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  1. Values of hemodynamic variation in response to passive leg raising in predicting exercise capacity of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Lian; Ding, Ling; Mi, Tao; Zheng, Kai; Wu, Xiao-Fen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Cun-Tai; Quan, Xiao-Qing

    2016-11-01

    In heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction, their hemodynamic parameters usually change when they are from recumbent to passive leg raising. The authors designed this study to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic parameters measured by impedance cardiography (ICG) and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). We recruited 49 subjects with HFPEF in the study, and all the subjects were separated into 2 groups: the patients whose hemodynamic parameters rose after passive leg raising were in group 1 (n = 26) and the patients whose hemodynamic parameters did not rise after passive leg raising were in group 2 (n = 23). Our study then compared the 6MWD, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide between the 2 groups. Group 1 had significantly longer 6MWD than group 2 (515.38 ± 24.97 vs 306.39 ± 20.20 m; P = 0.043). Hemodynamic parameters measured by ICG significantly correlated with 6MWD in both groups. Patients whose hemodynamic parameters rose in response to passive leg raising were more likely to have better exercise capacity. Hemodynamic variation in response to passive leg raising measured by ICG may be more sensitive in predicting exercise capacity of patients with HFPEF.

  2. Changes in arterial blood pressure induced by passive leg raising predict hypotension during the induction of sedation in critically ill patients without severe cardiac dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao; PAN Chun; GUO Feng-mei; YANG Yi; QIU Hai-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypotension due to the induction of sedation with dexmedetomidine infusion may be harmful in critically ill patients.Changes in pulse pressure induced by the passive leg raising test (PLR-△PP) as marker of fluid responsiveness,assessed prior to sedation,may predict hemodynamic changes.The present study was to investigate the power of the PLR test in critically ill patients in predicting hypotension induced by the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation.Methods Fluid responsiveness was estimated by a passive leg raising (PLR) test before dexmedetomidine sedation.Patients were assigned to either the "Nonresponders" or "Responders" group according to their hemodynamic responses to the PLR test ("Nonresponders",PLR-△PP <10.3%; "Responders",PLR-△PP >10.3%).Sedation was performed with a dexmedetomidine infusion (0.5 μg/kg over a 10-minute loading period,then 0.2-0.7 μg-kg-1.h-1)and titrated to maintain the target Richmond agitation sedation scale (RASS) score in the range of-2 to-1 and the bispectral index value in the range of 60 to 75.Radial artery pulse pressure,heart rate (HR),and central venous pressure (CVP) were measured at each phase of the study procedure.Hemodynamic fluctuations during the use of dexmedetomidine sedation were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results Fifty patients had a median (25%-75% interquartile range) of 71 (61-78) years old were studied.At baseline,39 of the 50 patients were "Nonresponders" and 11 were "Responders".Following dexmedetomidine sedation,patients classified as "Responders" had a significantly greater systolic blood pressure decrease during the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation than the "Nonresponders" ((-26.3 ± 6.8)% vs.(-11.8 ± 8.5)%,P <0.001).In addition,the "Responders" group required significantly more fluid boluses (8 vs.3; P <0.001) and vasopressors (2 vs.0; P <0.05)than the "Nonresponders" group to restore blood pressure.Finally,PLR-△PP was positively correlated

  3. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Huang

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653 with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92. Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678. When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71. Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary

  4. 被动抬腿试验评估感染性休克患者容量反应性的临床研究%Clinical Study of Passive Leg Raising Trial to Predict Volume Responsiveness in Septic Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志利; 王勇强

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价被动抬腿试验(PLR)预测感染性休克患者的容量反应性。方法:采用前瞻性、观察性队列研究设计方法,选择34例感染性休克患者,先后进行 PLR 和容量负荷试验(VE),分别在 PLR 前(基线)、PLR 期间和 VE 后用超声心动图(TTE)测量记录每搏量(SV)并记录血流动力学变化。根据对容量负荷试验的反应(以 VE 后 SV 增加≥15%定义为有容量反应性)将患者分为有反应组和无反应组。用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC 曲线)评价 PLR 预测感染性休克患者的容量反应性。结果:34例患者中有反应组16例,无反应组18例。 VE 和 PLR 引起的ΔSV 存在显著直线相关性,Person 相关系数为0.630,P=0.000;PLR 诱导的ΔSV 预测感染性休克患者的容量反应性 ROC 曲线下面积(AUC)为0.866±0.064[95%可信区间(CI)为0.741~0.992,P=0.000],在 PLR 期间ΔSV 为11.84%时诊断容量反应性的敏感度为93.8%,特异度为72.2%。结论:PLR 在预测感染性休克患者的容量反应性具有良好的价值。%Objective :To investigate the ability of passive leg raising (PLR) trial predicting volume responsiveness in septic shock .Methods :The prospective and observational cohort study was performed in 34 septic shock patients .PLR and volume expansion(VE) has been carried out successively .Respectively ,in front of the PLR (baseline) ,during the period of PLR and after VE using echocardiography measure stroke volume (SV) and hemodynamic changes in the re‐cord .According to the responsiveness of volume expansion (Responders were defined by the appearance of an increase in SV ≥ 15% after VE) ,patients were divided into responders and non‐responders .Using the receiver operating char‐acteristic curve (ROC curve) analysis PLR assessment of volume responsiveness in patients with septic shock .Results :A total of 34 patients were

  5. 被动抬腿试验评价感染性休克患者容量反应性的价值%Passive leg raising predicts volume responsiveness in patients with septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 卢院华; 谢剑峰; 邱晓华; 董亮; 杨从山; 刘玲; 杨毅; 邱海波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hemodynamic response to passive leg raising (PLR)indicates fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock. Methods Twenty patients with septic shock,considered for fluid challenge(FC), were enrolled in the study from June 2009 to May 2010. Hemodynamic changes were determined by pulse-contour derived cardiac index at baseline, before and after PLR, return to baseline for 10 min, before and after fluid challenge (250 ml saline for 10 min). An increase of SV after fluid challenge(FC-△SV)≥10% were defined responders. Results Twenty patients with septic shock were included in the study. PLR and fluid challenge were performed 46 instances, among which 15 instances were defined as response group. SV and pulse pressure induced by PLR(PLR-△SV and PLR-△PP) were increased significantly in response group[(76±19)ml vs. (65±18)ml, (73 ±20) mmHg vs. (62 ±20)mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), P<0.05], while in nonresponse group there were no significant change.PLR-△SV and PLR-△PP were correlated with FC-△SV (r=0.51,P=0.001; r=0.45, P=0.006),central venous pressure (CVP) were irrelated with FC-△SV. Area under curve (AUC) for PLR-△SV, PLR△PP and stroke volume variation(SVV) were 0. 846, 0.791 and 0.708. PLR-△SV≥12. 5% predicted fluid responsiveness with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 93.5%. PLR-△PP ≥9.5% predicted fluid responsiveness with sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 83.9%. Conclusions PLR-△SV and PLR-△PP can predict fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock. PLR-△SV and PLR-△PP have a greater ability in predicting volume responsiveness than CVP and SVV.%目的 探讨被动抬腿试验(PLR)预测感染性休克患者容量反应性的价值.方法 2009年6月至2010年5月,20例感染性休克患者纳入研究.采用脉搏指示连续心输出量持续监测患者在基础状态、PLR前后的血流动力学变化,PLR后稳定10min行补液试验(生理盐水250 ml于10 min内静脉滴注),

  6. Computational simulation of passive leg-raising effects on hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ah; Park, Jiheum; Lee, Jung Chan; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-03-01

    The passive leg-raising (PLR) maneuver has been used for patients with circulatory failure to improve hemodynamic responsiveness by increasing cardiac output, which should also be beneficial and may exert synergetic effects during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the impact of the PLR maneuver on CPR remains unclear due to difficulties in monitoring cardiac output in real-time during CPR and a lack of clinical evidence. We developed a computational model that couples hemodynamic behavior during standard CPR and the PLR maneuver, and simulated the model by applying different angles of leg raising from 0° to 90° and compression rates from 80/min to 160/min. The simulation results showed that the PLR maneuver during CPR significantly improves cardiac output (CO), systemic perfusion pressure (SPP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) by ∼40-65% particularly under the recommended range of compression rates between 100/min and 120/min with 45° of leg raise, compared to standard CPR. However, such effects start to wane with further leg lifts, indicating the existence of an optimal angle of leg raise for each person to achieve the best hemodynamic responses. We developed a CPR-PLR model and demonstrated the effects of PLR on hemodynamics by investigating changes in CO, SPP, and CPP under different compression rates and angles of leg raising. Our computational model will facilitate study of PLR effects during CPR and the development of an advanced model combined with circulatory disorders, which will be a valuable asset for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is the psoas a hip flexor in the active straight leg raise?

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Dieen, van, J.H.; Hodges, P.W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; Royen, van, B.J.; Wu, W.; Xia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Psoas function is a topic of considerable relevance in sports and clinical science. However, the literature on psoas function is not sufficiently consistent. Questions are, amongst others, if during hip flexion the psoas always has the same function as the iliacus, and if the psoas affects the hip more than the lumbar spine. In the present study, 17 healthy women, 20–40 years, performed the active straight leg raise (ASLR), with the right or the left leg (“Side”), and without or with weight a...

  8. Directional specificity of postural threat on anticipatory postural adjustments during lateral leg raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Manon; Yiou, Eric; Gélat, Thierry; Honeine, Jean-Louis; Deroche, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the directional specificity of fear of falling (FoF) effects on the stabilizing function of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). Participants (N = 71) performed a series of lateral leg raises from an elevated surface in three conditions: in the "Control condition", participants stood at the middle of the surface; in the two test conditions, participants were positioned at the lateral edge of the surface so that the shift of the whole-body centre-of-mass during APA for leg raising was directed towards the edge ("Approach condition") or was directed away from the edge ("Avoidance condition"). Results showed that the amplitude of APA was lower in the "Approach condition" than in the "Control condition" (p postural stability and motor performance (in terms of peak leg velocity, final leg posture and movement duration) remained unchanged. These changes in APA parameters were not present in the "Avoidance condition". Participants further self-reported a greater FoF (p Control condition". The results of this study show that the effects of FoF do not solely depend on initial environmental conditions, but also on the direction of APA relative to the location of the postural threat. These results support the so-called Motivational Direction Hypothesis, according to which approach and avoidance behaviours are primed by emotional state.

  9. Echocardiography and passive leg raising in the postoperative period: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadouti, Yasser; Valencia, Lucía; Becerra, Angel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Aurelio; Vincent, Jean L

    2017-07-15

    Signs of hypovolaemia are frequent in the postoperative period, but not all patients need or respond to fluid administration. An increase in cardiac output (CO) after passive leg raising (PLR) has been demonstrated to be useful as a volume response predictor in non-surgical, spontaneously breathing patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography after PLR to predict fluid responsiveness in post-surgical patients. A prospective observational study. A tertiary hospital between January and July 2015. Fifty-one spontaneously breathing postoperative patients with suspected hypovolaemia (arterial hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia or delayed capillary refill) were considered for the study. Demographic and personal data were collected, as well as heart rate variations, mean arterial pressure during PLR and after administering 500 ml of Ringer's lactate solution. CO was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The primary outcome was measurement of CO before and after PLR and Ringer's lactate administration. Forty-one patients were included in the study (six patients were excluded because of a poor echocardiographic window and four because of misalignment of the Doppler and outflow tract of the left ventricle). Twenty-two patients (54%) were considered responders to fluid therapy, with an increase of stroke volume greater than or equal to 15% after 500 ml lactated Ringer's infusion. The highest area under the curve was found for an increase in CO (0.91 ± 0.05; 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.97). An increase in CO greater than 11% after the PLR manoeuvre predicts a volume response with 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity. This is the first study showing that measurement of CO after PLR can predict volume response in spontaneously breathing postoperative patients.

  10. Management of symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome with use of a traction straight leg raise: a preliminary case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Eric M; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is estimated to affect 5-15 percent of the U.S. population. There are few studies investigating non-pharmacological treatments for RLS, such as physical therapy and/or peripheral neural mobilization. The traction straight leg raise (tSLR) technique is one such mobilization that may affect central and peripheral neural pathways and reduce RLS symptoms. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a tSLR on the symptoms associated with RLS. A cohort of fifteen people was enrolled. Thirteen subjects (11 female) between the ages of 32-64 completed the study. Subjects completed two questionnaires to quantify their severity of RLS before treatment was initiated and at the final session. These measures included: the Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (RLSRS) 0-40, an RLS Ordinal Scale, and a Global Rating of Change (GROC) assessments (-7, 0, +7). Patients were treated with tSLR bilaterally for four total visits on days 1, 3, 8, and 15. Results indicated an RLSRS pre-treatment average of 24.8 (severe) and post-treatment average of 9.2 (mild), representing a 63% improvement from baseline (p < 0.05). Ten of 13 subjects reported a GROC of +4 or higher at the final session, indicating at least a moderate improvement in patient status from baseline. Our results indicate that following a series of tSLR treatments symptoms were reduced in individuals with idiopathic RLS. A prospective, randomized controlled trial is necessary to evaluate the potential for a tSLR to effectively manage idiopathic RLS symptoms.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Straight Leg Raise and Slump Stretching in Subjects with Low Back Pain with Adverse Neural Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Malik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is a common problem in the present time. It is commonly associated with altered mechanical tension in the peripheral nerves as tested by straight leg raising or slump tests. These maneuvers are used for treatment of such disorders. Both the straight leg raise and slump stretching techniques have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of low back pain with distal symptoms. A comparison of the two techniques will determine if one technique is better than the other. Also, it will add to the evidence for their effectiveness in managing symptoms in patients with low back pain. Objective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of straight leg raise and slump stretching on pain and range of passive straight leg raise in subjects with low back pain. Methods and measures: 50 patients with low back pain, satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 was the straight leg raise group (n=15. Group 2 was the slump group (n=13. Group 3 was the control group (n=12. Baseline measurements of pain intensity as measured by the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS and range of passive straight leg raise (PSLR were taken. Group 1 received 6 sessions of straight leg raise stretching and lumbar stabilization exercises. Group 2 received 6 sessions of slump stretching and lumbar stabilization exercises. Group 3 received 6 sessions of lumbar stabilization exercises only. Statistical analysis: Paired t-test was used for within group analysis of NPRS and PSLR. ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis was employed for between group comparisons. Results: No significant difference was found in NPRS between straight leg raise and slump groups (p > 0.05 while they differed significantly in PSLR (p < 0.05. Both the groups showed significantly better results in PSLR when compared to the control group (P<0.05. Statistically significant improvements were found in all the 3 groups for both the outcome

  12. The effect of age on result of straight leg raising test in patients suffering lumbar disc herniation and sciatica

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ninety percent of all people sometimes during their lives experience low back pain, and 30-40% develops radicular leg pain with the sciatica characteristics. Although for clinical diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) straight leg raising (SLR) test in 85-90% of cases indicates LDH, but in our practice with LDH patients this test is frequently negative despite radicular leg pain due to LDH. Hence, we decided to evaluate this test in LDH in different age groups. Materials and M...

  13. Is the psoas a hip flexor in the active straight leg raise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Meijer, Onno G; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Strijers, Rob L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; van Royen, Barend J; Wu, Wen Hua; Xia, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Psoas function is a topic of considerable relevance in sports and clinical science. However, the literature on psoas function is not sufficiently consistent. Questions are, amongst others, if during hip flexion the psoas always has the same function as the iliacus, and if the psoas affects the hip more than the lumbar spine. In the present study, 17 healthy women, 20-40 years, performed the active straight leg raise (ASLR), with the right or the left leg ("Side"), and without or with weight added above the ankle ("Condition"). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of psoas and iliacus were recorded with fine-wire electrodes, and of rectus femoris and adductor longus with surface electrodes, all on the right side. Movements of the leg were recorded with active markers and a camera system. During ASLR, the iliacus, rectus femoris, adductor longus and psoas were active ipsilaterally, but psoas was also active contralaterally. All muscles started to contract before movement onset, the iliacus, rectus femoris, and adductor longus largely at the same time, before the psoas. There was no significant difference between the amplitude or time of onset of ipsilateral and contralateral psoas EMG activity, nor was there a significant interaction between Side and Condition for the psoas. Although ipsilateral psoas activity is consistent with the psoas being a hip flexor, contralateral activity is not. The most simplest explanation of the pattern found is that the psoas is bilaterally recruited to stabilize the lumbar spine, probably in the frontal plane.

  14. Effects of myofascial release leg pull and sagittal plane isometric contract-relax techniques on passive straight-leg raise angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanten, W P; Chandler, S D

    1994-09-01

    Experimental evidence does not currently exist to support the claims of clinical effectiveness for myofascial release techniques. This presents an obvious need to document the effects of myofascial release. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two techniques, sagittal plane isometric contract-relax and myofascial release leg pull for increasing hip flexion range of motion (ROM) as measured by the angle of passive straight-leg raise. Seventy-five nondisabled, female subjects 18-29 years of age were randomly assigned to contract-relax, leg pull, or control groups. Pretest hip flexion ROM was measured for each subject's right hip with a passive straight-leg raise test using a fluid-filled goniometer. Subjects in the treatment groups received either contract-relax or leg pull treatment applied to the right lower extremity; subjects in the control group remained supine quietly for 5 minutes. Following treatment, posttest straight-leg raise measurements were performed. A one-way analysis of variance followed by a Newman-Keuls post hoc comparison of mean gain scores showed that subjects receiving contract-relax treatment increased their ROM significantly more than those who received leg pull treatment, and the increase in ROM of subjects in both treatment groups was significantly higher than those of the control group. The results suggest that while both contract-relax and leg pull techniques can significantly increase hip flexion ROM in normal subjects, contract-relax treatment may be more effective and efficient than leg pull treatment.

  15. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF NEURODYNAMIC SLIDING TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN ASYMPTOMATIC INDIVIDUALS

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    Vinod Babu .K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurodynamics sliding technique (NDST and Mulligan bent leg raise technique (MBLR both have been individually advocated for increasing hamstring flexibility but comparison of these techniques have not been found in studies. The purpose of the study was to find immediate effect of neurodynamic sliding technique versus mulligan bent leg raise technique on hamstring flexibility in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: An Experimental study designs, with two group 80 asymptomatic normal subjects were randomized 40 subjects into each NDST group and MBLR group. NDST group received Neurodynamic sliding technique and MBLR group received Mulligan bent leg raise technique; passive straight leg raise was taken as outcome measure pre and post intervention. Results: When means of post intervention were compared there is statistically significant difference in means of passive SLR ROM within the groups but there is no statistically significant difference in post intervention means between the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that both NDST and MBLR technique are effective on improving hamstring flexibility for asymptomatic individuals with limited SLR ROM. However there is no significant difference in improvement in hamstring flexibility between the groups.

  16. Effect of dry needling of gluteal muscles on straight leg raise: a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Huguenin, L; Brukner, P; McCrory, P; P. Smith; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to establish the effect on straight leg raise, hip internal rotation, and muscle pain of dry needling treatment to the gluteal muscles in athletes with posterior thigh pain referred from gluteal trigger points.

  17. Comparison of muscular activities in the abdomen and lower limbs while performing sit-up and leg-raise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanghoon; Lee, Taesik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the muscle activities of sit-up and leg-raise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were healthy students in their 20s. For electromyography of sit-ups and leg-raises in the supine position, 5 muscle groups of the abdomen were selected for the attachment of sensors: the upper and lower rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and the iliopsoas. SPSS 20.0 was used for the statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures of all factors was performed to verify the statistical significance of the measurements taken for the muscle activities and follow-up verification was made with the Bonferroni post hoc test. [Results] Sit-up and leg raise showed a significant difference. The eccentric sit-up exercise elicited a significant increase in the activation of the abdominal muscle. The leg raise and eccentric sit-up exercises elicited significant increases in the activation of hip flexor muscle. [Conclusion] The eccentric sit-up had the most outstanding effect on the abdominal muscles involved in stability of the trunk.

  18. 被动抬腿试验联合心脏超声心动图预测感染性休克患者容量反应性的价值%The predictive value of transthoracic echocardiography and Passive leg raising predicts volume respon-siveness in patient with Septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓勇; 刘易林; 邓芸

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hemodynamic response to passive leg raising (PLR),indicated fluid responsiveness in patient with Septic shock.Method Thrity-two patients with Septic shock who considered for fluid challenge(FC)were enrolled in the study. Hemodynamic changes were determined before and after PLR.return to base line for 10 min,before and after fluid chal-lenge.An increase of SV after fluid challenge≥15%were defined responders.Results Thrity-two patients were included in the study. among which 23 inslancea were defined as response group. SV,CO induced by PLR(PLR-ΔSV and PLR-ΔCI)were in-creased significantly in response group[(53.8 ±5.66)ml vs (46.4 ±4.9)ml,((5.0 ±0.41)ml/min vs (4.4 ±0.25)L/(min),P<0.05],while in nonresponse group there were no significant change.PLR-ΔSV and PLR-ΔCO were correlated with FC-ΔSV (r=0.76,P<0.01;r=0.63,P<0.01). Central venous pressure(CVP)were negative correlated with FC-ΔSV(r=-0.39,P=0.03).Area under curve(AUC)for (PLR-ΔSV and PLR-ΔCO were 0.87 and 0.80).For PLR-ΔSV≥9.4% to evaluate the volume responsiveness,the sensitivity was 95.7%,specificity was 66.7%. For PLR-ΔCO≥9.7%to evaluate the volume respon-fiveness,the sensitivity was 78.3%,specificity was 77.8%. Conclusion PLR-ΔSV ,PLR-ΔCO can predict fluid responsive-ness in patients with Septic shock.%目的:探讨被动抬腿试验(passive leg raising,PLR)联合经胸彩色多普勒预测感染性休克患者容量反应性的价值。方法:选取32例感染性休克患者纳入研究,检测患者有创动脉血压、中心静脉压(centeral venous pressure CVP)、每搏输出量(stroke volume SV)、心输出量(cardiac output CO)等血流动力学后指标,进行被动抬腿试验,在进行被动抬腿试验后再行补液试验,利用超声心动图监测PLR及补液试验前后血流动力学的变化。以补液试验后每搏量(SV)增加值(ΔSV)≥15%为容量反应组,SV增加值(ΔSV)<15%为容量

  19. Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Benjamin S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The straight leg raise (SLR neurodynamic test is commonly used to examine the sensitivity of the lower quarter nervous system to movement. Range of motion during the SLR varies considerably, due to factors such as age, sex and activity level. Knowing intra-individual, inter-limb differences may provide a normative measure that is not influenced by such demographic characteristics. This study aimed to determine normal asymmetries between limbs in healthy, asymptomatic individuals during SLR testing and the relationship of various demographic characteristics. Methods The limb elevation angle was measured using an inclinometer during SLR neurodynamic testing that involved pre-positioning the ankle in plantar flexion (PF/SLR and neutral dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Phase 1 of the study included 20 participants where the ankle was positioned using an ankle brace replicating research testing conditions. Phase 2 included 20 additional participants where the ankle was manually positioned to replicate clinical testing conditions. Results The group average range of motion during PF/SLR was 57.1 degrees (SD: 16.8 degrees on the left and 56.7 degrees (SD: 17.2 degrees on the right while during DF/SLR the group average was 48.5 degrees (SD: 16.1 degrees on the left and 48.9 degrees (SD: 16.4 degrees on the right. The range of motion during SLR was moderately correlated to weight (−0.40 to −0.52, body mass index (−0.41 to −0.52, sex (0.40 to 0.42 and self-reported activity level (0.50 to 0.57. Intra-individual differences between limbs for range of motion during PF/SLR averaged 5.0 degrees (SD: 3.5 degrees (95% CI: 3.8 degrees, 6.1 degrees and during DF/SLR averaged 4.1 degrees (SD: 3.2 degrees (95% CI: 3.1 degrees, 5.1 degrees but were not correlated with any demographic characteristic. There were no significant differences between Phase 1 and Phase 2. Conclusions Overall range of motion during SLR was related to sex, weight, BMI and

  20. 呼气末二氧化碳分压的变化对感染性休克机械通气患者容量反应性的预测价值%The value of changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure induced by passive leg raising test in predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧芝栋; 严洁; 许红阳; 梁锋鸣; 杨挺; 王大鹏; 高飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test whether the changes of partial end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2) during passive leg raising (PLR) predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock.Methods Forty-two mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock admitted from January 2012 to November 2012 were prospectively recruited.Hemodynamic parameters monitored by a pulse indicator continuous cardiac output(PiCCO) device and PETCO2 monitored by an expiratory-CO2 device were studied at baseline,after PLR,and after volume expansion.Fluid responsiveness was defined as an increase in cardiac index (CI) of 15% or greater after volume expansion.The correlation between PLR-induced CI change (△CIPLR) and PETCO2 (△PETCO2-PLR) was analyzed.The value of △PETCO2-PLR to predict fluid responsiveness was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.Results A total of 42 patients were enrolled in this study,of whom,24 had a CI increase of ≥ 15% after volume expansion (responders).After PLR,CI and PETCO2 were both significantly increased in the response group compared with baseline [(21.4 ± 12.9) % of CI and (9.6 ± 4.7) % of PETCO2,P < 0.05],while no significant changes were observed (P > 0.05) in the non-response group.Both △CIPLR and △PETCO2-PLR were significantly higher in responder group than in the non-responder group (both P < 0.05).△CI and △PETCO2 after PLR were strongly correlated (r =0.64,P < 0.05).In responders after PLR,the area under ROC curve of △PETCO2-PLR was 0.900 ± 0.056 (95% CI 0.775-1.000,P < 0.05).An increase of ≥ 5% in △PETCO2-PLR predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 88.0% and specificity of 88.2%.Conclusions The change of PETCO2 induced by passive leg raising is a non-invasive and easy way to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock.%目的 探讨呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)在被动抬腿试验中的变化及

  1. Passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion tests perform better than pulse pressure variation in patients with low respiratory system compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Xavier; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Ferré, Alexis; Dres, Martin; Gharbi, Rim; Richard, Christian; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the poor ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome was related to low lung compliance. We also tested whether the changes in cardiac index induced by passive leg-raising and by an end-expiratory occlusion test were better than pulse pressure variation at predicting fluid responsiveness in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Prospective study. Medical intensive care unit. We included 54 patients with circulatory shock (63 ± 13 yrs; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 63 ± 24). Twenty-seven patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (compliance of the respiratory system, 22 ± 3 mL/cm H2O). In nonacute respiratory distress syndrome patients, the compliance of the respiratory system was 45 ± 9 mL/cm H2O. We measured the response of cardiac index (transpulmonary thermodilution) to fluid administration (500 mL saline). Before fluid administration, we recorded pulse pressure variation and the changes in pulse contour analysis-derived cardiac index induced by passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion. Fluid increased cardiac index ≥ 15% (44% ± 39%) in 30 "responders." Pulse pressure variation was significantly correlated with compliance of the respiratory system (r = .58), but not with tidal volume. The higher the compliance of the respiratory system, the better the prediction of fluid responsiveness by pulse pressure variation. A compliance of the respiratory system of 30 mL/cm H2O was the best cut-off for discriminating patients regarding the ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness. If compliance of the respiratory system was >30 mL/cm H2O, then the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for predicting fluid responsiveness was not different for pulse pressure variation and the passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion tests (0.98 ± 0.03, 0.91 ± 0.06, and 0.97 ± 0.03, respectively). By contrast

  2. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  3. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  4. The effect of age on result of straight leg raising test in patients suffering lumbar disc herniation and sciatica

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    Homayoun Tabesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ninety percent of all people sometimes during their lives experience low back pain, and 30-40% develops radicular leg pain with the sciatica characteristics. Although for clinical diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation (LDH straight leg raising (SLR test in 85-90% of cases indicates LDH, but in our practice with LDH patients this test is frequently negative despite radicular leg pain due to LDH. Hence, we decided to evaluate this test in LDH in different age groups. Materials and Methods: All patients with leg pain referring to neurosurgery clinic were enrolled. Those with a history of pain other than sciatica excluded and SLR test and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lumbosacral spine performed. The patients with negative MRI findings excluded and finally 269 patients with true sciatica and positive MRI were included. SLR tests were performed for different age groups. Results: Of 269 patients, 167 were male. The age range was 16-80 years. The most involved levels were L5-S1 (47% and L4-L5 (42%, respectively. The rate of positive SLR result, which was 100%, 87% and 82% for 10-19, 20-29 and 30-39 years age group respectively. With an increment of age, the rate of positive test regularly declined . The chance of positive SLR in men is 1.3 times the women (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.265-4.557; P = 0.007. Increasing the age has suppression effect in positivity of SLR so that for each 1-year the chance of SLR become 0.27 times less to become positive and this is also statically meaningful (OR = 0.271;95% CI = 0.188-0.391; P,0.001. The chance of positive SLR for patients under 60 is 5.4 folds more than patients above 60 years old (OR = 5.4; 95% CI = 4-8.3; P, 0.001. Conclusion: Age, sex (male, and disk level had statistically the effect on SLR positive test.

