected. HEL92.1.7 cells were grouped into intermediate and high c-KIT expression populations. The cytotoxicity of radotinib against the HEL92.1.7 cell population with intermediate c-KIT expression was not different from that of the population with high c-KIT expression. When H209 cells were grouped into c-KIT expression-negative and c-KIT expression-positive populations, radotinib induced cytotoxicity in the c-KIT-positive population, but not the c-KIT-negative population. Thus, radotinib induces cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive cells, regardless of the c-KIT expression intensity. Therefore, radotinib induces significant cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive AML cells, suggesting that radotinib is a potential target agent for the treatment of c-KIT-positive malignancies including AML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the body mass index and leg profiles of Asian women after total leg sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Chou; Chen, Chien-Hao; Lin, Chan-Yi; Ho, Li-Yung

    2009-08-01

    In addition to the conventional methods used to improve leg contours, total leg sculpture, including liposuction, selective neurectomy, and transilluminated powered phlebectomy, provides a one-time solution of leg contour problems, which is a major aesthetic concern among Asian women. The authors present the postoperative results of total leg sculpture and determine any significance and correlation between the leg variables and body mass index by statistical analysis. Thirty female patients who underwent total leg sculpture between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study, and prospective analysis of the patients' data was performed during a follow-up period of 1 year. Local measurement variables and body mass index were recorded, and the correlation between them was determined by Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. A paired t test was used to compare the postoperative outcomes. Subjectively, all patient results were satisfactory. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements for all variables for total leg sculpture. Body mass index was strongly correlated with all leg indexes, and there was a significant positive correlation between the index and variables related to the buttocks and upper thigh. The satisfactory postoperative leg variables were buttocks circumference (87.85 cm), thigh circumference (T60, 44.20 cm), maximal calf circumference (32.24 cm), and calf ratio (0.78). Each preoperative body mass index increment represents a 0.3 percent circumference improvement around the buttocks after surgery. No obvious morbidities or long-term hospital stays were noted. Total leg sculpture provides a combined aesthetic solution for improving limb contours with minimal morbidity. Patients with larger body mass index values exhibit better aesthetic improvement than those with smaller values.

  18. Leg mass characteristics of accurate and inaccurate kickers--an Australian football perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2013-01-01

    Athletic profiling provides valuable information to sport scientists, assisting in the optimal design of strength and conditioning programmes. Understanding the influence these physical characteristics may have on the generation of kicking accuracy is advantageous. The aim of this study was to profile and compare the lower limb mass characteristics of accurate and inaccurate Australian footballers. Thirty-one players were recruited from the Western Australian Football League to perform ten drop punt kicks over 20 metres to a player target. Players were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with leg mass characteristics assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly greater relative lean mass (P ≤ 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (P ≤ 0.024) across all segments of the kicking and support limbs, while also exhibiting significantly higher intra-limb lean-to-fat mass ratios for all segments across both limbs (P ≤ 0.009). Inaccurate kickers also produced significantly larger asymmetries between limbs than accurate kickers (P ≤ 0.028), showing considerably lower lean mass in their support leg. These results illustrate a difference in leg mass characteristics between accurate and inaccurate kickers, highlighting the potential influence these may have on technical proficiency of the drop punt.

  19. Cervical Adjacent Segment Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Özbek, Zühtü; Özkara, Emre; Yağmur, İpek; Arslantaş, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cervical adjacent segment disease; is the general name ofdisc pathologies that develop in adjacent levels after cervical surgery. If thecervical adjacent segment disease that do not require reoperation and it doesnot cause clinical signs is called radiological cervical adjacent segmentpathology, but those causing radiculopathy, myelopathy or instability is calledclinic cervical adjacent segment pathology. The incidence of cervical adjacentsegment disease in 10-year follow-up is 2.4% -2.9%. Wh...

  20. Adjacent segment degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Birjandi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is defined as degeneration that develops at mobile segments above or below a fused spinal segment and usually develops after spinal fusion or other back surgeries. Nearly 5 decades ago, the medical findings related to ASD were usually released in case reports as a relatively unusual complication of lumbar or lumbosacral fusions. Since the initial reports, ASD has been found to occur more often than the earlier predictions for its prospect incidence. It...

  1. Therapeutic advances in restless legs syndrome (RLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Birgit; Comella, Cynthia

    2015-09-15

    Levodopa and dopamine agonists have been the main treatment for restless legs syndrome during the past decades. Although their efficacy has been well documented over the short term, long-term dopaminergic treatment is often complicated by augmentation, loss of efficacy, and other side effects. Recent large randomized controlled trials provide new evidence for the efficacy of high-potency opioids and α2δ ligands, and several post hoc analyses, meta-analyses, algorithms, and guidelines have been published, often with a specific focus, for example, on augmentation, or on management of restless legs syndrome during pregnancy. Several new contributions to understanding the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome have been published, but at this time, whether they will have an impact on treatment possibilities in the future cannot be estimated. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  3. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Balantrapu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS, but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal and 4 (contracted. Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW, timed 25 foot walk (T25FW, and timed up-and-go (TUG, and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc. for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12 and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n=44 of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P=0.0001, d=-0.86, T25FW (P=0.003,d=0.72, TUG (P=0.001, d=0.84, MSWS-12 (P=0.0001,d=1.09, O2 cost of walking (P=0.001, d=0.75, average steps/day (P<0.05, d=-0.45, and walking velocity (P<0.05, d=-0.53 and cadence (P<0.05, d=-0.46. Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

  4. The Molecular Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor trait defined by symptoms that interfere with sleep onset and maintenance in a clinically meaningful way. Nonvolitional myoclonus while awake and asleep is a sign of the disorder and an informative endophenotype. The genetic contributions to RLS/periodic leg movements are substantial, are among the most robust defined to date for a common disease, and account for much of the variance in disease expressivity. The disorder is polygenic, as revealed by recent genome-wide association studies. Experimental studies are revealing mechanistic details of how these common variants might influence RLS expressivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nocturnal leg cramps in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J; Mulkerrin, E; O'Keeffe, S

    2002-01-01

    Nocturnal leg cramps are common in older people. Such cramps are associated with many common diseases and medications. Physiological methods may be useful for preventing cramps in some people, but there have been no controlled trials of these approaches. Quinine is moderately effective in preventing nocturnal leg cramps. However, there are concerns about the risk/benefit ratio with this drug. In patients with severe symptoms, a trial of 4–6 weeks' treatment with quinine is probably still justified, but the efficacy of treatment should be monitored, for example using a sleep and cramp diary. PMID:12415081

  6. Symptom Severity of Restless Legs Syndrome Predicts Its Clinical Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Suk; Kim, Tae; Lee, Sumin; Jeon, Hong Jun; Bang, Young Rong; Yoon, In-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the clinical course of restless legs syndrome according to its severity and factors associated with the remission of restless legs syndrome symptoms. The remission or persistence of restless legs syndrome symptoms was investigated by considering patients with restless legs syndrome at the sleep clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. All subjects were observed for at least 18 months, and an incidence of remission was defined as having no restless legs syndrome symptoms for at least 1 year. Restless legs syndrome severity was evaluated by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale. A total of 306 patients participated in this study. Over the observation periods of 4.1 ± 1.6 years, the cumulative incidence of remission is 32.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.0-38.0) and decreased with baseline restless legs syndrome severity (P restless legs syndrome cases, respectively. Most cases of remission (82/96) were observed within 1 year, and the remission occurred sooner for mild restless legs syndrome. The hazard ratios of remission by Cox proportional hazards model were lower for moderate (0.556; 95% CI, 0.340-0.909) and severe to very severe (0.193; 95% CI, 0.108-0.343) restless legs syndrome than for mild restless legs syndrome. The remission incidence was lower for those patients who had a family history of restless legs syndrome and were older at restless legs syndrome diagnosis. Mild restless legs syndrome severity, no family history, and young age at restless legs syndrome diagnosis were significant predictors of restless legs syndrome remission. More than 80% of patients with severe restless legs syndrome showed a chronic clinical course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  8. Clinical characteristics of leg restlessness in Parkinson's disease compared with idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Yang, Wen-Hao; Feng, Ya; Ondo, William G; Tan, Eng-King; Wu, Yun-Cheng

    2015-10-15

    There is limited data on motor restlessness in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we evaluate for clinical differences between cohorts of idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome (iRLS), PD patients with leg restlessness, and PD with RLS. We examined 276 consecutive PD patients for leg restlessness symptoms, we compared clinical features of PD patients with RLS, PD patients with leg restlessness but not meeting RLS criteria, PD patient without RLS and iRLS. A total of 262 PD patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were analyzed. After excluding 23 possible secondary RLS or mimics, 28 were diagnosed with RLS and 18 with leg motor restlessness (LMR). Compared with iRLS patients, PD patients with RLS or LMR had older age of RLS/LMR onset, shorter duration of leg restlessness, less positive family history, different seasonal trends and more unilaterality of leg restlessness symptom (Pleg restlessness. PD with LMR had less severe Parkinsonism (Pleg restlessness (P<0.01) symptoms than PD with RLS. Clinical characteristics of PD patients with RLS and LMR were different from iRLS, differentiating these various subtypes can facilitate optimal treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  10. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  11. A precision therapy against cancers driven byKIT/PDGFRAmutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erica K; Gardino, Alexandra K; Kim, Joseph L; Hodous, Brian L; Shutes, Adam; Davis, Alison; Zhu, Xing Julia; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Wilson, Doug; Wilson, Kevin; DiPietro, Lucian; Zhang, Yulian; Brooijmans, Natasja; LaBranche, Timothy P; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Gebreyohannes, Yemarshet K; Schöffski, Patrick; Heinrich, Michael C; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Miller, Stephen; Wolf, Beni; Kohl, Nancy; Guzi, Timothy; Lydon, Nicholas; Boral, Andy; Lengauer, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Targeting oncogenic kinase drivers with small-molecule inhibitors can have marked therapeutic benefit, especially when administered to an appropriate genomically defined patient population. Cancer genomics and mechanistic studies have revealed that heterogeneous mutations within a single kinase can result in various mechanisms of kinase activation. Therapeutic benefit to patients can best be optimized through an in-depth understanding of the disease-driving mutations combined with the ability to match these insights to tailored highly selective drugs. This rationale is presented for BLU-285, a clinical stage inhibitor of oncogenic KIT and PDGFRA alterations, including activation loop mutants that are ineffectively treated by current therapies. BLU-285, designed to preferentially interact with the active conformation of KIT and PDGFRA, potently inhibits activation loop mutants KIT D816V and PDGFRA D842V with subnanomolar potency and also inhibits other well-characterized disease-driving KIT mutants both in vitro and in vivo in preclinical models. Early clinical evaluation of BLU-285 in a phase 1 study has demonstrated marked activity in patients with diseases associated with KIT (aggressive systemic mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumor) and PDGFRA (gastrointestinal stromal tumor) activation loop mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Uji Stabilitas Kit Cair Tetrofosmin pada Berbagai Kondisi Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilda Yunilda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetrofosmin radiopharmaceutical compound that is being developed by PTRR BATAN for use as myocardial perfusion imaging agent and cancer diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is observe the stability of this liquid kits after stored in various condition to determine its expire date various condition. The stability test was done of 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours after labeling. The radiochemical was determined its radiochemical purity has to be ≥ 90 %. Analysis of radiochemical purity was carried out by separation method which using Sep-Pak C18 cartride. Storage condition of tetrofosmin kit was carried out at various temperatures as in the deep freezer (-800C, freezer (-180C, refrigerator (2-60C and cool box (2-60C. The result showed that the liquid tetrofosmin kits stored in deep freezer, freezer, refrigerator were stable up to 23 months, 8 weeks and 4 days respectively. Simulation of stability  test after stored in a cool box was done by observing the temperature of cool box, and the result showed that the temperature in the cool box was constant as in refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Tetrofosmin which has been labeled with technetium-99m can with stand up 7 hours. It is concluded that expiry date of liquid tetrofosmin kit related with storage temperature, the lower the temperature the longer the expiry date of the kits.

  13. KiT: a MATLAB package for kinetochore tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armond, Jonathan W; Vladimirou, Elina; McAinsh, Andrew D; Burroughs, Nigel J

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle via large protein complexes called kinetochores. The motion of kinetochores throughout mitosis is intricate and automated quantitative tracking of their motion has already revealed many surprising facets of their behaviour. Here, we present 'KiT' (Kinetochore Tracking)-an easy-to-use, open-source software package for tracking kinetochores from live-cell fluorescent movies. KiT supports 2D, 3D and multi-colour movies, quantification of fluorescence, integrated deconvolution, parallel execution and multiple algorithms for particle localization. KiT is free, open-source software implemented in MATLAB and runs on all MATLAB supported platforms. KiT can be downloaded as a package from http://www.mechanochemistry.org/mcainsh/software.php The source repository is available at https://bitbucket.org/jarmond/kit and under continuing development. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. jonathan.armond@warwick.ac.uk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    in central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. During sleep, characteristic variations in subcutaneous blood flow were disclosed. The 133Xe washout curve could be divided into three segments with significantly different slopes. Approximately 90 min after the subject went to sleep......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...... of the right lower leg 10 cm proximal to the malleolar level by means of the epicutaneous, atraumatic labeling technique. The change from upright to supine position from day 1 in the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous blood flow rate increment of 30-40% in accordance with a decrease...

  15. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying ...

  16. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  17. a segmentation approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Once the market has been segmented into different segments or target markets, a customised marketing mix aimed ... restaurant managers need to understand what motivates consumers to dine out and to choose one ... Customers might consider food quality, price, promotions and recommendations, among other desirable ...

  18. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  19. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  20. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  1. Chronic leg ulcer caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Miriam A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; van Soolingen, Dick; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Faber, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Rare tropical skin diseases are seen more frequently in Western countries because of the increased popularity of visiting tropical regions. A 55-year-old white man developed a painless leg ulcer after traveling in Guatemala and Belize. A mycobacterium was cultured from a biopsy specimen and was

  2. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  3. The restless legs syndrome (Ekbom's syndrome)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... same distribution as the paraesthesiae; and (v) anxiety, tension or mild depression. Paraesthesiae or creeping sensations are usually confined to the calves. They are extremely unpleasant and deep-seated in muscles or bones rather than in the skin, mostly affecting the legs between the knee and ankle.

  4. Leg og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Leg synes at have et potentiale som metode til at fremme læring. Men hvordan? Legen har en vis grad af parallelitet med den virkelige verden i dens interaktive og relationelle strukturer. Det bliver muligt at finde nye meninger i interaktioner, som refererer til vante interaktionsformer, men...

  5. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  6. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  7. Parallel kinematics robot with five legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Robot with multiple degrees of freedom comprising five legs (2) linked at a first of their ends to a base ( 3), and at a second of their ends opposite to the first ends to a mobile platform (4), which platform carries at least one tool (5, 6, 121, 12 "), and wherein the robot further comprises an

  8. Novel diffusion tensor imaging technique reveals developmental streamline volume changes in the corticospinal tract associated with leg motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamson, David O; Juhász, Csaba; Chugani, Harry T; Jeong, Jeong-Won

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has expanded our knowledge of corticospinal tract (CST) anatomy and development. However, previous developmental DTI studies assessed the CST as a whole, overlooking potential differences in development of its components related to control of the upper and lower extremities. The present cross-sectional study investigated age-related changes, side and gender differences in streamline volume of the leg- and hand-related segments of the CST in children. DTI data of 31 children (1-14 years; mean age: 6±4 years; 17 girls) with normal conventional MRI were analyzed. Leg- and hand-related CST streamline volumes were quantified separately, using a recently validated novel tractography approach. CST streamline volumes on both sides were compared between genders and correlated with age. Higher absolute streamline volumes were found in the left leg-related CST compared to the right (p=0.001) without a gender effect (p=0.4), whereas no differences were found in the absolute hand-related CST volumes (p>0.4). CST leg-related streamline volumes, normalized to hemispheric white matter volumes, declined with age in the right hemisphere only (R=-.51; p=0.004). Absolute leg-related CST streamline volumes showed similar, but slightly weaker correlations. Hand-related absolute or normalized CST streamline volumes showed no age-related variations on either side. These results suggest differential development of CST segments controlling hand vs. leg movements. Asymmetric volume changes in the lower limb motor pathway may be secondary to gradually strengthening left hemispheric dominance and is consistent with previous data suggesting that footedness is a better predictor of hemispheric lateralization than handedness. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kit for performing puncture test on HV insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.B.; Mello, D.R.; Cerqueira, W.R.; Alvarenga, E. [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A compact and easy way to handle puncture tests in high voltage electrical equipment was introduced. The characteristics of the main components of a new type of kit and some examples of its application were described. It is necessary to perform puncture tests on insulators used to support line conductors and to keep the necessary clearances between conductors and the tower. A puncture test is conducted by stressing the insulator with steep and short duration high voltage impulses. The special kit to handle the puncture tests was developed at CEPEL`s high voltage laboratory for performing tests up to 500 kV peak. The kit is composed of dry and compressed air insulated sphere gap, a very fast resistive divider and a structure which makes it easier to connect to conventional high voltage impulse generators. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  11. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  12. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations. (author)

  13. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  14. Fundamental and clinical study for PHT (parathyroid hormone) kit 'Yamasa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takako; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit (Yamasa) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the midregion-specific assay system. Fundamental study of the PTH kit gave favorable results for specificity, reproducibility, dilution, and recovery. The serum PTH concentration was detectable among all 41 normal volunteers. The upper and lower limits of normal for PTH in serum were found to be 600 pg/ml and 184 pg/ml, respectively. PTH values were high for chronic renal failure (6/7) and primary hyperparathyroidism (41/41), and low for malignancy associated with hypercalcemia (5/25). It seems possible to discriminate hypercalcemic from normal subjects. The serum PTH concentration from the present assay system was significantly correlated with that from conventional carboxyl-terminal PTH, midregion PTH, amino-terminal PTH, and (1 - 84) PTH assay systems. The results indicate the potential of the Yamasa kit in evaluating calcium metabolism, as well as in detecting the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Development of RIA kits for tumor-markers monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1997-01-01

    All reagents for tumor markers assays are imported from various manufacturers mainly CIS bio international. The average cost of these reagents is ranged from 80-150 bath/test (2-4 dollars test). The screening test for cancers could not be done especially in other regions of Thailand whose budgets and resources are so limited. If the reagents are made locally, many laboratories can perform the tests and use as primary diagnosis, screening or monitor the course of the disease following treatment. In addition, these reagents could help clinicians and give complementary information on the tumor status to improve quality of life in Thailand. Research objectives include: 1. Development of IRMA reagent kits suitable for diagnosing staging and monitoring prostrate and breast cancer. 2. Transfer of technology and reagent kits to relevant laboratories in Thailand. 3. Routine distribution of the reagents kits to the end users

  16. The Quality Lighting Teaching Kit: enlightening our future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Education and Public Outreach group has produced a Quality Lighting Teaching (QLT) Kit, as an outcome of the International Year of Light 2015. The kits are designed around problem-based learning scenarios. The kit's six activities allow students to address real lighting problems that relate to wildlife, sky glow, aging eyes, energy consumption, safety, and light trespass. The activities are optimized for 11-14 year olds but can be expanded to younger and older. Most of the activities can be done within in a few minutes with the exception of the Energy Activity. The activities can be done during class or afterschool and as stations (that the students rotate through) or as stand-alones (one at a time). All aspects of the program are as ready-for-use. Everything you need for the six activities is included in the kit. Tutorial videos (on the program's webpage) have been created on how to do the activities. They can be found on the webpage, www.noao.edu/education/qltkit.php. Fourteen Google+ Hangouts on Air have been offered, addressing questions on the activities and logistics. Assessments (in the form of pre- and post-surveys for the students and as post-surveys for the instructors) provide learning outcomes and improvements. Eighty-nine out of 100 kits have been distributed to SPIE, OSA, CIE, IDA and the IAU in 31 countries. The QLT Kit is a stepping-stone to bring awareness to the (younger) public on how quality lighting locally can redress issues like light pollution globally.