  5. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the reproducibility of passive leg raise (PLR) and fluid bolus (BOLUS) using the Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM; Cheetah Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) for assessment of fluid responsiveness (FR) in spontaneously breathing emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS...

  6. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

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    Jesudas Mazumdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60 with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two dropout and group B had 26 as four dropout . Group A was treated with Mulligan TSLR and Group B had MET. The total treatment session was 3 times a week on alternate days for three consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were measured by active knee extension ROM by universal Goniometer. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test were used to analyse the data. The inter group comparison ROM score showed high significant difference after 3 weeks between the groups. The results of the study showed that MET may increase Knee ROM significantly more then Mulligan TSLR when applied for 3 weeks. Conclusion: This study led to interference that Mulligan TSLR and MET are effective in reducing the hamstring tightness. When both groups are compared MET was found to be more effective than TSLR .

  7. Correlation between central venous pressure and peripheral venous pressure with passive leg raise in patients on mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central venous pressure (CVP assesses the volume status of patients. However, this technique is not without complications. We, therefore, measured peripheral venous pressure (PVP to see whether it can replace CVP. Aims: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between CVP and PVP after passive leg raise (PLR in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study in Intensive Care Unit. Methods: Fifty critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation were included in the study. CVP and PVP measurements were taken using a water column manometer. Measurements were taken in the supine position and subsequently after a PLR of 45°. Statistical Analysis: Pearson′s correlation and Bland-Altman′s analysis. Results: This study showed a fair correlation between CVP and PVP after a PLR of 45° (correlation coefficient, r = 0.479; P = 0.0004 when the CVP was 10 cmH 2 O. Bland-Altman analysis showed 95% limits of agreement to be −2.912-9.472. Conclusion: PVP can replace CVP for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients.

  8. Effect of Straight-leg-raising Movement on Epidural Fibrosis in Early Stage after Laminectomy in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of straight-leg-raising (SLR) movement on epidural fibrosis after laminectomy, 40 adult New Zealand rabbits were selected as laminectomy models in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: a SLR group (group S) and a control group (group C) randomly, with each group having 20 animals. All rabbits were subjected to total laminectomy in the site of S1. Every 5 rabbits in each group selected randomly were killed at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 8th week after the surgery. Segments of spines from L7 to S2 were removed en bloc. After gross evaluation, specimens were sliced up. The slices were stained by HE and Masson's trichrome methods respectively for histological examination. Our results showed that formation process of scar in group S was retarded as compared with that of group C at the time of the 2nd-week, but there was no statistical difference between groups in the adhesion degree (P≥0.05). At the 4th and 8th week, the epidural fibrosis of group S was more serious than that of group C. Since the 2nd-week, the area of scar in group S was larger than that of group C. The number of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in group S were larger than those of group C at early stage. But in later stage, there was no statistical significance between the two groups. It is concluded that SLR movement after laminectomy may promote the formation of epidural fibrosis and retard the maturity of scar. SLR movement can also aggravate scar adhesion.

  9. Influences of spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy on the pain, disability, and straight leg raising of patients with intervertebral disc herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jioun; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify how spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy influence the pain, disability, and straight leg raise (SLR) ability of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic lumbar pain who were divided into a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG, n=15), and a general traction therapy group (GTTG, n=15). [Methods] The SDTG used a spinal decompression device, and the GTTG used a ...

  10. Material Parameter Sensitivity of Predicted Injury in the Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    rupture, the neck of the talus to impact against the leading anterior edge of the distal tibia, and a fracture line to develop.25,26 Due to the...leg under high rate loading. In: International Re- search Council on Biomechanics of Injury; 2013 Sep 11–13; Gothenburg, Swe- den. 4. Ramasamy A...Bull AMJ, Clasper JC. Blast- related fracture patterns: a forensic biomechanical approach. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 2011;8(58):689–698

  11. EFFICACY OF MULLIGAN’S TWO LEG ROTATION AND BENT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUES IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN SUBJECTS WITH ACUTE NON-SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik .A. Phansopkar,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Adequate flexibility of the Hamstring muscles and Core muscle strength is necessary for a healthy lower back. Mulligan’s techniques are fascinating Physiotherapy approach in treatment of hamstrings tightness in NS-LBP such as Mulligan’s Bent Leg Raise (BLR technique, Limited Literature is available on the efficacies of Mulligan’s Two Leg Rotation (TLR technique in Hamstrings flexibility. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of Mulligan’s TLR and BLR in treatment of acute NS-LBP. Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted among 40 subjects which included both male and female symptomatic subjects between the age of 18 to 35 years with acute NS-LBP and they were randomly allocated into 2 groups namely Group A[SWD, HMP, Mulligan’s TLR, MCE] , Group B[SWD, HMP, Mulligan’s BLR, MCE]. Pre-interventional and 7th day Post-interventional outcome measurements were taken in the form of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ, Active Knee Extension (AKE Measurement, Lumbar ROM and Core muscle strength. Results: Intra-group comparison for all the outcome parameters in both the groups showed statistical significance (p<0.001. Inter group comparison for all the outcome parameters had differences but showed no statistical significance. Conclusion: Mulligan’s Two Leg Rotation and Bent Leg Raise techniques are effective in increasing the hamstrings flexibility in subjects with acute non specific low back pain in terms of pain, range of motion and functional disability.

  12. THE SENSITIZING RESPONSE IN IPSILATERAL AND CONTRALATERAL LOWER LIMB STRAIGHT LEG RAISING DURING UPPER LIMB TENSION TEST 2A IN CERVICOBRACHIAL DISORDERS

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    Vishal Bharadwaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is increasingly becoming a common problem. Cervicobrachial disorder is a dysfunction of nerve root of the cervical spine due to its compression which leads to ischemic changes that cause sensory and motor dysfunction. Many studies has been done on SLR test which affects upper limb sensitizing response by means of doing ipsilateral and bilateral SLR. The study revealed that the abduction ROM for shoulder was greater during contra lateral SLR with ULTT-2a when compared to ipsilateral SLR. Methods: 30 subjects (18 males and 12 females were included in this study. The ULTT-2a is performed on each subject, following this ipsilateral and contra lateral SLR was performed. The sensitising response perceived by the subjects was recorded. Outcome measures were Range of Motion and sensation description. After the intervention the shoulder abduction and straight leg raising ranges were measured. Analysis was performed using independent t-test. Result: Significant difference was found in shoulder abduction (p 0.11. There was no difference in sensitizing response (Tingling, Burning, Sharp shooting during ipsilatral and contra lateral straight leg raise. Conclusion: This study concludes that in order to obtain the same sensitizing response during ULTT-2a of contra-lateral SLR as during ULTT-2a of ipsilateral SLR, the angle of SLR and shoulder abduction during ULTT-2a of contra lateral SLR will be greater. This finding will be proved beneficial in the treatment of patients with cervico brachial disorders.

  13. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  14. Effects of neural mobilization on pain, straight leg raise test and disability in patients with radicular low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Čolaković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radicular low back pain is a disorder involving the dysfunction of the lumbosacral nerve roots. Clinical rehabilitation approaches for low back pain include kinesiotherapy, and physical therapyprocedures: ice , rest , heat, ultrasound, TENS, but evidences regarding their effectiveness are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine if nerve mobilization brings better improvements in pain, SLR testand functional disability in patients with radicular low back pain compared to standard physical therapy.Methods: The study was conducted on a 60 patients with Radicular low back pain, treated in Regional medical center "Dr Safet Mujić", Mostar, during the period from 01.04.2010 untill 31.04.2011. Patientswere divided into two groups. First group (n=30 received a 4-week rehabilitation program including neural mobilization and lumbar stabilization program. Second group (n=30 received a 4-week rehabilitation program including active range of motion (ROM exercises and lumbar stabilization program.Results: At the beginning, the two groups were not signifi cantly different in terms of score or SLR. After therapy there was statistically signifi cant improvement between groups in both VAS scores[Group A: 1.16±1.5; Group B: 2.25±2.2] and SLR [Group A: 80.9±17.4; Group B: 65.9±16.4]. ]. After the treatment, in group A, 46.6% (14 participants had been rated with 4, but in Group B: 33.3% (10 participants had been rated with 3.Conclusions: Patients treated with neural mobilization and lumbar stabilization showed better VAS scores and Straight Leg Test scores compared to patients treated with active range of motion exercises and lumbar stabilization. Further research to investigate their long term effi cacy is warranted, with emphasis on greater number of participants.

  15. Influences of spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy on the pain, disability, and straight leg raising of patients with intervertebral disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jioun; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify how spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy influence the pain, disability, and straight leg raise (SLR) ability of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic lumbar pain who were divided into a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG, n=15), and a general traction therapy group (GTTG, n=15). [Methods] The SDTG used a spinal decompression device, and the GTTG used a lumbar traction device. Both groups received conservative physical therapy three times a week for four weeks. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain the patients with chronic lumbar pain. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to measure the degree of functional disability. A goniometer was used to measure the patients' SLR ability. [Results] Both SDTG and GTTG showed statistically significant decreases in VAS and ODI scores and a statistically significant increase in SLR angle. A comparison of the two groups found no statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] Spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy are effective at improving the pain, disability, and SLR of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. Thus, selective treatment may be required.

  16. Muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR), and the effects of a pelvic belt on the ASLR and on treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Meijer, Onno G; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Strijers, Rob L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W; van Royen, Barend J; Wu, Wenhua; Xia, Chun

    2010-02-10

    Women with pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), or athletes with groin pain, may have trouble with the active straight leg raise (ASLR), for which a pelvic belt can be beneficial. How the problems emerge, or how the belt works, remains insufficiently understood. We assessed muscle activity during ASLR, and how it changes with a pelvic belt. Healthy nulligravidae (N=17) performed the ASLR, and walked on a treadmill at increasing speeds, without and with a belt. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) was used to record activity of the mm. psoas, iliacus and transversus abdominis, while other hip and trunk muscles were recorded with surface EMG. In ASLR, all muscles were active. In both tasks, transverse and oblique abdominal muscles were less active with the belt. In ASLR, there was more activity of the contralateral m. biceps femoris, and in treadmill walking of the m. gluteus maximus in conditions with a belt. For our interpretation, we take our starting point in the fact that hip flexors exert a forward rotating torque on the ilium. Apparently, the abdominal wall was active to prevent such forward rotation. If transverse and oblique abdominal muscles press the ilia against the sacrum (Snijders' "force closure"), the pelvis may move as one unit in the sagittal plane, and also contralateral hip extensor activity will stabilize the ipsilateral ilium. The fact that transverse and oblique abdominal muscles were less active in conditions with a pelvic belt suggests that the belt provides such "force closure", thus confirming Snijders' theory.

  17. Human leg model predicts ankle muscle-tendon morphology, state, roles and energetics in walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavitra Krishnaswamy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks.

  18. Human Leg Model Predicts Ankle Muscle-Tendon Morphology, State, Roles and Energetics in Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Brown, Emery N.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2011-01-01

    A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a) corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b) gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c) causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks. PMID:21445231

  19. A quantitative assessment of the mechanical effects on the lumbar spine and the effects on straight leg raising and lumbar flexion of segmental sustained rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoetsu; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Hanaoka, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study were to examine the strength and relative direction of the applied force from lumbar segmental sustained rotation (LSSR) on the lumbar spinous process, and to clarify the effects of LSSR on straight leg raising (SLR) and lumbar flexion (LF). [Subjects] 18 pain-free healthy adults volunteered for this study. [Methods] Applied force and direction were measured between the L5-S1 segments using tri-axial pressure sensors. Subjects participated in 3 trials. Subjects underwent localized right rotation, held for 10 seconds, of the L5 in relation to the S1. Sham group subjects followed LSSR group protocols; however L5-S1 rotation was absent. Control subjects rested on a plinth. SLR and LF were measured pre and post-trial. [Results] Outcome data for LSSR forces were as follows; x (0.06N (±0.29)), y (‒5.26N (±0.01)), z (6.16N (±1.33)), and resultant vector magnitude (8.19N (±1.12)). LSSR relative direction results were as follows: x-axis angle, 89. 6 ° (±1.5); y-axis, 130.9 ° (±5.6); and z-axis, 41.6 ° (±4.7). The LSSR group's LF and SLR were significantly increased compared with those of the sham and control groups. [Conclusion] The identified resultant vector magnitude was 8.19N, less than other techniques. LSSR effectively improves LF and bilateral SLR.

  20. A quantitative assessment of the mechanical effects on the lumbar spine and the effects on straight leg raising and lumbar flexion of segmental sustained rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoetsu; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Hanaoka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study were to examine the strength and relative direction of the applied force from lumbar segmental sustained rotation (LSSR) on the lumbar spinous process, and to clarify the effects of LSSR on straight leg raising (SLR) and lumbar flexion (LF). [Subjects] 18 pain-free healthy adults volunteered for this study. [Methods] Applied force and direction were measured between the L5–S1 segments using tri-axial pressure sensors. Subjects participated in 3 trials. Subjects underwent localized right rotation, held for 10 seconds, of the L5 in relation to the S1. Sham group subjects followed LSSR group protocols; however L5–S1 rotation was absent. Control subjects rested on a plinth. SLR and LF were measured pre and post-trial. [Results] Outcome data for LSSR forces were as follows; x (0.06N (±0.29)), y (‒5.26N (±0.01)), z (6.16N (±1.33)), and resultant vector magnitude (8.19N (±1.12)). LSSR relative direction results were as follows: x-axis angle, 89. 6 ° (±1.5); y-axis, 130.9 ° (±5.6); and z-axis, 41.6 ° (±4.7). The LSSR group’s LF and SLR were significantly increased compared with those of the sham and control groups. [Conclusion] The identified resultant vector magnitude was 8.19N, less than other techniques. LSSR effectively improves LF and bilateral SLR. PMID:27190475

  1. Model Predictive Control considering Reachable Range of Wheels for Leg / Wheel Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naito; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    Obstacle avoidance is one of the important tasks for mobile robots. In this paper, we study obstacle avoidance control for mobile robots equipped with four legs comprised of three DoF SCARA leg/wheel mechanism, which enables the robot to change its shape adapting to environments. Our previous method achieves obstacle avoidance by model predictive control (MPC) considering obstacle size and lateral wheel positions. However, this method does not ensure existence of joint angles which achieves reference wheel positions calculated by MPC. In this study, we propose a model predictive control considering reachable mobile ranges of wheels positions by combining multiple linear constraints, where each reachable mobile range is approximated as a convex trapezoid. Thus, we achieve to formulate a MPC as a quadratic problem with linear constraints for nonlinear problem of longitudinal and lateral wheel position control. By optimization of MPC, the reference wheel positions are calculated, while each joint angle is determined by inverse kinematics. Considering reachable mobile ranges explicitly, the optimal joint angles are calculated, which enables wheels to reach the reference wheel positions. We verify its advantages by comparing the proposed method with the previous method through numerical simulations.

  2. CCFL in hot legs and steam generators and its prediction with the CATHARE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffraye, G.; Bazin, P.; Pichon, P. [CEA/DRN/STR, Grenoble (France)

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a study about the Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) prediction in hot legs and steam generators (SG) in both system test facilities and pressurized water reactors. Experimental data are analyzed, particularly the recent MHYRESA test data. Geometrical and scale effects on the flooding behavior are shown. The CATHARE code modelling problems concerning the CCFL prediction are discussed. A method which gives the user the possibility of controlling the flooding limit at a given location is developed. In order to minimize the user effect, a methodology is proposed to the user in case of a calculation with a counter-current flow between the upper plenum and the SF U-tubes. The following questions have to be made clear for the user: when to use the CATHARE CCFL option, which correlation to use, and where to locate the flooding limit.

  3. Predictive model for motorcycle accidents at three-legged priority junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnen, S; Umar, R S Radin; Wong, S V; Wan Hashim, W I

    2003-12-01

    In conjunction with a nationwide motorcycle safety program, the provision of exclusive motorcycle lanes has been implemented to overcome link-motorcycle accidents along trunk roads in Malaysia. However, not much work has been done to address accidents at junctions involving motorcycles. This article presents the development of predictive model for motorcycle accidents at three-legged major-minor priority junctions of urban roads in Malaysia. The generalized linear modeling technique was used to develop the model. The final model reveals that motorcycle accidents are proportional to the power of traffic flow. An increase in nonmotorcycle and motorcycle flows entering the junctions is associated with an increase in motorcycle accidents. Nonmotorcycle flow on major roads had the highest effect on the probability of motorcycle accidents. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width, and land use were found to be significant in explaining motorcycle accidents at the three-legged major-minor priority junctions. These findings should enable traffic engineers to specifically design appropriate junction treatment criteria for nonexclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  4. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jared; Herr, Hugh

    2016-05-01

    Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG), and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT) values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured) with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle.

  5. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Markowitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG, and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle.

  6. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jared; Herr, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG), and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT) values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured) with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle. PMID:27175486

  7. NIRS PREDICTION FOR PROTEIN AND INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT OF RABBIT HIND LEG MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gy. Bázár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop calibration equations to predict the chemical composition of raw, homogenized rabbit meat by means of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. 44 Pannon White rabbits were housed in groups in three different pen types (16 anim./m2, and were fed the same diet. Another 45 animals were housed in cages (12 anim./m2 and fed by different feeding regimes. Rabbits were slaughtered at the bodyweight of 2.4-2.5 kg. Homogenized fresh and freeze-dried left total hind leg muscles were investigated by NIRS using a NIRSystem 6500 equipment with small ring cup sample holder. The ether extract and protein content of all samples were determined chemically. Samples 44 of housing experiment were applied in producing LOCAL calibration equations tested on the 45 samples from the separate feeding experiment. Coefficients of determination (R2 of the predictions were 0.89 and 0.99 for fat, 0.85 and 0.96 for protein in fresh and freeze-dried samples, respectively. Results are reassuring, because the equations were applicable, however the analyzed samples were from independent housing and feeding systems. Therefore the chemical compositions differed in the two datasets, i.e. 9.46%, and 11.79% for fat, 85.75% and 83.44% for protein content in calibration and prediction datasets, respectively. The average of NIRS predicted values for fat and protein was 11.36%, 83.88% or 11.54%, 83.45% when using fresh or freeze-dried samples, respectively.

  8. Predictive parameters of survival in hemodialysis patients with restless leg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojica V Stolic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless leg syndrome (RLS affects the quality of life and survival in patients on hemodialysis (HD. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and survival parameters in patients on HD with RLS. This study was a non-randomized clinical study involving 204 patients on HD, of whom 71 were female and 133 were male. Symptoms of RLS were defined as positive responses to four questions comprising the criteria of RLS. We recorded the outcome of treatment, biochemical analyses, demographic, sexual, anthropometric and clinical characteristics in all study patients. Patients with RLS who completed the study had a significantly higher body mass index and lower intima-media thickness and flow through the arteriovenous fistula. Among patients with RLS who died, there were more smokers as well as higher incidences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Among patients with RLS who survived, there were a greater number of patients with preserved diuresis and receiving erythropoietin therapy. Patients who completed the study had significantly higher levels of hemoglobin, creatinine, serum iron and transferrin satura-tion. Diabetes mellitus (B = 1.802; P = 0.002 and low Kt/V (B = -5.218; P = 0.001 were major predictive parameters for survival.

  9. Thrombocytosis and Raised CRP Levels Predicts Advanced Stage in Esophageal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, G R; Thiagarajan, S; Gupta, Rahul; Kaman, Lileshwar; Das, Reena; Kochhar, Rakesh; Sinha, S K

    2015-12-01

    The significance of thrombocytosis and raised C-reactive protein (CRP) as prognostic markers in esophageal cancer is unclear. We prospectively studied 50 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer and analyzed the relation of preoperative platelet count and CRP levels with the clinico-pathological characteristics and stage of the disease. The platelet count of 319 × 10(9)/L for thrombocytosis and CRP level >6 mg/dl were taken as cut-off values. The incidence of thrombocytosis as well as raised CRP level was 50 %. Eighty percent of patients with thrombocytosis had raised CRP levels. None of patients with early disease (stage I) had thrombocytosis while patients with advanced stage were associated with thrombocytosis, 81.81 % in stage III and 100 % in stage IV (p thrombocytosis and patients with raised CRP were associated with pathological nodal metastases in 84.61 % cases (p 0.005) and 61.53 % (p 0.030), respectively. Thrombocytosis alone or in combination with raised CRP had progressive linear relation with the stage of esophageal carcinoma.

  10. Prediction of oxygen consumption in cardiac rehabilitation patients performing leg ergometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, John Gershwin

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to determine the validity of the ACSM leg ergometry equation in the prediction of steady-state oxygen consumption (VO2) in a heterogeneous population of cardiac patients. Second, to determine whether a more accurate prediction equation could be developed for use in the cardiac population. Thirty-one cardiac rehabilitation patients participated in the study of which 24 were men and 7 were women. Biometric variables (mean +/- sd) of the participants were as follows: age = 61.9 +/- 9.5 years; height = 172.6 +/- 1.6 cm; and body mass = 82.3 +/- 10.6 kg. Subjects exercised on a MonarchTM cycle ergometer at 0, 180, 360, 540 and 720 kgm ˙ min-1. The length of each stage was five minutes. Heart rate, ECG, and VO2 were continuously monitored. Blood pressure and heart rate were collected at the end of each stage. Steady state VO 2 was calculated for each stage using the average of the last two minutes. Correlation coefficients, standard error of estimate, coefficient of determination, total error, and mean bias were used to determine the accuracy of the ACSM equation (1995). The analysis found the ACSM equation to be a valid means of estimating VO2 in cardiac patients. Simple linear regression was used to develop a new equation. Regression analysis found workload to be a significant predictor of VO2. The following equation is the result: VO2 = (1.6 x kgm ˙ min-1) + 444 ml ˙ min-1. The r of the equation was .78 (p equation. The analysis found the ACSM and new equation to significantly (p equation was found to significantly (p equations were compared based on correlation coefficients, coefficients of determinations, SEEs, total error, and mean bias the new equation was found to have equal or better accuracy at all workloads. The final form of the new equation is: VO2 (ml ˙ min-1) = (kgm ˙ min-1 x 1.6 ml ˙ kgm-1) + (3.5 ml ˙ kg-1 ˙ min-1 x body mass in kg) + 156 ml ˙ min-1.

  11. PredyCLU: a prediction system for chronic leg ulcers based on fuzzy logic; part I - exploring the venous side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Fregola, Salvatore; Gallo, Alessandro; Argirò, Giuseppe; Barbetta, Andrea; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco G; De Caridi, Giovanni; Amato, Bruno; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are a common occurrence in the western population and are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients. They also cause a substantial burden on the health budget. The pathogenesis of leg ulceration is quite heterogeneous, and chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is the most common manifestation representing the main complication of chronic venous disease (CVD). Prevention strategies and early identification of the risk represent the best form of management. Fuzzy logic is a flexible mathematical system that has proved to be a powerful tool for decision-making systems and pattern classification systems in medicine. In this study, we have elaborated a computerised prediction system for chronic leg ulcers (PredyCLU) based on fuzzy logic, which was retrospectively applied on a multicentre population of 77 patients with CVD. This evaluation system produced reliable risk score patterns and served effectively as a stratification risk tool in patients with CVD who were at the risk of developing CVUs.

  12. Iron status and chronic kidney disease predict restless legs syndrome in an older hospital population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Iron deficiency is important in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS), and serum ferritin measurement, using a cutoff of 45-50ng\\/ml, is widely recommended as the optimal screening test for iron deficiency in RLS. Serum ferritin often increases with inflammation, and a higher cutoff may be better in those with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including those with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

  13. Raising the science awareness of first year undergraduate students via an earthquake prediction seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    The public is fascinated with and fearful of natural hazards such as earthquakes. After every major earthquake there is a surge of interest in earthquake science and earthquake prediction. Yet many people do not understand the challenges of earthquake prediction and the need to fund earthquake research. An earthquake prediction seminar is offered to first year undergraduate students to improve their understanding of why earthquakes happen, how earthquake research is done and more specifically why it is so challenging to issue short-term earthquake prediction. Some of these students may become scientists but most will not. For the majority this is an opportunity to learn how science research works and how it is related to policy and society. The seminar is seven weeks long, two hours per week and has been taught every year for the last four years. The material is presented conceptually; there is very little quantitative work involved. The class starts with a field trip to the Randolph College Seismic Station where students learn about seismographs and the different types of seismic waves. Students are then provided with basic background on earthquakes. They learn how to pick arrival times using real seismograms, how to use earthquake catalogues, how to predict the arrival of an earthquake wave at any location on Earth. Next they learn about long, intermediate, short and real time earthquake prediction. Discussions are an essential part of the seminar. Students are challenged to draw their own conclusions on the pros and cons of earthquake prediction. Time is designated to discuss the political and economic impact of earthquake prediction. At the end of the seven weeks students are required to write a paper and discuss the need for earthquake prediction. The class is not focused on the science but rather the links between the science issues and their economical and political impact. Weekly homework assignments are used to aid and assess students' learning. Pre and

  14. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  15. NEW APPROACH TO PREDICT PRESSURE PRODUCED BY ELASTIC TEXTILE IN THE THEREPEUTIC TREATMENT OF VENOUS LEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Halfaoui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first theoretical and practical work on compression therapy using the Laplace law to estimate pressures under the bandages. Three articles are considered: the first with the warp highly-twisted on cotton, the second with the warp on polyamide and the third with spandex wrapped by cotton yarn. Starting from these woven fabrics, three models, E5, E6 and Ef have been developed with respective elongations of 108 %, 86 % and 92 % and specific mechanical behavior. The results show that than the single layer bandages develop much higher pressure than the multilayer bandages but the multilayer bandages exert much more uniform pressure than single layered bandages. Obtaining uniform pressure along the length of the leg is a positive result in this treatment. Averages circumferences of the human body are used for the pressure calculations in four zones: C1, C2, C3 and C4.

  16. Computational modeling to predict mechanical function of joints: application to the lower leg with simulation of two cadaver studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liacouras, Peter C; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    Computational models of musculoskeletal joints and limbs can provide useful information about joint mechanics. Validated models can be used as predictive devices for understanding joint function and serve as clinical tools for predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. A new computational modeling approach was developed for simulating joint kinematics that are dictated by bone/joint anatomy, ligamentous constraints, and applied loading. Three-dimensional computational models of the lower leg were created to illustrate the application of this new approach. Model development began with generating three-dimensional surfaces of each bone from CT images and then importing into the three-dimensional solid modeling software SOLIDWORKS and motion simulation package COSMOSMOTION. Through SOLIDWORKS and COSMOSMOTION, each bone surface file was filled to create a solid object and positioned necessary components added, and simulations executed. Three-dimensional contacts were added to inhibit intersection of the bones during motion. Ligaments were represented as linear springs. Model predictions were then validated by comparison to two different cadaver studies, syndesmotic injury and repair and ankle inversion following ligament transection. The syndesmotic injury model was able to predict tibial rotation, fibular rotation, and anterior/posterior displacement. In the inversion simulation, calcaneofibular ligament extension and angles of inversion compared well. Some experimental data proved harder to simulate accurately, due to certain software limitations and lack of complete experimental data. Other parameters that could not be easily obtained experimentally can be predicted and analyzed by the computational simulations. In the syndesmotic injury study, the force generated in the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments reduced with the insertion of the staple, indicating how this repair technique changes joint function. After transection of the calcaneofibular

  17. Lower eccentric hamstring strength and single leg hop for distance predict hamstring injury in PETE students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, L; Witvrouw, E; Vanden Bossche, L; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring injuries have not been under research in physical education teacher education (PETE) students so far. Within the frame of the development of an injury prevention program, for this study we conducted an analysis of modifiable risk factors for hamstring injuries in PETE students. Hamstring injuries of 102 freshmen bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Eighty-one students completed maximum muscle strength tests of hip extensors, hamstrings, quadriceps (isometric) and hamstrings (eccentric) at the start of the academic year. Sixty-nine of the latter completed a single leg hop for distance (SLHD). Risk factors for hamstring injuries were statistically detected using logistic regression. Sixteen hamstring injuries (0.16 injuries/student/academic year; 0.46 injuries/1000 h) occurred to 10 participants. Eight cases were included in the risk factor analysis. Lower eccentric hamstring strength (odds ratio (ODD) = 0.977; p = 0.043), higher isometric/eccentric hamstring strength ratio (ODD = 970.500; p = 0.019) and lower score on the SLHD (ODD = 0.884; p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for hamstring injury. A combination of eccentric hamstring strength test and SLHD could give a good risk analysis of hamstring injuries in PETE students. This might offer great perspectives for easily applicable screening in a clinical setting.

  18. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N K; Robey, I F; Gaffney, E A; Gillies, R J; Gatenby, R A; Maini, P K

    2012-03-27

    Clinical positron emission tomography imaging has demonstrated the vast majority of human cancers exhibit significantly increased glucose metabolism when compared with adjacent normal tissue, resulting in an acidic tumour microenvironment. Recent studies demonstrated reducing this acidity through systemic buffers significantly inhibits development and growth of metastases in mouse xenografts. We apply and extend a previously developed mathematical model of blood and tumour buffering to examine the impact of oral administration of bicarbonate buffer in mice, and the potential impact in humans. We recapitulate the experimentally observed tumour pHe effect of buffer therapy, testing a model prediction in vivo in mice. We parameterise the model to humans to determine the translational safety and efficacy, and predict patient subgroups who could have enhanced treatment response, and the most promising combination or alternative buffer therapies. The model predicts a previously unseen potentially dangerous elevation in blood pHe resulting from bicarbonate therapy in mice, which is confirmed by our in vivo experiments. Simulations predict limited efficacy of bicarbonate, especially in humans with more aggressive cancers. We predict buffer therapy would be most effectual: in elderly patients or individuals with renal impairments; in combination with proton production inhibitors (such as dichloroacetate), renal glomular filtration rate inhibitors (such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), or with an alternative buffer reagent possessing an optimal pK of 7.1-7.2. Our mathematical model confirms bicarbonate acts as an effective agent to raise tumour pHe, but potentially induces metabolic alkalosis at the high doses necessary for tumour pHe normalisation. We predict use in elderly patients or in combination with proton production inhibitors or buffers with a pK of 7.1-7.2 is most promising.

  19. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you walk or exercise and improves with rest. The leg is black and blue. The leg is cold ... chap 81. Marcussen B, Hogrefe C, Amendola A. Leg pain and exertional compartment syndromes. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee & Drez's ...

  20. Lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) and leg strength predict walking ability in elderly males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyazaki, Junya; Murata, Shin; Horie, Jun; Uematsu, Azusa; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    There is an association between gait performance and spinal alignment in elderly females but it is unclear if this association is gender-dependent and postural changes would also predict gait performance in healthy elderly males. We measured thoracic kyphosis angle (TKA), LLA as indices of spinal al

  1. Lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) and leg strength predict walking ability in elderly males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyazaki, Junya; Murata, Shin; Horie, Jun; Uematsu, Azusa; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    There is an association between gait performance and spinal alignment in elderly females but it is unclear if this association is gender-dependent and postural changes would also predict gait performance in healthy elderly males. We measured thoracic kyphosis angle (TKA), LLA as indices of spinal

  2. Single-leg lateral, horizontal, and vertical jump assessment: reliability, interrelationships, and ability to predict sprint and change-of-direction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Cesar; McMaster, Travis; Cronin, John; Mohammad, Nur Ikhwan; Rogers, Cailyn; Deklerk, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral countermovement jump assessments, the interrelationship between these tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint (10 m) and change-of-direction (COD) performance for 80 men and women physical education students. Jump performance was assessed on a contact mat and sprint, and COD performances were assessed using timing lights. With regard to the reliability statistics, the largest coefficient of variation (CV) was observed for the vertical jump (CV = 6.7-7.2%) of both genders, whereas the sprint and COD assessments had smallest variability (CV = 0.8 to 2.8%). All intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were greater than 0.85, except for the men's COD assessment with the alternate leg. The shared variance between the single-leg vertical, horizontal, and lateral jumps for men and women was less than 50%, indicating that the jumps are relatively independent of one another and represent different leg strength/power qualities. The ability of the jumps to predict sprint and COD performance was limited (R2 women (R sprint and COD performance in a test battery, the single-leg horizontal countermovement jump would seem the logical choice, given the results of this study. Many of the findings in this study have interesting diagnostic and training implications for the strength and conditioning coach.

  3. Are self-reported pain characteristics, classified using the PainDETECT questionnaire, predictive of outcome in people with low back pain and associated leg pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Kent, Peter M; Albert, Hanne B

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the PainDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ) classification was predictive of outcomes at 3 and 12 months follow-up in low back pain (LBP) patients with associated leg pain. Identification of clinically important subgroups and targeted treatment is believed to...... to be important in LBP care. The PD-Q is designed to classify whether a person has neuropathic pain, based on their self-reported pain characteristics. However, it is unknown whether this classification is a prognostic factor or predicts treatment response....

  4. Clinical study of passive leg raising as an indicator of fluid responsiveness in severe septic patients%被动直腿抬高试验在严重脓毒症患者容量判断中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董绉绉; 方强

    2012-01-01

    .Methods Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis admitted from May 2010 to May 2011 for volume resuscitation were collected.Patients with non-sinus rhythm or arrhythmia and parturients were excluded. Variation of hemodynamics of the patients in a semi-recumbent position,after passive leg raising (PLR) and after volume expansion (500 ml 6% hydroxyethyl starch infusion within 30 mins) was studied by using the technique of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) system.The volume resuscitation were resulted into two groups,responder and non-responder,as per △SVI (stroke volume index) over 15%.HR,arterial systoicblood pressure (ABPs),arterial diastolic blood pressure (ABPd),mean arterial blood pressure (ABPm),mean central venous pressure (CVPm) and cardiac index (CI) were compared between two groups.The changes of ABPs,ABPm,CVPm and SVI after PLR and after fluid resuscitation werc compared with those before PLR and fluid resuscitation.The ROC curve was drawn to evaluate the value of △SVI and △CVPm in predicting volume responsiveness. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistic analysis. Results Of 28 patients,8 were responders and 10 were non-responders.In responders after PLR,some hemodynamic variables including ABPs,ABPm and CVPm were significantly increased [(100.1 ± 18.1) vs.(115.9 ±13.1),P=0.005; (68.1±12.4) vs.(77.8±13.0),P=0.03and(7.2±3.4) vs.(10.1±4.1),P=0.03,respectively ].After PLR,the area under curve (AUC) of the ROC curve of △SVI and △CVPm to predict the responsiveness after fluid resuscitation were 0.897 ± 0.059 (95 % CI 0.762-1.000) and 0.819±0.081 (95%CI 0.661-0.977),respectively.When the cut-off levels of △SVI and △CVPm were 10.5% and 12.7%,the sensitivities were 72.2% and 72.2%,the specificities were 90% and 80%.Conclusions Changes in △SVI and △CVPm induced by passive leg raising are accurate indices for predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with severe

  5. Numerical Prediction of Experimentally Observed Behavior of a Scale Model of an Offshore Wind Turbine Supported by a Tension-Leg Platform: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Stewart, G. M.; Goupee, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the critical importance the role physical experimental tests play in understanding the dynamics of floating offshore wind turbines, the DeepCwind consortium conducted a one-fiftieth-scale model test program where several floating wind platforms were subjected to a variety of wind and wave loading condition at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands wave basin. This paper describes the observed behavior of a tension-leg platform, one of three platforms tested, and the systematic effort to predict the measured response with the FAST simulation tool using a model primarily based on consensus geometric and mass properties of the test specimen.

  6. FAQs on leg ulcer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton

    In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.

  7. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  8. Evaluation of the IceTag leg sensor and its derivative models to predict behaviour, using beef cattle on rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, E D; Nevo, Y; Baram, H; Arieli, A

    2017-06-02

    There is interest in using animal-mounted sensors to provide the detailed timeline of domesticated ruminant behaviour on rangelands. Working with beef cattle, we evaluated the pedometer-like IceTag device (IceRobotics, Edinburgh, Scotland) that records step events, leg movement and body position (upright versus lying). We used partition analysis to compare behaviour as inferred from the device data with true behaviour as coded at high resolution from carefully synchronized video observations of 5-min duration. Malfunctions reduced the target dataset by 7%. The correspondence between IceTag and video-coded step counts was excellent (r(2)=0.97), and the device's indications of upright or lying corresponded well (error rate=1.4%) to the video-coded values. However, the proportion of steps that could be matched individually was relatively low (65% at a tolerance of 0.5s), and the indicated start of a lying bout was often triggered by leg movements of an upright animal. Partition analysis of Grazing versus Not-Grazing yielded an overall error rate of 22%. In both three- and four-way classifications of behaviour (Graze, Rest, Travel; Graze, Stand, Lie, Travel) error rates were low for non-graze behaviours, but only 25% of Graze observations were correctly classified; the overall error rate was 22%. The IceTag device performed well in mapping the diurnal patterns of animal position and step rate, but less well in separating grazing from upright resting. Our results suggest that pedometry is not the ideal method for classifying behaviour when grazing is of paramount interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PREDICTION OF LIVE BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS OF WEST AFRICAN LONG-LEGGED AND WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. BIRTEEB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of live weight of animals is so important in the livestock production and marketing practices that this study was undertaken to develop models for predicting the weight of sheep at market ages. Data comprising of the weight and linear body measurements were collected on the West African Long-Legged (WALL and the West African Dwarf (WAD sheep from Pong-Tamale and subjected to regression analyses. The results revealed that heart girth was the best predictor of liveweight, with prediction accuracies of 92.36% for two years old WALL sheep and 81.20% for one year old WAD sheep, while wither height was the second most important trait in liveweight prediction, in simple linear models. The quadratic models of the single-trait models also had heart girth as the best predictor of liveweight, recording 92.92% accuracy for one year old WALL sheep. Only two traits were mostly required for weight estimation in the multiple-trait models, and the best model was obtained from two years old WALL where heart girth and body length accounted for about 95.53% in prediction accuracy. The multiple-trait quadratic models were generally better in liveweight prediction compared to the respective linear models. Clearly, weight estimation was more accurate among the WALL than the WAD sheep, and also among the younger sheep regardless of the breed. The variations in the models suggest that breed and age of sheep had influence on the type of models required to predict their live body weight.

  10. Minimizing the cost of locomotion with inclined trunk predicts crouched leg kinematics of small birds at realistic levels of elastic recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Blickhan, Reinhard; Andrada, Emanuel

    2016-02-01

    Small birds move with pronograde trunk orientation and crouched legs. Although the pronograde trunk has been suggested to be beneficial for grounded running, the cause(s) of the specific leg kinematics are unknown. Here we show that three charadriiform bird species (northern lapwing, oystercatcher, and avocet; great examples of closely related species that differ remarkably in their hind limb design) move their leg segments during stance in a way that minimizes the cost of locomotion. We imposed measured trunk motions and ground reaction forces on a kinematic model of the birds. The model was used to search for leg configurations that minimize leg work that accounts for two factors: elastic recoil in the intertarsal joint, and cheaper negative muscle work relative to positive muscle work. A physiological level of elasticity (∼ 0.6) yielded segment motions that match the experimental data best, with a root mean square of angular deviations of ∼ 2.1 deg. This finding suggests that the exploitation of elastic recoil shapes the crouched leg kinematics of small birds under the constraint of pronograde trunk motion. Considering that an upright trunk and more extended legs likely decrease the cost of locomotion, our results imply that the cost of locomotion is a secondary movement criterion for small birds. Scaling arguments suggest that our approach may be utilized to provide new insights into the motion of extinct species such as dinosaurs.

  11. Calibration of the Leg Muscle Responses Elicited by Predictable Perturbations of Stance and the Effect of Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sozzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Motor adaptation due to task practice implies a gradual shift from deliberate control of behavior to automatic processing, which is less resource- and effort-demanding. This is true both for deliberate aiming movements and for more stereotyped movements such as locomotion and equilibrium maintenance. Balance control under persisting critical conditions would require large conscious and motor effort in the absence of gradual modification of the behavior. We defined time-course of kinematic and muscle features of the process of adaptation to repeated, predictable perturbations of balance eliciting both reflex and anticipatory responses. Fifty-nine sinusoidal (10cm, 0.6Hz platform displacement cycles were administered to 10 subjects eyes-closed and eyes-open. Head and Center of Mass (CoM position, ankle angle and Tibialis Anterior (TA and Soleus (Sol EMG were assessed. EMG bursts were classified as reflex or anticipatory based on the relationship between burst amplitude and ankle angular velocity. Muscle activity decreased over time, to a much larger extent for TA than Sol. The attenuation was larger for the reflex than the anticipatory responses. Regardless of muscle activity attenuation, latency of muscle bursts and peak-to-peak CoM displacement did not change across perturbation cycles. Vision more than doubled speed and amount of EMG adaptation particularly for TA activity, rapidly enhanced body segment coordination, and crucially reduced head displacement. Findings give new insight on the mode of amplitude- and time-modulation of motor output during adaptation in a balancing task, advocate a protocol for assessing flexibility of balance strategies, and provide a reference for addressing balance problems in patients with movement disorders.

  12. Calibration of the Leg Muscle Responses Elicited by Predictable Perturbations of Stance and the Effect of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Stefania; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Motor adaptation due to task practice implies a gradual shift from deliberate control of behavior to automatic processing, which is less resource- and effort-demanding. This is true both for deliberate aiming movements and for more stereotyped movements such as locomotion and equilibrium maintenance. Balance control under persisting critical conditions would require large conscious and motor effort in the absence of gradual modification of the behavior. We defined time-course of kinematic and muscle features of the process of adaptation to repeated, predictable perturbations of balance eliciting both reflex and anticipatory responses. Fifty-nine sinusoidal (10 cm, 0.6 Hz) platform displacement cycles were administered to 10 subjects eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO). Head and Center of Mass (CoM) position, ankle angle and Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Soleus (Sol) EMG were assessed. EMG bursts were classified as reflex or anticipatory based on the relationship between burst amplitude and ankle angular velocity. Muscle activity decreased over time, to a much larger extent for TA than Sol. The attenuation was larger for the reflex than the anticipatory responses. Regardless of muscle activity attenuation, latency of muscle bursts and peak-to-peak CoM displacement did not change across perturbation cycles. Vision more than doubled speed and the amount of EMG adaptation particularly for TA activity, rapidly enhanced body segment coordination, and crucially reduced head displacement. The findings give new insight on the mode of amplitude- and time-modulation of motor output during adaptation in a balancing task, advocate a protocol for assessing flexibility of balance strategies, and provide a reference for addressing balance problems in patients with movement disorders. PMID:27625599

  13. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    mimicking several pathological conditions, Restless Legs Syndrome prevalence on general population according to various large epidemiological studies and pathogenic hypotheses on the issue of Restless Legs Syndrome are discussed. Finally, by presenting another possible "RLS-mimic" our aim is to highlight the common misdiagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome, which can mimic a variety of disorders, some of which are very common, such as an S1 radiculopathy, thus raising concern among doctors of various specialties addressed to by Restless Legs Syndrome sufferers, on the importance of proper diagnosis of the syndrome.

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Into Relieved Are you experiencing symptoms linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS)? Find tools and support to help get ... I couldn’t sleep. Fortunately, I found the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation and learned what type of doctor to ...

  15. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Teens, Men, WomenTags: neurological disorders, restless legs syndrome, RLS, sitting, sleep disorders, sleeping, uncomfortable feeling in legs at rest Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women November ...

  16. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  17. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  18. Leg 179 summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pettigrew, T.J.; Casey, J.F.; Miller, D.J.; Araki, E.; Boissonnas, R.; Busby, R.; Einaudi, F.; Gerdom, M.; Guo, Z.P.; Hopkins, H.; Myers, G.; Rao, D.G.; Shibata, T.; Thy, P.

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 179 set out with two primary objectives. These objectives were (1) testing the recently developed hammer drill-in casing system on the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and (2) drilling a cased reentry...

  19. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  20. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  1. [Restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Szu-Chia; Chen, Rou-Shayn

    2008-03-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder to take possession of increasing attention. RLS is characterized by an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations, that occurs or worsen at rest and is relieved by activity. The symptoms of RLS have a major impact on nocturnal sleep and daytime functions. The clinical diagnostic criteria were established and published in 2003 by International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). All four essential criteria must be met for a positive diagnosis. However, RLS encompassed an idiopathic form of genetic or unknown origin and secondary forms associated with many causes. Special awareness should be kept for differential diagnosis such as uremia, iron deficiency anemia, polyneuropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Polysomnography, actinography, L-dopa loading test, and suggested immobilization test (SIT) are helpful tools to reduce the diagnostic puzzle of false positive and false negative. Pathophysiological concepts of RLS are essentially based on the neuroimaging and neurophysiological data to assume a dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, possibly on the All neuron group localized in the hypothalamus. These neurons modulate spinal excitability and alter the sensory processing predominantly of leg afferents. Treatment may be closely linked to the dopaminergic system and iron metabolism. Dopaminergic stimulation with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first choice in idiopathic restless legs syndrome, but the long-term adverse effect of augmentation should be carefully monitored.

  2. A single-arm trial indirect comparison investigation: a proof-of-concept method to predict venous leg ulcer healing time for a new acellular synthetic matrix matched to standard care control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Ronald; Nelson, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    To compare data on time to healing from two separate cohorts: one treated with a new acellular synthetic matrix plus standard care (SC) and one matched from four large UK pragmatic, randomised controlled trials [venous leg ulcer (VLU) evidence network]. We introduce a new proof-of-concept strategy to a VLU clinical evidence network, propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis to predict the feasibility of the new acellular synthetic matrix plus SC for success in future randomised, controlled clinical trials. Prospective data on chronic VLUs from a safety and effectiveness study on an acellular synthetic matrix conducted in one wound centre in the UK (17 patients) and three wound centres in Australia (36 patients) were compared retrospectively to propensity score-matched data from patients with comparable leg ulcer disease aetiology, age, baseline ulcer area, ulcer duration, multi-layer compression bandaging and majority of care completed in specialist wound centres (average of 1 visit per week), with the outcome measures at comparable follow-up periods from patients enrolled in four prospective, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised studies of venous ulcers in the UK (the comparison group; VLU evidence network). Analysis using Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a mean healing time of 73·1 days for ASM plus SC (ASM) treated ulcers in comparison with 83·5 days for comparison group ulcers treated with SC alone (Log rank test, χ(2) 5·779, P = 0·016) within 12 weeks. Sensitivity analysis indicates that an unobserved covariate would have to change the odds of healing for SC by a factor of 1·1 to impact the baseline results. Results from this study predict a significant effect on healing time when using a new ASM as an adjunct to SC in the treatment of non-healing venous ulcers in the UK, but results are sensitive to unobserved covariates that may be important in healing time comparison. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hemoglobinopathies and Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients.

  4. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  5. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  6. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  7. Raising the bar (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we summarise and comment on the papers published in issue 11.2 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper analyses which regions in Europe were resilient to the great Recession and which ones were not. The second and the th

  8. A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1126/science.1229163

    2013-01-01

    The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction models on such flowable ground are often unavailable. We developed a force model for arbitrarily-shaped legs and bodies moving freely in granular media, and used this "terradynamics" to predict a small legged robot's locomotion on granular media using various leg shapes and stride frequencies. Our study reveals a complex but generic dependence of stresses in granular media on intruder depth, orientation, and movement direction and gives insight into the effects of leg morphology and kinematics on movement.

  9. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  10. Leg med vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mette; Bertelsen, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    alle med interesse for leg og bevægelse i daginstitutioner. Bogen er skrevet i et samarbejde mellem Ringsted Kommune og det nationale videncenter for sundhed, kost og motion for børn og unge, KOSMOS (www.vicekosmos.dk).Der er i samarbejde med to daginstitutioner indhentet vigtige og kvalificerede...

  11. Leg CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... x-ray beam rotates around you. (Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by ...

  12. Leg design in hexapedal runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Full, R J; Blickhan, R; Ting, L H

    1991-01-01

    .... To explain how diverse leg designs can result in common whole-body dynamics, we used a miniature force platform to measure the ground reaction forces produced by individual legs of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis...

  13. Hereditary Lymphedema of the Leg – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Heinig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but experienced multiple erysipelas during his life. After diagnostic procedures to exclude other causes of leg swelling, the diagnosis of hereditary lymphedema of the leg, stage III was confirmed. We initialized complex decongestive therapy. During two weeks of intensive treatment, the circumference of the left leg could be reduced by 10 cm. This case illustrates the "natural course" hereditary lymphedema. But it raises the hope that even after decades of ignorance, the patients benefits from complex decongestive treatment. Therapeutic nihilism is unnecessary and poses lymphedema patients to risks of infection and secondary malignancies like Stewart-Trewes syndrome.

  14. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  15. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Bhattacharya, Kalyan; Reichmann, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable urge to move because of uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs with a diurnal variation and a release with movement. The pathophysiology is only partially known and a genetic component together with dopaminergic and brain iron dysregulation plays an important role. Secondary causes for RLS need to be excluded. Treatment depends on the severity and frequency of RLS symptoms, comprises non-pharmacological (eg lifestyle changes) and pharmacological interventions (eg dopaminergic medication, alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligands, opioids) and relieves symptoms only. Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS. This article will provide a clinically useful overview of RLS with provision of diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, possible investigations and different treatment strategies with their associated complications. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  16. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  17. have a hollow leg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话 A:We must prevent our family members from getting involved with drugs, really. B:That’s a sure thing.We must make sure that they never involve them- selves with that. A:By the way,does your husband drink a lot? B:Yeah.That’s the only thing that keeps worrying me.And he often boasts that he has a hollow leg and nobody can drink him under the ta- ble.

  18. Differential diagnosis of leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, F; Rabe, E

    2013-03-01

    Leg and foot ulcers are symptoms of very different diseases. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers. The majority of leg ulcers occur in the lower leg or foot. In non-venous ulcers the localization in the foot area is more frequent. The most frequent underlying disease is chronic venous disease. In 354 leg ulcers, Koerber found 75.25% venous leg ulcers, 3.66% arterial leg ulcers, 14.66% ulcers of mixed venous and arterial origin and 13.5% vasculitic ulcers. In the Swedish population of Skaraborg, Nelzen found a venous origin in 54% of the ulcer patients. Each leg ulcer needs a clinical and anamnestic evaluation. Duplex ultrasound is the basic diagnostic tool to exclude vascular anomalies especially chronic venous and arterial occlusive disease. Skin biopsies help to find a correct diagnosis in unclear or non-healing cases. In conclusion, chronic venous disease is the most frequent cause of leg ulcerations. Because 25% of the population have varicose veins or other chronic venous disease the coincidence of pathological venous findings and ulceration is very frequent even in non-venous ulcerations. Leg ulcers without the symptoms of chronic venous disease should be considered as non-venous.

  19. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome.

  20. Pharmacologic treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormandy, J A

    1995-01-01

    In terms of prevalence, total cost and morbidity, venous leg ulcers are probably by far the most important type of ulcerations in the leg. The macrocirculatory defect leading to a raised ambulatory venous pressure is now accepted as a common initial pathologic pathway. Most current treatment modalities, such as surgery or external compression, are designed to control the macrovascular defect. However, it is the microcirculatory consequences of the venous hypertension that give rise to the trophic skin changes and ultimately to ulceration. At this microcirculatory level, pharmacotherapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The microcirculatory pathophysiologic changes include decreased fibrinolytic activity, elevated plasma fibrinogen, microcirculatory thrombi, and inappropriate activation of the white blood cells. The oxidative burst from the activated white cells probably plays a key role by releasing locally leukocyte-derived free radicals, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, platelet-activating factor, and a number of other noxious mediators. An important additional component in recalcitrant venous ulcers is co-existing arterial disease, which is probably present in 15-20% of cases. Decreased arterial perfusion pressure will further aggravate the ischemic changes caused by the venous hypertension. Pentoxifylline downregulates leukocyte activation, reduces leukocyte adhesion, and also has fibrinolytic effects. A number of clinical studies have therefore been carried out to examine the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline in treatment of venous leg ulcers. Probably the largest published placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study was reported in 1990. In this study, 80 patients received either pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally or matching placebo for 6 months or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner. Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with pentoxifylline

  1. Mechanics of six-legged runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, R J; Tu, M S

    1990-01-01

    Six-legged pedestrians, cockroaches, use a running gait during locomotion. The gait was defined by measuring ground reaction forces and mechanical energy fluctuations of the center of mass in Blaberus discoidalis (Serville) as they travelled over a miniature force platform. These six-legged animals produce horizontal and vertical ground-reaction patterns of force similar to those found in two-, four- and eight-legged runners. Lateral forces were less than half the vertical force fluctuations. At speeds between 0.08 and 0.66 ms-1, horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy changes were in phase. This pattern of energy fluctuation characterizes the bouncing gaits used by other animals that run. Blaberus discoidalis attained a maximum sustainable stride frequency of 13 Hz at 0.35 ms-1, the same speed and frequency predicted for a mammal of the same mass. Despite differences in body form, the mass-specific energy used to move the center of mass a given distance (0.9 J kg-1m-1) was the same for cockroaches, ghost crabs, mammals, and birds. Similarities in force production, stride frequency and mechanical energy production during locomotion suggest that there may be common design constraints in terrestrial locomotion which scale with body mass and are relatively independent of body form, leg number and skeletal type.

  2. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  3. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  4. Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William

    2014-07-01

    Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.

  5. [Restless-legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I

    2008-01-01

    Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain

  6. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  7. A Treatment of Exposed Leg Fractures%开放性下肢骨折的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科

    2002-01-01

    By analysing 150 cases of exposed leg fractures, The way to cure exposed leg fracture liesin cleaning the wound completely, fixing the broken bone firmly and shut the wound effectirely, and theseare the most important elements to raise the cure rate of fracture and sare the limbs.

  8. Raising the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2017-02-01

    that the removal of 40 km of the amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root would have raised the average level of the continental crust by ∼3 km. The emergence of the continental crust was an essential precursor to the rise of oxygen, which started some 200 Myr later.

  9. Biomechanics of Counterweighted One-Legged Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; McDaniel, John; Martin, James C

    2016-02-01

    One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion, which can be difficult to coordinate and cause premature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64 kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240 W), one-legged (120 W), and counterweighted one-legged (120 W) cycling (80 rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences, counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results, along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling, demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.

  10. AN ANATOMIC STUDY OF ADIPOFASCIAL FLAP OF THE LEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vascular anatomy of the subcutaneous tissues and fascias of the leg. Methods Four fresh cadaver legs which had been injected with colored latex were dissected under magnification to identify the origin, course an distribution of vessels from the subfascial level to the skin. The adipofascial flap was harvested from the whole medial side of the leg and fascial flap from other leg of the same cadaver. The posterior tibial artery and its first and second supra-malleolus septal arteries were retained in these flaps. Selective injection of China ink through posterior tibial artery was carried out, and dimension of ink- stained areas was recorded. Results Three main trunk vessels of the leg gave off branches to deep fascia and subcutaneous tissues, forming a large vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues on the deep fascia and a deli- cate, but dense and well anastomosed vascular plexus beneath the deep fascia. The vascular plexus in the subcu- taneous tissues ran deeper than the superficial venous system. The areas stained by selective injection in adipo- fascial flaps were larger than those in the fascial flaps. Conclusion Subcutaneous tissues and deep fascia can be considered as an anatomic entity nourished by two very well developed vascular networks which lie on both sides of deep fascia. Incorporation of the deep fascia can not only protect the subcutaneous tissue from being lacerated during raising of the flap, but also enhance vascularity of the adipofascial flap. Leaving superficial veins intact while raising the skin flap does not jeopardize the vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues and can preserve the superficial lymnphatic vessels, so that postoperative edema of the flap or the leg could be avoided.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Johns Hopkins Medicine MalaCards: restless legs syndrome Merck Manual Professional Version Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) European Alliance for Restless Legs Syndrome National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Restless Leg Syndrome Foundation ...

  12. Restless legs syndrome: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition, with negative effects on sleep and daytime activities that affect personal, family and occupational life. The overall impact of restless legs syndrome on quality of life is comparable to that of chronic and frustrating conditions such as depression and diabetes. Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may increase patients' suffering in terms of uncertainty, overuse or misuse of care services and lack of trust. Presenting a synthesis of the main topics in the literature on restless legs syndrome facilitates for a better understanding and its management in primary care settings.

  13. Running over unknown rough terrain with a one-legged planar robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ben; Miller, Bruce; Schmitt, John; Clark, Jonathan E

    2011-06-01

    The ability to traverse unknown, rough terrain is an advantage that legged locomoters have over their wheeled counterparts. However, due to the complexity of multi-legged systems, research in legged robotics has not yet been able to reproduce the agility found in the animal kingdom. In an effort to reduce the complexity of the problem, researchers have developed single-legged models to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of legged running. Inspired by studies of animal locomotion, researchers have proposed numerous control strategies to achieve stable, one-legged running over unknown, rough terrain. One such control strategy incorporates energy variations into the system during the stance phase by changing the force-free leg length as a sinusoidal function of time. In this research, a one-legged planar robot capable of implementing this and other state-of-the-art control strategies was designed and built. Both simulated and experimental results were used to determine and compare the stability of the proposed controllers as the robot was subjected to unknown drop and raised step perturbations equal to 25% of the nominal leg length. This study illustrates the relative advantages of utilizing a minimal-sensing, active energy removal control scheme to stabilize running over rough terrain.