  17. 3D Multi-segment foot kinematics in children: A developmental study in typically developing boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Christel; Hermans, Cedric; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between age and 3D rotations objectivized with multisegment foot models has not been quantified until now. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between age and multi-segment foot kinematics in a cross-sectional database. Barefoot multi-segment foot kinematics of thirty two typically developing boys, aged 6-20 years, were captured with the Rizzoli Multi-segment Foot Model. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping linear regression was used to examine the relationship between age and 3D inter-segment rotations of the dominant leg during the full gait cycle. Age was significantly correlated with sagittal plane kinematics of the midfoot and the calcaneus-metatarsus inter-segment angle (pplane kinematics of the calcaneus-metatarsus angle (pfoot models, however, the current study highlights that this is of particular relevance for foot models which incorporate a separate midfoot segment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, W.S.; Knight, G.J.; Jacobs, P.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6μg/l to greater than 2 000 μg/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice

  19. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kunyan; West, Helen M; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Liangzhi; Li, Wenjuan

    2015-08-11

    Leg cramps are a common problem in pregnancy. Various interventions have been used to treat them, including drug, electrolyte and vitamin therapies, and non-drug therapies. To assess the effectiveness and safety of different interventions for treating leg cramps in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any intervention (drug, electrolyte, vitamin or non-drug therapies) for treatment of leg cramps in pregnancy compared with placebo, no treatment or other treatment. Quinine was excluded for its known adverse effects (teratogenicity). Cluster-RCTS were considered for inclusion. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included six studies (390 women). Four trials compared oral magnesium with placebo/no treatment, two compared oral calcium with no treatment, one compared oral vitamin B versus no treatment, and one compared oral calcium with oral vitamin C. Two of the trials were well-conducted and reported, the other four had design limitations. The process of random allocation was sub-optimal in three studies, and blinding was not attempted in two. Outcomes were reported in different ways, precluding the use of meta-analysis and limiting the strength of our conclusions.The 'no treatment' group in one four-arm trial has been used as the comparison group for the composite outcome (intensity and frequency of leg cramps) in magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B versus no treatment. This gives it disproportionate weight in the overall analysis, thus interpretation of these results should be cautious. Oral magnesium versus placebo/no treatmentMagnesium (taken orally for two to four weeks) did not consistently reduce the frequency of leg cramps compared with placebo or no treatment. Outcomes that showed

  20. [MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR EAR, NOSE AND THROAT RENDERING AND EVALUATION IN RESEARCHES ON RUSSIAN SEGMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I I; Orlov, O I; Matsnev, E I; Revyakin, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the results of testing some diagnostic video systems enabling digital rendering of TNT teeth and jaws. The authors substantiate the criteria of choosing and integration of imaging systems in future on Russian segment of the International space station kit LOR developed for examination and download of high-quality images of cosmonauts' TNT, parodentium and teeth.

  1. Leg power among malaysian netball players | Geok | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the leg power among Malaysian national netball players according to their age and playing position. The Vertical Jump Test was chosen to measure the leg power by using “Digital Indication Jump Meter” device. The results of the Vertical Jump Test were used to compare the leg ...

  2. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination...

  3. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang

    2016-01-01

    A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately.

  4. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately.

  5. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  6. Genoviz Software Development Kit: Java tool kit for building genomics visualization applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervitz Stephen A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization software can expose previously undiscovered patterns in genomic data and advance biological science. Results The Genoviz Software Development Kit (SDK is an open source, Java-based framework designed for rapid assembly of visualization software applications for genomics. The Genoviz SDK framework provides a mechanism for incorporating adaptive, dynamic zooming into applications, a desirable feature of genome viewers. Visualization capabilities of the Genoviz SDK include automated layout of features along genetic or genomic axes; support for user interactions with graphical elements (Glyphs in a map; a variety of Glyph sub-classes that promote experimentation with new ways of representing data in graphical formats; and support for adaptive, semantic zooming, whereby objects change their appearance depending on zoom level and zooming rate adapts to the current scale. Freely available demonstration and production quality applications, including the Integrated Genome Browser, illustrate Genoviz SDK capabilities. Conclusion Separation between graphics components and genomic data models makes it easy for developers to add visualization capability to pre-existing applications or build new applications using third-party data models. Source code, documentation, sample applications, and tutorials are available at http://genoviz.sourceforge.net/.

  7. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  8. KIT competence center for decommissioning. Innovation and promotion of trainees; Kompetenzzentrum Rueckbau am KIT. Nachwuchsfoerderung und Innovationen fuer den Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb

    2016-03-15

    The safe decommissioning of nuclear installations is technically feasible, but is also still a challenge for science, technology and industry. The expertise and know how for decommissioning must be ensured because it will be needed for further decades. Already in 2008 the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) had identified this challenge that later emerged through the closure of nuclear power plants in Germany. The KIT opened the professorship Technology and Management of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. In 2014, this section was extended through the dismantling of conventional installations.

  9. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  10. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  11. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  12. Segmentation of SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of image speckle are reviewed. Existing segmentation techniques that have been used for speckle filtering, edge detection, and texture extraction are sumamrized. The relative effectiveness of each technique is briefly discussed.

  13. Image segmentation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The methodologies and capabilities of image segmentation techniques are reviewed. Single linkage schemes, hybrid linkage schemes, centroid linkage schemes, histogram mode seeking, spatial clustering, and split and merge schemes are addressed.

  14. Adjacent segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  15. Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.

  16. Sex Stereotyping in Instructional Materials and Television: Awareness Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matilda

    This awareness kit provides information on the portrayals of women and men in two media--instructional materials and television; discusses how to evaluate and choose the best media materials from those that exist; recommends actions that will help to eliminate sex stereotyping in instructional materials and television; and suggests an approach to…

  17. Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana's Riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Darwin Initiative funded project Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana's Riverine Biodiversity was a collaboration between the Centre for African Wetlands at the University of Ghana, various units of the University of Ghana and the Ghana Wildlife Society. The project also involved collaborators from Burkina ...

  18. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated...

  19. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kit with the standard swim-up sperm washing method regarding pregnancy outcomes. Male factor infertility is a term that describes inability to conceive associated with a problem identified in the male partner. Intra- uterine insemination (IUI) has been shown to be effective in a range of sperm abnormalities causing male ...

  20. Some existing Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems at KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of: • Liquid Metal Loops at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of KIT; • THESYS: Technologies for HEavy metal SYStems; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THESYS; • THEADES: THErmalhydraulics and Ads DESign; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THEADES; • CORRIDA: CORRosion In Dynamic lead Alloys; • Experimental stagnant facilities at KALLA; • INR Liquid metal research

  1. Media Kit on WDM in MENA | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This kit contains information tailored primarily for the media community. It contains up-to-date knowledge about water demand management in the form of policy briefs, success stories, water briefs, a brochure and a CD in English, French and Arabic. This material explains water demand management and the contributions of ...

  2. The ROM Kit: A Fresh Look at Teaching Roman History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes materials in a kit assembled by the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) that can be used to revitalize the teaching of Roman history and as a model for teaching about ancient history in general. The author also suggests a new approach, concepts, and topics that should be used in teaching Roman history. (AM)

  3. Enhancing Science Kits with the Driving Question Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Jeff; Torres, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the driving question board (DQB), a visual organizer that supports inquiry-based instruction through the use of guiding questions. The DQB is a teaching aid designed to increase student engagement alongside science kits. Information is provided on its application to a lesson on buoyancy, highlighting how it improved…

  4. National Radon Action Month - Event Planning Kit Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals, groups, and organizations are the driving force in getting the message out to the public about the dangers of indoor radon. You will find information and materials in this Kit that you can use to get the word out about radon.

  5. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  6. Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…

  7. The Governance of Australia. Civics and Citizenship Learning Circle Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil

    This kit, the first of four learning circles on civics and citizenship, addresses a series of broad issues about the way in which Australia is governed. Introductory materials include a synopsis of the six sessions; lists of 51 references, 29 Internet sites, and 13 videos and CDs; glossary; and list of 19 resource materials. Session guides are…

  8. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  9. Development of Microcontroller-Based Ball and Beam Trainer Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Dewantoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE A ball and beam trainer kit based on microcontroller was developed for teaching control system course for the sophomore students. This specially-purposed kit consists of a ball located on a beam with a fixed axle at one of its end. At the other end, a servomotor was employed to control the position of the ball by adjusting the rotation angle of the servomotor. Seven predetermined positions were set to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm relative to the fixed axle of the beam. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID scheme was then used to compensate the error. This kit is equipped with a user interface to configure controller coefficients, select the set points, plot the actual ball position, and display parameter values. The user interface program runs on PC or notebook connected to microcontroller via serial communications. A questionnaire-based assessment about the use of this kit was conducted by 17 students taking the course, giving a rating value of 94.12%.

  10. Volatile constituents of Glechoma hirsute Waldst. & Kit. and G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of two Glechoma species from Serbia have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty eight and two hundred thirty eight constituents identified accounted for 90.6 and 86.6% of the total oils of G. hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. and G. hederacea L., respectively. In both oils the dominant constituent class was the ...

  11. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  12. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment......%) were assessed for venous surgery. Distal arterial pressure was measured following initial examination in 33 of the patients (34%). All patients (100%) were prescribed compression therapy. Of the 98 patients, 11 (11%) had ulcers recur in 3 months and 72 (73%) healed in 12 months, which is in line...

  13. Detection of hand and leg motor tract injury using novel diffusion tensor MRI tractography in children with central motor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Lee, Jessica; Kamson, David O; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether an objective segmenation of corticospinal tract (CST) associated with hand and leg movements can be used to detect central motor weakness in the corresponding extremities in a pediatric population. This retrospective study included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 25 children with central paresis affecting at least one limb (age: 9.0±4.2years, 15 boys, 5/13/7 children with left/right/both hemispheric lesions including ischemia, cyst, and gliosis), as well as 42 pediatric control subjects with no motor dysfunction (age: 9.0±5.5years, 21 boys, 31 healthy/11 non-lesional epilepsy children). Leg- and hand-related CST pathways were segmented using DTI-maximum a posteriori (DTI-MAP) classification. The resulting CST volumes were then divided by total supratentorial white matter volume, resulting in a marker called "normalized streamline volume ratio (NSVR)" to quantify the degree of axonal loss in separate CST pathways associated with leg and hand motor functions. A receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to measure the accuracy of this marker to identify extremities with motor weakness. NSVR values of hand/leg CST selectively achieved the following values of accuracy/sensitivity/specificity: 0.84/0.84/0.57, 0.82/0.81/0.55, 0.78/0.75/0.55, 0.79/0.81/0.54 at a cut-off of 0.03/0.03/0.03/0.02 for right hand CST, left hand CST, right leg CST, and left leg CST, respectively. Motor weakness of hand and leg was most likely present at the cut-off values of hand and leg NSVR (i.e., 0.029/0.028/0.025/0.020 for left-hand/right-hand/left-leg/right-leg). The control group showed a moderate age-related increase in absolute CST volumes and a biphasic age-related variation of the normalized CST volumes, which were lacking in the paretic children. This study demonstrates that DTI-MAP classification may provide a new imaging tool to quantify axonal loss in children with central motor dysfunction. Using this technique, we found that early-life brain

  14. Is preeclampsia associated with restless legs syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J O; Cabrera, S A S; Hidalgo, H; Cabrera, S G; Linnebank, M; Bassetti, C L; Kallweit, U

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic disorder. Secondary RLS includes pregnancy and iron deficiency. Prevalence of RLS in pregnancy ranges from 11% to 27%. We aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of RLS in pregnancy in a Peruvian population and to evaluate the possible pregnancy or delivery complications due to RLS. METHODS: We assessed 218 consecutive expectant mothers at the inpatient clinic of the Hospital San Bartolome in Lima, Peru. Assessment wa...

  15. Genetic aspects of restless legs syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, V; Ali, M; Chaudhuri, K R

    2006-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Ekbom syndrome, is a common movement disorder with sensorimotor symptoms occurring during sleep and quiet wakefulness. The underlying cause for RLS is unknown but genetic influences play a strong part in the pathogenesis of RLS, particularly when the condition starts at a young age. This review explores the genetic basis of RLS and related phenotypic variations. Recently, three loci showing vulnerability to RLS have been described in French‐Canadian...

  16. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-sta...

  17. Joining of Half-Heusler and Bismuth Tellurides for Segmented Thermoelectric Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngan, Pham Hoang; Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn

    2018-01-01

    Segmented generators where the p- or n-type legs are formed by joining materials in series enables each material to operate in their most efficient temperature range. Here, we have fabricated and characterized segmented thermoelectric p- and n-type legs based on bismuth tellurides and half......-Heusler alloys p-type Hf0.5Zr0.5CoSn0.2Sb0.8 and n-type Ti0.6Hf0.4NiSn. A two-step process was introduced to join the half-Heusler to the bismuth tellurides to form a segmented structure which was then characterized for its thermoelectric and structural properties. The output power generation was characterized...

  18. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  19. Sleep board review question: restless legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobomi O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Ms. Jones (not her real name is a 63-year-old woman who states that she gets very fidgety when sitting in a theater, watching a movie or when flying long distances on a plane. She is unable to find words to describe the sensation but she states that moving her legs make them feel better. Lately, she has been getting this feeling almost every night. She reports no leg discomfort in the daytime. She denies muscle cramps her legs. She had some recent investigations done by her primary care physician because of complaints of fatigue. Which of the following will be helpful in the diagnosis and management in this patient? 1. An overnight polysomnogram showing apnea hypopnea index of 1.6 events per hour and no periodic limb movements (PLMs 2. Ferritin level of 18 ng/ml (normal range 20-200 ng/ml 3. Serum Bicarbonate of 29 mEq/L (normal range 23-29 mEq/L 4. Thyroid …

  20. Restless Legs Syndrome Among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hao Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a sleep and movement disorder that affects 5–15% of the general population, with an increased prevalence among the elderly population. It not only affects quality of life but also increases risk of mortality among older adults. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms of the patient by four minimal essential criteria. Restless legs syndrome can be divided into primary or secondary causes. Examination should be performed to rule out potentially treatable illnesses, such as iron deficiency, renal failure or peripheral neuropathy, especially among elderly patients. The initial approach to restless legs syndrome should be nonpharmacologic management, such as good sleep hygiene, regular exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy and avoidance of certain aggravating drugs. An algorithm based on scientific evidence and expert opinion was developed for guidance of treatment. Combination or change of medication can be applied to resistant or difficult cases. Since elderly patients are prone to treatment-related side effects, the best strategy is to start medication cautiously and at the lowest recommended dosage.