  14. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  15. Man with leg rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Michael Huynh; Khesbak, Ziyad; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2017-10-01

    A 51-year-old male presented to the ED with a rash to his left thigh (figure 1) with erythema, swelling and pain. He endorsed paraesthesias, pruritus, fevers, vomiting and diarrhoea. Initial vitals were unremarkable. He was well appearing with an 8×8 cm violaceous patch on his left medial thigh with vesicles, surrounding erythema and induration with a second, smaller lesion on the right thigh. Both rashes were extremely tender.emermed;34/10/686/F1F1F1Figure 1Erythematosus and vesicular rash in bilateral legs.A bedside ultrasound image of the rash was obtained (figure 2).emermed;34/10/686/F2F2F2Figure 2Bedside ultrasound of rash. What is the most likely cause of the patient's rash?A. Herpes zosterB. CellulitisC. Necrotising fasciitisD. Bullous pemphigoid. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  17. ELT and Consciousness-Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim Saif

    2012-01-01

    The paper highlights the concept of consciousness-raising. It relates it to different aspects of ELT such as explicit teaching, language awareness, language acquisition and practice. How these terms are related to the concept of consciousness-raising within the English Language teaching. Its main aim is to help learners to notice for themselves…

  18. Patterns of International Capital Raisings

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents several new patterns associated with firms issuing securities in foreign markets that motivate the need for and help guide future research. Besides noting that these international capital raisings grew almost four-fold from 1991 to 2005, accounting for 35 percent of all capital raised through security issuances, the paper has three main findings. First, a large and gro...

  19. [Restless legs syndrome - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur Arni; Sigurdsson, Albert Pall

    2012-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder with a prevalence between 10-20% in Iceland. There are two forms of RLS, idiopathic and secondary. Symptom onset of RLS before the age of 45 suggests an idiopathic form with no known underlying cause but inheritance. Symptom onset after age of 45 indicates a secondary form with an underlying cause without inheritance. Causes for secondary forms are for example: iron depletion, uraemia and polyneuropathy. Symptoms of RLS are uncomfortable and unpleasant deep sensations in the legs that are felt at rest, accompanied by an urge to move the legs, typically just before sleep. Accompanying RLS is a sleep disturbance that can lead to daytime somnolence, decreased quality of life, poor concentration, memory problems, depression and decreased energy. Dopamine agonists are currently the first line treatment for RLS. restless legs, periodic limb movements, sleep disturbance, dopamine agonists.

  20. The cost of leg forces in bipedal locomotion: a simple optimization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Rebula

    Full Text Available Simple optimization models show that bipedal locomotion may largely be governed by the mechanical work performed by the legs, minimization of which can automatically discover walking and running gaits. Work minimization can reproduce broad aspects of human ground reaction forces, such as a double-peaked profile for walking and a single peak for running, but the predicted peaks are unrealistically high and impulsive compared to the much smoother forces produced by humans. The smoothness might be explained better by a cost for the force rather than work produced by the legs, but it is unclear what features of force might be most relevant. We therefore tested a generalized force cost that can penalize force amplitude or its n-th time derivative, raised to the p-th power (or p-norm, across a variety of combinations for n and p. A simple model shows that this generalized force cost only produces smoother, human-like forces if it penalizes the rate rather than amplitude of force production, and only in combination with a work cost. Such a combined objective reproduces the characteristic profiles of human walking (R² = 0.96 and running (R² = 0.92, more so than minimization of either work or force amplitude alone (R² = -0.79 and R² = 0.22, respectively, for walking. Humans might find it preferable to avoid rapid force production, which may be mechanically and physiologically costly.

  1. The cost of leg forces in bipedal locomotion: a simple optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebula, John R; Kuo, Arthur D

    2015-01-01

    Simple optimization models show that bipedal locomotion may largely be governed by the mechanical work performed by the legs, minimization of which can automatically discover walking and running gaits. Work minimization can reproduce broad aspects of human ground reaction forces, such as a double-peaked profile for walking and a single peak for running, but the predicted peaks are unrealistically high and impulsive compared to the much smoother forces produced by humans. The smoothness might be explained better by a cost for the force rather than work produced by the legs, but it is unclear what features of force might be most relevant. We therefore tested a generalized force cost that can penalize force amplitude or its n-th time derivative, raised to the p-th power (or p-norm), across a variety of combinations for n and p. A simple model shows that this generalized force cost only produces smoother, human-like forces if it penalizes the rate rather than amplitude of force production, and only in combination with a work cost. Such a combined objective reproduces the characteristic profiles of human walking (R² = 0.96) and running (R² = 0.92), more so than minimization of either work or force amplitude alone (R² = -0.79 and R² = 0.22, respectively, for walking). Humans might find it preferable to avoid rapid force production, which may be mechanically and physiologically costly.

  2. Screening for a raised rectal temperature in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.J.; O'Dempsey, T J; Greenwood, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare rectal and axillary temperature measurements in African children. Altogether 573 sick children were seen in an outpatient setting in rural West Africa. Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured and the parent or guardian was asked if they thought that the child had a raised body temperature. Normal ranges were defined from an age matched population of 203 healthy children. A raised axillary temperature predicted a raised rectal temperature wi...

  3. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  4. Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Aarti; Clark-Bilodeau, Courtney; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, more recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that disrupts sleep and occurs more frequently in the pregnant population. We present a 39-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome in the third trimester and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic options in the pregnant population while highlighting the challenges posed by the lack of safety data of approved drugs.

  5. The keystone-design perforator-based flap for leg defects: a synthesis of philosophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R John

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The classical keystone-design flap, although elegantly employed for various trunk defects, has limited movement on the leg. This study aims to modify the keystone-design flaps for leg defects. Methods: A keystone-design flap, in which perforators are identified and dissected, is described specifically for elliptical defects overlying the tibia. Results: It retains the unique advantages of both the perforator island flap concept as well as the keystone-design philosophy. Conclusion: The technique as well as the possibilities of raising such flaps over various areas of the leg is outlined.

  6. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  8. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  9. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  10. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2012-11-01

    Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  12. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  13. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  14. Leg movements during wakefulness in restless legs syndrome: time structure and relationships with periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco

    2012-05-01

    Approximately one third of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) also show periodic leg movements (PLM) during relaxed wake fulness (PLMW). In contrast with the large amount of data published on periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), PLMW have received less attention from the scientific community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations/differences of time-structure and response to a dopamine-agonist between PLMW and PLMS in patients with RLS. Ninety idiopathic RLS patients and 28 controls were recruited. Subjects underwent clinical and neurophysiological evaluation, hematological screening, and one or two consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. A subset of patients received 0.25mg of pramipexole or placebo before the second recording. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and LM activity was analyzed during sleep and during the epochs of wakefulness occurring during the first recording hour. RLS patients had higher LM activity during wakefulness than controls, but with a similar periodicity. Even if correlated, the ability of the PLMW index to predict the PLMS index decreased with increasing LM activity. Intermovement intervals during wakefulness showed one peak only at approximately 4s, gradually decreasing with increasing interval in both patients and controls. The effect of pramipexole was very limited and involved the small periodic portion of LM activity during wakefulness. PLMW index and PLMS index were correlated; however, the magnitude of this correlation was not sufficient to suggest that PLMW can be good predictors of PLMS. Short-interval LM activity during wakefulness and sleep might be linked to the severity of sleep disruption in RLS patients and the differences between their features obtained during wakefulness or sleep might be relevant for the diagnosis of sleep disturbances in RLS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  16. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ...

  17. A probabilistic tool for geotechnical assessment of Jack-Up leg penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Wal, T. van der; Bouwmeester, D.; Peuchen, J.; Baars, S. van; Lagers, G.H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of jack-up leg penetration behaviour requires assessment of uncertainties in calculation models and their input parameter values, including quality and extent of site investigation information. Commonly, uncertainty assessment is achieved by sensitivity analysis. This publication presents

  18. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  19. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Shahram; Jafari, Majid; Azizi, Mostafa; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Jafari, Shima

    2016-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  20. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  1. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  2. Restless legs syndrome in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, Imad; Dupouy, Sandrine; Tison, François; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of restless legs syndrome in 30 patients with multiple system atrophy. Eight patients complained from restless legs syndrome, their severity score was 19.4 ± 4.1. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in patients with restless legs syndrome than those without (9.3 ± 3.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.9, p = 0.00165). Periodic limb movements were found in 75% of patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is more prevalent in multiple system atrophy as compared to the acknowledged prevalence in the general population.

  3. Elastic actuation for legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.

  4. Klinefelter's syndrome presenting with leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morentin, Helena Martinez; Dodiuk-Gad, Roni P; Brenner, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    A 54-year-old man of Persian origin presented to our department with a 1-year history of ulcers on the right leg that had been unresponsive to numerous topical treatments, accompanied by lymphedema of the right leg. Medical history included hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which had not been further investigated. He was treated for 20 years with testosterone IM once monthly, which he stopped a year before the current hospitalization for unclear reasons. The patient reported no congenital lymphedema. Physical examination revealed two deep skin ulcers (Figure 1) on the right leg measuring 10 cm in diameter with raised irregular inflammatory borders and a boggy, necrotic base discharging a purulent hemorrhagic exudate. Bilateral leg pitting edema and right lymphangitis with lymphadenitis were noted. He had low head hair implantment, sparse hair on the body and head, hyperpigmentation on both legs, onychodystrophia of the toenails (mainly the large toe and less prominent on the other toes), which was atrophic lichen-planus-like in appearance and needed no trimming (Figure 2), normal hand nails, oral thrush, and angular cheilitis. Other physical findings were gynecomastia, pectus excavatum, small and firm testicles, long extremities, asymmetrical goiter, systolic murmur 2/6 in left sternal border, and slow and inappropriate behavior. The patient's temperature on admission was 39 degrees C. Blood cultures were negative for bacterial growth. Results of laboratory investigations included hemoglobin (11.2 g/dL), hematocrit (26.8%), normal mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin volume, and red blood cell distribution width (16%). Blood smear showed spherocytes, slight hypochromia, anisocytosis, macrocytosis, and microcytosis. Blood chemistry values were taken for iron (4 micro g/dL [normal range 40-150 micro g/dL]), transferrin (193 mg/dL [normal range 220-400 mg/dL]), ferritin (1128 ng/mL [normal range 14-160 ng/mL]), transferrin saturation (1.5% [normal

  5. Patients with low back pain differ from those who also have leg pain or signs of nerve root involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Kent, Peter; Albert, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Leg pain associated with low back pain (LBP) is recognized as a risk factor for a poor prognosis, and is included as a component in most LBP classification systems. The location of leg pain relative to the knee and the presence of a positive straight leg raise test have been...... suggested to have clinical implications. To understand differences between such leg pain subgroups, and whether differences include potentially modifiable characteristics, the purpose of this paper was to describe characteristics of patients classified into the Quebec Task Force (QTF) subgroups of: 1) LBP...... observed across the subgroups from LBP only to LBP with signs of nerve root involvement although subgroup differences were small. LBP patients with leg pain differed from those with LBP only on a wide variety of parameters, and patients with signs of nerve root involvement had a more severe profile...

  6. The Interday Measurement Consistency of and Relationships Between Hamstring and Leg Musculo-articular Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Justin P; Schmitz, Randy J; Shultz, Sandra J

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring stiffness (K(HAM)) and leg stiffness (K(LEG)) are commonly examined relative to athletic performance and injury risk. Given these may be modifiable, it is important to understand day-to-day variations inherent in these measures before use in training studies. In addition, the extent to which K(HAM) and K(LEG) measure similar active stiffness characteristics has not been established. We investigated the interday measurement consistency of K(HAM) and K(LEG), and examined the extent to which K(LEG) predicted K(HAM) in 6 males and 9 females. K(HAM) was moderately consistent day-to-day (ICC(2,5) = .71; SEM = 76.3 N·m(-1)), and 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA) revealed a systematic bias with considerable absolute measurement error (95% LOA = 89.6 ± 224.8 N·m(-1)). Day-to-day differences in procedural factors explained 59.4% of the variance in day-to-day differences in K(HAM). Bilateral and unilateral K(LEG) was more consistent (ICC(2,3) range = .87-.94; SEM range = 1.0-2.91 kN·m(-1)) with lower absolute error (95% LOA bilateral= -2.0 ± 10.3; left leg = -0.36 ± 3.82; right leg = -1.05 ± 3.61 kN·m(-1)). K(LEG) explained 44% of the variance in K(HAM) (P < .01). Findings suggest that procedural factors must be carefully controlled to yield consistent and precise K(HAM) measures. The ease and consistency of K(LEG), and moderate correlation with K(HAM), may steer clinicians toward K(LEG) when measuring lower-extremity stiffness for screening studies and monitoring the effectiveness of training interventions over time.

  7. Alternatives for Raising Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    William Scarth

    1999-01-01

    Given the fundamental goal of raising living standards in the longer term, much attention is paid to policies that can be expected to increase national saving. With respect to private saving, the mechanism is tax reform - a lower tax on interest income. The basic problem with this approach is that, for a given size of government, some other tax or transfer must be adjusted to finance the interest-tax cut. This fact may make it difficult to ensure that those with only labour income will share ...

  8. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.

  9. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai; Yifeng; Liu; Jinliang

    2006-01-01

      The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.……

  10. 设计师访谈:Three Legged Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOE; RUSS

    2007-01-01

    Greg Gunn、Casey Hunt和Reza Rasoli,又称Three Legged Legs。于2006年获得了全球学生动画奖(Global Student Animation Award)。现在他们又带回了一个精彩的新短片《Samurai》。我们自然也不会放过这次机会,看看能不能了解到更多内幕信息。

  11. Swing-leg trajectory of running guinea fowl suggests task-level priority of force regulation rather than disturbance rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Blum

    Full Text Available To achieve robust and stable legged locomotion in uneven terrain, animals must effectively coordinate limb swing and stance phases, which involve distinct yet coupled dynamics. Recent theoretical studies have highlighted the critical influence of swing-leg trajectory on stability, disturbance rejection, leg loading and economy of walking and running. Yet, simulations suggest that not all these factors can be simultaneously optimized. A potential trade-off arises between the optimal swing-leg trajectory for disturbance rejection (to maintain steady gait versus regulation of leg loading (for injury avoidance and economy. Here we investigate how running guinea fowl manage this potential trade-off by comparing experimental data to predictions of hypothesis-based simulations of running over a terrain drop perturbation. We use a simple model to predict swing-leg trajectory and running dynamics. In simulations, we generate optimized swing-leg trajectories based upon specific hypotheses for task-level control priorities. We optimized swing trajectories to achieve i constant peak force, ii constant axial impulse, or iii perfect disturbance rejection (steady gait in the stance following a terrain drop. We compare simulation predictions to experimental data on guinea fowl running over a visible step down. Swing and stance dynamics of running guinea fowl closely match simulations optimized to regulate leg loading (priorities i and ii, and do not match the simulations optimized for disturbance rejection (priority iii. The simulations reinforce previous findings that swing-leg trajectory targeting disturbance rejection demands large increases in stance leg force following a terrain drop. Guinea fowl negotiate a downward step using unsteady dynamics with forward acceleration, and recover to steady gait in subsequent steps. Our results suggest that guinea fowl use swing-leg trajectory consistent with priority for load regulation, and not for steadiness of gait

  12. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ(2) (1)=10.17, prestlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group than the left TLE group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, I; Tison, F

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensorimotor disorder where patients complain of an almost irresistible urge to move their legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, it either occurs or worsens with rest particularly at night, and improves with activity. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group has established four essential criteria for clinical diagnosis of RLS. Affecting an estimated 7.2 to 11.5% of the adult population, the symptoms of RLS may be associated with significant sleep disturbance and may have a negative impact on quality of life. The prevalence of RLS increases with age, and women are more frequently affected than men. In France, the estimated prevalence is 8.5%. Among sufferers, 4.4% complain of very severe symptoms. Although RLS is mainly idiopathic, several clinical conditions have been associated with it, especially iron deficiency with or without anemia, end-stage renal disease and pregnancy. These conditions may share a common pathophysiological mechanism involving a disorder of iron metabolism. By contrast, controversy persists as to whether polyneuropathy, particularly when associated with diabetes, is to be considered as an important cause of secondary RLS. This association is difficult to demonstrate as conventional electromyography is not adequate to detect small fiber neuropathy often associated with diabetes. RLS is often underdiagnosed and few subjects receive recommended RLS drug treatment. There is a clear need for complementary education to improve the accurate diagnosis of RLS. Indeed, better knowledge of this syndrome is a prerequisite to prompt an appropriate therapeutic management.

  14. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  15. Neuroimaging in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, Federica; Chiaro, Giacomo

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies are of crucial relevance in defining the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). MRI studies showed no structural brain lesions and confirmed a central iron deficiency. Structural and functional studies showed an involvement of the thalamus, sensorimotor cortical areas, and cerebellum in RLS and assessed neurotransmission abnormalities in the dopaminergic and opiate systems. Finally, glutamatergic hyperactivity has been proposed as a cause of disrupted and shortened sleep in RLS. Differences among the results of the studies make it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions, thus, suggesting the need for future research.

  16. Aberrant femoral torsion presenting with frog-leg squatting mimicking gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Ning; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang

    2012-04-01

    Patients with frog-leg squatting have restricted internal rotation and adduction of the affected hips during sitting or squatting. In the surgical literature, the cause generally has been presumed to arise from and be pathognomonic for gluteal muscle contracture. However, we have encountered patients with frog-leg squatting but without gluteal muscle contracture. We therefore raised the following questions: What are the imaging features of patients with frog-leg squatting? Do conditions other than gluteal muscle contracture manifest frog-leg squatting? We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 67 patients presenting with frog-leg squatting from April 1998 to July 2010. There were four females and 63 males; their mean age was 22.2 years (range, 4-50 years). During MRI readout, we observed aberrant axes of some femoral necks and obtained additional CT to measure femoral torsion angles in 59 of the 67 patients. MR images of 27 (40%) patients had signs of gluteal muscle contracture. Twenty-two (33%) patients (40 femora) had aberrant femoral torsion, including diminished anteversion (range, 6°-0°; average, 3.9°) in 11 femora of eight patients and femoral retroversion (range, muscle contracture or aberrant femoral torsion. The observation of aberrant femoral torsion was not anticipated before imaging studies. In addition to gluteal muscle contracture, aberrant femoral torsion can be a cause of frog-leg squatting. Level II, diagnostic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  18. PREDICTION OF FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN™ PERFORMANCE FROM LOWER EXTREMITY RANGE OF MOTION AND CORE TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Knoeller, Shelby; Cooper, Ron; Kothe, Nicholas; Smith, Craig; Warren, Meghan

    2017-04-01

    There are varied reports in the literature regarding the association of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) with injury. The FMS™ has been correlated with hamstring range of motion and plank hold times; however, limited research is available on the predictability of lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and core function on FMS™ performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether active lower extremity ROM measurements and core functional tests predict FMS™ performance. The authors hypothesized that lower extremity ROM and core functional tests would predict FMS™ composite score (CS) and performance on individual FMS™ fundamental movement patterns. Descriptive cohort study. Forty recreationally active participants had active lower extremity ROM measured, performed two core functional tests, the single leg wall sit hold (SLWS) and the repetitive single leg squat (RSLS), and performed the FMS™. Independent t tests were used to assess differences between right and left limb ROM measures and outcomes of core functional tests. Linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to determine the best predictors of FMS™ CS and fundamental movement patterns, respectively. On the left side, reduced DF and SLWS significantly predicted lower FMS™ CS. On the right side only reduced DF significantly predicted lower FMS™ CS. Ordinal logistic regression models for the fundamental movement patterns demonstrated that reduced DF ROM was significantly associated with lower performance on deep squat. Reduced left knee extension was significantly associated with better performance in left straight leg raise; while reduced right hip flexion was significantly associated with reduced right straight leg raise. Lower SLWS was associated with reduced trunk stability performance. FMS™ movement patterns were affected by lower extremity ROM and core function. Researchers should consider lower FMS™ performance as indicative of underlying issues in ROM and

  19. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra

    2017-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Cynthia L

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder diagnosed by the clinical characteristics of restlessness in the legs associated often with abnormal sensations that start at rest and are improved by activity, occurring with a diurnal pattern of worsened symptoms at night and improvement in the morning. RLS is the cause of impaired quality of life in those more severely afflicted. Treatment of RLS has undergone considerable change over the last few years. Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy, including the dopaminergic agents and the alpha-2-delta ligands. Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found to be successful. However, chronic use of levodopa is frequently associated with augmentation that is defined as an earlier occurrence of symptoms frequently associated with worsening severity and sometimes spread to other body areas. The direct dopamine agonists, including ropinirole, pramipexole, and rotigotine patch, are also effective, although side effects, including daytime sleepiness, impulse control disorders, and augmentation, may limit usefulness. The alpha-2-delta ligands, including gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, and pregabalin, are effective for RLS without known occurrence of augmentation or impulse control disorders, although sedation and dizziness can occur. Other agents, including the opioids and clonazepam do not have sufficient evidence to recommend them as treatment for RLS, although in an individual patient, they may provide benefit.

  1. Targinact for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS)--also known as Willis-Ekbom disease--is a neurological condition characterised by an overwhelming urge to move the legs, occurring during rest or inactivity, especially at night. Symptoms are highly variable in frequency and severity, and can affect sleep and quality of life. First-line management includes addressing precipitating or aggravating factors and providing explanation, reassurance and advice on self-help strategies. Drug therapy (e.g. a dopamine agonist) is used for patients with more severe symptoms. In December 2014, the marketing authorisation for a modified-release preparation containing oxycodone and naloxone (Targinact-Napp Pharmaceuticals) was expanded to include use in the treatment of severe to very severe RLS after failure of dopaminergic therapy.(10)Here we review the management of adults with RLS, including the place of oxycodone/naloxone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  3. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  5. Ropinirole treatment for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Miklos Zsolt; Fornadi, Katalin; Shapiro, Colin M

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we discuss therapy with ropinirole (known as adartrel in the United Kingdom) in patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs, uncomfortable sensations in the legs and worsening of these symptoms during rest with at least temporary relief brought on by activity. Current recommendations suggest dopaminergic therapy (levodopa or dopamine receptor agonists like ropinirole) as the first-line treatment for restless legs syndrome. Based on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials, we conclude that ropinirole is effective in reducing symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Ropinirole has no serious or common side effects that would limit its use significantly. Rebound and augmentation problems are relatively rarely seen with ropinirole, although properly designed comparative trials are still needed to address this question. It must be noted, however, that most published studies with ropinirole compare this drug with placebo. Very few studies have compared ropinirole with other drugs (L-dopa, gabapentin, opioids, benzodiazepines, other dopaminergic agents and selegiline hydrochloride). No cost-effectiveness trial has been published yet. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with ropinirole shows it to be effective, well-tolerated and safe and it can be used in restless legs syndrome in general.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Samantha; Sanghera, Manjit K; Klocko, David J; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2016-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs during rest, usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations in the affected extremity or extremities. RLS can manifest at any age but prevalence increases with advancing age. This article describes the symptoms of RLS, associated comorbidities, and how to diagnose and manage RLS.

  7. Update in restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rachel E.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Allen, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder recognized in the medical literature since the 17th century, there have only recently been significant clinical and scientific advances in diagnosis, epidemiology and understanding the disorder, mainly due to the advent of dopaminergic treatment. Recent findings Recent discoveries have uncovered the iron–dopamine connection in RLS and the basic dopaminergic pathology related to the RLS symptoms. These have led to new understanding of the morbidity of RLS and the many conditions associated with RLS, which have also supported new approaches to treatment. These developments are each briefly described here. Summary Although there has been progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating RLS, it remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated condition severely impairing functioning of patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Much work is needed to improve on current, as well as other novel therapies. PMID:20581683

  8. Opioids for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César Osório; Carvalho, Luciane Bc; Carlos, Karla; Conti, Cristiane; de Oliveira, Marcio M; Prado, Lucila Bf; Prado, Gilmar F

    2016-06-29

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing and common neurological disorder that may have a huge impact in the quality of life of those with frequent and intense symptoms. Patients complain of unpleasant sensations in the legs, at or before bedtime, and feel an urge to move the legs, which improves with movement, such as walking. Symptoms start with the patient at rest (e.g. sitting or lying down), and follow a circadian pattern, increasing during the evening or at night. Many pharmacological intervention are available for RLS, including drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease (L-Dopa and dopaminergic agonists), epilepsy (anticonvulsants), anxiety (benzodiazepines), and pain (opioids). Dopaminergic drugs are those most frequently used for treatment of RLS, but some patients do not respond effectively and require other medication. Opioids, a class of medications used to treat severe pain, seem to be effective in treating RLS symptoms, and are recommended for patients with severe symptoms, because RLS and pain appear to share the same mechanism in the central nervous system. All available drugs are associated to some degree with side effects, which can impede treatment. Opioids are associated with adverse events such as constipation, tolerance, and dependence. This justifies the conduct of a systematic review to ascertain whether opioids are safe and effective for treatment of RLS. To asses the effects of opioids compared to placebo treatment for restless legs syndrome in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, CENTRAL 2016, issue 4 and MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS up to April 2016, using a search strategy adapted by Cochraneto identify randomised clinical trials. We checked the references of each study and established personal communication with other authors to identify any additional studies. We considered publications in all languages. Randomised controlled clinical trials of opioid treatment in adults with idiopathic RLS. Two

  9. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  10. Leg extension power deficit and mobility limitation in women recovering from hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegijs, Erja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Rantanen, Taina; Lamb, Sarah E

    2008-05-01

    After hip fracture, muscle strength and power remain persistently poor, especially in the fractured leg. This study explores whether asymmetrical leg extension power (LEP) deficit affects mobility in women after proximal femoral fracture (PFF). In this observational study, LEP of both legs, 10- and 50-foot walking speed, and stair-climbing speed were measured in 43 women, aged 73-96, at 1 and 13 wks after surgical repair of PFF. Asymmetrical LEP deficit was calculated as (fractured/(sum both legs)) x 100%. Between weeks 1 and 13 after PFF surgery, LEP increased in the fractured and nonfractured legs by 100% and 30%, respectively. Asymmetrical deficit was reduced from 28.5 +/- 10.2% to 40.4 +/- 8.6%. Linear regression analyses showed that poorer LEP of the nonfractured leg at week 1 correlated significantly with slower walking (beta > 0.525, P stair-climbing speed (beta > 0.349, P 0.354, P stair-climbing speed (beta > 0.343, P walking speed. Higher LEP of the nonfractured leg predicted better recovery of mobility after PFF. Larger asymmetrical LEP deficit correlated with limitation in climbing stairs-a more challenging mobility task where fluent performance requires unilateral force production.

  11. Delivery of Compression Therapy for Venous Leg Ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    municipalities. Sixty-eight home care nurses who managed wounds in their everyday practice were included. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Participant-masked measurements of subbandage pressure achieved with an elastic, long-stretch, single-component bandage; an inelastic, short-stretch, single-component bandage......IMPORTANCE: Despite the documented effect of compression therapy in clinical studies and its widespread prescription, treatment of venous leg ulcers is often prolonged and recurrence rates high. Data on provided compression therapy are limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether home care nurses achieve...... adequate subbandage pressure when treating patients with venous leg ulcers and the factors that predict the ability to achieve optimal pressure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional study from March 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012, in home care centers in 2 Danish...

  12. Correlação do sinal de Lasègue e manobra da elevação da perna, retificada com os achados cirúrgicos em pacientes com ciatalgia portadores de hérnia discal lombar Correlación del signo de Lasègue y maniobra de elevación de la pierna recta con los resultados quirúrgicos en pacientes con ciática que tenían hernia lumbar discal Correlation of Lasègue sign and the straight-leg-raising test with surgical findings in patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Sanchez Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a correlação entre as manobras de estiramento do nervo ciático, como o Teste de Lasègue (TL e o Teste de Elevação da Perna Estendida (TEPE, com os achados cirúrgicos nos pacientes com ciatalgia. MÉTODOS: 178 pacientes portadores de hérnia de disco lombar foram examinados previamente pelo autor através do TL e do TEPE. Os achados cirúrgicos foram anotados e comparados com os achados do exame clínico. RESULTADOS: Dos pacientes estudados, 162 (91% apresentaram TL positivo enquanto 118 (66,2% apresentaram a TEPE positivo. CONCLUSÃO: O TL foi a manobra diagnóstica pré-operatória mais sensível em correlação com a hérnia discal lombar.OBJETIVO: Investigar la correlación entre las maniobras de estiramiento del nervio ciático, como la Prueba de Lasègue (PL y la Prueba de Elevación de la Pierna Extendida (PEPE, con los resultados quirúrgicos en pacientes con ciática. MÉTODOS: 178 pacientes con hernia discal lumbar fueron examinados previamente por el autor mediante la PL y la PEPE. Los resultados quirúrgicos fueron registrados y comparados con los hallazgos en el examen clínico. RESULTADOS: De los pacientes estudiados, 162 (91% fueron positivos en la PL, mientras que 118 (66,2% presentaron PEPE positiva. CONCLUSIÓN: La PL fue la maniobra de diagnóstico preoperatorio más sensible en correlación con hernia discal lumbar.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between maneuversfor stretching the sciatic nerve, as the Lasègue Sign (LS and the Straight-Leg-Raising Test (SLRT, with surgical findings in patients with sciatica. METHODS: 178 patients with herniated lumbar disc were previously examined by the author through LS and SLRT. Surgical findings were recorded and compared with findings on clinical examination. RESULTS: Of the patients studied, 162 (91% had positive LS while 118 (66.2% were positive to SLRT. CONCLUSION: The LS was the most sensitive preoperative physical diagnostic test with respect

  13. Neurobiology: reconstructing the neural control of leg coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R

    2009-05-12

    Walking is adaptable because the timing of movements of individual legs can be varied while maintaining leg coordination. Recent work in stick insects shows that leg coordination set by interactions of pattern generating circuits can be overridden by sensory feedback.

  14. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  15. Behavioral outcomes following below-knee amputation in the coordination between balance and leg movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchnino, L; Mille, M-L; Martin, N; Baroni, G; Cincera, M; Bardot, A; Delarque, A; Massion, J; Pedotti, A

    2006-08-01

    Lateral leg movement is accompanied by opposite movements of the supporting leg and trunk segments. This kinematic synergy shifts the center of mass (CM) towards the supporting foot and stabilizes its final position, while the leg movement is being performed. The aim of the present study was to provide insight in the behavioral substitution process responsible for the performance of this kinematic synergy. The kinematic synergy was assessed by the principal component analysis (PCA) applied to both hip joints and supporting ankle joint. Patients after unilateral below-knee amputation and control subjects were asked to perform a lateral leg raising. The first principal component (PC(1)) accounted for more than 99% of the total angular variance for all subjects (amputees and controls). PC(1) thus well represents the possibility to describe this complex multi-joint movement as a one degree of freedom movement with fixed ratios between joint angular time course. In control subjects, the time covariation between joints changes holds during all phases of the leg movement (postural phase, ascending and braking phases). In amputees, PC(1) score decreased during the ascending phase of the movement (i.e. when the body weight transfer is completed, while the movement is initiated). We conclude that a feedback mechanism is involved and discuss the hypothesis that this inter-joint coordination in amputees results from a failure in the pre-setting of the inter-joint coupling.

  16. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  17. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ZORBA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; p<0.01, peak power (r=.523; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.585; p<0.01. Similarly leg mass was significantly correlated with peak power (r=.654; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.704; p<0.01. In addition, peak power was found to be significantly correlated with leg strength (r=.430; p<0.05 and mean power (r=.613; p<0.01. As a conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that leg volume and leg mass plays important role in anaerobic performance in wrestlers and isometric knee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  18. Transiliac Leg Lengthening in Poliomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi Taghi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and widespread use of a prophylactic vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis. At present we more commonly encounter with poliomyelitis sequelae especially in developing countries. We evaluate the results of a modified innominate osteotomy for leg length discrepancy in poliomyelitis. Instead of triangular bone graft as in Salter’s innominate osteotomy , a trapezoidal bone graft from the ilium is inserted in the site of osteotomy after gradual distraction of the limb. 25 patients (9 males and 16 females with mean age of 25 years (17-37 years were treated by this method. All of them had poliomyelitis with limb shortening. At a mean follow-up of 7 years (3 months to 17 years an average of 3 cm (2.5-3.5 was achieved. Complication was seen in three patients including injury to the lateral cutaneouns nerve of thigh and displacement of osteotomy in two patients .except in one all of the patients satisfied with the operation. We believe this method is safe, effective and cost-benefit for treating of moderate shortening of the lower limb in poliomyelitis.

  19. Pharmacotherapy for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by paresthesia and an urge to move. Predominantly, symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity. RLS prevalence in the general population has been estimated to be approximately 5%. This review presents all options for the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS, that is, when symptoms impair the patient's quality of life, daytime functioning, social functioning or sleep. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in some RLS patients, and medications include carbidopa/levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, oxycodone, methadone, codeine and tramadol. Chronic RLS should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or an α-2-δ calcium channel ligand. A dopamine agonist is a more appropriate choice in the presence of depression and overweight. As α-2-δ ligands can alleviate chronic pain and may be helpful in treating anxiety and insomnia, the presence of any of these comorbidities may favor their use. For RLS present through much of the day and night, the use of long-acting agents, such as the rotigotine patch or gabapentin enacarbil should be considered. In refractory RLS, oral prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone should be considered.

  20. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  1. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Preuschl, Michaela Hassmann, Arnold Baca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993. Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK. The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual’s best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05 and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05 and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05 and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05. Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R2 = 0.524. Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ2 = 2.909 of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ2 = 0.727. From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore

  2. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Zorba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (X age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; pnee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  3. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  4. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  5. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  6. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on ... guideline for management for rehabilitation of lower limb amputation. January 2008. www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/Rehab/ ...

  7. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  8. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  9. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  10. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  11. [Predictive value of Matthiass' arm-raising test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, A

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of a dissertation it was intended--among other things--to investigate the correlation between the "Armvorhaltetest" according to Matthiass and the maximal isometric force (MVC) of the back extensors, the abdominal muscles, the hip flexors and the hip extensors. First of all it could be shown that, at the beginning of the "Armvorhaltetest" according to Matthiass, tall, light people move forward their hip in a manner typical for persons with a weak posture. Apart from the above mentioned result only a weak correlation exists between the "Armvorhaltetest" according to Matthiass and the MVC of the abdominal muscles. Furthermore the expected correlation between the "Armvorhaltetest" and the force of the back extensors could not be established. These findings suggest that the applicability of the "Armvorhaltetest" according to Matthiass as a method to diagnose posture faults in general or to test the force of the back extensors in particular has to be called into question.

  12. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  13. Positioning the hip with respect to the COM: Consequences for leg operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickhan, Reinhard; Andrada, Emanuel; Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2015-10-07

    In bipedal runners and hoppers the hip is not located at the center of mass in the sagittal projection. This displacement influences operation and energetics of the leg attached to the hip. To investigate this influence in a first step a simple conservative bouncing template is developed in which a heavy trunk is suspended to a massless spring at a pivot point above the center of mass. This model describes the orientation of the ground reaction forces observed in experiments on running birds. In a second step it is assumed that an effective telescope leg with its hip fixed to the trunk remote from the COM generates the same ground reaction forces as those predicted by the template. For this effective leg the influence of hip placement on leg operation and energetics is investigated. Placing the hip directly below, at, or above the pivot point results in high axial energy storage. Posterior placement increases axial losses and hip work whereas anterior placement would require axial work and absorption at the hip. Shifting the hip far posteriorly as observed in some birds can lead to the production of pure extension torques throughout the stance phase. It is proposed that the relative placement of the hip with respect to the center of mass is an important measure to modify effective leg operation with possible implications for balancing the trunk and the control of legged motion systems.

  14. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  15. The effect of limb kinematics on the speed of a legged robot on granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Komsuoglu, Haldun; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1007/s11340-010-9347-1

    2013-01-01

    Achieving effective locomotion on diverse terrestrial substrates can require subtle changes of limb kinematics. Biologically inspired legged robots (physical models of organisms) have shown impressive mobility on hard ground but suffer performance loss on unconsolidated granular materials like sand. Because comprehensive limb-ground interaction models are lacking, optimal gaits on complex yielding terrain have been determined empirically. To develop predictive models for legged devices and to provide hypotheses for biological locomotors, we systematically study the performance of SandBot, a small legged robot, on granular media as a function of gait parameters. High performance occurs only in a small region of parameter space. A previously introduced kinematic model of the robot combined with a new anisotropic granular penetration force law predicts the speed. Performance on granular media is maximized when gait parameters minimize body acceleration and limb interference, and utilize solidification features o...

  16. Depth and Distribution of Symptoms in Restless Legs Syndrome/ Willis-Ekbom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Paul; Ondo, William G; Picchietti, Daniel L; Poceta, J Steven; Allen, Richard P; Davies, Charles R; Wang, Lily; Shi, Yaping; Bagai, Kanika; Walters, Arthur S

    2016-12-15

    To determine the depth and distribution of sensory discomfort in idiopathic restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS) and RLS concurrent with other leg conditions, specifically peripheral neuropathy, sciatica, leg cramps, and arthritis. RLS subjects (n = 122) were divided into 71 idiopathic RLS and 51 RLS-C, or Comorbid, groups. All subjects were examined by an RLS expert, answered standardized RLS questionnaires, and received a body diagram to draw the location and depth of their symptoms. Age was 63.04 ± 12.84 years, with 77 females and 45 males. All patients had lower limb involvement and 43/122 (35.25%) also had upper limb involvement. Of the 122 subjects, 42.62% felt that the RLS discomfort was only deep, 9.84% felt that the discomfort was only superficial, and 47.54% felt both superficial and deep discomfort. There were no defining characteristics in depth or distribution of RLS sensations that differentiated those patients with idiopathic RLS from those patients with RLS associated with other comorbid leg conditions. The sensation of arthritis was felt almost exclusively in the joints and not in the four quadrants of the leg, whereas the exact opposite was true of RLS sensations. Depth and distribution cannot be used as a discriminative mechanism to separate out idiopathic RLS from RLS comorbid with other leg conditions. Although seen in clinical practice, the total absence of patients with non-painful RLS only in the joints in the current study attests to the rarity of this presentation and raises the possibility of misdiagnosis under these circumstances. We recommend that such patients not be admitted to genetic or epidemiological studies.

  17. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health...

  18. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  19. The contribution of leg press and knee extension strength and power to physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevald, Michael A; Murray, Amanda M; Luc, Brittney; Lai, Kafai; Sohn, David; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) determine the additional contributions of leg press and knee extensor power, over and above that of strength, to the performance of physical function tasks in people with knee osteoarthritis, and 2) compare the ability of bilateral leg press to unilateral knee extensor strength and power to predict functional task performance.

  20. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  1. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  2. Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163751.html Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk? Or is the link the other way ... link between Parkinson's disease and the risk for stroke. However, the study can't prove that one ...

  3. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  4. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual's best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p taekwondo athlete's do not influence their impact velocities.In order to raise the impact velocity in the jumping front-leg axe-kick an athlete should avoid tilting back with the torso. Instead, an upright position should be maintained.In the leg-lowering period, we suggest hitting the target by using hip extension with a rather straight knee, instead of flexing the knee.

  5. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  6. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zig-zag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....

  7. AN EFFECTIVE HUMAN LEG MODELING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Digital medicine is a new concept in medical field, and the need for digital human body is increasing these years. This paper used Free Form Deformation (FFD) to model the motion of human leg. It presented the motion equations of knee joint on the basis of anatomic structure and motion characters, then transmitted the deformation to the mesh of leg through a simplified FFD that only used two-order B-spline basis function. The experiments prove that this method can simulate the bend of leg and the deformation of muscles fairly well. Compared with the method of curved patches, this method is more convenient and effective. Further more, those equations can be easily applied to other joint models of human body.

  8. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Balantrapu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS, but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal and 4 (contracted. Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW, timed 25 foot walk (T25FW, and timed up-and-go (TUG, and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc. for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12 and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n=44 of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P=0.0001, d=-0.86, T25FW (P=0.003,d=0.72, TUG (P=0.001, d=0.84, MSWS-12 (P=0.0001,d=1.09, O2 cost of walking (P=0.001, d=0.75, average steps/day (P<0.05, d=-0.45, and walking velocity (P<0.05, d=-0.53 and cadence (P<0.05, d=-0.46. Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

  9. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years)...

  10. The Molecular Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor trait defined by symptoms that interfere with sleep onset and maintenance in a clinically meaningful way. Nonvolitional myoclonus while awake and asleep is a sign of the disorder and an informative endophenotype. The genetic contributions to RLS/periodic leg movements are substantial, are among the most robust defined to date for a common disease, and account for much of the variance in disease expressivity. The disorder is polygenic, as revealed by recent genome-wide association studies. Experimental studies are revealing mechanistic details of how these common variants might influence RLS expressivity.

  11. The mysteries of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2007-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by the uncontrollable urge to move the legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, and it either occurs or worsens with rest. Affecting an estimated 6% to 15% of the adult population, RLS compromises the patient's ability to sleep and can significantly decrease quality of life. Because diagnosis currently relies solely on patient (or caregiver) interview, recognizing the symptoms of RLS and knowing what medications treat this condition--as well as the many that exacerbate it--is important for all health care practitioners.

  12. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  13. Restless legs symptoms in a patient with above knee amputations: a case of phantom restless legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Philip A; Kumar, Sanjeev; Walters, Arthur S

    2004-01-01

    We describe a 78-year-old gentleman who, following bilateral above-knee amputations, developed symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the absent portions of his lower extremities. These symptoms improved with dopamine agonist therapy. In addition, he later developed parkinsonism with prominent rest tremor on metoclopramide. This suggests that this individual had a dopamine-deficient state which predisposed him to both restless legs syndrome and drug-induced or drug-exacerbated parkinsonism. We propose expanding the spectrum of phantom limb phenomena to include phantom restless legs.

  14. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  15. Role of Repeat Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurements in Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P. M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Teijink, Joep A. W.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic gold standard for diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement of the muscle. The potential role of a repeat ICP (re-ICP) measurement in patients with persistent lower leg symptoms after surgical decompression or with ongoing symptoms after an earlier normal ICP is unknown. Purpose: To study whether re-ICP measurements in patients with persistent CECS-like symptoms of the lower leg may contribute to the diagnosis of CECS after both surgical decompression and a previously normal ICP measurement. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Charts of patients who underwent re-ICP measurement of lower leg compartments (anterior [ant], deep posterior [dp], and/or lateral [lat] compartments) between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. CECS was diagnosed on the basis of generally accepted cutoff pressures for newly onset CECS (Pedowitz criteria: ICP at rest ≥15 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg after 1 minute, or ≥20 mmHg 5 minutes after a provocative test). Factors predicting recurrent CECS after surgery or after a previously normal ICP measurement were analyzed. Results: A total of 1714 ICP measurements were taken in 1513 patients with suspected CECS over a 13-year observation period. In all, 201 (12%) tests were re-ICP measurements for persistent lower leg symptoms. Based on the proposed ICP cutoff values, CECS recurrence was diagnosed in 16 of 62 previously operated compartments (recurrence rate, 26%; 53 patients [64% female]; median age, 24 years; age range, 15-78 years). Recurrence rates were not different among the 3 lower leg CECS compartments (ant-CECS, 17%; dp-CECS, 33%; lat-CECS, 30%; χ2 = 1.928, P = .381). Sex (χ2 = 0.058, P = .810), age (U = 378, z = 1.840, P = .066), bilaterality (χ2 = 0.019, P = .889), and prefasciotomy ICP did not predict recurrence. Re-ICP measurements evaluating 20 compartments with previously normal ICP measurements (15

  16. Role of Repeat Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurements in Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P M; de Bruijn, Johan A; Winkes, Michiel B; Hoogeveen, Adwin R; Teijink, Joep A W; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2017-06-01

    The diagnostic gold standard for diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement of the muscle. The potential role of a repeat ICP (re-ICP) measurement in patients with persistent lower leg symptoms after surgical decompression or with ongoing symptoms after an earlier normal ICP is unknown. To study whether re-ICP measurements in patients with persistent CECS-like symptoms of the lower leg may contribute to the diagnosis of CECS after both surgical decompression and a previously normal ICP measurement. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Charts of patients who underwent re-ICP measurement of lower leg compartments (anterior [ant], deep posterior [dp], and/or lateral [lat] compartments) between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. CECS was diagnosed on the basis of generally accepted cutoff pressures for newly onset CECS (Pedowitz criteria: ICP at rest ≥15 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg after 1 minute, or ≥20 mmHg 5 minutes after a provocative test). Factors predicting recurrent CECS after surgery or after a previously normal ICP measurement were analyzed. A total of 1714 ICP measurements were taken in 1513 patients with suspected CECS over a 13-year observation period. In all, 201 (12%) tests were re-ICP measurements for persistent lower leg symptoms. Based on the proposed ICP cutoff values, CECS recurrence was diagnosed in 16 of 62 previously operated compartments (recurrence rate, 26%; 53 patients [64% female]; median age, 24 years; age range, 15-78 years). Recurrence rates were not different among the 3 lower leg CECS compartments (ant-CECS, 17%; dp-CECS, 33%; lat-CECS, 30%; χ(2) = 1.928, P = .381). Sex (χ(2) = 0.058, P = .810), age (U = 378, z = 1.840, P = .066), bilaterality (χ(2) = 0.019, P = .889), and prefasciotomy ICP did not predict recurrence. Re-ICP measurements evaluating 20 compartments with previously normal ICP measurements (15 patients [53% female]; mean age, 31 ± 10 years

  17. Computer-assisted detection of nocturnal leg motor activity in patients with restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Bruni, Oliviero; Miano, Silvia; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2005-08-01

    To assess the performance of a new method for automatic detection of periodic leg movements during sleep. Leg movements during sleep were visually detected in the tibialis anterior muscles recordings of 15 patients with restless legs syndrome and 15 normal controls. Leg movements were detected automatically by means of a new computer method with which electromyogram signals are first digitally band-pass filtered and then rectified; subsequently, the detection of leg movements is performed by using 2 thresholds: one for the starting point and another to detect the end point of each leg movement. Sensitivity and false-positive rate were obtained; the American Sleep Disorders Association parameters were also computed, and the results analyzed by means of the Kendall W coefficient, the linear correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plots. N/A. Fifteen patients with restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements and 15 controls. High values of the Kendall W coefficient of concordance between automatic and visual analysis were found with values close to 1 and the linear correlation coefficient for leg movements index and total leg movements index was > 0.950 (p visual and computer detection, which were -9.01 and +9.89 for the periodic leg movement index. None of the normal controls was found to have periodic leg movement indexes >5 after automatic analysis. Our method can be applied to the clinical evaluation of periodic leg movements during sleep, with some caution in patients with a low periodic leg movement indexes. Large-scale research application is possible and can be considered as reliable.

  18. Top Ten Tiks Far Beautiful Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    HERE experts provide women witha guide In better stocking buys. 1. Brightly-colored stockings suchas flaming red or pure blue suit only tall,slim ladies with elegant legs. 2. Opaque stockings, suit only slimlegs. 3. Dark or thinly striped stockings

  19. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical presentation

  20. Hereditary spherocytosis presenting as indolent leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolent leg ulcertation, which is the rarest manifestation of hereditary spherocytosis, started at the age of 5 years affecting a 15-year-old boy and his mother is reported. Review of literature showed very few reports from India and abroad. The response to oral folic acid was excellent

  1. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitte

  2. Well Leg Compartment Syndrome After Abdominal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens Krogh; Hove, Lars Dahlgaard; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a complication to abdominal surgery. We aimed to identify risk factors for and outcome of WLCS in Denmark and literature. METHODS: Prospectively collected claims to the Danish Patient Compensation Association (DPCA) concerning WLCS after abdominal...

  3. Leg og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Leg synes at have et potentiale som metode til at fremme læring. Men hvordan? Legen har en vis grad af parallelitet med den virkelige verden i dens interaktive og relationelle strukturer. Det bliver muligt at finde nye meninger i interaktioner, som refererer til vante interaktionsformer, men alli...

  4. A completely intramedullary leg lengthening device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalsma, A.M.M.; Hekman, E.E.G.; Stapert, J.W.J.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The procedure and the external fixator for lengthening long bones was developed by G.A. Ilizarov in the late 1960's. This technique has, despite its proven abilities for leg lengthening and correction of angular deformities, some considerable disadvantages for patients. Discomfort, infections and re

  5. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  6. Bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass in young oarsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Chie C; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated the impact of bilateral leg extension power and fat-free mass on 2000 m rowing ergometer performance in 332 young oarsmen (age 21+/-2 years, height 1.76+/-0.05 m, body mass 62+/-6 kg; mean+/-s). The 2000 m rowing performance time was correlated with height (1.62-1.93 m; R2=0.23, Pleg extension power (1202-3302 W; R2=0.38, Pleg extension power as regressor variables. Fat-free mass explained 58% of the variability in rowing performance and the inclusion of bilateral leg extension power improved the power of prediction by 5%. The results suggest that rowing involves almost every muscle in the body and that bilateral leg extension power is very important during this activity.

  7. Experience with peroneus brevis muscle flaps for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Bajantri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peroneus brevis is a muscle in the leg which is expendable without much functional deficit. The objective of this study was to find out its usefulness in coverage of the defects of the lower leg and ankle. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the use of 39 pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps used for coverage of defects of the lower leg and ankle between November 2010 and December 2012 was carried out. The flaps were proximally based for defects of the lower third of the leg in 12 patients and distally based for reconstruction of defects of the ankle in 26 patients, with one patient having flaps on both ankles. Results: Partial flap loss in critical areas was found in four patients requiring further flap cover and in non-critical areas in two patients, which were managed with a skin graft. Three of the four critical losses occurred when we used it for covering defects over the medial malleolus. There was no complete flap loss in any of the patients. Conclusion: This flap has a unique vascular pattern and fails to fit into the classification of the vasculature of muscles by Mathes and Nahai. The unusual feature is an axial vessel system running down the deep aspect of the muscle and linking the perforators from the peroneal artery and anterior tibial artery, which allows it to be raised proximally or distally on a single perforator. The flap is simple to raise and safe for the reconstruction of small-to moderate-sized skin defects of the distal third of the tibia and all parts of the ankle except the medial malleolus, which is too far from the pedicle of the distally based flap. The donor site can be closed primarily to provide a linear scar. The muscle flap thins with time to provide a good result aesthetically at the primary defect.

  8. Changes in the lower leg moment of inertia due to child's growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedowska, M K; Polisiakiewicz, A

    1997-07-01

    During growth the size and shape of the child's body changes. It is not clear whether the shape of a body segment changes proportionally in children between the age 5 and 18 years. The aim of this study is to describe these changes for the lower leg moment of inertia in a population of children. The segment moment of inertia describes the mass distribution along the body segment axis. The moment of inertia of the lower leg (including the foot) was measured by the free oscillation technique in 90 healthy children (61 boys and 29 girls) between and 5 and 18 years of age. The period of free oscillation was measured with and without external mass loading. The moment of inertia was calculated using a relation between the mass and the period of oscillation. A two-cylinder model of constant body density was used to predict the moment of inertia. Anthropometric measurements of length of the lower leg and foot, the circumference of the knee, ankle and foot were made. Experimental and model data of the lower leg of inertia were described by a fifth power function of body height. The experimental and model data showed high degree of convergence, confirming that the segment growth of the human body can be treated like the volume growth of a cylindrical object of constant body density. Thus it was experimentally confirmed that the lower leg segment growth between age 5 and 18 years may be considered as proportional.

  9. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  10. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  11. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  12. How to Treat Restless Leg Syndrome with Traditional Chinese Medicine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2003-01-01

    @@ In clinic, restless leg syndrome manifests to have thesymptoms of unbearable soreness, numbness,insect-crawling like itching and electric-shock likeburning sensation in the deep muscles of both legs,which generally appear symmetrically, or severer inone leg, and attack mostly in the night before sleep,but rarely in the day time.

  13. Leg intravenous pressure during head-up tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Poelkens, F.; Wouters, C.W.; Kooijman, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Leg vascular resistance is calculated as the arterial-venous pressure gradient divided by blood flow. During orthostatic challenges it is assumed that the hydrostatic pressure contributes equally to leg arterial, as well as to leg venous pressure. Because of venous valves, one may question whether,

  14. Lower leg electrical impedance after distal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G K; Bolbjerg, M L; Heegaard, N H;

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance was determined in 13 patients following distal bypass surgery to evaluate lower leg oedema as reflected by its circumference. Tissue injury was assessed by the plasma concentration of muscle enzymes. After surgery, the volume of the control lower leg increased from 1250 (816...... to be a useful method for the evaluation of lower leg oedema after distal bypass surgery....

  15. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination...

  16. Pragmatics, Awareness Raising, and the Cooperative Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, pedagogical pragmatics has sought to improve the effectiveness with which learners express and interpret meaning, through awareness-raising activities that draw on authentic materials and break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences. By and large, these efforts have been informed by an inductive…

  17. PROCEDURE FOR LOCALLY RAISING THE GROUND ARTIFICIALLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: WO 8909251 (A1) The present invention relates to a procedure for locally raising the ground artificially, wherein an equivalent quantity of the calcite (CaCO3) present in the porous underground limestone formations is converted into gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by inje

  18. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  19. Raising Happy Kids on a Reasonable Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia C.

    This guide shows parents how to cut expenses and save on the cost of raising a family. Chapter 1 offers many ways to stretch food dollars and discusses buying in bulk, eating out, using coupons, buying wholesale, and gardening. Cost-cutting clothing ideas covered in chapter 2 include buying at secondhand stores and consignment shops, outlet…

  20. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  1. Flo: Raising Family Awareness about Electricity Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrubsole, P.A.; Lavrysen, T.; Janse, M.D.; Weda, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case study, we designed a family game to explore whether this could be an effective and fun approach for raising the awareness of family members towards their energy use and, in the long run, to provide an effective tool for affecting their habits regarding sustainable behavior. The design o

  2. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  3. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  4. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  5. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  6. Fund-Raising as a Persuasive Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two successful fund-raising campaigns conducted by the new Dean of the College of Communication at the University of Texas, Austin. Describes strategies used as a novice fund-raiser with no help from a development officer. Suggests that the Aristotelian principles will serve anyone well if he or she is willing to give it the time and…

  7. Elevation of a patient's trunk and legs does not influence length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Omati

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patient recovery time after anesthesia depends on problem-oriented monitoring and individual assessment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of patient positioning on post-anesthesia recovery time. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective. SETTING: Post-anesthesia care unit, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo. METHODS: Data were obtained from patients recovering from anesthesia in a supine horizontal position or with their trunk and legs elevated at 30 degrees. Data were recorded every 30 minutes. The start time was considered to be the admission to the unit, and the final measurement was taken when the patient reached an Aldrete-Kroulik index of 10. The length of time until discharge was recorded. RESULTS: 442 patients recovering after general (n = 274 or regional anesthesia (n = 168 were assigned to be kept in a supine position or with their trunk and legs elevated. There was no difference in the medians for non-parametric results, between supine position (75 min, n = 229 and trunk and legs elevated (70 min, n = 213; p = 0.729. Patients recovered faster from regional anesthesia with trunk and legs elevated (70 min than in the supine position (84.5 min, although not significantly (p = 0.097. There was no difference between patients recovering from general anesthesia, no matter the positioning (70 min; p = 0.493. DISCUSSION: Elevated legs may supposedly improve venous return and cardiac output since spinal anesthesia blocks sympathetic system and considering leg-raising has been shown to improve cardiac output from hipovolemia. Our findings did not support this hypothesis. Some limitations included a retrospective collection of data that did not allow randomization for recovery position and the unregistered duration of the exposure to the anesthetic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in anesthesia recovery time in relation to positioning patients supinely or with trunk and legs elevated.

  8. Children Seem to Know Raising: Raising and Intervention in Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jinsun

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children exhibit difficulty in their comprehension of raising patterns, such as (1), in which the NP the boy is semantically linked to the VP in the embedded clause, but is syntactically realized as the subject of the matrix clause. (1) Raising pattern: [s "The boy" seems to the girl [s _ to be happy

  9. Single Phase Online UPS Design Using Three Leg Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The single phase online UPS integrate with the three leg type converter which operate with battery charger and the inverter. The first leg controls the ability of charging battery. The third leg controls the output voltage. The common leg is used to control the line frequency. The battery charger has the ability of making the correction of power factor during the battery charging. The inverter is used to maintain the output voltage and to limit the output current. The main feature of the three leg converter is used to reduce the number of switching devices. So that the system has the low value of power loss and low cost.

  10. Control of leg movements driven by EMG activity of shoulder muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eLa Scaleia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During human walking there exists a functional neural coupling between arms and legs, and between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Here we present a novel approach for associating the electromyographic (EMG activity from upper limb muscles with leg kinematics. Our methodology takes advantage of the high involvement of shoulder muscles in most locomotor-related movements and of the natural coordination between arms and legs. Nine healthy subjects were asked to walk at different constant and variable speeds (3-5 km/h, while EMG activity of shoulder (deltoid muscles and the kinematics of walking were recorded. To ensure a high level of EMG activity in deltoid, the subjects performed slightly larger arm swinging than they usually do. The temporal structure of the burst-like EMG activity was used to predict the spatiotemporal kinematic pattern of the forthcoming step. A comparison of actual and predicted stride leg kinematics showed a high degree of correspondence (r>0.9. This algorithm has been also implemented in pilot experiments for controlling avatar walking in a virtual reality setup and an exoskeleton during overground stepping. The proposed approach may have important implications for the design of human-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetic technologies such as those of assistive lower limb exoskeletons.