  1. A nuclear source: a resource kit for teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Gay.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this Resource Kit is to provide information, diagrams, overheads and classroom activities, set in an Australian context, to broaden and enrich the teaching of nuclear science from both technical and social science aspects. It has been written to address the the Australian secondary school syllabuses and reflects this in both its format and contents. Emphasis has been given to the applications of nuclear physics to our lives today, from new medical diagnostic techniques to efficient methods of monitoring our own environment. This Resource Kit is a valuable source of information not readily available to teachers from textbooks. It provides a unique opportunity to present the picture in Australia, making us all more aware of Australia's front line in Australia, making us all more aware of Australia's front line role in nuclear research. The kit is meant to be used in conjunction with current textbooks, to complement and enrich them. The kit begins with a review of the many applications of nuclear science in order to provide a broad concrete base to motivate students to discover more of the specific details of the basic discoveries contained in the later sections. Topics such as the Structure of the Atom, which are well documented in textbooks, have been approached in a more creative and less rigorous manner to give teachers a fresh approach to the topic. The kit is divided into 10 separate sections and presented in loose-leaf form to facilitate its use in the classroom. Diagrams are inserted into the text to clarify and enrich descriptions, as well as being provided at the back of each section as black line masters for photocopying and overhead projections. ills., tabs

  2. Surface Accelerometer Fixation Method Affects Leg Soft Tissue Motion Following Heel Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Stefanczyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface-mounted accelerometers (SMA secured tightly to body segments with an elastic strap, are commonly used to quantify the impact response of bone.  However, the effect that this type of fixation has on segment soft tissue motion relative to bone has yet to be determined.  Heel impacts were collected from 20 participants using a human pendulum apparatus, with (strap and without (no strap a SMA attached to the proximal tibia.  Leg soft tissue motion was quantified using digital image analysis software which monitored positions of skin markers from a series of high speed photographs.  The strap was found to alter the natural physiological motion of the soft tissue, with significant displacement, velocity and sex differences occurring within the most proximal regions.  Future research should evaluate alternative methods for quantifying bone and soft tissue response to impact concurrently, to advance our understanding of impact-related injury mechanisms.

  3. Tensile properties of segmented block copolymers with monodisperse hard segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, G.J.E.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The tensile properties of segmented block copolymers with mono-disperse hard segments were studied with respect to the hard segment content (16–44 wt.%) and the temperature (20–110 °C). The copolymers were comprised of poly(tetramethylene oxide) segments with the molecular weights of 650–2,900 Da

  4. The Use of Kits in the Analysis of Tissue Lipids Requires Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, T; LeBoeuf, R C; Tso, Patrick; Jandacek, R J

    2016-04-01

    The ready availability and ease of use of kits for the measurement of serum lipids has greatly facilitated these measurements. In many cases it would be convenient to use these kits in the determination of lipid concentrations in tissues. The successful application of serum kits in tissue analysis requires that two important issues be considered. First, the solvent system for the extraction of the lipids and the solvent used for analysis by the kit must be compatible with the reactions in the kit. Second, the concentration range in the analyzed solution must be within the range for which the kit is used. We report here that lipids in liver and adipose tissues may be significantly underestimated by the use of some kits. We recommend that the use of kits for tissue analysis of lipids be validated for the specific analysis.

  5. Can't Curb the Urge to Move? Living with Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep? Wise Choices Recognizing Restless Legs Restless legs syndrome brings all 4 of these characteristics: A strong urge to move your legs, often with unpleasant feelings like tingling, burning or throbbing in the legs. Symptoms that get better ... Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet What Is Restless Legs Syndrome? Brain ...

  6. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS, which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR, which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders.

  7. Differences in take-off leg kinetics between horizontal and vertical single-leg rebound jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyama, Yasushi; Hobara, Hiroaki; Zushi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the differences between the horizontal single-leg rebound jump (HJ) and vertical single-leg rebound jump (VJ) in terms of three-dimensional joint kinetics for the take-off leg, while focusing on frontal and transverse plane movements. Eleven male track and field athletes performed HJ and VJ. Kinematic and kinetic data were calculated using data recorded with a motion capture system and force platforms. The hip abduction torque, trunk lateral flexion torque (flexion for the swing-leg side), hip external and internal torque, trunk rotational torque, and the powers associated with these torques were larger when performing HJ because of resistance to the impact ground reaction force and because of pelvic and posture control. Pelvic rotation was noted in HJ, and this was controlled not only by the hip and trunk joint torque from the transverse plane but also by the hip abduction torque. Therefore, hip and trunk joint kinetics in the frontal and transverse plane play an important role in a single-leg jump, regardless of the jumping direction, and may also play a more important role in HJ than in VJ.

  8. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  9. Effect of Renal Transplantation in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Yildiz, Demet; Buyukkoyuncu, Nilufer; Celik, Huseyin; Tufan, Fatih; Kılıç, Ahmet Kasım; Gul, Bulent; Yildiz, Abdulmecid

    2016-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder in which patients have irresistible urge to move legs during rest. Restless legs syndrome seems to be common in end-stage renal disease. After a successful renal transplant, symptoms ameliorate with renal function improvement and restless legs syndrome is seen less in this population. Here, we aimed to investigate restless legs syndrome frequency and associated factors in renal transplant patients. In a cross-sectional study with 193 patients (116 hemodialysis patients, 45 transplant patients, and 32 controls), the presence of restless legs syndrome was assessed using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Medical history, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records. Patients were questioned about the presence of restless legs syndrome using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Patients were evaluated with Beck Depression Scale for depression and Pittsburgh tests for sleep disturbances. While the rate of restless legs syndrome was similar between transplants and controls, it was significantly greater in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients and controls had similar depression scores that were higher compared with transplant patients. Pittsburgh score was similar in transplant patients and controls and significantly increased in the hemodialysis patients. The rate of insomnia was significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients compared with the other 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed independent correlates of restless legs syndrome as insomnia, Beck depression score, and being on hemodialysis. Linear regression analysis showed that independent correlates of higher Pittsburgh score were higher depression score, higher age, and presence of restless legs syndrome. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome is significantly lower in transplant patients than it is in patients on maintenance dialysis. In renal transplant patients, restless legs syndrome frequency was

  10. Segmental contributions to sagittal-plane whole-body angular momentum when using powered compared to passive ankle-foot prostheses on ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Nathaniel T; Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Fey, Nicholas P

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the effects of an assistive device on dynamic balance is crucial, particularly for robotic leg prostheses. Analyses of dynamic balance commonly evaluate the range of whole-body angular momentum (H). However, the contributions of individual body segments to overall H throughout gait may yield futher insights, specifically for people with transtibial amputation using powered prostheses. We evaluated segment contributions to H using Statistical Parametric Mapping to assess the effects of prosthesis type (powered vs passive) and ramp angle on segmental coordination. The slope main effect was significant in all segments, the prosthesis main effect was significant in the prosthetic leg (device and residuum) and trunk, and the slope by prosthesis interaction effect was significant in the prosthetic leg and trunk. The magnitude of contributions to sagittal-plane H from the prosthetic leg was larger when using the powered prosthesis. The trunk contributed more positive (backward) H after prosthetic leg toe-off when using the powered prosthesis on inclines, similar to the soleus muscle. However, trunk contributions to H on declines were similar when using a powered and passive prosthesis, suggesting that the powered prosthesis may not replicate soleus function when walking downhill. Our novel assessment method evaluated robotic leg prostheses not only based on local joint mechanics, but also considering whole-body biomechanics.

  11. The zinc finger homeodomain-2 gene of Drosophila controls Notch targets and regulates apoptosis in the tarsal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Ana; Manjón, Cristina; Edwards, Kevin; Steller, Hermann; Suzanne, Magali; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2014-01-15

    The development of the Drosophila leg is a good model to study processes of pattern formation, cell death and segmentation. Such processes require the coordinate activity of different genes and signaling pathways that progressively subdivide the leg territory into smaller domains. One of the main pathways needed for leg development is the Notch pathway, required for determining the proximo-distal axis of the leg and for the formation of the joints that separate different leg segments. The mechanisms required to coordinate such events are largely unknown. We describe here that the zinc finger homeodomain-2 (zfh-2) gene is highly expressed in cells that will form the leg joints and needed to establish a correct size and pattern in the distal leg. There is an early requirement of zfh-2 to establish the correct proximo-distal axis, but zfh-2 is also needed at late third instar to form the joint between the fourth and fifth tarsal segments. The expression of zfh-2 requires Notch activity but zfh-2 is necessary, in turn, to activate Notch targets such as Enhancer of split and big brain. zfh-2 is controlled by the Drosophila activator protein 2 gene and regulates the late expression of tarsal-less. In the absence of zfh-2 many cells ectopically express the pro-apoptotic gene head involution defective, activate caspase-3 and are positive for acridine orange, indicating they undergo apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the key role of zfh-2 in the control of cell death and Notch signaling during leg development. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Masum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Methods Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Results Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34. Receptor (KIT and ligand (KITLG transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048 in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p  0.05, is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis.

  13. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Masum; Jha, Ajaya Nand; Abrari, Andleeb; Ali, Sher

    2012-01-01

    KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR) and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34). Receptor (KIT) and ligand (KITLG) transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048) in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p < 0.001), instead of gene amplification (p > 0.05), is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis

  14. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus under gastrointestinal conditions and their immunological detection by commercially available kits

    OpenAIRE

    Ceuppens, Siele; Rajkovic, Andreja; Hamelink, Stefanie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA (TM)) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath (R) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their applicability to gastrointestinal simulation samples were evaluated. Then, the stability and production of enterotoxins Hbl and...

  15. Pathologic Stimulus Determines Lineage Commitment of Cardiac C-kit+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongming; Zhu, Wuqiang; Bender, Ingrid; Gong, Wuming; Kwak, Il-Youp; Yellamilli, Amritha; Hodges, Thomas J; Nemoto, Natsumi; Zhang, Jianyi; Garry, Daniel J; van Berlo, Jop H

    2017-12-12

    Although cardiac c-kit + cells are being tested in clinical trials, the circumstances that determine lineage differentiation of c-kit + cells in vivo are unknown. Recent findings suggest that endogenous cardiac c-kit + cells rarely contribute cardiomyocytes to the adult heart. We assessed whether various pathological stimuli differentially affect the eventual cell fates of c-kit + cells. We used single-cell sequencing and genetic lineage tracing of c-kit + cells to determine whether various pathological stimuli would result in different fates of c-kit + cells. Single-cell sequencing of cardiac CD45 - c-kit + cells showed innate heterogeneity, indicative of the existence of vascular and mesenchymal c-kit + cells in normal hearts. Cardiac pressure overload resulted in a modest increase in c-kit-derived cardiomyocytes, with significant increases in the numbers of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity did not increase c-kit-derived endothelial cell fates but instead induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. Mechanistically, doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in c-kit + cells resulted in expression of p53. Inhibition of p53 blocked cardiomyocyte differentiation in response to doxorubicin, whereas stabilization of p53 was sufficient to increase c-kit-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that different pathological stimuli induce different cell fates of c-kit + cells in vivo. Although the overall rate of cardiomyocyte formation from c-kit + cells is still below clinically relevant levels, we show that p53 is central to the ability of c-kit + cells to adopt cardiomyocyte fates, which could lead to the development of strategies to preferentially generate cardiomyocytes from c-kit + cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Gene Duplication of the zebrafish kit ligand and partitioning of melanocyte development functions to kit ligand a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hultman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The retention of particular genes after the whole genome duplication in zebrafish has given insights into how genes may evolve through partitioning of ancestral functions. We examine the partitioning of expression patterns and functions of two zebrafish kit ligands, kit ligand a (kitla and kit ligand b (kitlb, and discuss their possible coevolution with the duplicated zebrafish kit receptors (kita and kitb. In situ hybridizations show that kitla mRNA is expressed in the trunk adjacent to the notochord in the middle of each somite during stages of melanocyte migration and later expressed in the skin, when the receptor is required for melanocyte survival. kitla is also expressed in other regions complementary to kita receptor expression, including the pineal gland, tail bud, and ear. In contrast, kitlb mRNA is expressed in brain ventricles, ear, and cardinal vein plexus, in regions generally not complementary to either zebrafish kit receptor ortholog. However, like kitla, kitlb is expressed in the skin during stages consistent with melanocyte survival. Thus, it appears that kita and kitla have maintained congruent expression patterns, while kitb and kitlb have evolved divergent expression patterns. We demonstrate the interaction of kita and kitla by morpholino knockdown analysis. kitla morphants, but not kitlb morphants, phenocopy the null allele of kita, with defects for both melanocyte migration and survival. Furthermore, kitla morpholino, but not kitlb morpholino, interacts genetically with a sensitized allele of kita, confirming that kitla is the functional ligand to kita. Last, we examine kitla overexpression in embryos, which results in hyperpigmentation caused by an increase in the number and size of melanocytes. This hyperpigmentation is dependent on kita function. We conclude that following genome duplication, kita and kitla have maintained their receptor-ligand relationship, coevolved complementary expression patterns, and that

  17. Progress report (interface segment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: 1. Presentations and status reports. T. Fukahori (JAEA) reported on the plans for the www interface layout. Discussions included which functions were needed for new RIPL-3 web pages. The results are summarized in next section. 2. Layout of the interfaces and retrieval tools and web. RIPL-3 home page will include some description about RIPL-3 and link to the Technical report in pdf-format. The web page for 'mass' segment contains same contents as RIPL-2 except the removal of the information about ground state deformation. The abundance data will be replaced by data from the new BNL wallet card (2005 version). The Q-value calculation tool will be also improved. The 'Nuclear Matter Density' will be renamed 'Nucleon Density Distribution'. 'Levels' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved from 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. 'Resonances' segment will be same as before - may be replaced with the new Mughabghab tables. 'Optical' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved to 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. The optical model calculation with ECIS and OPTMAN will be considered and double-folding calculation tool will possibly be provided. 'Densities' segment will be same as before, and the plotting programs will be checked. The 3-7 sets of combination of GC, BSFG, GSFM with/without enhancement factors will be given. 'Gamma' segment will be same as before, with addition of MLO and theoretical GDR calculation. 'Fission' segment will be same as before, and 'Exp.' will be renamed. New barrier evaluations will be added, for example, transition (2+) states. The fission spectrum calculation tool (codes and inputs) may be added. The fundamental format will be kept as before. For new items such as deformed 'nucleon density distribution', double-folding potential, evaluated fission barrier (extension into 3 or more) and fission

  18. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  19. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  20. Segmented heterochromia in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo

    2003-12-01

    Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.

  1. Leg movements during wakefulness in restless legs syndrome: time structure and relationships with periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco

    2012-05-01

    Approximately one third of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) also show periodic leg movements (PLM) during relaxed wake fulness (PLMW). In contrast with the large amount of data published on periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), PLMW have received less attention from the scientific community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations/differences of time-structure and response to a dopamine-agonist between PLMW and PLMS in patients with RLS. Ninety idiopathic RLS patients and 28 controls were recruited. Subjects underwent clinical and neurophysiological evaluation, hematological screening, and one or two consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. A subset of patients received 0.25mg of pramipexole or placebo before the second recording. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and LM activity was analyzed during sleep and during the epochs of wakefulness occurring during the first recording hour. RLS patients had higher LM activity during wakefulness than controls, but with a similar periodicity. Even if correlated, the ability of the PLMW index to predict the PLMS index decreased with increasing LM activity. Intermovement intervals during wakefulness showed one peak only at approximately 4s, gradually decreasing with increasing interval in both patients and controls. The effect of pramipexole was very limited and involved the small periodic portion of LM activity during wakefulness. PLMW index and PLMS index were correlated; however, the magnitude of this correlation was not sufficient to suggest that PLMW can be good predictors of PLMS. Short-interval LM activity during wakefulness and sleep might be linked to the severity of sleep disruption in RLS patients and the differences between their features obtained during wakefulness or sleep might be relevant for the diagnosis of sleep disturbances in RLS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg cramps: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Philip W; Wszołek, Zbigniew K

    2017-12-22

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and nocturnal leg cramps (NLCs) are common disorders affecting 7.0% and 24.1% of the population in some European countries, respectively. Patients suffering from RLS experience uncomfortable nocturnal sensations in the legs with the urge to move that dissipates while moving. NLC is characterized by abrupt muscle contraction, most often in the gastrocnemius or foot muscles, which occurs at night and may result in significant sleep disturbances. The diagnosis of these disorders has presented a challenge to health care providers because of symptom overlap with other sensory and motor disturbances with nocturnal predominance. Treatment options and approaches are lacking, partially because of our currently incomplete understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. We reviewed the medical literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of RLS and NLC with a focus on improved diagnostic accuracy and treatment approaches.

  3. 21 CFR 866.2480 - Quality control kit for culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for culture media. 866.2480... control kit for culture media. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for culture media is a device...-dried, viable microorganism, intended for medical purposes to determine if a given culture medium is...

  4. A Take-Home Physics Experiment Kit for On-Campus and Off-Campus Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanna; Parisi, Alfio

    2008-01-01

    A take-home experiment kit has been developed to reinforce the concepts in a first year physics course that both on and off campus students from a variety of educational backgrounds can successfully use. The kit is inexpensive and is composed of easy to obtain items. The experiments conducted with the kit are directed experiments that require…

  5. A meta-analysis of prognostic value of KIT mutation status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Z

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi Li, Yingjun Liu, Daohai Wang, Guangsen Han Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Numerous types of KIT mutations have been reported in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs; however, controversy still exists regarding their clinicopathological significance. In this study, we reviewed the publicly available literature to assess the data by a meta-analysis to characterize KIT mutations and different types of KIT mutations in prognostic prediction in patients with GISTs. Twenty-eight studies that included 4,449 patients were identified and analyzed. We found that KIT mutation status was closely correlated with size of tumors and different mitosis indexes, but not with tumor location. KIT mutation was also observed to be significantly correlated with tumor recurrence, metastasis, as well as the overall survival of patients. Interestingly, there was higher risk of progression in KIT exon 9-mutated patients than in exon 11-mutated patients. Five-year relapse-free survival (RFS rate was significantly higher in KIT exon 11-deleted patients than in those with other types of KIT exon 11 mutations. In addition, RFS for 5 years was significantly worse in patients bearing KIT codon 557–558 deletions than in those bearing other KIT exon 11 deletions. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that KIT mutation status is another evaluable factor for prognosis prediction in GISTs. Keywords: KIT, meta-analysis, prognosis, marker, therapy

  6. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an appropriate...