  11. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  12. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......%) were assessed for venous surgery. Distal arterial pressure was measured following initial examination in 33 of the patients (34%). All patients (100%) were prescribed compression therapy. Of the 98 patients, 11 (11%) had ulcers recur in 3 months and 72 (73%) healed in 12 months, which is in line......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  13. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Susan; Winkelman, John W

    2015-09-01

    There are strong epidemiologic ties between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and a wide array of psychiatric conditions. Although the mechanism of this association is not fully understood, there are likely bidirectional cause-and-effect relationships. Appreciation of psychiatric comorbidity is an essential component of the treatment of RLS. Clinicians should be prepared to facilitate appropriate psychiatric treatment and consider the complex interactions between psychiatric medications, RLS medications, and the clinical course of both illnesses.

  15. Visual based localization for a Legged Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rico, Francisco; Matellán Olivera, Vicente; González-Careaga, Rafaela; Barrera González, Pablo; Cañas, José María

    2006-01-01

    P. 708-715 This paper presents a visual based localization mechanism for a legged robot. Our proposal, fundamented on a probabilistic approach, uses a precompiled topological map where natural landmarks like doors or ceiling lights are recognized by the robot using its on-board camera. Experiments have been conducted using the AIBO Sony robotic dog showing that it is able to deal with noisy sensors like vision and to approximate world models representing indoor of c...

  16. Vision based behaviors for a legged robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Juan V.; Montero, Pablo; Martín Rico, Francisco; Matellán Olivera, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    This article describes two vision-based behaviors designed for an autonomous legged robot. These behaviors have been designed in a modular way in order to be able to integrate them in an architecture named DSH (Dynamic Schema Hierarchies), which is also briefly described. These behaviors have been tested in office indoor environments and experiments carried out are also described in this paper. The platform used in these experiments carried out are also described in theis paper. The platform ...

  17. A unified theory for the energy cost of legged locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman

    2016-02-01

    Small animals are remarkably efficient climbers but comparatively poor runners, a well-established phenomenon in locomotor energetics that drives size-related differences in locomotor ecology yet remains poorly understood. Here, I derive the energy cost of legged locomotion from two complementary components of muscle metabolism, Activation-Relaxation and Cross-bridge cycling. A mathematical model incorporating these costs explains observed patterns of locomotor cost both within and between species, across a broad range of animals (insects to ungulates), for a wide range of substrate slopes including level running and vertical climbing. This ARC model unifies work- and force-based models for locomotor cost and integrates whole-organism locomotor cost with cellular muscle physiology, creating a predictive framework for investigating evolutionary and ecological pressures shaping limb design and ranging behaviour.

  18. Leg contracture in mice: an assay of normal tissue response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, H.B.

    1984-07-01

    Leg contracture, defined as the difference in extensibility of the control and irradiated hind legs of mice, was found to correlate with single doses of radiation from about 20 to 80 Gy. The time of development of the early phase of the response coincided with that reported for the appearance of the acute skin response, and in some cases, partially reversed as this reaction healed. The contracture then progressed again at a moderate rate through 90 days, and then more slowly through one year. Skin contraction, measured by decrease in intertattoo distance, was assayed in the same mice. It followed the same time course as leg contracture, but had a different dose-response relationship. To determine the contribution of skin contraction to the overall leg contracture response, mice were sacrificed and the leg contracture measured before and after the removal of the skin of the leg. After doses of up to 30 Gy, little contracture remained from skinning the leg, indicating that skin contraction was largely responsible for leg contracture in this dose range. After doses of about 45 Gy and above, some contracture remained in the skinned legs, although less than in intact legs. There was little or no enhancement of either skin contraction or leg contracture by the hypoxic cell sensitizers metronidazole or misonidazole.

  19. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  20. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  1. Aloe Vera and Infected Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Banu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infected leg ulcers are major health problems resulting in morbidity and disability and are usually chronic and refractory to antimicrobial treatment. Aims The present study is aimed at determining the bacteria involved in leg ulcers and their resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics as well as to determine whether Aloe Vera has antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant organisms and promotes wound healing. Method A total of 30 cases with leg ulcers infected with multi-drug resistant organisms were treated with topical aloe vera gel and 30 age and sex-matched controls were treated with topical antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity was done from the wounds on alternate days and the ulcer was clinically and microbiologically assessed after 10 days. The results were compiled and statistically analysed. Results Cultures of the study group who were using aloe vera dressings showed no growth by the fifth day in 10 (33.3% cases, seventh day in another 16 (53.3% and ninth day in two of the remaining four cases (6.7% while in two (6.7% cases there was no decrease in the bacterial count. This means that of the 30 cases, 28 showed no growth by the end of 11 days while two cases showed no decrease in bacterial count. Growth of bacteria in study group is decreased from 100% (30 cases to 6.7% (2 cases by day 11 with P

  2. Leg edema from intrathecal opiate infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, J A; Couto da Silva JM

    2000-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of intrathecal infusions to treat patients with long-term non-cancer-related pain, this therapy is not without serious side-effects. Five out of 23 patients who had intrathecal infusions of opiates for longer than 24 months developed leg and feet edema. As predisposing factors, cardiovascular disease, deep venous thrombosis, peripheral vascular disease, and venous stasis of the lower extremities were considered. Every patient who developed pedal and leg edema after the implantation of an infusion pump was also found to have leg edema and venous stasis prior to the time when the pump was inserted. This complication was severe enough to limit their physical activity, and to produce lymphedema, ulcerations and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Reduction of the edema occurred when the dose of the opiate was decreased, and in two cases in which the infusion was discontinued, there was almost complete resolution of the syndrome. It appears that the pre-existence of pedal edema and of venous stasis is a relative contraindication to the long-term intrathecal infusion of opiates in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  3. Do anti-embolism stockings fit our legs? Leg survey and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Lisa; Kent, Kimberly; McPhee, Donna

    2013-07-01

    Anti-embolism stockings are commonly used worldwide to prevent the development of thrombosis in hospitalised patients. Patients are typically measured for, and fitted with, anti-embolism stockings during extended periods of non-ambulation. Anti-embolism stockings must critically fit the leg to achieve optimum blood flow and thus success of prophylaxis. Therefore, hospitals endeavour to maintain stock of anti-embolism stockings that fit the majority of their patients. The objective of this study was to establish whether popular styles/brands of anti-embolism stockings "fitted" the legs of convenience sampled volunteers. Volunteer's legs were measured at ankle, calf and thigh following guidance from British nurses and in accordance with brand instructions. Leg measurements were subsequently compared to the size charts of 10 anti-embolism stocking styles made by 4 different manufacturers. "Fit" is defined as a volunteer's leg measurements matching any stocking size in a range at all measurement points. Volunteers were measured in different settings around Scotland, including private homes, work places and shopping centres. A convenience sample of 471 volunteers (283 female, 188 male) were recruited on the basis of willingness to participate and being over 16 years old. Volunteers ranged from 17 years to 82 years old with an average age of 35. The 10 different styles of anti-embolism stockings, made by 4 different brands, examined for this paper had a size match coefficient ranging from 0% to 100% for our volunteer's legs. The size match coefficient is strongly influenced by the Brand's sizing policy. The proportion of legs that "fit" a particular brand of anti-embolism stockings can be increased through: (1) the reduction of the number of leg measurement points that need to be matched to the size chart of the stockings; (2) the use of open-ended size ranges; (3) the use of increased size range width and (4) the use of increased overlap between sizes. However, all but

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of behavioral, activity, ferritin, and clinical indicators of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kathy C; Bost, James E; Rogers, Valerie E; Hutchison, Lisa C; Beck, Cornelia K; Bliwise, Donald L; Kovach, Christine R; Cuellar, Norma; Allen, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Lack of a valid diagnostic measure of restless legs syndrome (RLS) for persons with dementia, who do not have the cognitive ability to report complex symptoms, impedes RLS treatment and research in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a combination of indicators for identifying RLS that could eventually be used to diagnose RLS in persons with dementia. 3-day, prospective instrument validation. Sleep laboratory. Cognitively intact, 107 with RLS, 105 without RLS. N/A. Serial 20-min observations with a new measure, the Behavioral Indicators Test-Restless Legs (BIT-RL); leg movements with 3 nights of the Periodic Activity Monitor-Restless Legs (PAM-RL); ferritin; sleep history; clinical data; polysomnography; Hopkins Telephone Diagnostic Interview of RLS Symptoms. The best-fitting diagnostic model for identifying RLS included previous history of iron deficiency (odds ratio [OR] 7.30), leg discomfort (OR 6.47), daytime fatigue (OR 6.15), difficulty falling asleep (OR 3.25), RLS family history (OR 2.60), BIT-RL (OR 1.49), and absence of diabetes (OR 0.27), with sensitivity 78%, specificity 79%, and 77% correctly classified. This model retained its predictive accuracy even with co-morbid sleep apnea. When compared to those without RLS, persons with RLS have observable behaviors, such as rubbing the legs, that differentiate them, but the behaviors have no circadian and activity-related variability. The final model of clinical and sleep historical data and observation for RLS behaviors using the BIT-RL had good diagnostic accuracy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Effect of Renal Transplantation in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahvecioglu, Serdar; Yildiz, Demet; Buyukkoyuncu, Nilufer; Celik, Huseyin; Tufan, Fatih; Kılıç, Ahmet Kasım; Gul, Bulent; Yildiz, Abdulmecid

    2016-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder in which patients have irresistible urge to move legs during rest. Restless legs syndrome seems to be common in end-stage renal disease. After a successful renal transplant, symptoms ameliorate with renal function improvement and restless legs syndrome is seen less in this population. Here, we aimed to investigate restless legs syndrome frequency and associated factors in renal transplant patients. In a cross-sectional study with 193 patients (116 hemodialysis patients, 45 transplant patients, and 32 controls), the presence of restless legs syndrome was assessed using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Medical history, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records. Patients were questioned about the presence of restless legs syndrome using the Restless Legs Syndrome Questionnaire. Patients were evaluated with Beck Depression Scale for depression and Pittsburgh tests for sleep disturbances. While the rate of restless legs syndrome was similar between transplants and controls, it was significantly greater in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients and controls had similar depression scores that were higher compared with transplant patients. Pittsburgh score was similar in transplant patients and controls and significantly increased in the hemodialysis patients. The rate of insomnia was significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients compared with the other 2 groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed independent correlates of restless legs syndrome as insomnia, Beck depression score, and being on hemodialysis. Linear regression analysis showed that independent correlates of higher Pittsburgh score were higher depression score, higher age, and presence of restless legs syndrome. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome is significantly lower in transplant patients than it is in patients on maintenance dialysis. In renal transplant patients, restless legs syndrome frequency was

  6. LEG CONQUASATION CAUSED BY PETROL TILLER WITH OPEN LOWER LEG FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Golubović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 71-year old patient admitted to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Clinical Center Niš for the right leg conquasation. The patient was injured accidentally by a petrol tiller. On admission, both thigh and lower leg conquasation was observed with large wound on anteromedial thigh and one on medial side of the lower leg. Soft tissue and bones were covered with dirt and pieces of clothing. The wounds were thoroughly rinsed and dirt was removed followed by detailed debridement. After primary surgical treatment of the wound, open proximal lower leg fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation using two nails in the proximal and two nails in the distal fragment. Soft tissue defect was treated by plastic surgeon. The patient was administered anti-tetanus protection, antibiotic treatment and anticoagulant prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. Physical therapy was initiated subsequent to successful healing of the soft tissue wounds. External skeletal fixation was removed after three months for infection around the proximal nails and the treatment was contuinued using functional Sarmiento’s plaster imobilization leading to full recovery of open lower leg fracture.

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS, which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR, which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders.

  8. [Malnutrition in patients with leg ulcers. Results of a clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, N; Körber, A; Cesko, E; Piel, S; Jansen, T; Dissemond, J

    2008-03-01

    Chronic wounds occur in 1-2% of the population. After the age of 80 the incidence raises up to 4-5%. Leg ulcers are the most frequent diagnosed chronic wound. In this most often affected age group malnutrition develops more frequently compared to the total population. The combined presence of chronic wounds and malnutrition suggests a potential causative connection. In this clinical investigation, data evaluating the nutritional status in patients with chronic leg ulcers, derived from clinical examination, medical history and laboratory tests was analyzed for the first time for a German patient collective. Over a time period of one year we evaluated 41 patients for body mass index, diabetes mellitus, restricted mobility, diet, nicotine and alcohol use, and blood levels of vitamins, trace elements, lipids and HbA1c. We further employed the MNA-questionnaire for malnutrition. We rarely found deficiencies but often improper nutritional practices. Thus we consider that it important to evaluate nutritional status even in obese patients with leg ulcers and poorly healing wounds.

  9. The Relationship of Superficial Cutaneous Nerves and Interperforator Connections in the Leg: A Cadaveric Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Adam C; Ian Taylor, G; Corlett, Russell J; Briggs, Chris; Ashton, Mark W

    2017-04-01

    The lower limb is a source of many flaps both for closure of local defects and for free transfer. Fasciocutaneous flap techniques have been progressively refined, although the vascular basis for their success needs clarification. Archival studies of 48 lower limbs were reviewed and combined with 20 studies of lower limbs from fresh cadavers, making a total of 68 investigations. Lower limbs were injected with a dilute lead oxide solution; the integument was removed and radiographed; and the cutaneous nerves were dissected, tagged with wire, radiographed again, and their paths traced on the original images. The major cutaneous nerves in the leg are paralleled by a longitudinal vascular axis often comprising long branches with large-caliber true anastomotic connections between perforators. The most highly developed vascular axes followed the medial sural cutaneous and saphenous nerves, together with their accompanying veins, immediately superficial to the deep fascia. The intervening areas were characterized by shorter branches usually connected by small-caliber choke anastomotic connections. These findings provide the anatomical basis for the observed reliability of longitudinal flaps in the leg. The superficial cutaneous nerves of the leg, especially the saphenous and medial sural cutaneous nerves, are paralleled by a vascular axis on or beside the nerve comprising long perforator branches connected usually but not always by large-caliber true anastomotic connections. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the characteristics of interperforator anastomoses when designing and raising flaps.

  10. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M.; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood–brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia

  11. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood-brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia nigra

  12. Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippà, Maria A T; Baumann, Christian R; Siccoli, Massimiliano M; Bassetti, Claudio L; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients. It would be worthwhile to identify patients non-responsive to dopaminergic treatment beforehand, because they may suffer from a restless legs-like syndrome and may require alternative treatment. We included retrospectively 24 adult patients fulfilling the four essential criteria for restless legs and 12 age-matched healthy controls. They were investigated by ambulatory actigraphy from both legs over three nights, and patients started treatment with dopamine agonists after this diagnostic work-up. We examined 12 responders to dopaminergic treatment and 12 non-responders and studied the association between response to dopaminergic treatment and the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) as assessed with actigraphy. Demographic characteristics, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue at baseline were similar in all three groups. Baseline RLS severity was similar between responders and non-responders [International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLS): 25 ± 9 and 24 ± 8]. Group comparisons of PLMI before treatment initiation showed significant differences between the three groups. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that healthy controls had significantly lower PLMI (4.9 ± 4.5) than responders (29.3 ± 22.7) and non-responders (13.3 ± 11.2). Similarly, the PLMI in responders was lower than in non-responders. PLMI day-to-day variability did not differ between responders and non-responders and there was no correlation between treatment effect, as assessed by the decrease of the IRLS and baseline PLMI. Our retrospective study indicates that actigraphy to assess periodic limb movements may contribute to a better diagnosis of dopamine-responsive restless legs syndrome.

  13. The natural shock absorption of the leg spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wangdo; João, Filipa; Tan, John; Mota, Patricia; Vleck, Veronica; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, Antonio

    2013-01-04

    When a human being runs, muscles, tendons, and ligaments together behave like a single linear spring. This "leg spring" can be described remarkably well by spring/mass models. Although leg-stiffness during running (and logically, therefore, in hopping) has been shown to be adjusted in line with the individual characteristics of the external contact surface, the relative contribution of each of the sub-components of the leg spring to the mechanics of running is unclear. We proposed the three-degree-of-freedom leg spring chain in a position of stable equilibrium under the action of the leg stiffness. If the leg spring receives a displacement in hopping, the forces will no longer equilibrate, but the system will be exposed to the action of a force on a leg spring chain. We thus have two corresponding sets of modes, one set being the mode about which the chain is displaced, the other set for the forces which are evoked in consequence of the displacement. We found that if the leg has been displaced from a position of equilibrium about one of harmonic modes, then a vibration about this harmonic mode evokes a system of forces in the leg spring which in its turn tends to produce a motion on the original harmonic mode, and thus produce oscillation about the same harmonic mode. Our results suggest that the desired harmonic mode can be explained in terms of the natural shock absorption ability of the leg.

  14. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Craig P.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Herr, Hugh M.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring–mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting. PMID:22337629

  15. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  16. Raising and lowering operators for quantum billiards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AYUSH KUMAR MANDWAL; SUDHIR R JAIN

    2017-09-01

    For planar integrable billiards, the eigenstates can be classified with respect to a quantity determined by the quantum numbers. Given the quantum numbers as $m$, $n$, the index which represents a class is $c = m$ mod $kn$ for a natural number, $k$. We show here that the entire tower of states can be generated from an initially given state by the application of the operators introduced here. Thus, these operators play the same role for billiards as raising and lowering operators in angular momentum algebra.

  17. D-ribose benefits restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shecterle, Linda; Kasubick, Robert; St Cyr, John

    2008-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations and pain, predominantly in the lower extremities while at rest, accompanied by an uncontrollable urge for movement for relief. We report on two affected male individuals, a father and son, ages 71 and 47, from a family in which three generations carry the diagnosis. To evaluate any potential benefit of D-ribose in this condition, each individual orally consumed 5-g doses of D-ribose daily at different trial stages. Each stage lasted 3 weeks with a 2-week washout period between stages. The initial stage involved a single 5 gm dose of D-ribose consumed at breakfast. Throughout the second stage, D-ribose was taken at breakfast and lunch. In the third stage, D-ribose was taken at all meals, breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Diaries by the subjects pertaining to their documentation and severity of restless legs syndrome symptoms was compiled. During the initial stage both men reported a general feeling of more energy and less fatigue, most notably after exercise, without any significant changes in their symptoms. With the increase in the daily dose of D-ribose, in the second stage, their leg twitching and the feeling to move during the day was reduced for 1 subject, and rarely present in the other. Both still experienced the unpleasant sensations during the night. However, during the final stage, a further increase in the daily dose of D-ribose eliminated their daily symptoms and the symptoms at night were of a lesser degree and had a later occurrence. Both men reported that D-ribose did not totally eliminate their discomfort, but the severity and onset of symptoms affecting their quality of life was substantially improved with D-ribose without any adverse reactions.

  18. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  19. Bio-Inspired Controller for a Robot Cheetah with a Neural Mechanism Controlling Leg Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Mantian Li; Pengfei Wang; Wei Guo; Lining Sun

    2012-01-01

    The realization of a high-speed running robot is one of the most challenging problems in developing legged robots.The excellent performance of cheetahs provides inspiration for the control and mechanical design of such robots.This paper presents a three-dimensional model of a cheetah that predicts the locomotory behaviors of a running cheetah.Applying biological knowledge of the neural mechanism,we control the muscle flexion and extension during the stance phase,and control the positions of the joints in the flight phase via a PD controller to minimize complexity.The proposed control strategy is shown to achieve similar locomotion of a real cheetah.The simulation realizes good biological properties,such as the leg retraction,ground reaction force,and spring-like leg behavior.The stable bounding results show the promise of the controller in high-speed locomotion.The model can reach 2.7 m·s- 1 as the highest speed,and can accelerate from 0 to 1.5 m·s -1 in one stride cycle.A mechanical structure based on this simulation is designed to demonstrate the control approach,and the most recently developed hindlimb controlled by the proposed controller is presented in swinging-leg experiments and jump-force experiments.

  20. Refractory leg ulcers associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuno, Yuto; Tosa, Mamiko; Iwakiri, Itaru; Nomoto, Shunichi; Kaneko, Mayuko; Kuwahara, Kousuke; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a man with refractory leg ulcers, bilateral varicosis of the lower extremities, and Buerger disease. Autoimmune work-up was negative. However, chromosome analysis showed Klinefelter syndrome (48 XXY). Ulcerative lesions of the lower extremities are a complication of Klinefelter syndrome. To date, the pathogenesis of ulcers in Klinefelter syndrome has not been clarified, but several factors, such as abnormalities of fibrinolysis and prothrombotic states, might be involved. Our present case emphasizes the importance of considering Klinefelter syndrome in the differential diagnosis of a male patient with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities.

  1. Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:27828650

  2. Coordinated intelligent adaptive control of legged robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Lifford; Mehrübeoğlu, Mehrübe

    2006-05-01

    In planetary or hazardous environment exploration, there will be unforseen environmental circumstances which can not be planned. To overcome telerobotic control issues due to communication delays, autonomous robot control becomes necessary. Autonomously controlled landers and instrumentation can be used in exploration, such as lunar and martian missions. However, wheeled robots have difficulty in exploring uneven terrain; thus, legged robots can be used in such situations. This research develops intelligent and adaptive control of mobile robots to perform functions such as environmental exploration in coordination and obstacle avoidance. The coordinated control is demonstrated in simulations.

  3. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  4. Restless Legs Syndrome After Single Low Dose Quetiapine Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyata, Ahmet Z; Celebi, Fahri; Yargc, Lutfi I

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is an underdiagnosed sensori-motor disorder and psychotropic drugs are one of the main secondary causes of the illness. The most common psychotropic agents that cause restless legs syndrome are antidepressants; however, antipsychotics have also been reported to induce restless legs syndrome. The prevalence, vulnerability factors and the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome are unclear. A possible explanation is that dopaminergic blockade is the main precipitator of the syndrome. Quetiapine-induced restless legs syndrome is another point of interest because of its low binding to D2 receptors. We herein report the case of a restless legs syndrome that emerged after a single low dose quetiapine administration.

  5. Mechanical Engineering of Leg Joints of Anthropomorphic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavluk Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of design engineering of anthropomorphic robot legs is considered. An overview of the existing anthropomorphic robots and an analysis of servomechanisms and bearing parts involved in the assembly of robot legs are presented. We propose an option for constructing the legs of the robot Antares under development. A two-motor layout, used in the knee, ensures higher joint power along with independent interaction with the neighboring upper and lower leg joints when bending. To reduce the electrical load on the main battery of the robot, the upper legs are provided with a mounting pad for additional batteries powering servos. Direct control of the servos is also carried out through the sub-controllers, responsible for all 6 engines installed in the articular joints of the robot legs.

  6. Symmetry Analysis of Thermoelectric Energy Converters with Inhomogeneous Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    Symmetry analysis has been applied to thermoelectric energy converters [thermoelectric generators (TEG), coolers (TEC), and heaters (TEH)] with inhomogeneous legs. The features of the crystallographic symmetry of thermoelectric materials and the symmetry of legs, thermocouples, and modules are studied. The effect of symmetry on the figure of merit Z of thermoelectric energy converters is considered. A general rule for proper placement of legs in thermoelectric converters is developed. A modified tetratomic classification for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs (TEGa, TEGb, TEC, and TEH) is proposed. An increase in Z for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs is due to the bulk thermoelectric effect. An increase in Z gives the reduction of irreversible processes in the modules (Joule heating and thermal conductivity), accompanying breaking of the symmetry of the legs. It is found that violations of the symmetry requirements can lead to significant energy losses in converters.

  7. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride.

  8. Stable bipedal walking with a swing-leg protraction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhounsule, Pranav A; Zamani, Ali

    2017-01-25

    In bipedal locomotion, swing-leg protraction and retraction refer to the forward and backward motion, respectively, of the swing-leg before touchdown. Past studies have shown that swing-leg retraction strategy can lead to stable walking. We show that swing-leg protraction can also lead to stable walking. We use a simple 2D model of passive dynamic walking but with the addition of an actuator between the legs. We use the actuator to do full correction of the disturbance in a single step (a one-step dead-beat control). Specifically, for a given limit cycle we perturb the velocity at mid-stance. Then, we determine the foot placement strategy that allows the walker to return to the limit cycle in a single step. For a given limit cycle, we find that there is swing-leg protraction at shallow slopes and swing-leg retraction at steep slopes. As the limit cycle speed increases, the swing-leg protraction region increases. On close examination, we observe that the choice of swing-leg strategy is based on two opposing effects that determine the time from mid-stance to touchdown: the walker speed at mid-stance and the adjustment in the step length for one-step dead-beat control. When the walker speed dominates, the swing-leg retracts but when the step length dominates, the swing-leg protracts. This result suggests that swing-leg strategy for stable walking depends on the model parameters, the terrain, and the stability measure used for control. This novel finding has a clear implication in the development of controllers for robots, exoskeletons, and prosthetics and to understand stability in human gaits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Craig P.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Herr, Hugh M.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring–mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of uni...

  10. Analysis of the ATLAS Cold Leg Top-Slot Break Experiment Using the MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, T. W.; Jeong, J. J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    During a small-break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) or intermediate-break loss of coolant accident (IBLOCA) in a PWR, such as the APR1400, the steam volume in the reactor vessel upper plenum may continue to expand until the liquid phase in the horizontal intermediate legs is released, called loop seal clearing (LSC), due to the increase of the pressure in the upper plenum. A domestic standard problem (DSP) exercise using the ATLAS facility was promoted in order to transfer the database to domestic nuclear industries. For 4th DSP (DSP-04), the ATLAS cold leg top-slot break experiment was postulated. For the DSP-04, main concerns are to predict the LSC and LSR having a significantly effect on the behavior of the system under long term cooling. In this study, we simulated the ATLAS cold leg top-slot break experiment using the MARS code and the predicted LSC and LSR are compared to experimental results. The LTC-CL-04R was simulated using the MARS code. Most of the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. However, the timing of LSC and LSR is slightly different from each other and, thus, the behavior of the primary system is slightly different. The core heat up was not observed in the experiment and the calculation.

  11. Lower leg electrical impedance after distal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G K; Bolbjerg, M L; Heegaard, N H

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance was determined in 13 patients following distal bypass surgery to evaluate lower leg oedema as reflected by its circumference. Tissue injury was assessed by the plasma concentration of muscle enzymes. After surgery, the volume of the control lower leg increased from 1250 (816...... of troponin I (n = 8). In conclusion, tissue injury was reflected by increases in muscle enzymes in plasma. We found an inverse correlation between lower leg electrical impedance and volume, but the deviation in electrical impedance was approximately twice that of the leg volume. Electrical impedance appears...

  12. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  13. Passive mechanical properties of legs from running insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Daniel M; Full, Robert J

    2006-04-01

    While the dynamics of running arthropods have been modeled as a spring-mass system, no such structures have been discovered that store and return energy during bouncing. The hindleg of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis is a good candidate for a passive, vertical leg spring because its vertically oriented joint axes of rotation limit the possibility of active movements and contributions of muscle properties. We oscillated passive legs while measuring force to determine the leg's dynamic, mechanical properties. The relative dimensionless stiffness of an individual cockroach leg was equal to that estimated for a single leg of a biped or quadruped. Leg resilience ranged from 60 to 75%, affording the possibility that the leg could function as a spring to store and return the mechanical energy required to lift and accelerate the center of mass. Because hysteresis was independent of oscillation frequency, we rejected the use of a Voigt model - a simple spring in parallel with a viscous damper. A hysteretic damping model fit the cockroach leg force-displacement data over a wide range of frequencies and displacement using just two parameters. Rather than simply acting as a spring to minimize energy, we hypothesize that legs must manage both energy storage and absorption for rapid running to be most effective.

  14. Tennis leg: mechanism of injury and radiographic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Rafael A; Stock, Harlan

    2013-08-01

    As summer is upon us, we thought a discussion of tennis leg would be beneficial to our fellow clinicians. Tennis leg is a relatively common clinical condition, classically manifesting as acute, sports-related pain in the mid-calf. First described in 1883, the pathogenesis has been debated--tennis leg was first attributed to rupture of the plantaris tendon, though more recent investigations have implicated rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius at its myotendinous junction. For simplicity, many authors use the term tennis leg to describe all such acute muscle injuries in the superficial calf.

  15. Compression Stockings for Treating Venous Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Benigni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to treat venous leg ulcers, it is recommended to use high pressure compression (30–40 mmHg at the ankle. Compression stockings which are not operator dependant could be the best option because of their pressure control. However 30–40 mmHg compression stockings are often hard to put on. Putting two lower pressure compression stockings over each other could be a good therapeutic alternative. Objectives. To compare the in vitro pressures given by the manufacturers of 2 antiulcer kits with the in vivo interface pressures measured in healthy subjects and to evaluate the stiffness and friction indices from those kits based on the interface pressure in order to assess their clinical properties. Material and Methods. Using a Kikuhime pressure device, interface pressure was measured in 12 healthy subjects at the reference point B1. One stiffness index (Static Stiffness Index (SSI and a friction index have been calculated. Results. Mediven Ulcer kit gets the recommended pressures whereas Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit does not for treating a venous leg ulcer. Jobst’s Ulcer Care transmits entirely the pressure in relation to a friction index close to 1. Conclusion. This antiulcer kit study underlines that in vivo and in vitro pressures can be different (Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit and Mediven Ulcer kit. In order not to lose pressure, it is important to take into account the friction index when superimposing two stockings.

  16. Lower leg musculoskeletal geometry and sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Albracht, Kirsten; Braunstein, Bjoern; Moreno Catala, Maria; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sprint performance is related to lower leg musculoskeletal geometry within a homogeneous group of highly trained 100-m sprinters. Using a cluster analysis, eighteen male sprinters were divided into two groups based on their personal best (fast: N=11, 10.30±0.07s; slow: N=7, 10.70±0.08s). Calf muscular fascicle arrangement and Achilles tendon moment arms (calculated by the gradient of tendon excursion versus ankle joint angle) were analyzed for each athlete using ultrasonography. Achilles tendon moment arm, foot and ankle skeletal geometry, fascicle arrangement as well as the ratio of fascicle length to Achilles tendon moment arm showed no significant (p>0.05) correlation with sprint performance, nor were there any differences in the analyzed musculoskeletal parameters between the fast and slow sprinter group. Our findings provide evidence that differences in sprint ability in world-class athletes are not a result of differences in the geometrical design of the lower leg even when considering both skeletal and muscular components.

  17. Migraine and restless legs syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira KS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen dos Santos Ferreira, Fabíola Dach, Alan L Eckeli, José Geraldo SpecialiDepartment of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Neurology, University Hospital, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The relationship between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS has been described in the literature for some years, based on clinical findings and pathophysiological considerations. There are some possible factors relating migraine and RLS. Both are diseases involving the central nervous system, the two diseases seem to share a dopaminergic mechanism, and it is also believed that they may share a genetic origin. At present, doctors who work with these two diseases should be encouraged not to simply investigate the simultaneous presence of both, but should also apply a treatment better adapted to this possibility. Research should be directed at some still unanswered questions for a better understanding of the association between migraine and RLS.Keywords: migraine, restless legs syndrome, physiopathology, comorbidities

  18. [RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME--WILLIS-EKBOM DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Élisabeth; Bataillard, Marc; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with a high prevalence (10% in Caucasian populations). It is a purely clinical diagnosis characterized by an urge to move the lower limbs usually accompanied or caused by unpleasant sensations in the legs with an improvement in symptoms with movement. These sensations occur during inactivity or at rest and worsen in the evening or at night. RLS may not only impact the quality of life for an individual, but may also increase mortality. Disease markers such as genetic predispositions have been identified, as well as reduced iron stores with altered intracerebral iron homeostasis and dopaminergic dysfunction. Medication is often necessary in severe forms, with low doses of dopaminergic agonists being the first-line of treatment. The use of α2δ ligands is an alternative. Finally benzodiazepines and opioid medications can be effective in refractory cases. In less severe forms of RLS, a non-pharmacological approach is usually sufficient with avoidance of stimulants and correction of contributing factors.

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  20. International Perspectives on Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Yancura, Loriena A

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is common for grandparents to serve as surrogate parents to their grandchildren, often in response to family crises and other challenges such as poverty, disease epidemics, and migration. Despite the global nature of this intergenerational caregiving arrangement, there have been few contextually focused examinations of how grandparents' surrogate parenting roles are enacted across countries and cultures. This analytic review addresses this issue by exploring demographic and cultural contexts, needs and experiences, and formal and informal supports for grandparents raising grandchildren in four diverse countries: China, New Zealand, Romania, and South Africa. We conclude our analysis by discussing key contextual factors, and their associated interrelationships, from which future research may elucidate how cultural, historical, and sociopolitical factors uniquely shape grandparents' experiences. We also make recommendations for contextually informed policies and practice.

  1. Sensory signals of unloading in one leg follow stance onset in another leg: transfer of load and emergent coordination in cockroach walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R; Duke, Elizabeth R

    2009-05-01

    The transfer of load from one leg to another is an essential component in walking, but sense organs that signal this process have rarely been identified. We used high-speed digital imaging and neurophysiological recordings to characterize activities of tibial campaniform sensilla, receptors that detect forces via cuticular strains, in the middle legs of cockroaches during walking. Previous studies demonstrated that the distal tibial sensilla discharge when body load is suddenly decreased in freely standing animals. Sensory recordings during walking showed that distal receptors in the middle leg fired an intense burst near the end of the stance phase. We tested the hypothesis that initiation of distal firing resulted from the action of other legs entering stance. Analysis of leg movements in slow walking showed that sensory bursts in the middle leg closely followed stance onset of the ipsilateral hind leg while the ipsilateral front leg entered stance earlier in phase. Similar phases of leg movement were found in slow walking in experiments in which animals had no implanted recording wires. Those studies also demonstrated that the opposite middle leg entered stance earlier in phase. Measurements of leg positions in walking showed that the hind leg tarsus was placed closest to the middle leg, in keeping with a "targeting" strategy. Triggering of distal bursts in the middle leg by mechanical action of the hind leg could facilitate the onset of swing in the middle leg through local reflex effects and contribute to emergent coordination of leg movements in metachronal gaits.

  2. BOWEN’S DISEASE IN LEG - A RARE OCCURRENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sankar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ar old female presented with complaints of asymptomatic , raised skin lesion over left leg for the past two years , which on local examination revealed a single , localized , well defined , rounded plaque of 4 cm . Clinically Bowen’s disease was not suspected because of its rarity and also occurred in the unusual site . Biopsy was taken and sent for histo - pathological examination . In histo - pathological examination Bowen’s disease was diagnosed . This case is highlighted to show the pathologist’s help in making a proper diagnosis when atypical skin lesions are seen at unusual sites . INTRODUCTION : Most of the overt malignant conditions actually originate as microscopic lesions , which are designated as in - situ carcinomas . These in - situ carcinomas are typically notic ed as intra - epithelial lesions , most often seen in squamous cell epithelial lined tissue eg . oral mucosa , genitals , cervix and skin . In skin , the intra - epithelial carcinoma - in situ lesions may be Bowen’s disease , Bowenoid papulosis or Erythroplasia of Queyrat . In the same way gastrointestinal and urinary system also can show in - situ malignancies . Bowen’s disease was first described by an American dermatologist John T Bowen in the year 1912 . It is most commonly reported in sun exposed sites . It rarely oc curs in patients with darkly pigmented skin . Bowen’s disease is observed in skin and external genitals and is sometimes associated with arsenic poisoning and visceral carcinomas . Bowen’s disease is a rare , persistent , progressive , intra - epithelial carcinom a , 8% of which will develop into an invasive squamous cell carcinoma . Treat

  3. Restless legs syndrome and functional limitations among American elders in the Health and Retirement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition associated with decreased quality of life in older adults. This study estimates the prevalence, risk factors, and functional correlates of among U.S. elders. Methods Subjects (n = 1,008) were sub-sampled from the 2002 cross-sectional interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative study of U.S. elders. Symptoms and sleep disturbances consistent with RLS were identified. Activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and limitations for mobility, large muscle groups, gross and fine motor function were measured using standardized questions. Incident functional limitations were detected over six years of observation. Results The prevalence of RLS among U.S. elders born before 1947 was 10.6%. Factors associated with increased prevalence RLS at baseline included: overweight body mass index (multivariate adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.99); mild-to-moderate pain (2.67, 1.47-4.84) or pain inferring with activity (3.44, 2.00-5.93); three or more chronic medications (2.54, 1.26-5.12), highest quartile of out-of-pocket medical expenses (2.12, 1.17-3.86), frequent falls (2.63, 1.49-4.66), health limiting ability to work (2.91, 1.75-4.85), or problems with early waking or frequent wakening (1.69, 1.09-2.62 and 1.55, 1.00-2.41, respectively). Current alcohol consumption (0.59, 0.37-0.92) and frequent healthcare provider visits (0.49, 0.27-0.90) were associated with decreased RLS prevalence. RLS did not predict incident disability for aggregate measures but was associated with increased risk for specific limitations, including: difficulty climbing several stair flights (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 2.38, 95% CI 1.39-4.06), prolonged sitting (2.17, 1.25-3.75), rising from a chair (2.54, 1.62-3.99), stooping (2.66, 1.71-4.15), moving heavy objects (1.79, 1.08-2.99), carrying ten pounds (1

  4. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Lewis

    single leg task for evaluation or treatment. The high correlation of knee and hip angles between the three tasks indicates that similar information about knee and hip kinematics was gained from each of these tasks, while pelvis and trunk angles were less well predicted.

  5. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  6. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  7. Treatment of sickle cell leg ulcers with pentoxifylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, M L; Treadwell, P

    1990-06-01

    A 58-year-old black man with leg ulcers of 43 years duration responded to pentoxifylline 400 mg tid in 8 months. The ability of pentoxifylline to increase erythrocyte flexibility and decrease blood viscosity was the basis for our use of this agent. Oral pentoxifylline may be a useful adjunct in healing sickle cell leg ulcers and preventing their recurrence.

  8. A Brief Survey Paper on Multi-Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Behmanesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief survey on multi-legged robots and their applications in agriculture such as for harvesting. Multi-legged robots have the benefit of more flexibility and adapt to different rough terrain in a better way. They also have very important applications in fulfilling the dangerous tasks such as mine detecting.

  9. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Self-Tests & Diagnosis Self-Tests Do you have ... to any of these questions you may have restless legs syndrome Diagnosis Talk to a board certified sleep medicine ...

  11. Criteria in diagnosing nocturnal leg cramps : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Background: Up to 33% of the general population over 50 years of age are affected by nocturnal leg cramps. Currently there are no generally accepted clinical characteristics, which identify nocturnal leg cramps. This study aims to identify these clinical characteristics and to differentiate between

  12. Leg strength is associated with ventilatory efficiency in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, J U; Tucker, S H; Kalasky, M J; Proctor, D N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if leg function is associated with ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy older adults. 24 women and 18 men aged 60-80 years performed treadmill exercise to fatigue for calculation of ventilatory efficiency using the ratio of ventilation to carbon dioxide at the anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO₂@AT). On a separate day, participants performed leg strength testing and graded single-leg knee extension exercise. The VE/VCO₂@AT was higher in women than men (33±3 vs. 30±3; p=0.03). After adjustment for age and VO(₂max), leg strength (knee extensor isometric force) was inversely associated with VE/VCO₂@AT in women (r= - 0.44, p=0.03) while no relationships were found for men. Strength-matched women and men had similar VE/VCO₂@AT indicating that the correlation between leg strength and VE/VCO₂@AT was strength- but not sex-specific. During knee extensor exercise, women with lower leg strength had increased VE/VCO₂ slope across 0-15 W as compared to higher strength women (38±8 vs. 31±3; p<0.05), while no differences were found for men. These results find leg strength to be associated with ventilatory responses to exercise in healthy older women, a finding that might be related to lower leg strength in women than men.

  13. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) A A A What's in this ... Child If You Have Questions en español Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray ...

  14. Beengebrekenonderzoek bij varkens = Research on leg weakness / osteochondrosis in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Uit onderzoek bleek dat leg weakness, de uiterlijke verschijnselen van beengebreken, niet het resultaat is van osteochondrosis, een verstoring van het verbeningsproces van kraakbeen. De ontwikkeling van de symptomen van leg weakness kunnen onderdrukt worden door natriumbicarbonaat aan het voer toe

  15. Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K

    2012-01-01

    Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....

  16. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  17. Ontogenetic shifts in functional morphology of dragonfly legs (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis.

  18. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P leg vascular resistance (P legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. The recalcitrant venous leg ulcer - A never ending story?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan); M.B. Maessen-Visch (Birgitte); S.I. Langendoen; K.P. de Roos; H.A.M. Neumann (Martino)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In general, four particular causes of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers may be distinguished. These are foot pump insufficiency, chronic venous compartment syndrome and non-re-canalized popliteal vein thrombosis. The fourth cause of recalcitrant venous leg ulcers is lipodermat

  20. Restless legs syndrome in opioid dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although frequently underdiagnosed, several epidemiological studies have estimated the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS in western countries at 5-15% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually made on a clinical basis, according to the criteria established by the international RLS study group. There are case reports of transient RLS in opiate withdrawal. We describe three opiate (dextropropoxyphene (DPP dependent young male patients; two of them had DPP intoxication/withdrawal seizure developing RLS during opiate withdrawal. However, their RLS persisted even after the remission of other withdrawal symptoms. Thyroid function test, hemogram, serum ferritin were normal in all of them. The cases responded well to a treatment with ropinirole. Hence, there might be a causal association, which required further well-designed studies to substantiate. The sleep disturbances and use of benzodiazepines can be minimized by increasing clinician′s sensitivity to diagnose RLS.

  1. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.

    2004-09-01

    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  2. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Sanjit R; Kester, Benjamin S; Fisher, Nina; Behery, Omar A; Crespo, Alexander M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is well known among orthopaedic surgeons. The timely diagnosis and management of ACS is crucial to avoiding its sequelae, including renal failure, ischemic contractures, and limb loss. Despite its relative importance, ACS poses a challenge to many residents and clinicians as diagnosis relies largely on clinical judgment. Timely diagnosis and thorough compartment release are essential to optimizing outcomes in ACS. This video highlights a clinical case in which compartment syndrome of the leg was considered, diagnosed, and surgically managed. This video will present the indications for compartment release and a video-guided demonstration of compartment checks using an arterial line transducer, a 4-compartment fasciotomy with 2 incisions, and temporizing vessel loop closure. Compartment syndrome can be a devastating complication of common fractures. It is essential that orthopaedic practitioners understand the immediacy of intervention. We have a responsibility to provide timely, accurate diagnosis along with expedient surgical management.

  3. Integrated design of legged mechatronic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChinYin CHEN; IMing CHEN; ChiCheng CHENG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a system based on the integrated design and experiment for a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) legged mechatronic system (LMTS). A six-bar linkage mechanism, which is derived from a four-bar linkage with a symmetrical coupler point and pantograph into one, is designed, and common controllers are used to control the velocity and position loops.For system-based dynamic optimization, the design for control (DFC) approach is used to integrate the structure and control for improving dynamic performance with reduced control torque.Finally, for a rapid 3D graphical based implementation of the system, high-level computer-aided rapid system integration (CARSI) technology is used to integrate the structure design, controller design, and system implemen-tation into the design and analytical software environment based on Pro/engineer, XML syntax, Simmechanics, and Simulink. Thus, the development time for the LMTS is reduced.

  4. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  5. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammad Yaser Salman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG. Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  6. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Saleh Mohammad Yaser

    2011-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years) on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG). Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  7. Short-interval leg movements during sleep entail greater cardiac activation than periodic leg movements during sleep in restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are sequences of ≥4 motor events with intermovement intervals (IMI) of 10-90 s. PLMS are a supportive diagnostic criterion for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and entail cardiac activation, particularly when associated with arousal. RLS patients also over-express short-interval leg movements during sleep (SILMS), which have IMI leg movements. We found that the duration of the R-R interval decrease with SILMS doublets was significantly longer than that with PLMS, whereas the maximal decrease in R-R interval was similar. Scoring SILMS in RLS patients may therefore be relevant from a cardiac autonomic perspective. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with high blood ... an association between raised body mass index (BMI) and high blood pressure (BP) ... Subjects: The study sample comprised 382 participants, of whom 286 were ...

  9. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  10. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H;

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76......% maximal O2 uptake (V(O2)max) and at V(O2)max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise), and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). The percentage of O2 extraction was always higher for the legs than for the arms. At maximal...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P

  11. Complex genetic interactions govern the temporal effects of Antennapedia on antenna-to-leg transformations in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ian Dworkin; Wendy Lee; Fiona Mccloskey; Ellen Larsen

    2007-08-01

    The putative regulatory relationships between Antennapedia (Antp), spalt major (salm) and homothorax (hth) are tested with regard to the sensitive period of antenna-to-leg transformations. Although Antp expression repressed hth as predicted, contrary to expectations, hth did not show increased repression at higher Antp doses, whereas salm, a gene downstream of hth, did show such a dose response. Loss of hth allowed antenna-to-leg transformations but the relative timing of proximal–distal transformations was reversed, relative to transformations induced by ectopic Antp. Finally, overexpression of Hth was only partially able to rescue transformations induced by ectopic Antp. These results indicate that there may be additional molecules involved in antenna/leg identity and that spatial, temporal and dosage relationships are more subtle than suspected and must be part of a robust understanding of molecular network behaviour involved in determining appendage identity in Drosophila melanogaster.

  12. Comparison of Performance and Leg Bone Characteristics of Broiler Fed Different Levels of Vitamin Premix in Floor and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moravej

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in order to comparison of the effect of different levels of vitamin premix in two raising systems of floor and cage on performance and leg bone characteristics of broiler chickens which were fed with adjusted diet base on wheat and barley during 29 to 42 days. The treatments were composed of 0, 33.33, 66.66 and 100 percent of vitamin premix (according to the recommendation of vitamin premix Producer Company which used from 29 to 42 days. Experiment in floor was carried out by using 288 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 with 4 treatments and 4 replicates in a completely randomized design in floor system. Experiment in cage battery system was carried out by using 80 male broiler chickens with 4 treatments and 4 replicates in raising cage. Feed intake and body weight gain of each replicate were calculated during two weeks of the experiment. During these two weeks, in experiment in floor, two broiler chickens were measured and in experiment in cage battery system one broiler chickens slaughtered and breast, thigh, percentage of abdominal fat and liver were measured. After slaughtered, right leg of each bird was used for determine ash, calcium, phosphorus and strength. The results of the experiment in floor showed that vitamin premix withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair carcass characteristics and leg bone characteristics during the final rearing period. The results of battery cage system showed that withdrawal of vitamin premix from the diet of experimental birds; were induced negative effect on productive performance, weights of thigh, and breast and leg bone characteristics during 36-42 day of ages. Therefore, it seems that there is the possibility of vitamin premix levels reduction up to the approximate 33% level in finisher period while in the floor system; it is possible to withdraw vitamin supplements in broilers’ finisher diets and in this way the costs of poultry industry will reduce.

  13. Raising Pasifika Achievement: Teacher Cultural-Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Samuels, Tute

    2013-01-01

    Pasifika learners, along with Maori, continue to experience high disparities in New Zealand's education system. Furthermore, it is predicted that over the next few decades, the majority of students in New Zealand primary schools will be Maori and Pasifika. The implications for classroom teachers are enormous. In reviewing a range of literature,…

  14. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Umut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG by analysing polysomnography (PSG data with digital signal processing (DSP and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87% and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850, multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29% and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705. Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87% without leg EMG record being present.

  15. Effects of gabapentin enacarbil on restless legs syndrome and leg pain in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Both RLS and DLB can be effectively treated by dopaminergic medications, suggesting the role of dopamine dysfunction in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Here, I report on a Japanese woman with probable DLB and RLS who was treated with gabapentin enacarbil, a non-dopaminergic agent. Because a dopamine agonist, a first-line therapy for moderate to severe RLS, caused the occurrence of metamorphopsia, an alternative treatment of gabapentin enacarbil was used; this treatment improved the patient's RLS without worsening her psychiatric symptoms. An alternative treatment is desirable for DLB patients with RLS because they often experience intolerable side-effects with a dopamine agonist, especially visual hallucinations. Administering gabapentin enacarbil also improved the continuous leg pain that occurred in conjunction with the development of RLS. Although the neurobiological mechanism in the development of pain remains unclear, a range of non-dopaminergic structures likely mediated pain processing in DLB in the present case based on neuropharmacological results. This is the first report reporting the effects of gabapentin enacarbil for RLS and leg pain in a DLB patient with psychiatric symptoms.

  16. Validation of a leg movements count and periodic leg movements analysis in a custom polysomnography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Hackner, Heinz; Högl, Birgit

    2017-02-23

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep (PLMS) are considered strongly related to restless legs syndrome (RLS), and are associated with polymorphisms in RLS risk genes. Various software for automatic analysis of PLMS are available, but only few of them have been validated. Aim of this study was to validate a leg movements count and analysis integrated in a commercially available polysomnography (PSG) system against manual scoring. Twenty RLS patients with a PLMS index > 20/h and 20 controls with a PLMS index PLM was performed according to the standard American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. LM and PLM indices during sleep and wakefulness, the rate of PLMS associated with respiratory events, intermovement interval and periodicity indices were manually and automatically scored. The correlation between manual and computerized scoring was high for all investigated parameters (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.751-0.996, p PLM analysis against the gold standard manual scoring according to AASM criteria. The data demonstrate that the software used in this study has an outstanding performance for computerized LM and PLM scoring, and LM and PLM indices generated with this software can be reliably integrated in the routine PSG report. This automatic analysis is also an excellent tool for research purposes.

  17. Investigation into the correlation between sensation and leg movement in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinyi, Paul V; Allen, Richard P; Lesage, Susan; Dean, Terry; Earley, Christopher J

    2005-09-01

    We evaluated rest effects on restless legs syndrome (RLS) sensory and motor symptoms. During two 60-minute Suggested Immobilization Tests (SIT) subject's signals of RLS leg sensations and periodic leg movements while awake (PLMW) were recorded. Sensations, PLMW, sensations preceding or after PLMW, sensations occurring without following PLMW, and PLMW occurring without preceding sensation were determined. The RLS patients were divided into equal-sized high and low PLMW groups for further analysis. Data from 46 subjects (28 RLS and 18 controls) revealed sensations increased linearly with rest in RLS patients and controls. Movement rate increased linearly with rest for controls but increased rapidly for the first 45 minutes for all RLS patients. PLMW/hour increased with further rest for low but not high PLMW patients. Sensations followed by PLMW and PLMW without preceding sensations followed similar patterns. Sensations without subsequent PLMW increased dramatically in the last 15 minutes of the SITs. Whereas both sensory and motor signs of RLS increase with rest, there is minimal increase for controls. Patients with higher but not lower PLMW rates reached a ceiling for PLMW after 35 to 40 minutes. The temporal dissociation between sensory and motor events supports viewing these motor and sensory events as separate but loosely linked manifestations of RLS. (c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; González, O

    1996-02-01

    When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.

  19. "More Bang for the Buck": Examining Influencers of Fundraising Efficiency and Total Dollars Raised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Eve; Caboni, Timothy C.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Willmer, Wesley K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines institution-specific factors that are within the control of the advancement office and that predict fundraising efficiency and total dollars raised. Using data from the Council of Independent Colleges and IPEDS, fundraising outcomes are examined at private colleges in the United States. Most of the variables of interest are not…

  20. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  1. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  2. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Control No. 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''....

  3. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  4. Association of Restless Legs Syndrome Variants in Korean Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Yong Won; Shin, Won Chul; Cho, Jae Wook; Shon, Young Min; Kim, Jee Hyun; Yang, Kwang Ik; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Caucasians identified several allelic variants associated with increased risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of RLS are not entirely understood, it is becoming increasingly evident that many diseases such as RLS can be attributed to an epistasis. The study objectives were to evaluate whether the associations of RLS with all loci determined in previous GWAS for Caucasians can be replicated significantly for the Korean population and to elucidate whether an epistasis plays a role in the pathogenesis of RLS. Design, Setting, and Participants: DNA from 320 patients with RLS and 320 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for variants in the RLS loci. Measurements and Results: A significant association was found for rs3923809 and rs9296249 in BTBD9 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively); the odds ratio (OR) for rs3923809 was 1.61 (P < 0.0001) to 1.88 (P < 0.0001) and the OR for rs9296249 was 1.44 (P = 0.001) to 1.73 (P = 0.002), according to the model of inheritance. The OR for the interaction between rs3923809 in BTBD9 and rs4626664 in PTPRD was 2.05 (P < 0.0001) in the additive model, 1.80 (P = 0.002) in the dominant model and 2.47 (P = 0.004) in the recessive model. There was no significant association between genotypes of all tested single nucleotide polymorphisms and the mean value of serum iron parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the role of BTBD9 in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome is more universal across populations than previously reported and more efforts should be focused on the role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of restless legs syndrome. Citation: Kim MK; Cho YW; Shin WC; Cho JW; Shon YM; Kim JH; Yang KI; Earley CJ; Allen RP. Association of restless legs syndrome variants in Korean patients with restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1787-1791. PMID:24293752

  5. Perfectionism in schools raising medical manpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Abuhanoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to examine the perfectionist traits of the students studying at faculty of medicine, school of nursing and vocational school of health services within a university in Ankara which raises medical manpower. Method: To measure the students' perfectionist traits, and ldquo;Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and rdquo; was put account. In the scope of the research, perfectionist traits of 436 students (175 students from faculty of medicine, 122 students from school of nursing and 129 students from vocational school of health services were evaluated. This study was realized between from 25 st April to 31st May 2013. Results: Significant differences in statistical terms were found between variables regarded as dependent variables (self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others and independent variables such as school type, gender, family income, educational background of father, number of siblings and residence of family. Additionally, in consequence of the covariation analysis, the results proved that school type affects the sub-dimensions of perfectionism which are self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others in a substantive way, statistically (respectively; F=8,307 p <001; F=3,783 p=,024; F=5,713 p=,004 . Conclusion: All in all, the interpretation can be made that bringing about required changes in the curriculum may be useful in order to have an optimal teamwork eliminating the negative effects of perfectionism in health services [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 421-431

  6. Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness during human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Morgenroth, D C

    1999-03-01

    When humans hop in place or run forward, they adjust leg stiffness to accommodate changes in stride frequency or surface stiffness. The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which humans adjust leg stiffness during hopping in place. Five subjects hopped in place at 2.2 Hz while we collected force platform and kinematic data. Each subject completed trials in which they hopped to whatever height they chose ("preferred height hopping") and trials in which they hopped as high as possible ("maximum height hopping"). Leg stiffness was approximately twice as great for maximum height hopping as for preferred height hopping. Ankle torsional stiffness was 1.9-times greater while knee torsional stiffness was 1.7-times greater in maximum height hopping than in preferred height hopping. We used a computer simulation to examine the sensitivity of leg stiffness to the observed changes in ankle and knee stiffness. Our model consisted of four segments (foot, shank, thigh, head-arms-trunk) interconnected by three torsional springs (ankle, knee, hip). In the model, increasing ankle stiffness by 1.9-fold, as observed in the subjects, caused leg stiffness to increase by 2.0-fold. Increasing knee stiffness by 1.7-fold had virtually no effect on leg stiffness. Thus, we conclude that the primary mechanism for leg stiffness adjustment is the adjustment of ankle stiffness.

  7. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  8. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jahdali Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH, Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG′s RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ. Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 ± 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM, coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively. Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis

  9. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  10. [Pain in venous thrombosis of the leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J P

    1992-01-01

    According to D. Reinharez, pain and edema are the commonest presenting symptoms in phlebology. Pain is one of the most classical symptoms of an ordinary deep venous thrombosis, a valuable feature when present, in the form of deep tension, heaviness, swelling and a feeling of dead weight. It is often absent or slight. It may consist merely of a dull cramp, or of an "undefinable" (C. Bourde) odd, heavy leg. It generally affects the calf but may involve the sole of the foot, the heel, the thigh, the groin or even the true pelvis. This feeling, although "imprecise and variable" (P. Wallois, P. Griton) is highly suggestive. It increases on standing and walking in the form of unilateral uncomfortable tension, heaviness or painful swelling, which maybe a source of worry or even anxiety to the patient. Tenderness on palpation of venous tracts and their stretching is more suggestive. In the opinion of M. Duruble, Neuhof's sign (feeling of tender fullness of the calf) is more reliable than Homans' sign (pain in the calf caused by passive dorsiflexion of the foot, with the lower limb in extension) which essentially stretches only the posterior tibial venous system. The value of Sigg's sign (pain in the popliteal fossa on passive extension of the knee) is controversial. Far more rare is phlegmasia coerulea dolens or Grégoire's blue leg, complicating phlegmasia alba dolens or of sudden onset, with initial very severe or even "intolerable" pain (J.J. Pinot) in Scarpa's triangle, rapidly spreading to the limb. In varicose phlebitis (M. Perrin) or superficial thrombophlebitis or varico-phlebitis (A.A. Ramelet) or superficial venitis (J.P. Henriet), pain most often consists of moderate burning tension overlying the thrombosed vein(s), increased by palpation and mobilisation. Sometimes severe initially, it is exacerbated by the slightest touch. In total, pain, regardless of its characteristics, its site and/or its severity, is one of the most constant clinical features of venous

  11. Cold-Leg Small Break LOCA Analysis of APR1400 Plant Using a SPACE/sEM Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; Lee, Suk Ho; Yu, Keuk Jong; Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Jae Yong [Central Research Institute, KHNP, Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) evaluation methodology (EM) for APR1400, called sEM, is now being developed using SPACE code. SPACE/sEM is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with appendix K of 10 CFR 50. Major required and acceptable features of the evaluation models are described as below. - Fission product decay : 1.2 times of ANS97 decay curve - Critical flow model : Henry-Fauske Moody two phase critical flow model - Metal-Water reaction model : Baker-Just equation - Critical Heat Flux (CHF) : B and W, Barnett and Modified Barnett correlation - Post-CHF : Groeneveld 5.7 film boiling correlation A series of test matrix is established to validate SPACE/sEM code in terms of major SBLOCA phenomena, e.g. core level swelling and boiling, core heat transfer, critical flow, loop seal clearance and their integrated effects. The separated effect tests (SETs) and integrated effect tests (IETs) are successfully performed and these results shows that SPACE/sEM code has a conservatism comparing with experimental data. Finally, plant calculations of SBLOCA for APR1400 are conducted as described below. - Break location sensitivity : DVI line, hot-leg, cold-leg, pump suction leg. - Break size spectrum : 0.4ft{sup 2}∼0.02ft{sup 2}(DVI) 0.5ft{sup 2}∼0.02ft{sup 2}(hot-leg, cold-leg, pump suction leg) This paper deals with break size spectrum analysis of cold-leg break accidents. Based on the calculation results, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) performances of APR1400 and typical SBLOCA phenomena can be evaluated. Cold-leg SBLOCA analysis for APR1400 is performed using SPACE/sEM code under harsh environment condition. SPACE/sEM code shows the typical SBLOCA behaviors and it is reasonably predicted. Although SPACE/sEM code has conservative models and correlations based on appendix K of 10 CFR 50, PCT does not exceed the requirement (1477 K). It is concluded that ECCS in APR1400 has a sufficient performance in cold-leg SBLOCA.