  7. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...

  8. [The comparison of two newborn cytomegalovirus IgG antibody screening ELISA kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xian; He, Xiao-Zhou; Wang, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2013-10-01

    This study compared two newborn Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody screening ELISA kits and evaluated the detection effectiveness of Abnova kit. CMV IgG antibodies were detected by both SeraQuest and Abnova kits from dried blood spot (DBS) samples of 488 newborn heel sticks. The detection abilities of these two kits were compared in different sample dilution concentrations. Relative detection effectiveness of the Abnova kit was defined by statistical method using the SeraQuest kit as a point of comparison. Compared to the SeraQuest screening test kit, the Abnova kit revealed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 78.6%, positive predictive value of 99.3%, negative predictive value of 68.8%, and the coincidence rate for these two screening test kits at 98.3%. The consistency check of both kits based on interpretation of the kappa statistic was relatively good. For the Abnova kit, the "area under the ROC curve" was 0.887, which indicates moderate accuracy. Abnova kit can be applied to newborn screening for congenital CMV infections. However, repeating the test for ambiguous results is suggested to increase the specificity and negative predictive value.

  9. Medication kits for managing symptomatic emergencies in the home: a survey of common hospice practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Margaret F; Stephens, Lisa; Goodrich, Martha; Byock, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Alleviation of symptoms associated with advanced illness and dying is a fundamental goal and core principle of palliative care. Little research exists regarding hospice programs' practices for prescribing, dispensing, and utilizing medication kits in the home for management of uncontrolled symptoms. We conducted a telephone survey of all 22 agencies in New Hampshire providing home hospice care. The survey inquired about the timing of medication kit ordering and availability, characteristics of prescribers and pharmacies, kit contents, costs, frequency of use, and perceived impact of kits. All programs' kits contained medications to treat pain and dyspnea, 81% for nausea and vomiting, and 76% for seizures. Eighty-six percent of agencies (18/21) reported that a medication within the kits was used in more than 50% of cases. Eighty-six percent reported the kits often averted hospital or emergency department visits. Oral, sublingual, and rectal routes of administration were common as was topical preparations of combination medications. Three programs included parenteral morphine in kits. Kits cost less than $50 for the majority of programs. Hospice programs commonly utilize kits containing prescription medications for the purpose of managing uncontrolled symptoms in the home. There is considerable variation in kit contents and practice. Programs believe that kits diminish emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Research is needed to more fully describe and study the outcomes of these practices.

  10. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera, cells...

  11. Take-Home Art Appreciation Kits for Kindergartners and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes collaborative project between an art specialist and kindergarten teacher to develop take-home art appreciation kits for kindergartners. Discusses benefits of the collaboration for teachers, children, and families. Focuses on aesthetic inquiry approach to the art kits to develop inquiry and critical thinking skills. Describes the kits'…

  12. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activa...

  13. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    characterized Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib). In contrast to imatinib, however, hypothemycin also effectively inhibited FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in addition to the potentiation of these responses via Kit. The effect of hypothemycin on Kit-mediated responses could...

  14. Protocol to assess the neurophysiology associated with multi-segmental postural coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomond, Karen V; Henry, Sharon M; Jacobs, Jesse V; Hitt, Juvena R; Horak, Fay B; Cohen, Rajal G; Schwartz, Daniel; Dumas, Julie A; Naylor, Magdalena R; Watts, Richard; DeSarno, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) stabilize potential disturbances to posture caused by movement. Impaired APAs are common with disease and injury. Brain functions associated with generating APAs remain uncertain due to a lack of paired tasks that require similar limb motion from similar postural orientations, but differ in eliciting an APA while also being compatible with brain imaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging; fMRI). This study developed fMRI-compatible tasks differentiated by the presence or absence of APAs during leg movement. Eighteen healthy subjects performed two leg movement tasks, supported leg raise (SLR) and unsupported leg raise (ULR), to elicit isolated limb motion (no APA) versus multi-segmental coordination patterns (including APA), respectively. Ground reaction forces under the feet and electromyographic activation amplitudes were assessed to determine the coordination strategy elicited for each task. Results demonstrated that the ULR task elicited a multi-segmental coordination that was either minimized or absent in the SLR task, indicating that it would serve as an adequate control task for fMRI protocols. A pilot study with a single subject performing each task in an MRI scanner demonstrated minimal head movement in both tasks and brain activation patterns consistent with an isolated limb movement for the SLR task versus multi-segmental postural coordination for the ULR task. (note)

  15. Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippà, Maria A T; Baumann, Christian R; Siccoli, Massimiliano M; Bassetti, Claudio L; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients. It would be worthwhile to identify patients non-responsive to dopaminergic treatment beforehand, because they may suffer from a restless legs-like syndrome and may require alternative treatment. We included retrospectively 24 adult patients fulfilling the four essential criteria for restless legs and 12 age-matched healthy controls. They were investigated by ambulatory actigraphy from both legs over three nights, and patients started treatment with dopamine agonists after this diagnostic work-up. We examined 12 responders to dopaminergic treatment and 12 non-responders and studied the association between response to dopaminergic treatment and the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) as assessed with actigraphy. Demographic characteristics, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue at baseline were similar in all three groups. Baseline RLS severity was similar between responders and non-responders [International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLS): 25 ± 9 and 24 ± 8]. Group comparisons of PLMI before treatment initiation showed significant differences between the three groups. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that healthy controls had significantly lower PLMI (4.9 ± 4.5) than responders (29.3 ± 22.7) and non-responders (13.3 ± 11.2). Similarly, the PLMI in responders was lower than in non-responders. PLMI day-to-day variability did not differ between responders and non-responders and there was no correlation between treatment effect, as assessed by the decrease of the IRLS and baseline PLMI. Our retrospective study indicates that actigraphy to assess periodic limb movements may contribute to a better diagnosis of dopamine-responsive restless legs syndrome. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Immobilization tests and periodic leg movements in sleep for the diagnosis of restless leg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, J; Boucher, S; Nicolas, A; Lesperance, P; Gosselin, A; Rompré, P; Lavigne, G

    1998-03-01

    Patients with restless leg syndrome (RLS) complain of motor restlessness, usually occurring while they rest in the evening. Two immobilization tests have been described to assess leg restlessness in these patients. In the first test, the patient sits in bed with his or her legs outstretched while electromyograms are recorded from right and left anterior tibialis muscles for an hour (Suggested Immobilization Test [SIT]); in the second test, the legs are immobilized in a stretcher (Forced Immobilization Test [FIT]). In the current study, the SIT and the FIT were compared in patients with RLS and normal control subjects matched for age and sex. More leg movements were seen in patients than in controls during immobilization tests, especially the SIT. These movements were periodic, occurring at a frequency of approximately one every 12 seconds. The SIT (index > 40) was found to discriminate between RLS and control subjects better than the FIT (index > 25). Patients were also recorded during two consecutive nights to measure periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS). A SIT index greater than 40 and a PLMS index greater than 11 (highest PLMS index of 2 consecutive nights) were found to discriminate patients with RLS from control subjects with similar power. With each of these two measures, the clinical diagnosis was correctly predicted in 81% of patients and 81% of the control subjects. The SIT has several advantages over the measure of the PLMS index; it does not require an all-night polygraphic recording and can be administered several times a day to measure circadian fluctuation of motor restlessness.

  17. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  18. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M.; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood–brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia

  19. Leg movement tracking in automatic video-based one-leg stance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Jacek; Stępień, Paula; Kapko, Wojciech; Niedziela, Aleksandra; Derejczyk, Jarosław

    2018-04-01

    Falls are a major risk in elder population. Early diagnosis is therefore an important step towards increasing the safety of elders. One of the common diagnostic tests is the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), consisting of 14 exercises arranged from the easiest (sitting-to-standing) to the most demanding (one-leg stance). In this study a novel approach to the automatic assessment of the time in which the patient can remain in the one-leg stance position without loosing balance is introduced. The data is collected using a regular video camera. No markers, special garments, or system calibration are required. Two groups are examined. The first group consists of 16 students: healthy, young adults (12 female, 4 male, avg. 20yrs±1). The second group consists of 50 elders (39 female, 11 male, avg. 78.8yrs±5.9). Data (short, one minute recordings) are collected in a controlled environment using a digital video recorder (50fps, 1920×1080) fixed to a tripod. Data are processed off-line. First, the region of interest is determined. Next, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracking is performed. Best tracks are selected based on the registered vertical movement and two tracks are obtained corresponding to the left and right leg movements. Tracks are later subjected to the sparse signal baseline estimation, denoising and thresholding to detect the raised leg. Results are compared frame-wise to the ground truth reference obtained in the manual processing procedure. Both legs are evaluated in the elder group (in all cases several attempts featuring both legs were registered), resulting in 89.18%±11.27% DICE, 93.07%±5.43% sensitivity and 96.94%±6.11% specificity values for both legs. The signal of a single leg is evaluated in the student group (in all cases only one attempt was needed to perform the full examination) resulting in 98.96%±1.2% DICE, 98.78%±1.65% sensitivity and 98.73%±2.69% specificity values. This is the first step towards a video-based system enabling the automatic

  20. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  1. Image segmentation, evaluation, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to advance research in image segmentation by developing robust techniques for evaluating image segmentation algorithms. The key contributions of this work are as follows. First, we investigate the characteristics of existing measures for supervised evaluation of automatic image segmentation algorithms. We show which of these measures is most effective at distinguishing perceptually accurate image segmentation from inaccurate segmentation. We then apply these measures to evalu...

  2. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  3. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gonzalez-de-Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  4. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  5. Loading and performance of the support leg in kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    The punt kick is important in many football codes and support leg kinematics and ground reaction forces have been implicated in injury and performance in kicking. To evaluate ground reaction forces and support leg kinematics in the punt kick. Cross sectional study. Seven elite Australian football players performed maximal kicks into a net using both the preferred and non-preferred legs. A force plate measured ground reaction forces and an optical motion capture system (200Hz) collected kinematic data during the stance phase of the kick. Preferred and non-preferred legs were compared and performance was evaluated by correlating parameters with foot speed at ball contact. Vertical forces were larger than running at a similar speed but did not reach levels that might be considered an injury risk. Braking forces were directed solely posteriorly, as for soccer kicks, but lateral force patterns varied with some players experiencing greater forces medially and others laterally. A more extended support leg, larger peak vertical and braking force during the stance phase and a shorter stance contact time was associated with larger kick leg foot speed at ball contact. No difference existed between the preferred and non-preferred legs for ground reaction forces or support leg mechanics. To punt kick longer, a straighter support leg, less time on the ground and stronger braking should be encouraged. Conditioning the support leg to provide stronger braking potential is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  7. Leg stiffness and sprint ability in amputee sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Shuichi; Umezawa, Shingo; Iwashita, Koudai; Okino, Atsuo; Saito, Taku; Usui, Fumio; Ogata, Toru

    2012-09-01

    Understanding leg stiffness (K (leg)) in amputee sprinters is important for the evaluation of their sprint ability and development of running-specific prostheses (RSP). To investigate K (leg) during hopping in amputee sprinters. Cross-sectional study. Seven transtibial (TT) and seven transfemoral (TF) amputee sprinters, as well as seven non-active able-bodied subjects, performed one-legged hopping matching metronome beats at 2.2 Hz. Amputees hopped on their sound limb whereas able-bodied (AB) subjects hopped on their dominant limb. Using a spring-mass model, K (leg) was calculated from the subjects' body mass, ground contact and flight times. Both TT and TF sprinters demonstrated significantly higher K (leg) than AB subjects. K (leg) during hopping on the sound leg significantly correlated with personal records attained in a 100-m sprint in both TT (r = -0.757) and TF sprinters (r = -0.855). The results of the present study suggest that amputee sprinters have a greater K (leg) during hopping than inactive non-amputees, and that their sprint ability can be predicted from the K (leg) during hopping at 2.2 Hz on the sound limb.

  8. Association between serum hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Chenini, Sofiene; Vialaret, Jérôme; Delaby, Constance; Guiraud, Lily; Gabelle, Audrey; Lopez, Regis; Hirtz, Christophe; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2018-02-08

    To better understand the role of iron homeostasis dysregulation in restless legs syndrome, we compared serum hepcidin and ferritin levels in drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome and healthy controls and studied the relationship between hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome severity. One hundred and eight drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome (65 women; median age, 61.5 years) and 45 controls (28 women; median age, 53.9 years) were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: normal ferritin level (>50 ng/mL) and absence of iron disorders, chronic renal or liver failure, and inflammatory or neurological diseases. Each subject underwent a thorough clinical examination and a polysomnography assessment. Serum hepcidin-25 was quantified using a validated mass spectrometry method. Restless legs syndrome severity was evaluated according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Despite no group difference between normal ferritin levels and demographic features, serum hepcidin level and hepcidin/ferritin ratio were higher in patients than in controls. Hepcidin level and hepcidin/ferritin ratio, but not ferritin level, were positively correlated with periodic leg movements during sleep and wakefulness in the whole sample. Hepcidin level seem to be associated with restless legs syndrome severity in a complex U-shaped relationship, without relationship with age at restless legs syndrome onset, positive family history, sleep and depressive symptoms, genetic background, and polysomnographic measurements. No relationship was found between ferritin level and restless legs syndrome severity. In drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome, hepcidin level is higher than in controls and may be associated with restless legs syndrome clinical severity. This result emphasizes the complex peripheral iron metabolism deregulation in restless legs syndrome, opening potential perspectives for a personalized approach with a hepcidin

  9. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...... history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand...

  10. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Malek

    2013-01-01

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  11. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  12. ecg-kit: a Matlab Toolbox for Cardiovascular Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julio Demski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram kit ('ecg-kit' for Matlab is an application-programming interface (API developed to provide users a common interface to access and process cardiovascular signals. In the current version, the toolbox supports several ECG recording formats, most of them used by the most popular databases, which allows access to more than 7 TB of information, stored in public databases such as those included in Physionet or the THEW project. The toolbox includes several algorithms frequently used in cardiovascular signal processing, such as heartbeat detectors and classifiers, pulse detectors for pulsatile signals and an ECG delineator. In addition, it provides a tool for manually reviewing and correcting the results produced by the automatic algorithms. The results obtained can be stored in a Matlab (.MAT file for backup or subsequent processing, or used to create a PDF report.

  13. Sleep disturbances in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jasmina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Resteless legs syndrome (RLS is chronical neurological disorder characterized by urge to move legs that is usually accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities. Sleep disturbance is one of the main accompanying symptoms of RLS which exists in approximatelly 90% of patients. Impairment of sleep is related to daily sleepiness, depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to detect frequency and characterisitics of sleep-related symptoms in patients with RLS, and its impairrment to daily sleepiness, fatique, anxiety and depression. Methods. We have examinated 94 patients with RLS. The diagnose of RLS was based on questionnaire with 4 specific questions according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG criteria updated in 2003. Severity of symptoms was astimated with IRLSSG Rating Scale, depression and anxiety with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS and sleepiness with Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS. We astimated sleep characteristics and disturbances with specific questionnaire. Results. In our study 79.9% of patients had sleep-related symptoms. Average sleep duration was 6.50 ± 1.42 hours, with average frequency of awakening 2.34 ± 1.69 times per night. Average ESS score was 5.12 ± 4.08 (0–17. Patients with more severe symptoms had higher degree of sleepiness (p = 0.005. Patients with higher symptoms frequency, significantly more often had sleep disturbance (p = 0.016, tiredness and daily sleepiness (p = 0.001. Daily sleepiness (ESS also significantly correlates with depression (p < 0.05 and anxiety (p = 0.012. Conclusion. Our results confirm that sleep disturbances are one of the key accompanying symptoms of RLS which cause daily sleepiness, tiredness, depression and anxiety. Therefore, their early recognition and appropriate treatment must be a priority in RLS patients.

  14. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  15. Nice snake, shame about the legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates; Ruta

    2000-12-01

    Snakes are one of the most extraordinary groups of terrestrial vertebrates, with numerous specializations distinguishing them from other squamates (lizards and their allies). Their musculoskeletal system allows creeping, burrowing, swimming and even gliding, and their predatory habits are aided by chemo- and thermoreceptors, an extraordinary degree of cranial kinesis and, sometimes, powerful venoms. Recent discoveries of indisputable early fossil snakes with posterior legs are generating intense debate about the evolutionary origin of these reptiles. New cladistic analyses dispute the precise significance and phylogenetic placement of these fossils. These conflicting hypotheses imply radically different scenarios of snake origins and relationships with wide biological implications.

  16. Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:27828650

  17. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  18. Food and medical sample freezer kit concept for Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Jaax, J. R.; Proctor, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of food and storage of samples can be provided by a Space Shuttle Orbiter Freezer Kit. The proposed concept is an integrated package consisting of four -23 C (-10 F) storage compartments and a Stirling cycle refrigeration unit. The Stirling cycle mechanical refrigeration was selected over alternative systems for superior efficiency and safety. The trade-offs and a conceptual design of the system are presented.

  19. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native...2. REPORT TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 02/2016–05/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  20. Revised Rapid Soils Analysis Kit (RSAK) - Wet Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    identify characteristics of buried explosives. The existing Rapid Soils Analysis Kit (RSAK), developed at ERDC, was modified to shrink its cube volume...under Project 354894 CALDERA. The technical monitor was Dr. John Q. Ehrgott Jr. The principal investigator for this study was completed by the...and depth of a buried improvised explosive device (IED) based on factors such as soil type, soil density, soil moisture, and dimensional

  1. Efficient ring perception for the Chemistry Development Kit

    OpenAIRE

    May, John W; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) is an open source Java library for manipulating and processing chemical information. A key aspect in handling chemical structures is the determination of the chemical rings. The rings of a structure are used areas including descriptors, stereochemistry, similarity, screening and atom typing. The CDK includes multiple algorithms for determining the rings of a structure on demand. Non-unique descriptions of rings were often used due to the slower p...

  2. Safety of a disposable male circumcision kit. results from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En réponse à ce besoin une compagnie sud-africaine a récemment préparé une trousse à usage unique (Cir-Kit) contenant tous les instruments jetables, les consommables et les produits pharmaceutiques requis pour exécuter une circoncision simple chez de jeunes adultes selon la technique la plus commune utilisée en ...

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of the kanamycin-lyophilized kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eva Maria Widyasari; Misyetti; Teguh Hafiz Ambar W; Witri Nuraeni

    2013-01-01

    Kanamycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and usually used for the treatment of infections when antibiotics like penicillin are less powerful and can not be given. This research was performed to obtain several physicochemical character of 99m Tc-kanamycin which were made in the form of lyophilized kanamycin kit to ensure the later application in humans. Kanamycin diagnostic kit were provided in lyophilized kit comprising kanamycin as ligand compound, pyrophosphate as co-ligand and SnCl 2 as reducing agent. The radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using 0.5 N NaOH as the mobile phase and ascending paper chromatography using Whatman paper 3 with acetone as the mobile phase. The plasma binding protein of 99m Tc-kanamycin was investigated in vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid (TCA) solution, whereas the lipophilicity (log P) was obtained by determination the partition coefficient in organic solvent-water system. Studies on the effect of the amount of radioactivity and the volume of Na 99m TcO 4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-kanamycin were also performed. From this experiment it was obtained that kanamycin lyophilized-kit was hydrophilic, 59.54% of solutions bound to plasma, radiochemical purity was more than 95%, and the final volume of 2 ml dosage was stable up to 2 hours after the addition of 99m Tc with a radioactivity of less then 3 mCi. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Commercial Kit SIRE Nitratase for detecting resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Spindola de Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate a new commercial kit, Kit SIRE Nitratase-PlastLabor, for testing the drug susceptibility of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. METHODS: The accuracy of the Kit SIRE Nitratase was evaluated by examining the susceptibility (streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol of 40 M. tuberculosis isolates, using the proportion method with Lowenstein-Jensen medium or the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. RESULTS: The detection accuracy for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol was 95%, 97.5%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The exceptional accuracy demonstrated by Kit SIRE Nitratase for isoniazid and rifampicin makes the kit an attractive option for screening M. tuberculosis strain resistance.

  5. Basic and clinical investigation of T3 immunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Nakajima, Akiko; Morita, Rikushi; Endo, Keigo; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1976-01-01

    T 3 immunoassay kit was investigated basically and clinically. A good result was obtained at the prescribed incubation temperature and for 16 hours of incubation time. Moreover, it was thought to be possible that incubation time could be shortened to 1 - 4 hours at 37 0 C. Specificity of antibody was good. Recovery of added T 3 was 100+-5 (S.D.) % on an average and parallel of dilution curve of high T 3 serum was also good. Variation coefficient of accuracy of this kit was 1.5 - 2.1 % and that of reproducibility was 1.3 - 6.6 %. Mild hemolysis did not affect measurement value. Serum T 3 level in normals, untreated patients with Basedow's disease and patients with primary hypothyroidism was 142+-21 ng/100 ml, 452+-156 ng/100 ml and 67+-17 ng/100 ml, respectively. Serum T 3 level in patients with Hashimoto's disease was distributed to a wide extent, but that of patients with goiter and simple goiter ranged within normal range. On the other side, serum T 3 level of normal pregnant woman was high and that of patients with anorexia nervosa showed low level. From the above mentioned results, it was concluded that this kit was simple in method and good in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and it was also useful for clinical applications. (M. Tsunoda)

  6. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.

    1997-10-01

    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the 'Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,' 'Manufacturing Plan' and 'Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan' were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier's certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers' certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI's inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier's certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs

  7. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...

  8. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  9. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups- Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different...

  10. Unsupervised Image Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf

  11. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  12. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome After Single Low Dose Quetiapine Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyata, Ahmet Z; Celebi, Fahri; Yargc, Lutfi I

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is an underdiagnosed sensori-motor disorder and psychotropic drugs are one of the main secondary causes of the illness. The most common psychotropic agents that cause restless legs syndrome are antidepressants; however, antipsychotics have also been reported to induce restless legs syndrome. The prevalence, vulnerability factors and the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome are unclear. A possible explanation is that dopaminergic blockade is the main precipitator of the syndrome. Quetiapine-induced restless legs syndrome is another point of interest because of its low binding to D2 receptors. We herein report the case of a restless legs syndrome that emerged after a single low dose quetiapine administration.

  14. Immediate Effect of Positioning Devices on Infant Leg Movement Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Crystal; de Armendi, Joyce T; Smith, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immediate effects of constraining or encouraging positioning devices on leg movement of infants with typical development (TD) and at-risk for developmental delay (AR). Twenty-six infants (13 TD, 13 AR) were placed in the supine position, a jungle gym, or a car seat. Movement sensors on infants' ankles measured acceleration and angular velocity. We calculated the number of leg movements, peak acceleration, and peak rotational rate of each leg movement. A 2 (group) × 3 (condition) analysis of variance with repeated measures on condition tested for a group effect, a condition effect, and a group by condition interaction for leg movement quantity, average peak acceleration, and average peak rotation. Leg movement quantity and average peak acceleration were significantly lower for the car seat condition compared with the supine position or the gym. Positioning device use has an immediate effect on infant leg movement characteristics. Long-term effects remain unknown.

  15. A comparison of ballet dancers with different level of experience in performing single-leg stance on retiré position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the postural stability of single-leg standing on the retiré position in ballet dancers having three different levels of skill. Nine superior experienced female ballet dancers, 9 experienced, and 12 novice dancers performed single-leg standing in the retiré position. The parameters of center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions and the maximum distance between COP and the center of mass (COM) were measured. The inclination angles of body segments (head, torso, and supporting leg) in the frontal plane were also calculated. The findings showed that the novice dancers had a trend of greater torso inclination angles than the experienced dancers but that the superior experienced dancers had greater maximum COM-COP distance in the anterior-posterior direction. Furthermore, both experienced and novice dancers had better balance when standing on the nondominant leg, whereas the superior experienced dancers had similar postural stability between legs. Based on the findings, ballet training should put equal focus on both legs and frontal plane control (medial-lateral direction) should be integrated to ballet training program.

  16. KIT (CD117) Expression in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Haruto; Daa, Tsutomu; Kashima, Kenji; Arakane, Motoki; Urabe, Shogo; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Gamachi, Ayako; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    KIT (CD117, c-kit) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the tumorigenesis of several neoplasms. KIT is expressed by the secretory cells of normal sweat glands. We studied the KIT expression and KIT mutational status in various benign and malignant tumors of eccrine and apocrine glands. We included a total of 108 cases comprising 10 benign and 6 malignant sweat gland tumors, and KIT expression was immunohistochemically detected (positive rate): 10 syringomas (0%), 8 poromas (25%), 20 mixed tumors (40%), 21 spiradenomas (43%), 1 cylindroma (0%), 5 hidradenomas (40%), 7 syringocystadenoma papilliferum cases (0%), 1 papillary hidradenoma (100%), 2 tubulopapillary hidradenomas (50%), 8 hidrocystomas (29%), 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas (100%), 5 porocarcinomas (20%), 6 apocrine carcinomas (33%), 10 extramammary Paget diseases (30%), 1 spiradenocarcinoma (100%), and 1 syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (0%). Most KIT-positive cells were luminal cells, arising from glandular structures. We performed polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism for detecting KIT mutational status. All cases showed no mutations at hot spots for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17). KIT mutation does not seem to be mechanism for KIT expression, but the expression may be from native sweat glands.

  17. Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

    2014-07-02

    The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis.

  18. Nocturnal leg cramps in children: incidence and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A. K.; Wong, B. E.; Chan, P. Y.; Cho, H. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The records of 2527 healthy children seen in an ambulatory care clinic were evaluated for nocturnal leg cramps in the preceding 12 months, frequency and duration of the cramps, whether the cramps affected one leg or both legs at a time, whether there was associated muscle cramps in feet, whether the cramps occurred when the child was awake or asleep, and whether there was residual tenderness in the affected muscles. Nocturnal leg cramps were present in 185 children for an overall incidence of 7.3%. Leg cramps were noted only in children aged > or = 8 years. The incidence increased at 12 years and peaked at 16 to 18 years of age. A majority (81.6%) of the affected children had nocturnal leg cramps 1 to 4 times per year. The mean duration of episodes was 1.7 minutes. Leg cramps were unilateral in 98.9% of cases and the ipsilateral foot also was involved in 18.9% of cases. One hundred thirty-five (73%) children had leg cramps while asleep, and the remaining 23 (12.4%) children had leg cramps in either state. Fifty-seven (30.8%) children had residual tenderness in the affected muscles. The mean duration of residual tenderness was 33.2 minutes (range: 2 minutes-1 day). We conclude that nocturnal leg cramps are common in children aged > 12 years. A majority of the affected children have leg cramps 1 to 4 times per year. The cramps are usually unilateral and occur when the children are asleep. Normal duration of the leg cramp is < 2 minutes. Residual tenderness is present in approximately 30% of the affected children. Residual tenderness, if present, usually lasts for half an hour. PMID:10388258

  19. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  20. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  1. Quantifying kinematic differences between land and water during squats, split squats, and single-leg squats in a healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Severin

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercises can be used in clinical and sporting disciplines for both rehabilitation and sports training. However, there is limited knowledge on the influence of water immersion on the kinematics of exercises commonly used in rehabilitation and fitness programs. The aim of this study was to use inertial sensors to quantify differences in kinematics and movement variability of bodyweight squats, split squats, and single-leg squats performed on dry land and whilst immersed to the level of the greater trochanter. During two separate testing sessions, 25 active healthy university students (22.3±2.9 yr. performed ten repetitions of each exercise, whilst tri-axial inertial sensors (100 Hz recorded their trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for differences in segment orientation and speed, movement variability, and waveform patterns between environments, while coefficient of variance was used to assess differences in movement variability. Between-environment differences in segment orientation and speed were portrayed by plotting the mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (CI throughout the tasks. The results showed that the depth of the squat and split squat were unaffected by the changed environment while water immersion allowed for a deeper single leg squat. The different environments had significant effects on the sagittal plane orientations and speeds for all segments. Water immersion increased the degree of movement variability of the segments in all exercises, except for the shank in the frontal plane, which showed more variability on land. Without compromising movement depth, the aquatic environment induces more upright trunk and shank postures during squats and split squats. The aquatic environment allows for increased squat depth during the single-leg squat, and increased shank motions in the frontal plane. Our observations therefore support the use of water-based squat tasks for rehabilitation as

  2. Quantifying kinematic differences between land and water during squats, split squats, and single-leg squats in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises can be used in clinical and sporting disciplines for both rehabilitation and sports training. However, there is limited knowledge on the influence of water immersion on the kinematics of exercises commonly used in rehabilitation and fitness programs. The aim of this study was to use inertial sensors to quantify differences in kinematics and movement variability of bodyweight squats, split squats, and single-leg squats performed on dry land and whilst immersed to the level of the greater trochanter. During two separate testing sessions, 25 active healthy university students (22.3±2.9 yr.) performed ten repetitions of each exercise, whilst tri-axial inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded their trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for differences in segment orientation and speed, movement variability, and waveform patterns between environments, while coefficient of variance was used to assess differences in movement variability. Between-environment differences in segment orientation and speed were portrayed by plotting the mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (CI) throughout the tasks. The results showed that the depth of the squat and split squat were unaffected by the changed environment while water immersion allowed for a deeper single leg squat. The different environments had significant effects on the sagittal plane orientations and speeds for all segments. Water immersion increased the degree of movement variability of the segments in all exercises, except for the shank in the frontal plane, which showed more variability on land. Without compromising movement depth, the aquatic environment induces more upright trunk and shank postures during squats and split squats. The aquatic environment allows for increased squat depth during the single-leg squat, and increased shank motions in the frontal plane. Our observations therefore support the use of water-based squat tasks for rehabilitation as they appear to

  3. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  4. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  5. Leg Rejuvenation: A Combination Approach: A Review and Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Mahoney, Anne M; Gold, Michael; Lawrence, Naomi

    2016-05-01

    Patients increasingly seek to enhance the appearance of their legs. Elimination of unwanted leg veins, reduction of epidermal photo-aging changes such as solar lentigines and keratoses, tightening of skin laxity and reduction of adipose tissue are among the most commonly requested goals. Many patients require a combination approach to address their concerns. It is important for dermatologists to be aware of the multitude of procedures that can be performed, often in combination, to rejuvenate the leg. The purpose of this review article was to discuss procedures for improving the appearance of the leg and to share the authors experience, especially in the combination approach to leg rejuvenation. A literature search was performed to investigate cosmetic procedures being performed on the leg, with an emphasis on controlled or randomized studies. In addition, the authors contributed their personal experience. Our discussion of the literature review highlights the treatments for leg veins, unwanted fat, cellulite, and photodamage of the legs that are most supported in peer-reviewed publications. A synergistic, combination approach to leg rejuvenation works best. This includes the use of injectable agents, energy-based devices, and more invasive surgical procedures.

  6. View-Invariant Gait Recognition Through Genetic Template Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Ebenezer R. H. P.; Elias, Susan; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Easwarakumar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Template-based model-free approach provides by far the most successful solution to the gait recognition problem in literature. Recent work discusses how isolating the head and leg portion of the template increase the performance of a gait recognition system making it robust against covariates like clothing and carrying conditions. However, most involve a manual definition of the boundaries. The method we propose, the genetic template segmentation (GTS), employs the genetic algorithm to automate the boundary selection process. This method was tested on the GEI, GEnI and AEI templates. GEI seems to exhibit the best result when segmented with our approach. Experimental results depict that our approach significantly outperforms the existing implementations of view-invariant gait recognition.

  7. Double segmental tibial fractures - an unusual fracture pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Kamal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A case of a 50-year-old pedestrian who was hit by a bike and suffered fractures of both bones of his right leg was presented. Complete clinical and radiographic assessment showed double segmental fractures of the tibia and multisegmental fractures of the fibula. Review of the literature revealed that this fracture pattern was unique and only a single case was reported so far. Moreover, we discussed the possible mechanisms which can lead to such an injury. We also discussed the management of segmental tibial fracture and the difficulties encountered with them. This case was managed by modern osteosynthesis tech- nique with a pleasing outcome. Key words: Fracture, bone; Tibia; Fibula; Nails

  8. Summertime blues? A re-examination of the seasonality of web searches for restless legs and leg cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Shaun T

    2017-09-01

    Studies that examined Internet searches for restless legs and leg cramps have found a strong seasonal effect with peaks in summer and troughs in winter months. The present study used an econometric approach to examine the seasonality of such searches in greater detail. Monthly relative search volumes for 'restless legs' and 'leg cramps' from 2004 to March 2017 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia were obtained from Google Trends. Average percentage change from winter to summer months was examined. The TRAMO-SEATS procedure from the DEMETRA statistical software was used to decompose the data into trend, seasonal and noise components and to determine whether a combined seasonality test was positive. There were substantial percentage increases in Google Trends searches between winter and summer months regarding restless legs in the UK (median increase 46%) and Australia (33%) and regarding leg cramps in the UK (95%) and Australia (50%). However, the combined seasonality test was positive only for leg cramps and not for restless legs in both countries: although there was significant stable seasonality in restless legs searches, this was outweighed by substantial moving seasonality and noise components. Examination of average percentage increase in search volume from winter to summer exaggerates the degree of seasonality. Seasonal effects for restless legs searches are non-significant when the trend and noise components of the data are considered, although this does not exclude a clinical significance for the identified stable seasonality. Significant seasonality, with a summer peak, is present for leg cramps searches and suggests an increase in the incidence or severity of leg cramps in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-embryonic development in the mite suborder Opilioacarida, with notes on segmental homology in Parasitiformes (Arachnida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompen, Hans; Vázquez, Ma Magdalena; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    In order to study homology among the major lineages of the mite (super)order Parasitiformes, developmental patterns in Opilioacarida are documented, emphasizing morphology of the earliest, post-embryonic instars. Developmental patterns are summarized for all external body structures, based on examination of material in four different genera. Development includes an egg, a 6-legged prelarva and larva, three 8-legged nymphal instars, and the adults, for the most complete ontogenetic sequence in Parasitiformes. The prelarva and larva appear to be non-feeding. Examination of cuticular structures over ontogeny allows development of an updated model for body segmentation and sensillar distribution patterns in Opilioacarida. This model includes a body made up of a well-developed ocular segment plus at most 17 additional segments. In the larvae and protonymphs each segment may carry up to six pairs of sensilla (setae or lyrifissures) arranged is distinct series (J, Z, S, Sv, Zv, Jv). The post-protonymphal instars add two more series (R and Rv) but no extra segments. This basic model is compatible with sensillar patterns in other Parasitiformes, leading to the hypothesis that all taxa in that (super)order may have the same segmental ground plan. The substantial segmental distortion implied in the model can be explained using a single process involving differential growth in the coxal regions of all appendage-bearing segments.

  10. Diagnosis of stenosis within the popliteal–femoral venous segment upon clinical presentation with a venous ulcer and subsequent successful treatment with venoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Emma; Sheikh, Alina; Beckett, David; Whiteley, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the diagnosis and treatment of a lower limb venous ulcer with abnormal underlying venous pathology. One male patient presented with bilateral varicose veins and a right lower limb ulcer. Upon investigation, full-leg duplex ultrasonography revealed total incompetence of the great saphenous vein in the left leg. In the right leg, duplex ultrasonography showed proximal incompetence of the small saphenous vein, and dilation of the anterior accessory saphenous vein, which remained competent. Incidentally, two venous collaterals connected onto the distal region of both these segments, emerging from a scarred, atrophic popliteal–femoral segment. An interventional radiologist performed venoplasty to this popliteal–femoral venous segment. Intervention was successful and 10 weeks post procedure ulceration healed. Popliteal–femoral venous stenosis may be associated with venous ulceration in some cases and may be successfully treated with balloon venoplasty intervention. PMID:29147566

  11. Diagnosis of stenosis within the popliteal-femoral venous segment upon clinical presentation with a venous ulcer and subsequent successful treatment with venoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Emma; Sheikh, Alina; Beckett, David; Whiteley, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the diagnosis and treatment of a lower limb venous ulcer with abnormal underlying venous pathology. One male patient presented with bilateral varicose veins and a right lower limb ulcer. Upon investigation, full-leg duplex ultrasonography revealed total incompetence of the great saphenous vein in the left leg. In the right leg, duplex ultrasonography showed proximal incompetence of the small saphenous vein, and dilation of the anterior accessory saphenous vein, which remained competent. Incidentally, two venous collaterals connected onto the distal region of both these segments, emerging from a scarred, atrophic popliteal-femoral segment. An interventional radiologist performed venoplasty to this popliteal-femoral venous segment. Intervention was successful and 10 weeks post procedure ulceration healed. Popliteal-femoral venous stenosis may be associated with venous ulceration in some cases and may be successfully treated with balloon venoplasty intervention.

  12. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  13. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  14. Identifying anterior segment crystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E

    1991-01-01

    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  15. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  16. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  17. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups...... and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  18. Development of Optics Kit for schools in developing countries: International School of Photonics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; James, Jemy; Krisha, Yedhu; Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2009-06-01

    In India, the pedagogy of science education is "believe what text book says". Providing schools with appropriate teaching materials to enhance teaching has always been a challenge in a developing country like India. Generally it is not possible for a normal school in India to afford the expensive teaching materials to teach through demonstrations and experiments. Thus students are forced to believe what text book says rather than learning concepts through experiments. The International School of Photonics SPIE (International Society for Optical Engineering) student chapter came up with `Optics kit' to supplement the teaching of optics in school level. `Optics kit', developed with indigenously procured components, could be sold at an affordable prize for an average Indian School. The chapter is currently selling the kit for less than $20. The content of the kit is at par with many kits already available commercially in developed countries, and the price is just 10% compared to those kits. The kit is aimed to higher secondary level students in India, where students are taught Ray optics and basics of Wave Optics. The content of the kit is developed based on this syllabus. The Optics Kit contains simple optical elements like lens, grating, polarizer, mirror, diode laser etc. The kit can be used to demonstrate optics phenomena like interference, diffraction, polarization etc. The kit was developed based on the feedback gathered by the chapter through its outreach activities. The syllabus for the kit was developed through thorough discussion with educational experts in the field of Physics. The student community welcomed the optics kit with overwhelming enthusiasm and hence the project proved to be successful in giving an opportunity for students to "See and Believe" what they are learning.

  19. Single-cell analysis of the fate of c-kit-positive bone marrow cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarna, Anna; Sanada, Fumihiro; Matsuda, Alex; Kim, Junghyun; Signore, Sergio; Pereira, João D.; Sorrentino, Andrea; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Cannatà, Antonio; Hosoda, Toru; Rota, Marcello; Crea, Filippo; Anversa, Piero; Leri, Annarosa

    2017-10-01

    The plasticity of c-kit-positive bone marrow cells (c-kit-BMCs) in tissues different from their organ of origin remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that c-kit-BMCs are functionally heterogeneous and only a subgroup of these cells possesses cardiomyogenic potential. Population-based assays fall short of identifying the properties of individual stem cells, imposing on us the introduction of single cell-based approaches to track the fate of c-kit-BMCs in the injured heart; they included viral gene-tagging, multicolor clonal-marking and transcriptional profiling. Based on these strategies, we report that single mouse c-kit-BMCs expand clonally within the infarcted myocardium and differentiate into specialized cardiac cells. Newly-formed cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and c-kit-BMCs showed in their genome common sites of viral integration, providing strong evidence in favor of the plasticity of a subset of BMCs expressing the c-kit receptor. Similarly, individual c-kit-BMCs, which were infected with multicolor reporters and injected in infarcted hearts, formed cardiomyocytes and vascular cells organized in clusters of similarly colored cells. The uniform distribution of fluorescent proteins in groups of specialized cells documented the polyclonal nature of myocardial regeneration. The transcriptional profile of myogenic c-kit-BMCs and whole c-kit-BMCs was defined by RNA sequencing. Genes relevant for engraftment, survival, migration, and differentiation were enriched in myogenic c-kit-BMCs, a cell subtype which could not be assigned to a specific hematopoietic lineage. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the bone marrow comprises a category of cardiomyogenic, vasculogenic and/or fibrogenic c-kit-positive cells and a category of c-kit-positive cells that retains an undifferentiated state within the damaged heart.

  20. Mutations in Exons 9 and 13 of KIT Gene Are Rare Events in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Jerzy; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Rys, Janusz; Kordek, Radzislaw; Nassar, Aziza; Sobin, Leslie H.; Miettinen, Markku

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, typically express the KIT protein. Activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the c-kit gene have been shown in a subset of GISTs. These mutations lead into ligand-independent activation of the tyrosine kinase of c-kit, and have a transforming effect in vitro. Several groups have studied the clinical implication of the c-kit mutation status of exon 11 in GISTs and a possible relationship between c-kit mutations and malignant behavior has been established. Recently, a 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and missense mutations, 1945A>G in exon 13 of the c-kit gene were reported. The frequency and clinical importance of these findings are unknown. In this study we evaluated 200 GISTs for the presence of mutations in exons 9 and 13 of c-kit. Six cases revealed 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and two cases 1945A>G mutation in exon 13. All tumors with mutations in exon 9 and 13 lacked mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. None of the analyzed tumors had more than one type of c-kit mutation. All but one of the eight tumors with mutations in exon 9 or 13 of the c-kit gene were histologically and clinically malignant. All four of six cases with exon 9 mutation of which location of primary tumor was known, were small intestinal, suggesting that this type of mutation could preferentially occur in small intestinal tumors. Exon 9 and 13 mutations seem to be rare, and they cover only a small portion (8%) of the balance of GISTs that do not have mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. This finding indicates that other genetic alterations may activate c-kit in GISTs, or that KIT is not activated by mutations in all cases. PMID:11021812

  1. Spinal segmental dysgenesis CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...

  2. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  3. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  4. Gabapentin Enacarbil: Pharmacotherapy of Restless Legs Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent sleep-associated movement disorder greatly affecting patients’ quality of life (QoL. Several drugs can be used to control this condition although the first-line dopamine agents often cause adverse effects. Non-dopaminergic drugs such as oral gabapentin (GBP have been more recently advocated. Despite ameliorating RLS symptoms, GBP's pharmacokinetic limitations restrict its overall effectiveness. A novel specifically designed prodrug, gabapentin enacarbil (GE, has demonstrated successful RLS alleviation with a superior pharmacokinetic profile. This review aims to examine the efficacy and tolerability of both GBP and GE as pharmacotherapy for RLS. Despite some heterogeneity and limitations across research methodologies, GE appears to be a potential RLS therapy superior to GBP and other dopaminergic agents.

  5. [Pseudo-radicular referred leg pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heymann, W

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-radicular leg pain as initially described by Bruegger more than 55 years ago was at that time a genius explanation for so many non-radicular pain syndromes that needed not any kind of surgical intervention but in first line a manual treatment or a treatment by therapeutic local anesthetics. Today we describe this pain as a "referred pain" originating from other anatomic structures that may occur during the development of chronic pain. Nevertheless this pain is found in many patients and it still seems to be a big problem for many physicians and surgeons. Imaging does not help either. The history and the clinical symptoms, the examinations, the chain reactions in the motor system as well as the treatment options from the point of view of manual medicine are described.

  6. Increasing Flight Software Reuse with OpenSatKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David C.

    2018-01-01

    In January 2015 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) released the Core Flight System (cFS) as open source under the NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) license. The cFS is based on flight software (FSW) developed for 12 spacecraft spanning nearly two decades of effort and it can provide about a third of the FSW functionality for a low-earth orbiting scientific spacecraft. The cFS is a FSW framework that is portable, configurable, and extendable using a product line deployment model. However, the components are maintained separately so the user must configure, integrate, and deploy them as a cohesive functional system. This can be very challenging especially for organizations such as universities building cubesats that have minimal experience developing FSW. Supporting universities was one of the primary motivators for releasing the cFS under NOSA. This paper describes the OpenSatKit that was developed to address the cFS deployment challenges and to serve as a cFS training platform for new users. It provides a fully functional out-of-the box software system that includes NASA's cFS, Ball Aerospace's command and control system COSMOS, and a NASA dynamic simulator called 42. The kit is freely available since all of the components have been released as open source. The kit runs on a Linux platform, includes 8 cFS applications, several kit-specific applications, and built in demos illustrating how to use key application features. It also includes the software necessary to port the cFS to a Raspberry Pi and instructions for configuring COSMOS to communicate with the target. All of the demos and test scripts can be rerun unchanged with the cFS running on the Raspberry Pi. The cFS uses a 3-tiered layered architecture including a platform abstraction layer, a Core Flight Executive (cFE) middle layer, and an application layer. Similar to smart phones, the cFS application layer is the key architectural feature for users to extend the FSW functionality to meet their

  7. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammad Yaser Salman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG. Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  8. Analytical framework and tool kit for SEA follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mans; Wiklund, Hans; Finnveden, Goeran; Jonsson, Daniel K.; Lundberg, Kristina; Tyskeng, Sara; Wallgren, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research and applications have so far neglected the ex post stages of the process, also called SEA follow-up. Tool kits and methodological frameworks for engaging effectively with SEA follow-up have been conspicuously missing. In particular, little has so far been learned from the much more mature evaluation literature although many aspects are similar. This paper provides an analytical framework and tool kit for SEA follow-up. It is based on insights and tools developed within programme evaluation and environmental systems analysis. It is also grounded in empirical studies into real planning and programming practices at the regional level, but should have relevance for SEA processes at all levels. The purpose of the framework is to promote a learning-oriented and integrated use of SEA follow-up in strategic decision making. It helps to identify appropriate tools and their use in the process, and to systematise the use of available data and knowledge across the planning organization and process. It distinguishes three stages in follow-up: scoping, analysis and learning, identifies the key functions and demonstrates the informational linkages to the strategic decision-making process. The associated tool kit includes specific analytical and deliberative tools. Many of these are applicable also ex ante, but are then used in a predictive mode rather than on the basis of real data. The analytical element of the framework is organized on the basis of programme theory and 'DPSIR' tools. The paper discusses three issues in the application of the framework: understanding the integration of organizations and knowledge; understanding planners' questions and analytical requirements; and understanding interests, incentives and reluctance to evaluate

  9. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  10. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  11. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P leg vascular resistance (P restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Criteria in diagnosing nocturnal leg cramps : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Background: Up to 33% of the general population over 50 years of age are affected by nocturnal leg cramps. Currently there are no generally accepted clinical characteristics, which identify nocturnal leg cramps. This study aims to identify these clinical characteristics and to differentiate between

  13. How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps? KidsHealth / For Parents / How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps? Print Now that I'm in my third trimester, I keep getting these painful cramps in my calves. Sometimes they even wake me ...

  14. Recurrent Metachronous Acute Compartment Syndrome in the Legs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: A seven-year-old boy presented with four separate episodes of acute compartment syndrome of the legs within three years. The recurrent nature of the illness prompted detail review of the records of the child. RESULTS: There was involvement of each leg twice between the ages of three and seven years ...

  15. In-patient management of leg ulcers | Ohanaka | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review in-patient management of leg ulcers and to compare our experiences with those from other similar centres. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Patients: Forty five patients hospitalisad with leg ulcers. Results: There were 27 male and 18 females (MF 3:2) ...

  16. Common Leg Aliment Of Poultry In Plateau State, Nigeria | Ogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and causes of leg ailment in poultrythrough questionnaire survey and farm visitation. Post mortem and laboratory examination were also conducted. The results showed that different species of poultry were affected with varous types of leg ailments; out of which local ...

  17. Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K

    2012-01-01

    Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....

  18. Leg ulcers: a review of their impact on daily life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Heinen, M.M.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Rooij, M.J.M. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Achterberg, T. van

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current nursing care for leg ulcer patients often focuses on wound care and providing compression therapy. Nurses perceive leg ulcer patients as 'under-served' with regard to problems patients experience in daily life. An overview of patient problems is a first and essential step in the

  19. The recalcitrant venous leg ulcer - A never ending story?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan); M.B. Maessen-Visch (Birgitte); S.I. Langendoen; K.P. de Roos; H.A.M. Neumann (Martino)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In general, four particular causes of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers may be distinguished. These are foot pump insufficiency, chronic venous compartment syndrome and non-re-canalized popliteal vein thrombosis. The fourth cause of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers is

  20. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The leg vibrations of honeybees standing on a vibrating substrate were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry, both in freely standing bees and in bees attached to a holder. In both cases, no resonances were found. In the fixed bee preparation, the legs moved with approximately the same amplitude...

  1. A Brief Survey Paper on Multi-Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Behmanesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief survey on multi-legged robots and their applications in agriculture such as for harvesting. Multi-legged robots have the benefit of more flexibility and adapt to different rough terrain in a better way. They also have very important applications in fulfilling the dangerous tasks such as mine detecting.

  2. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: Uncommon cause of a leg ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, L. B.; Brenninkmeijer, E. E. A.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Most leg ulcers are vascular based. Only if vascular therapy fails other causes are considered. We report the case of a female with incapacitating leg ulcers caused by a rare condition which was only diagnosed after failing treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The female had an extensive previous

  3. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...... telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors. In both groups, the change from an upright to a supine position at the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous increment in the blood flow rate of 30-40% with a decrease in the central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. After...... approximately 1 h of sleep, a considerable increase in blood flow rate was seen in both patient and control groups which persisted for nearly 100 min. In the patient group, the mean increase was 137% compared to a mean increase of 68% in the control group (P less than 0.01). The blood flow then returned...

  4. A Safety-Critical Java Technology Compatibility Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Ravn, Anders P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  5. Tool kit for the staff mentor: strategies for improving retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Martha R; Felts, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Retention of new graduates in nursing continues to be a significant workplace issue, particularly in light of the heightening nursing shortage. Experienced nurses are in a pivotal position to positively impact retention, and, because of this, they can be called "keystoners". Mentoring, an important role of the keystoner, requires specific skills and knowledge and can be learned. A tool kit designed to develop the mentoring skills of keystoners is described. The result of successful mentoring among keystoners can be multifaceted; workplace satisfaction and higher retention of new graduates are targeted outcomes.

  6. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  7. Energetically self-sufficient robot group study kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rovbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the project of educational and research software and hardware kit designed for use in case-based educational project activities based on the theme of energetically autonomous robots. An important feature of the complex is its interdisciplinarity since robotics combines many fields of science and technology — mechanical design, electronics, programming, elements of artificial intelligence, energy science and others. Students can receive basic knowledge in these areas as well as gain practical skills in solving real problems that require a convergent approach. The kit serves as an experimental basis that allows to study intricacies of robot control and its hardware and software design while making structural changes, including using different power units: solar, fuel, thermoelectric and others. Power units (converters and the various sources of renewable energy may be considered both from the theoretical point of view, i.e. from the principles of their functioning and from the practical aspect — studying their practical application in real systems. Another important aspect of the system is the development of software architecture for a robot and for a team of robots as well as studying the interactions between them. In addition to performing the target task, ancillary tasks such as maintaining the battery level, communication with other team members in a multi-agent system, should be considered in the control algorithm of the robot, which allows to study the distribution of priorities between these objectives, as shown in the example of multicriteria optimization. The prototype of the kit and its usage according to the described approach have been partially validated by conducting computational experiments with algorithms based on different search methods (random search, closest source and multi-criteria optimization methods, multi-agent paradigm and adaptive control which show a variety of possible approaches and

  8. Short-interval leg movements during sleep entail greater cardiac activation than periodic leg movements during sleep in restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are sequences of ≥4 motor events with intermovement intervals (IMI) of 10-90 s. PLMS are a supportive diagnostic criterion for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and entail cardiac activation, particularly when associated with arousal. RLS patients also over-express short-interval leg movements during sleep (SILMS), which have IMI leg movements. We found that the duration of the R-R interval decrease with SILMS doublets was significantly longer than that with PLMS, whereas the maximal decrease in R-R interval was similar. Scoring SILMS in RLS patients may therefore be relevant from a cardiac autonomic perspective. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Laboratory on Legs: An Architecture for Adjustable Morphology with Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    evenly throughout the body, all mounted on the waterjet cut frame. Through the use of a USB bus as the common communication method within the robot...according to the overarching “spring assisted actuation” hypothesis just described. The body of Canid is similar to XRL, built from waterjet cut aluminum...on cheap, relatively fast turn-around water jet cut frame components and compliant leg and spine materials offers some useful lessons in effective

  10. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.

  11. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  12. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  13. Effects of gabapentin enacarbil on restless legs syndrome and leg pain in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Both RLS and DLB can be effectively treated by dopaminergic medications, suggesting the role of dopamine dysfunction in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Here, I report on a Japanese woman with probable DLB and RLS who was treated with gabapentin enacarbil, a non-dopaminergic agent. Because a dopamine agonist, a first-line therapy for moderate to severe RLS, caused the occurrence of metamorphopsia, an alternative treatment of gabapentin enacarbil was used; this treatment improved the patient's RLS without worsening her psychiatric symptoms. An alternative treatment is desirable for DLB patients with RLS because they often experience intolerable side-effects with a dopamine agonist, especially visual hallucinations. Administering gabapentin enacarbil also improved the continuous leg pain that occurred in conjunction with the development of RLS. Although the neurobiological mechanism in the development of pain remains unclear, a range of non-dopaminergic structures likely mediated pain processing in DLB in the present case based on neuropharmacological results. This is the first report reporting the effects of gabapentin enacarbil for RLS and leg pain in a DLB patient with psychiatric symptoms. © 2014 The Author. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. LEGS AND TRUNK MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING WALK TRAINING WITH RESTRICTED LEG MUSCLE BLOOD FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikako Sakamaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min, with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measured upper (3.8%, P < 0.05 and lower leg (3.2%, P < 0. 05 muscle volume increased significantly, whereas the muscle volume of the gluteus maximus (-0.6% and iliopsoas (1.8% and the muscle CSA of the lumber L4-L5 (-1.0 did not change. There was no significant change in muscle volume in the walk training alone. Our results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow walk training elicits hypertrophy only in the distal blood flow restricted leg muscles. Exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to increase muscle mass in the non- blood flow restricted muscles (gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles.

  15. Validation tools for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padfield, Dirk; Ross, James

    2009-02-01

    A large variety of image analysis tasks require the segmentation of various regions in an image. For example, segmentation is required to generate accurate models of brain pathology that are important components of modern diagnosis and therapy. While the manual delineation of such structures gives accurate information, the automatic segmentation of regions such as the brain and tumors from such images greatly enhances the speed and repeatability of quantifying such structures. The ubiquitous need for such algorithms has lead to a wide range of image segmentation algorithms with various assumptions, parameters, and robustness. The evaluation of such algorithms is an important step in determining their effectiveness. Therefore, rather than developing new segmentation algorithms, we here describe validation methods for segmentation algorithms. Using similarity metrics comparing the automatic to manual segmentations, we demonstrate methods for optimizing the parameter settings for individual cases and across a collection of datasets using the Design of Experiment framework. We then employ statistical analysis methods to compare the effectiveness of various algorithms. We investigate several region-growing algorithms from the Insight Toolkit and compare their accuracy to that of a separate statistical segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithms are used with their optimized parameters to automatically segment the brain and tumor regions in MRI images of 10 patients. The validation tools indicate that none of the ITK algorithms studied are able to outperform with statistical significance the statistical segmentation algorithm although they perform reasonably well considering their simplicity.

  16. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  17. Segmentation and seismicity of the ultraslow Knipovich and Gakkel mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarayskaya, Yu. A.

    2017-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of detailed bathymetric data obtained during legs 24-27 of the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov has been carried out on the Knipovich Ridge. The revealed variations of magmatic activity along the axis supplement the available information on segmentation of this ridge [7, 19, 33]. The new statistical data characterize seismic activity under settings of ultraslow oblique extension. As follows from the seismic data, the Knipovich Ridge belongs to structural units with intermediate geodynamics between the spreading ridge and transform fault. Magmatic and amagmatic segments of the Arctic ultraslow Knipovich and Gakkel mid-ocean ridges are compared.

  18. Application of an FSH-RIA-kit in the clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzer, W.; Herzmann, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung); Lisse, K.; Friedrich, W. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    First clinical experiences with an FSH-RIA-kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research are reported. Simultaneously carried out LH and FSH determination during the menstruation cycle with special regard of the middle of the cycle revealed increased hormone values in the preovulatory phase. The problem of evaluation of hormone values achieved by different kits (standards), was investigated simultaneous determination of the sera using the own and an imported kit.

  19. Development of an Immunochromatographic Assay Kit Using Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Rapid Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Saichi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Aizawa, Hideki; Miyoshi, Kazutomi; Ohkubo, Michio; Hiwatashi, Eiji; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    We developed an immunochromatographic assay kit that uses fluorescent silica nanoparticles bound to anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies (fluorescent immunochromatographic assay [FICGA]) and evaluated its efficacy for the detection of Acanthamoeba and diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The sensitivity of the FICGA kit was evaluated using samples of Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts diluted to various concentrations. A conventional immunochromatographic assay kit with latex labels (LICGA) was...

  20. The clinical testing of a Hungarian-made triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyertyanfy, G.; Foeldes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The parameters of the calibration curve of the new Hungarian RK-11 kit for the determination of the total T3 content of the serum and the reliability of the results were studied. The data of the measurements made on a number of patients by RK-11, Biodata and Byk-Mallinckrodt kits were compared. The new kit seems to be applicable to the determination of the total T3 content in the serum. (author)

  1. Expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma

    OpenAIRE

    YI, CUNJIAN; LI, LI; CHEN, KEMING; LIN, SHENGRONG; LIU, XIANGQIONG

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) in epithelial ovarian tumor cells and tumor stroma. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant or benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissues and 20 normal ovarian tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma tissue samples was analyzed. A significant increase (P

  2. Reproductive health kits provided by UNFPA to Kosovar refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In addition to food, clothing, and shelter, the hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing Kosovo need primary health care services, including reproductive health care. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that of a population of 350,000 refugees in Albania, 35,000 are women in need of prenatal or postnatal care. According to UNFPA, 7 babies were born in 1 refugee camp alone in one 24-hour period, and there are widespread reports of the systematic rape of ethnic Albanian women as they flee. In response, UNFPA announced in early April that it is coordinating the delivery of emergency reproductive health kits to Albanian refugee camps. Each kit contains clean delivery supplies, emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) for women who have been raped, counseling information for post-rape trauma, supplies to treat the complications of unsafe abortion, and condoms, IUDs, and other contraceptive methods. UNFPA expects to send enough supplies to care for the refugees for up to 6 months, with most supplies aimed at providing safe deliveries. The Vatican immediately condemned UNFPA's distribution of ECPs. Whether the US will renew its funding of UNFPA is pending before Congress.

  3. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of osteocalcin RIA kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousaka, Tadako; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Kitamura, Nobuyasu; Aoki, Jun; Uneno, Susumu; Sone, Teruki; Kasai, Ryuuichi; Torizuka, Kanji.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratory performance of a double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit for measuring osteocalcin (OC) was tested for incubation, the effect of anticoagulants, serum storage, dilution, recovery, and reproducibility. Serum OC concentrations increased rapidly with the addition of 5 mM or more ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, although they were not affected by the addition of heparin. Serum OC measurements, obtained at 2 or 3 weeks after sampling, tended to be lower. The other items, except for dilution, were reliable. Using the OC RIA kit, serum OC concentrations were measured in 161 patients with various diseases and 408 volunteers. Normal upper limit for OC was defined as 11.48 ng/ml. Serum OC concentrations were extremely high up to the age of puberty, and thereafter decreased rapidly with the constant values after the age of 20. Women had increased OC values after the latter half of their fourties. Primary hyperparathyroidism, bone metastases of malignancy, and malignant hypercalcemia were occasionally associated with increased OC values, in contrast to hypoparathyroidism showing decreased OC values. Extremely high values of OC were seen in many of the dialysis patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of osteocalcin RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousaka, Tadako; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Kitamura, Nobuyasu; Aoki, Jun; Uneno, Susumu; Sone, Teruki; Kasai, Ryuuichi; Torizuka, Kanji

    1987-06-01

    The laboratory performance of a double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit for measuring osteocalcin (OC) was tested for incubation, the effect of anticoagulants, serum storage, dilution, recovery, and reproducibility. Serum OC concentrations increased rapidly with the addition of 5 mM or more ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, although they were not affected by the addition of heparin. Serum OC measurements, obtained at 2 or 3 weeks after sampling, tended to be lower. The other items, except for dilution, were reliable. Using the OC RIA kit, serum OC concentrations were measured in 161 patients with various diseases and 408 volunteers. Normal upper limit for OC was defined as 11.48 ng/ml. Serum OC concentrations were extremely high up to the age of puberty, and thereafter decreased rapidly with the constant values after the age of 20. Women had increased OC values after the latter half of their fourties. Primary hyperparathyroidism, bone metastases of malignancy, and malignant hypercalcemia were occasionally associated with increased OC values, in contrast to hypoparathyroidism showing decreased OC values. Extremely high values of OC were seen in many of the dialysis patients. (Namekawa, K.).

  5. Optimizing direct amplification of forensic commercial kits for STR determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Bobillo, M C; Sala, A; Corach, D

    2017-04-01

    Direct DNA amplification in forensic genotyping reduces analytical time when large sample sets are being analyzed. The amplification success depends mainly upon two factors: on one hand, the PCR chemistry and, on the other, the type of solid substrate where the samples are deposited. We developed a workflow strategy aiming to optimize times and cost when starting from blood samples spotted onto diverse absorbent substrates. A set of 770 blood samples spotted onto Blood cards, Whatman ® 3 MM paper, FTA™ Classic cards, and Whatman ® Grade 1 was analyzed by a unified working strategy including a low-cost pre-treatment, a PCR amplification volume scale-down, and the use of the 3500 Genetic Analyzer as the analytical platform. Samples were analyzed using three different commercial multiplex STR direct amplification kits. The efficiency of the strategy was evidenced by a higher percentage of high-quality profiles obtained (over 94%), a reduced number of re-injections (average 3.2%), and a reduced amplification failure rate (lower than 5%). Average peak height ratio among different commercial kits was 0.91, and the intra-locus balance showed values ranging from 0.92 to 0.94. A comparison with previously reported results was performed demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed modifications. The protocol described herein showed high performance, producing optimal quality profiles, and being both time and cost effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral study of cnc-retrofitting kits for lathe machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a Computerized Numerical Controlled (CNC) retrofitting kit for a lathe machine, study its behavior and compare its performance with the retrofitting kit already designed and fabricated at (Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS). Design calculations were performed assuming 100 mm work piece diameter and 800 mm length of stock using tool materials HSS, uncoated carbide, coated carbide, ceramic and cermet tools for different materials. Also cutting, thrust and radial forces on a single point cutting tool were determined. Stepper motors of torque 972 oz-in were selected to drive the carriage and cross-slide in Z and X-directions respectively. Power screws were replaced with ball screws of 0.63 inch dia. (x-direction) and 1.26 in. dia. (Z-direction) which were locally manufactured in the workshop. Deep groove and Angular contact ball bearings were used to support the ball screw shafts against axial and radial loads. Flexible and plain couplings were developed to couple encoders and motors to the ball screw shafts respectively. Panel mount optical rotary encoders are being used for feedback control. Mechanical assembly is complete but due to unavailability of wiring diagram for motors, control electronics could not be accomplished. Therefore, machine could not be evaluated in terms of accuracy, repeatability and resolution using computer software. (author)

  7. Benchmarking the ATLAS software through the Kit Validation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Salvo, Alessandro; Brasolin, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of the experiment software performance is a very important metric in order to choose the most effective resources to be used and to discover the bottlenecks of the code implementation. In this work we present the benchmark techniques used to measure the ATLAS software performance through the ATLAS offline testing engine Kit Validation and the online portal Global Kit Validation. The performance measurements, the data collection, the online analysis and display of the results will be presented. The results of the measurement on different platforms and architectures will be shown, giving a full report on the CPU power and memory consumption of the Monte Carlo generation, simulation, digitization and reconstruction of the most CPU-intensive channels. The impact of the multi-core computing on the ATLAS software performance will also be presented, comparing the behavior of different architectures when increasing the number of concurrent processes. The benchmark techniques described in this paper have been used in the HEPiX group since the beginning of 2008 to help defining the performance metrics for the High Energy Physics applications, based on the real experiment software.

  8. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  9. Segmentation of magnetic resonance images of the thighs for a new National Institutes of Health initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, A.; Hemler, P. F.; Nalls, M.; Manini, T.; Clark, B. C.; Harris, T. B.; McAuliffe, M. J.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes a new system for semi-automatically segmenting the background, subcutaneous fat, interstitial fat, muscle, bone, and bone marrow from magnetic resonance images (MRI's) of volunteers for a new osteoarthritis study. Our system first creates separate right and left thigh images from a single MR image containing both legs. The subcutaneous fat boundary is very difficult to detect in these images and is therefore interactively defined with a single boundary. The volume within the boundary is then automatically processed with a series of clustering and morphological operations designed to identify and classify the different tissue types required for this study. Once the tissues have been identified, the volume of each tissue is determined and a single, false colored, segmented image results. We quantitatively compare the segmentation in three different ways. In our first method we simply compare the tissue volumes of the resulting segmentations performed independently on both the left and right thigh. A second quantification method compares our results temporally with three image sets of the same volunteer made one month apart including a month of leg disuse. Our final quantification methodology compares the volumes of different tissues detected with our system to the results of a manual segmentation performed by a trained expert. The segmented image results of four different volunteers using images acquired at three different times suggests that the system described in this paper provides more consistent results than the manually segmented set. Furthermore, measurements of the left and right thigh and temporal results for both segmentation methods follow the anticipated trend of increasing fat and decreasing muscle over the period of disuse.

  10. Neural markers reveal a one-segmented head in tardigrades (water bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental structure. To clarify this, we applied a variety of histochemical and immunocytochemical markers to specimens of the tardigrade Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi and the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies. A suboesophageal ganglion is clearly lacking. Our data further reveal a hitherto unknown, unpaired stomatogastric ganglion in Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, which innervates the ectodermal oesophagus and the endodermal midgut and is associated with the second leg-bearing segment. In contrast, the oesophagus of the onychophoran E. rowelli possesses no immunoreactive neurons, whereas scattered bipolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies are found in the midgut wall. Furthermore, our results show that the onychophoran pharynx is innervated by a medullary loop nerve accompanied by monopolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of the nervous system innervating the foregut and midgut structures in tardigrades and onychophorans to that of arthropods indicates that the stomatogastric ganglion is a potential synapomorphy of Tardigrada and Arthropoda. Its association with the second leg-bearing segment in tardigrades suggests that the second trunk ganglion is a homologue of the arthropod tritocerebrum, whereas the first ganglion corresponds to

  11. Neural markers reveal a one-segmented head in tardigrades (water bears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Kauschke, Susann; Rüdiger, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental structure. To clarify this, we applied a variety of histochemical and immunocytochemical markers to specimens of the tardigrade Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi and the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies). A suboesophageal ganglion is clearly lacking. Our data further reveal a hitherto unknown, unpaired stomatogastric ganglion in Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, which innervates the ectodermal oesophagus and the endodermal midgut and is associated with the second leg-bearing segment. In contrast, the oesophagus of the onychophoran E. rowelli possesses no immunoreactive neurons, whereas scattered bipolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies are found in the midgut wall. Furthermore, our results show that the onychophoran pharynx is innervated by a medullary loop nerve accompanied by monopolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies. A comparison of the nervous system innervating the foregut and midgut structures in tardigrades and onychophorans to that of arthropods indicates that the stomatogastric ganglion is a potential synapomorphy of Tardigrada and Arthropoda. Its association with the second leg-bearing segment in tardigrades suggests that the second trunk ganglion is a homologue of the arthropod tritocerebrum, whereas the first ganglion corresponds to the deutocerebrum. We therefore conclude that the tardigrade brain consists of a single

  12. Neural Markers Reveal a One-Segmented Head in Tardigrades (Water Bears)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Kauschke, Susann; Rüdiger, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental structure. To clarify this, we applied a variety of histochemical and immunocytochemical markers to specimens of the tardigrade Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi and the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings Our immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies). A suboesophageal ganglion is clearly lacking. Our data further reveal a hitherto unknown, unpaired stomatogastric ganglion in Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, which innervates the ectodermal oesophagus and the endodermal midgut and is associated with the second leg-bearing segment. In contrast, the oesophagus of the onychophoran E. rowelli possesses no immunoreactive neurons, whereas scattered bipolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies are found in the midgut wall. Furthermore, our results show that the onychophoran pharynx is innervated by a medullary loop nerve accompanied by monopolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of the nervous system innervating the foregut and midgut structures in tardigrades and onychophorans to that of arthropods indicates that the stomatogastric ganglion is a potential synapomorphy of Tardigrada and Arthropoda. Its association with the second leg-bearing segment in tardigrades suggests that the second trunk ganglion is a homologue of the arthropod tritocerebrum, whereas the first ganglion corresponds to the deutocerebrum. We

  13. Single vial kit formulation for preparation of PET radiopharmaceutical. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archana Mukherjee; Usha Pandey; Rubel Chakravarty; Ashutosh Dash; Haladhar Dev Sarma

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a lyophilized cold kit of DOTA-[Tyr 3 ]-Octreotide (DOTA-TOC) for instant compounding of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC, suitable for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. The work involved formulation of DOTA-TOC kits, optimization of radiolabeling, quality control of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC and animal biodistribution studies. The prepared kits enable a reliable method for preparation of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC of high radiochemical purity and excellent stability. Availability of such kits along with 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators is expected to stimulate the widespread use of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC in nuclear medicine practice in developing countries. (author)

  14. Development of an up-to-date NBC self-aid kit for emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with alterations of the political and economical settings of Central Europe in the last decades, the characteristics of NBC hazards have changed. Since war appears unlikely, possible new scenarios involve pandemics, chemical transport accidents or distribution of CB warfare agents and radioactive materials by terroristic acts. Meeting this situation requires new protection and self aid equipment for the German civilian disaster relief forces. The German government has reacted to these risks by designing personal protection equipment for the civilian voluntary and professional disaster relief forces. The new NBC self aid kit will be part of this effort. The scientific approach of the project consisted of an updated risk analysis, a questionnaire for the professionals and volunteers involved in disaster management, a thorough evaluation of commercially available kits and single components, final design of the new kit including user instructions, and validation of a prototype kit in a disaster relief exercise. Results of the questionnaire stressed the need for a NBC self aid kit fulfilling the demands of easy handling, use of commercially available components, stability of materials, consumption adapted supply and portable size and weight of the complete kit. The evaluation of international NBC equipment could not identify any current NBC self aid kit which satisfies all needs of the German civilian disaster relief forces. The authors therefore compiled a new kit consisting of commercially available components. The newly developed kit was evaluated in a disaster relief exercise.

  15. Differential diagnosis of unpleasant sensations in the legs: prevalence of restless legs syndrome in a primary care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Caroline; Wetter, Thomas C; Köster, Jürgen; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin

    2010-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological condition. We investigated the prevalence of RLS in patients suffering from unpleasant sensations in the legs. We included 16,543 patients consulting one of 312 primary care practices in Germany on November 8, 2007. All patients filled out a self-assessment questionnaire. Patients who reported suffering from unpleasant sensations in the legs were then assessed by the physician. Main outcome measures were the overall prevalence of unpleasant sensations in the legs and the prevalence of RLS; the most common differential diagnoses in the subpopulation suffered from unpleasant leg sensations. Out of all participating patients 7704 (46.6%) suffered from unpleasant sensations in the legs and 1758 (10.6%) were diagnosed with RLS according to the four essential clinical criteria. Among patients with unpleasant leg sensations, the prevalence of RLS was considerably higher (22.7%) than in the total population. The most common differential diagnoses were osteoarthritis (21.5%), disc lesion (19.2%), varicose veins (18.8%) and muscle cramps (14.6%). Of the patients with RLS 53.4% had already consulted their physician about their leg problems in the past. Still, only 20.1% of the RLS patients had received the correct diagnosis. Comorbidity rates were significantly increased in RLS patients compared to patients suffering from leg symptoms of other origin. This study showed a high prevalence of RLS in primary care patients with unpleasant sensations in the legs. Thus, in patients presenting with these symptoms the diagnosis of RLS should routinely be considered. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    and evaluate the method. The method uses deformable registration on computed tomography(CT) to find anatomical symmetry deviations of Head & Neck squamous cell carcinoma and combining it with positron emission tomography (PET) images. The method allows the use anatomical and symmetrical information of CT scans...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...... and sensitivity of respectively 0.43±0.15 and 0.56±0.18 was acquired. It was compared to the concordance index of segmentation using absolute threshold of 3 SUV giving respectively 0.41±0.16 and 0.51±0.19 for concordance index and sensitivity yielding p-values of 0.33 and 0.01 for a paired t-test respectively....

  17. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Hamdan H; AlQadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; AlHejaili, Fayez F; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A; AlGhamdi, Saeed M

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 + - 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 + - 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  18. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jahdali Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH, Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG′s RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ. Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 ± 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM, coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively. Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis

  19. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  20. Nurses' knowledge about venous leg ulcer care: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, M; Stolt, M; Leino-Kilpi, H; Suhonen, R

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of venous leg ulcers coinciding with increasing older people populations. They are therefore important health problems, which restrict daily activities and incur high costs. Efficient and comprehensive nursing care for people with venous leg ulcers requires knowledge of causes, presentations and characteristics, the effects that venous leg ulcers have on individuals and nursing care with evidence-based treatment. To identify the gaps between nurses' demonstrated knowledge of venous leg ulcers and the related nursing care treatment with evidence-based nursing care. A computerized search using MEDLINE, CINAHL the COCHRANE LIBRARY was conducted. The initial search yielded 174 citations from which 16 relevant articles were included in this review. Four themes in venous leg ulcer nursing care emerged demonstrating nurses' knowledge gaps: assessment, physiology and the healing process, nursing care and dressings, and compression treatment. This review suggests that there is a lack of knowledge related to venous leg ulcer physiology, the healing process and how this influences care and treatment. Nurses may not be using the evidence base sufficiently well to support ulcer healing and patient well-being. There is a need for a positive work culture development and ongoing educational programmes aimed at improving nurses' knowledge of venous leg ulcer treatment and care, which address the themes within the results of this review. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Comparison of Alternative Gaits for Multiped Robots with Severed Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Shuen Shih

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiped robots have become the focus of heated discussion lately, especially in applications involving rescue or military missions and underwater or extra-terrestrial explorations. The surroundings concerned are harsh and hazardous terrains, and predictably the malfunction rate is high. What if a leg is irreparably damaged? The original gait can no longer be used and an alternative gait must be taken for the robot to continue its mission. This paper studies and enumerates preferred alternative gaits for six- and eight-legged robots under a proposed severed leg scheme. A leg is assumed to be completely detachable when a failure occurs. Based on a new criterion called the progressive efficiency (PE, defined via the enhanced gait charts, along with other criteria like the stride length and the longitudinal stability, alternative gaits are evaluated. The tables of recommended gaits in this paper are useful for robots when a leg failure is foreseen. These tables not only provide a guideline as to what alternative gait to use, they also give insight into how important a certain leg is. A comparison between the severed leg scheme and the existing locked-joint strategy is also included.

  2. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  3. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockie Robert G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time, and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength. Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ, a fivebound test (5BT, and the reactive strength index (RSI defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson’s correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05 determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40-0.54. The 5BT (5-10 and 0-10 m intervals and RSI (5-10 m interval also related to velocity (r = 0.37-0.47. Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0-5 m flight times (r = -0.46 to -0.51, and a longer 0-10 m step length (r = 0.38. Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r2 = 0.14-0.29 tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes.

  4. Single leg stance control in individuals with symptomatic gluteal tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kim; Bennell, Kim L; Grimaldi, Alison; Vicenzino, Bill; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    Lateral hip pain during single leg loading, and hip abductor muscle weakness, are associated with gluteal tendinopathy, but it has not been shown how or whether kinematics in single leg stance differ in those with gluteal tendinopathy. To compare kinematics in preparation for, and during, single leg stance between individuals with and without gluteal tendinopathy, and the effect of hip abductor muscle strength on kinematics. Twenty individuals with gluteal tendinopathy and 20 age-matched pain-free controls underwent three-dimensional kinematic analysis of single leg stance and maximum isometric hip abductor strength testing. Maximum values of hip adduction, pelvic obliquity (contralateral pelvis rise/drop), lateral pelvic translation (ipsilateral/contralateral shift) and ipsilateral trunk lean during preparation for leg lift and average values in steady single leg stance, were compared between groups using an analysis of covariance, with and without anthropometric characteristics and strength as covariates. Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy demonstrated greater hip adduction (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.70, P=0.04) and ipsilateral pelvic shift (SMD=1.1, P=0.002) in preparation for leg lift, and greater hip adduction (SMD=1.2, P=0.002) and less contralateral pelvic rise (SMD=0.86, P=0.02) in steady single leg stance than controls. When including strength as a covariate, only between-group differences in lateral pelvic shift persisted (SMD=1.7, P=0.01). Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy use different frontal plane kinematics of the hip and pelvis during single leg stance than pain-free controls. This finding is not influenced by pelvic dimension or the potentially modifiable factor of body mass index, but is by hip abductor muscle weakness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Murphy, Aron J

    2015-12-22

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson's correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40-0.54). The 5BT (5-10 and 0-10 m intervals) and RSI (5-10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37-0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0-5 m flight times (r = -0.46 to -0.51), and a longer 0-10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r(2) = 0.14-0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes.

  6. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    of the right lower leg 10 cm proximal to the malleolar level by means of the epicutaneous, atraumatic labeling technique. The change from upright to supine position from day 1 in the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous blood flow rate increment of 30-40% in accordance with a decrease...... in central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. During sleep, characteristic variations in subcutaneous blood flow were disclosed. The 133Xe washout curve could be divided into three segments with significantly different slopes. Approximately 90 min after the subject went to sleep......). The hyperemic phase lasted approximately 100 min after which the blood flow rate returned to the level measured at the beginning of the night period. The blood flow rates measured on the second day did not differ from those on the first day. Control measurements performed under similar thermal conditions...

  7. [Correction of the leg axis after epiphyseal fracture and progressive abnormal growth of the proximal tibia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegger, M; Huber, B; Kathrein, A; Sitte, I

    2001-03-01

    Development of an angular deformity around the knee joint, following a posttraumatic premature epiphyseal closure is a rare but serious complication. We present a case report of this complication following a proximal tibial epiphyseal injury in a 9 year old child initially treated conservatively with plaster immobilization. Subsequently, partial closure of epiphysis on medial side resulted in genu varum of 20 degrees, which was treated with medial open wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia combined with resection of a segment from the proximal fibula, and a percutaneous epiphysiodesis of the proximal tibia and fibula. At three years follow up, the child had shortening of the leg by 1 cm, but no angular deformity. Significance of regular follow-up after an epiphyseal injury to detect the condition and role of operative management with various modalities is discussed.

  8. Pramipexole alters thermoregulation in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aaro V; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies have associated restless legs syndrome (RLS) with peripheral hypoxia and impaired thermoregulation in the lower extremities. We performed long-term monitoring of skin temperatures in order to investigate whether these findings could be explained by reduced blood flow to the peripheral tissues. 96-hour continuous measurements of skin temperature were performed both in the distal and proximal parts of the body of 15 patients with RLS and 14 healthy controls. During the recording, the patients participated in suggested immobilization tests both with and without pramipexole medication. We found no baseline differences in distal or proximal skin temperature between patients and controls in daytime or during immobilization. However, pramipexole significantly increased distal skin temperature in the patient group during immobilization (31.1°C vs. 32.9°C, p thermoregulation and the previous studies might have been biased by medication. Dopaminergic medication is a major confounding factor when assessing peripheral phenomena in RLS and should be controlled for in the future studies. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  9. Restless legs syndrome associated with major diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard; Högl, Birgit; Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible. There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other. PMID:26944272

  10. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery. PMID:24768121

  11. Clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome (RLS in a Brazilian sleep disorders center. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 118 patients with RLS from January, 2004, to December, 2010. The analyzed variables were: age at disease onset, gender, race, years of school instruction, primary and secondary RLS, and treatment options. RESULTS: Among the studied patients, 83.9% were women with a female/male sex ratio of 5:1. Mean age of the patients at symptom onset ± standard deviation was 41.7±17.9 years-old. The primary RLS was found in 85% of patients. The other 15% remainders consisted of secondary forms, and they were associated with neuropathy, iron deficiency anemia, end-stage renal disease, or Parkinson's disease. Drug therapy for RLS was introduced in 67% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients presented primary RLS with an early disease onset. Further epidemiological studies are welcomed to provide better information on secondary RLS in Brazil.

  12. Analytical Study of Active Prosthetic Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kyosuke; Katsumata, Mie

    Walking with prosthesis has not been well analyzed mathematically and it seems that the design of powered prosthesis has been done empirically so far. This paper presents a dynamic simulation of a normal human walking and walking with an active prosthesis. We also studied the two controlling methods of a powered thigh prosthesis based on multi-body simulation of human walking. First we measured the normal human walking gait, then, we showed that a 3-DOF human walking model can walk on level ground by applying tracking control to the measured walking gait within a certain range of tuned walking period. Next, we applied the tracking control and self-excited control to the powered thigh prosthesis and compared the robustness and efficiency of the two control methods by numerical simulation. As a result, we found that the self-excited control can significantly decrease the hip joint torque and specific cost to 1/3 compared with the tracking control. Moreover, the self-excited control is superior to the tracking control because tuning for the walking period is not needed for the active prosthetic leg.

  13. [Prophylaxis of Recurrent Venous Leg Ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Storck, M; Kujath, P; Rabe, E; Dissemond, J

    2017-06-01

    Venous leg ulcer (VLU) counts among the most common chronic wounds in Europe. Treatment is lengthy, cumbersome and costly, and there is a high rate of recurrence. This review shows the measures that should be offered to every patient with healed VLU to permanently prevent recurrence. To prevent VLU in case of varicose veins, the progression of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has to be stopped. There is convincing evidence that the effective treatment of varicose veins reduces the recurrence rate in patients with VLU. In patients with post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), further thrombosis should be prevented through targeted prophylaxis of new thromboembolic events. The benefit of endovascular revascularization on the VLU recurrence rate in patients with post-thrombotic damage in the pelvic veins has not been proven in clinical studies. On the other hand, it has been clearly demonstrated in several studies that compression therapy is the basic procedure for the prevention of recurrent VLU in patients with varicose veins or PTS, regardless of whether other measures have been implemented or not. Good adherence in patients with compression therapy is more important than choosing the highest possible compression class. Future efforts for patients with VLU must aim to provide therapists with tools and treatment strategies to guide their patients and to increase patients' acceptance and understanding of the importance of self-management, in particular regarding compression therapy for the prevention of recurrent VLU. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS. We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias. Materials and Methods: 99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance. Results: Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ′primary headaches′ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2 =16.46, P<0.001. Prevalence of depression (χ2 =3.12, P=0.21 and family history of RLS (χ2 =2.65, P=0.26 were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22 or insomnia (P=0.43 were also similar. Conclusion: Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.

  15. Peripheral Dopamine in Restless Legs Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a dopamine-dependent disorder characterized by a strong urge to move. The objective of this study was to evalulate blood levels of dopamine and other catecholamines and blood D2-subtype dopamine receptors (D2Rs in RLS.Patients/MethodsDopamine levels in blood samples from age-matched unmedicated RLS subjects, medicated RLS subjects and Controls were evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography and dopamine D2R white blood cell (WBC expression levels were determined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunocytochemistry.ResultsBlood plasma dopamine levels, but not norepinepherine or epinephrine levels, were significantly increased in medicated RLS subjects vs unmedicated RLS subjects and Controls. The percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes expressing D2Rs differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. Total D2R expression in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. D2Rs in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, were sensitive to dopamine in Controls only.ConclusionDownregulation of WBCs D2Rs occurs in RLS. This downregulation is not reversed by medication, although commonly used RLS medications increase plasma dopamine levels. The insensitivity of monocytes to dopamine levels, but their downregulation in RLS, may reflect their utility as a biomarker for RLS and perhaps brain dopamine homeostasis.

  16. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Adjuvant Biological Therapies in Chronic Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Burgos-Alonso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current biological treatments for non-healing wounds aim to address the common deviations in healing mechanisms, mainly inflammation, inadequate angiogenesis and reduced synthesis of extracellular matrix. In this context, regenerative medicine strategies, i.e., platelet rich plasmas and mesenchymal stromal cell products, may form part of adjuvant interventions in an integral patient management. We synthesized the clinical experience on ulcer management using these two categories of biological adjuvants. The results of ten controlled trials that are included in this systematic review favor the use of mesenchymal stromal cell based-adjuvants for impaired wound healing, but the number and quality of studies is moderate-low and are complicated by the diversity of biological products. Regarding platelet-derived products, 18 controlled studies investigated their efficacy in chronic wounds in the lower limb, but the heterogeneity of products and protocols hinders clinically meaningful quantitative synthesis. Most patients were diabetic, emphasizing an unmet medical need in this condition. Overall, there is not sufficient evidence to inform routine care, and further clinical research is necessary to realize the full potential of adjuvant regenerative medicine strategies in the management of chronic leg ulcers.

  18. Joint variable stiffness of musculoskeletal leg mechanism for quadruped robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, J; Zhu, J; Xie, P; Tokhi, MO

    2017-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2017. When the quadruped robot is in locomotion such as jumping and running with higher speed, there is non-continuous contact force between the foot and the environment inevitably. In order to achieve the flexible force interaction of the bionic legs with the environment, it is necessary to analyze the joint angular stiffness of the bionic leg. In this article, based on the designing principles of the bionics, light-weighted, and flexible, a kind of musculoskeletal bionic leg...

  19. Features interference EMG leg extensor muscles of skilled players in the context of the special exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenko P.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of improvement of physical training of skilled players. The main instrumental method of the research is electromyography. The aim of the research is determination of the optimal angle of the provisions of legs on her hips for the appearance of a maximum of bioelectric activity of the muscles of the front panel hips in exercise unbending legs sitting on the mechanical simulator. In the course of research we have worked for electromyography 10 players of FC Metalist at the age of 19 – 30 years during the five-second of the submaximum contraction of these muscles as: musculus rectus femoris, musculus vastus medialis, musculus vastus lateralis. The results of the analysis of segments of electromyography allowed to make a conclusion, that we investigated the provisions of the angle of 140 degrees has the lowest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength. We have obtained data testify to the fact that the angle of 90 degrees is the position of the greatest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength.

  20. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Kiupel, Matti; Hayes, Schantel; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these malignant tumors. This study further