  12. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  13. Evaluation of leg varicose veins by MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Taira, Mitsuru [Kansai Medical Univ., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kohri Hospital; Imamura, Atsushi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Okuno, Masafumi; Kamiyama, Yasuo

    1998-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation was conducted on 30 patients with leg varicose veins by MR venography (MRV), and compared with conventional venography, MR images were performed by the 3D-SMASH Method. Compared with venography, MRV could more clearly demonstrate leg varicose veins with perforating veins than venography. It could detected fine varicose veins more than 2 mm in diameter, and deep veins. Furthermore, 3D observation enables accurate detection of the location of perforating vein. In conclusion, MRV is useful for the diagnosis of leg varicose vein. (author)

  14. Restless Leg Syndrome in Neurologic and Medical Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir; Askenasy, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Adopting prior models of sleep-wake transitions, a flip-flop switch in synchronized neurotransmitter activity is proposed to underlie restless leg syndrome onset. In this model, leg quiescence homeostasis sustained through concerted activities of several neurotransmitters in basal ganglia is perturbed and produces striatal motor activity along sensory activity associated with thalamocortical circuits (conscious urge and discomfort). This model explains the association of restless leg syndrome with a wide variety of associated pathologies emphasizing that perturbed function and imbalance may occur under different steady states of neurotransmitter levels. Likewise, this concept links various central and peripheral etiologies and integrates the augmenting and transient effects of therapeutic neuromodulators.

  15. Leg Lengthening as a Means of Improving Ambulation Following an Internal Hemipelvectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakyo Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery following an internal hemipelvectomy for a malignant pelvic tumor is difficult due to the structural complexity of the pelvis and the massive extension of the tumor. While high complication rates have been encountered in various types of reconstructive surgery, resection without reconstruction reportedly involved fewer complications. However, this method often results in limb shortening with resultant instability during walking. We reported herein leg lengthening performed to correct lower limb shortening after an internal hemipelvectomy, which improved ambulatory stability and overall QOL. An 18-year-old male patient came to our hospital to correct a lower limb discrepancy resulting from a left internal hemipelvectomy. His left pelvis and proximal femur had been resected, and the femur remained without an acetabular roof. His left lower limb was about 8 centimeters shorter. The left tibia was lengthened 8 centimeters with an external fixator. After the lengthening, the patient was able to walk without support and his gait remarkably improved. Additionally he no longer required placing a wallet in his back pocket as a pad as a means of raising the left side of his torso while sitting. Leg lengthening was a useful method of improving ambulation after an internal hemipelvectomy.

  16. Restless Legs Syndrome among Pakistani Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Farhan, Rabeea; Surani, Asif; Surani, Arif Anwer; Surani, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a chronic distressing disease characterized by an urge to move the legs with an unpleasantsensation during periods of rest. The global prevalence estimates of RLS range from 2.5% to 15%. Method. This cross-sectional study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi during August 13 to March 14. The visitors who had accompanied patients to Outpatient Department or had come to visit admitted patients were approached conveniently. Subjects were interviewed regarding the essential criteria of RLS and its attributes. Results. The sample size was 390 with 56% being females. The point prevalence of RLS was estimated to be 23.6%. The prevalence in females was twice as high as compared to males. Smoking and low level of education were associated with RLS (P < 0.001). Among RLS positive individuals, 50.1% reported frequency of their symptoms to be greater than 16 days per month and 64.1% graded their symptom severity as mild to moderate. About 37% of RLS positive individuals consulted a general physician for their symptoms. Conclusion. RLS is highly prevalent and underdiagnosed condition among Pakistani population. Efforts must be directed to raise the awareness of this condition among physicians and general population.

  17. Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS. We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias. Materials and Methods: 99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance. Results: Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ′primary headaches′ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2 =16.46, P<0.001. Prevalence of depression (χ2 =3.12, P=0.21 and family history of RLS (χ2 =2.65, P=0.26 were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22 or insomnia (P=0.43 were also similar. Conclusion: Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.

  18. Clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome (RLS in a Brazilian sleep disorders center. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 118 patients with RLS from January, 2004, to December, 2010. The analyzed variables were: age at disease onset, gender, race, years of school instruction, primary and secondary RLS, and treatment options. RESULTS: Among the studied patients, 83.9% were women with a female/male sex ratio of 5:1. Mean age of the patients at symptom onset ± standard deviation was 41.7±17.9 years-old. The primary RLS was found in 85% of patients. The other 15% remainders consisted of secondary forms, and they were associated with neuropathy, iron deficiency anemia, end-stage renal disease, or Parkinson's disease. Drug therapy for RLS was introduced in 67% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients presented primary RLS with an early disease onset. Further epidemiological studies are welcomed to provide better information on secondary RLS in Brazil.

  19. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery. PMID:24768121

  20. Restless legs syndrome associated with major diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard; Högl, Birgit; Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible. There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other. PMID:26944272

  1. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes.

  2. Athermal laser treatment of the diabetic leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1995-03-01

    This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

  3. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery.

  4. Pramipexole alters thermoregulation in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aaro V; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies have associated restless legs syndrome (RLS) with peripheral hypoxia and impaired thermoregulation in the lower extremities. We performed long-term monitoring of skin temperatures in order to investigate whether these findings could be explained by reduced blood flow to the peripheral tissues. 96-hour continuous measurements of skin temperature were performed both in the distal and proximal parts of the body of 15 patients with RLS and 14 healthy controls. During the recording, the patients participated in suggested immobilization tests both with and without pramipexole medication. We found no baseline differences in distal or proximal skin temperature between patients and controls in daytime or during immobilization. However, pramipexole significantly increased distal skin temperature in the patient group during immobilization (31.1°C vs. 32.9°C, p thermoregulation and the previous studies might have been biased by medication. Dopaminergic medication is a major confounding factor when assessing peripheral phenomena in RLS and should be controlled for in the future studies. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 \\leg Z \\leg 129

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2015-01-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99-129, in the range 228 \\leg A \\leg 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agrees well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99-129 predicts that, the isotopes $^{238,240-254}$99, $^{244,246-258}$101, $^{248,250,252-260,262}$103, $^{254,256,258-262,264}$105, $^{258,260,262-264,266}$107, $^{262,264,266-274}$109, $^{266,268-279}$11...

  6. Dissociation of periodic leg movements from arousals in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Ferri, Raffaele; Zucconi, Marco; Bassetti, Claudio L; Fulda, Stephany; Aricò, Debora; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of the relation between periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and cortical arousals to contribute to the debate on the clinical significance and treatment of PLMS. A prospective, placebo-controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was carried out including 46 drug-naive patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). Each patient underwent 2 consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. The first night was the baseline night. Prior to the second night, 1 group received a single oral dose of 0.25mg pramipexole, whereas a second group received a single oral dose of 0.5mg clonazepam, and the remaining patients received placebo. Sleep stages, cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), and leg movement activity were scored following standard criteria; symptoms of RLS were also assessed. Pramipexole suppressed PLMS without affecting electroencephalographic (EEG) instability (CAP) and arousals (corresponding to CAP A3 and, partially, A2 subtypes), whereas clonazepam did the opposite, reducing non-rapid eye movement sleep EEG instability without effects on PLMS. Both drugs were effective on sensory RLS symptoms. This study demonstrates that a selective pharmacological approach can disconnect PLMS from arousal events, suggesting an indirect relation between each other. These results might weaken the hypothesis of a direct pathological role of PLMS in sleep disruption and can be important for the discussion on the existence of a distinct entity called periodic limb movements disorder. Moreover, the study opens the doors to the possibility of a joint treatment for RLS targeting sensory and motor symptoms, as well as sleep instability. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  7. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  8. A graphic method for timing the correction of leg-length discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, D M; Cole, W G

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a clinical method for the graphic recording, analysis and planning of treatment of leg-length discrepancy during growth. Initially, the clinically determined discrepancy is plotted against the chronological age yearly, and then in late childhood at six-monthly intervals. CT and measurements of skeletal age are made in middle and late childhood to confirm the clinical findings. In a prospective study in 20 children, we observed that only eight had a linear increase in discrepancy. The observed pattern of increase was therefore used to estimate the mature discrepancy. Epiphyseodesis reference slopes were used to determine the most appropriate time and type of epiphyseodesis. In all children, the leg-length discrepancy at maturity was within 1 cm of the predicted amount. Changes in discrepancy due to leg lengthening or correction of deformity were also plotted graphically. We conclude that the clinical graphic method is simple to use, takes into account the varying patterns of discrepancy, and minimises radiation dosage.

  9. Risk factors for acute compartment syndrome of the leg associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Pereira, Gavin; Menon, Matthew; Jafari, Siavash; Darlene Reid, W; O'Brien, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    We sought to examine the occurrence of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in the cohort of patients with tibial diaphyseal fractures and to detect associated risk factors that could predict this occurrence. A total of 1,125 patients with tibial diaphyseal fractures that were treated in our centre were included into this retrospective cohort study. All patients were treated with surgical fixation. Among them some were complicated by ACS of the leg. Age, gender, year and mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS), fracture characteristics and classifications and the type of fixation, as well as ACS characteristics in affected patients were studied. Of the cohort of patients 772 (69 %) were male (mean age 39.60 ± 15.97 years) and the rest were women (mean age 45.08 ± 19.04 years). ACS of the leg occurred in 87 (7.73 %) of all tibial diaphyseal fractures. The mean age of those patients that developed ACS (33.08 ± 12.8) was significantly lower than those who did not develop it (42.01 ± 17.3, P leg associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures in adults. Level IV.

  10. Restless Leg Syndrome Across the Globe: Epidemiology of the Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Brian B

    2015-09-01

    There are more than 50 epidemiologic studies measuring the prevalence of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) across 5 of the 6 inhabited continents (not Australia), most conducted in North America and Europe. Sufficient studies have been conducted in Asia, North America, and Europe to make inferences on RLS/WED prevalence by region. RLS/WED prevalence is thought to be highest in North America and Europe and lower in Asia. These differences across regions may be explained by cultural, environmental, and genetic factors. Future investigation is needed to determine to what extent these factors affect expression of RLS/WED according to world region.

  11. Restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements, and periodic limb movement disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmer, Jeffrey S; Quraishi, Ghazala H

    2011-06-01

    The characteristic symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been known for hundreds of years and were first reported in medicine in the 1600s. Clinicians must consider potential mimics, comorbid, and associated conditions when evaluating children with RLS symptoms. The traditional differentiation of RLS from periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is noted in children as well as adults. Because current pediatric RLS research is sparse, this article provides the most up-to-date evidence-based as well as consensus opinion-based information on the subject of childhood RLS and PLMD. Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical associations are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  13. Evaluation of (241)Am deposited in different parts of the leg bones and skeleton to justify in vivo measurements of the knee for estimating total skeletal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Majid; Brey, Richard R; Derryberry, DeWayne

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of Am deposited in different parts of leg bones relative to the total leg activity was calculated from radiochemical analysis results from six whole body donors participating in the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In five of these six USTUR cases, the percentage of Am deposited in the knee region as well as in the entire leg was separately calculated relative to total skeletal activity. The purpose of this study is to find a region in the leg that is both suitable for in vivo measurement of Am deposited in the bones and has a good correlation with the total skeletal Am burden. In all analyzed cases, the femur was the bone with the highest percentage of Am deposited in the leg (48.8%). In the five cases that have complete whole skeletal analysis, the percentage of Am activity in the knee relative to entire skeletal activity was 4.8%, and the average value of its coefficient of variation was 10.6%. The percentage of Am in the leg relative to total skeletal activity was 20% with an average coefficient of variation of 13.63%. The Am activity in the knee as well as in the leg was strongly correlated (R = 99.5% and R = 99.1%, respectively) with the amount of Am activity in the entire skeleton using a simple linear relationship. The highest correlation was found between the amount of Am deposited in the knee and the amount of Am deposited in the entire skeleton. This correlation is important because it might enable an accurate assessment of the total skeletal Am burden to be performed from in vivo monitoring of the knee region. In all analyzed cases, an excellent correlation (R = 99.9%) was found between the amount of Am activity in the knee and the amount of Am activity in the entire leg. The results of this study suggest three simple models: two models to predict the total skeletal activity based on either leg or knee activity, and the third model to predict the total leg activity based on knee activity. The results also suggest that the

  14. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Presenting as Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiong Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful, swollen right leg. He had also experienced right flank pain for 1 week prior to admission. Physical examination was notable for tenderness over the right flank. The right leg was diffusely swollen and exquisitely tender to touch, with palpable crepitance. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and pyuria. Computed tomography showed a right ureteral stone with hydronephrosis and characteristic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Furthermore, a right perirenal gas-forming abscess with extension to the right leg was noted. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aggressive control of blood sugar, percutaneous drainage of the hydronephrosis and perirenal abscess, and aggressive debridement of the leg.

  15. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  16. Living with clipped wings - patients’ experience of losing a leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente; Kjaer-Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the lived experience of losing a leg as described by the patients themselves post-discharge. Studies have documented that regardless of aetiology patients are faced with severe physical as well as psychosocial challenges post-amputation. However, only few studies explore in....... The essential meaning of losing a leg is a radical and existential upheaval, which restricts patients' lifestyle and irretrievably alters their lifeworld. Life after the operation is associated with despair, and a painful sense of loss, but also with the hope of regaining personal independence. The consequences...... of losing a leg gradually materialize as the patients realize how the loss of mobility limits their freedom. Patients experience the professional help as primarily directed towards physical care and rehabilitation. The findings show that the loss of a leg and, subsequently, the restricted mobility carry...

  17. Drug No Better Than Placebo for Lower Back, Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164223.html Drug No Better Than Placebo for Lower Back, Leg Pain Pregabalin, commonly known ... name: Lyrica) may be no better than a placebo when it comes to treating the back and ...

  18. California Red-Legged Frogs in coastal dune drainages (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — California Red-legged Frogs (Rana draytonii) are typically regarded as inhabitants of permanent ponds, marshes, and slow-moving streams, but their ecology in other...

  19. Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps Is Risky

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps is Risky Printer-friendly ... approved only to treat a certain type of malaria (uncomplicated malaria) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...

  20. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003775.htm Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the ...

  1. Leg ulcers in sickle cell patients: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Khatib AM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arij M El Khatib,1 Shady N Hayek2 1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, 2Private Practice, Cosmetic Surgery Center, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy caused by an amino acid substitution from glutamic acid to valine in the beta hemoglobin chain. One of the common symptoms occurring in sickle cell patients are leg ulcers, which are notoriously painful, difficult to treat, and frequently recurrent. These ulcers pose a therapeutic challenge with multiple modalities proposed for treatment, but with scarce evidence of efficacy of any single modality. Ulcer prevention, rigorous wound care, pain control, and surgery are the current mainstays of sickle cell leg ulcer treatment. Keywords: sickle cell leg ulcer, leg wound, sickle cell disease 

  2. Quality of Life in People with Leg Ulcer, Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main changes in the daily life of people with leg ulcer and how that affects the person’s quality of life. Methodology: We used the methodology PI [C] OD and selected four research articles, taken from EBSCO, PubMed, and EWMA. Results: The main changes identified in the people’s daily live with leg ulcers are physical (pain, decreased mobility, presence of exudate, bad smell from the wound and change in the style of clothing, psychological (sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, feelings of rejection and low self-steem, social (isolation, restriction in leisure activities, inability to perform household chores. Conclusions: The literature about the person’s quality of life with leg ulcer reported a significant impact in the daily life. The care provided by nurses should be centered on the person, integrating all the kind of needs and the leg ulcer must not be the sole focus of care

  3. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The leg vibrations of honeybees standing on a vibrating substrate were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry, both in freely standing bees and in bees attached to a holder. In both cases, no resonances were found. In the fixed bee preparation, the legs moved with approximately the same amplitude...... as the stimulator. This was also the case in freely standing honeybees, except around 400 Hz, where an average attenuation of approximately 6 dB was observed. In the fixed bee preparation, the vertical movements of the legs were also measured during horizontal stimulation. The vertical vibration amplitude...... of the legs was 15-20 dB lower than the horizontal stimulation amplitude. The electrophysiologically and behaviourally determined thresholds for vibration stimulation increased by approximately 10 dB, when the stimulus direction was changed from vertical to horizontal. These observations support the notion...

  4. Restless legs syndrome: demographics, presentation, and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hening, Wayne; Allen, Richard P; Tenzer, Penny; Winkelman, John W

    2007-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by a distressing urge to move the legs and sometimes other parts of the body. Diagnosis is based on clinical features that may be easily remembered with the mnemonic URGE: Urge to move, Rest induced, Gets better with activity, and Evening and night accentuation. RLS is common, its prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected. The course is chronic with often severe sleep disruption, including periodic leg movements. Differential diagnosis includes disorders of restlessness and leg discomfort. Primary RLS is familial and likely to be genetic. Important causes of secondary RLS are end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, and iron deficiency. Every patient should be checked for iron status with a serum ferritin measurement.

  5. Raising more domestic money for health: prospects for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Riku; Evans, David B

    2017-04-01

    Since the 2007/2008 financial crisis, the rhetoric in the development assistance dialogue has shifted away from raising more international funding for health, to requesting countries to move toward self-sufficiency. This paper examines the potential of 46 countries identified by an international panel in 2009 as being of high need to raise additional funding for health from domestic sources. Economic growth alone would allow 12 of them to reach a level of health spending where their populations could have access to a very basic set of health services. All of them have the potential to raise additional domestic funds through a range of measures that have been tried successfully in other low- and middle-income countries, but they would all remain well below the eventual objective of universal health coverage without increased and predictable external financial support.

  6. Results of the Apogee-Raising Campaign of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric J.; Hollister, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the apogee-raising campaign of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, where the spacecraft increased their apogee radii from 12 to 25 Earth radii in a total of 98 maneuvers. These maneuvers included an initial formation resize set to spread the spacecraft apart for safety, 32 apogee-raise delta-v maneuvers, their associated slews, four perigee-raise maneuvers and the associated slews, and finally a set of maneuvers to get back into formation. These activities were all accomplished successfully and on schedule with no anomalies, and at a fuel consumption somewhat less than predicted. As a result, MMS was set up ready to carry out in situ studies of magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail, with sufficient fuel remaining for a significant extended mission.

  7. The Splay Leg Syndrome in Piglets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis G. Papatsiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The splay leg syndrome is the major congenital cause of lameness in suckling piglets. It is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth, resulting in an ability to stand and walk. Etiology and pathogenesis is complex and remain still poorly understood. Approach: The aim of the present study is to perform the update information about the etiology, clinical signs and control strategies of the syndrome. Results: A sex-affected inheritance of the splay leg syndrome is assumed since higher frequencies have been observed in male piglets. Several biochemical and histomorphological investigations indicate an immaturity of the skeletal muscle in the affected piglets at birth. Splay leg is caused by a reduction of the axonal diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the fiber that innervate the hindlimb adductors. The existence of one or more major genes for congenital splay leg seems possible. Among the fragments strongly displayed in the splay leg muscle, are identified the porcine CDKN3 gene. Various management and genetic factors have been connected with the etiology, such as the farrowing induction, low birth weight, short gestation lengths, slippery floors and breeds (e.g., Large White and Landrace. Moreover, nutrition can play a role to pathogenesis, as choline or methionine deficiency in sow diets and the fusarium toxicity. Furthermore, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV are also involved in etiological factors. Piglets suffering from splay leg should be kept in a warm place and be helped to take colostrums or artificial milk for 2-3 days. Conclusion: Management practices should be applied in order to be avoided the occurrence of splay leg syndrome, such as non-slip floors, use of anti-mycotoxins products in feed, avoiding the farrowing induction before day 113. Finally, a herd health management programme should be applied in order to prevent and

  8. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.

  9. Insulin action in human thighs after one-legged immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Mizuno, M.

    1989-01-01

    Insulin action was assessed in thighs of five healthy young males who had one knee immobilized for 7 days by a splint. The splint was not worn in bed. Subjects also used crutches to prevent weight bearing of the immobilized leg. Immobilization decreased the activity of citrate synthase and 3-OH...... was significantly higher in the immobilized than in the control thigh. Seven days of one-legged immobilization causes local decreased insulin action on thigh glucose uptake and net protein degradation....

  10. Leg length, proportion, health and beauty: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2009-12-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (foot + tibia + femur), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions (for example the relative leg length in proportion to stature, and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/stature x 100], among others) are used as epidemiological markers of risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e. a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) is the first genomic region that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, in most cases research has been showing that environment is a more powerful force to shape leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. There are a variety of cosmetic, fashion, and surgical interventions to enhance perceived or actual leg length.

  11. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  12. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit....... Potential risk factors and preventive initiatives are listed to reduce the risk in future patients. We describe two patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively developed well-leg compartment syndrome....

  13. Motor Driving Leg Design for Bionic Crab-like Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Li-quan; Qu; Xiao-rong; Meng; Qing-xin; Yuan; Peng; Wang; Mo-nan

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the design of walking leg for bionics crab-like robot, which is driven with micro servo motor. The kinematic characteristics of the bionics machine are analysed for optimized structure parameters, which has been used in the robot design. A three closed loop motor control system structure for joint driver is also given, as well as the multi-joint driving system for walking robot leg.

  14. Restless Leg Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease has brain iron deficiency that produces excessive dopamine and known genetic risks, some of which contribute to the brain iron deficiency. Dopamine treatments work temporarily but may eventually produce further postsynaptic down-regulation and worse restless leg syndrome. This article includes sections focused on pathophysiologic findings from each of these areas: genetics, cortical-spinal excitability, and iron and dopamine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are describe...

  16. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Esteban, Juan C; Zarranz, Juan J; Tijero, Beatriz; Velasco, Fernando; Barcena, Joseba; Rouco, Idoia; Lezcano, Elena; Lachen, María C; Jauregui, Amaia; Ugarte, Amaia

    2007-10-15

    The present study explores the frequency of RLS in PD and focuses on the clinical differences between patients with and without restless legs syndrome (RLS). A cross-sectional study was designed, comprising 114 patients diagnosed with PD. Those patients positive for RLS were assessed for intensity of the syndrome (IRLS). We compared the clinical characteristics of the patients with and without RLS, using specific scales: Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS I-IV), quality of life (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, PDQ 39), sleep symptoms (Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale, PDSS), and diurnal hypersomnia (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Twenty-five patients (21.9%) out of a total of 114 subjects diagnosed with PD met the RLS diagnostic criteria. RLS was more frequent in women (68%). The patients with RLS showed poorer scores on the PDSS (PD-RLS+: 102.4 +/- 15.1 vs PD-RLS-: 113.2 +/- 16.4) (P = 0.005) and in the bodily discomfort dimension of the PDQ-39 (PD-RLS+ 6.1 +/- 3.4 vs PD-RLS- 3.8 +/- 2.6) (P = 0.002). Analysis of the subscales of the PDSS showed significant differences (P < 0.001) between both groups of patients in items 4 and 10, and to a lesser degree in items 5 (P = 0.01) and 11 (P = 0.02) There was no increased incidence of diurnal hypersomnia in the group of patients with RLS. There were no differences in the rest of the variables. RLS is frequent in patients with PD, though this condition doesn't apparently affect quality of life or lead to an increased presence of diurnal hypersomnia. It would be advisable to validate the diagnostic criteria of RLS in this specific group of patients.

  17. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  18. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN THE LEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a condition characterized by atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities. While PAD is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation, it is also accompanied by a high likelihood for symptomatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for more than 90% of cases of PAD, and uncommon vascular syndromes account for the remaining 10%. The femoral and popliteal arteries are affected in 80% to 90% of symptomatic PAD patients, the tibial and peroneal arteries in 40% to 50%, and the aortoiliac arteries in 30%.Although 65–75% of patients with PAD are asymptomatic, the classic presenting symptom is usually described as muscle cramps, fatigue or pain in the lower legs induced by exercise and rapidly relieved by rest; often the symptom location indicates the level of arterial involvement. RISK FACTORS: Diabetes and smoking are the strongest risk factors for PAD. Other well-known risk factors are advanced age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. DIAGNOSIS: PAD can be easily and accurately diagnosed by calculating the ankle-brachial index (ABI.The ABI is defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure in the ankle divided by the systolic blood pressure at the arm. The tools required to perform the ABI measurement include a hand-held 5–10 MHz Doppler probe and a blood pressure cuff. MANAGEMENT: Most patients' symptoms improve with optimal medical treatment and invasive intervention is often not required. Smoking cessation and exercise are considered the two most important treatments for PAD. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic PAD often impairs a patient's quality of life and untreated disease can lead to limb loss. Aggressive management of atherosclerotic risk factors, a structured exercise program, use of antiplatelet agents and when indicated percutaneous or surgical revascularizations are the keys for successful management.

  19. Variability of single-leg versus double-leg stance radiographs in the varus knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Rich, Valerie; Bain, Elizabeth; Sterett, William I

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated measured radiographic parameter variability between single-leg stance (SLS) and double-leg stance (DLS) radiographs in patients with varus knee malalignment, indicated for high tibial osteotomy. Fifty-three consecutive knees (mean, 49 years; range, 18-79 years) were evaluated for varus thrust. SLS and DLS radiographs were obtained. A single blinded observer measured mechanical axis angles and weight-bearing line (WBL) deviation using a goniometer. Mechanical axis angles averaged 9.1 degrees (DLS) and 11.3 degrees (SLS). SLS radiographs averaged 9% greater WBL medialization than did DLS. Medial opening averaged 16.4 mm (DLS) and 18.8 mm (SLS). DLS and SLS radiographs showed no significant differences in patients without varus thrust. Patients with varus thrust demonstrated differences in mechanical axis angles (DLS, 9.4 degrees; SLS, 12.2 degrees), WBL deviation (12.1% less), medialization (DLS), and medial opening necessary for correction (DLS, 16.6 mm; SLS, 20.3 mm). In varus thrust, SLS radiographs more closely replicate dynamic knee malalignment, possibly providing more accurate measurements of angular deformity.

  20. Pediatric restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria: an update by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, Daniel L; Bruni, Oliviero; de Weerd, Al; Durmer, Jeffrey S; Kotagal, Suresh; Owens, Judith A; Simakajornboon, Narong

    2013-12-01

    Specific diagnostic criteria for pediatric restless legs syndrome (RLS) were published in 2003 following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Due to substantial new research and revision of the adult RLS diagnostic criteria, a task force was chosen by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) to consider updates to the pediatric diagnostic criteria. A committee of seven pediatric RLS experts developed a set of 15 consensus questions to review, conducted a comprehensive literature search, and extensively discussed potential revisions. The committee recommendations were approved by the IRLSSG executive committee and reviewed by the IRLSSG membership. The pediatric RLS diagnostic criteria were simplified and integrated with the newly revised adult RLS criteria. Specific recommendations were developed for pediatric application of the criteria, including consideration of typical words used by children to describe their symptoms. Pediatric aspects of differential diagnosis, comorbidity, and clinical significance were then defined. In addition, the research criteria for probable and possible pediatric RLS were updated and criteria for a related condition, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), were clarified. Revised diagnostic criteria for pediatric RLS have been developed, which are intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coordination of planar cell polarity pathways through Spiny-legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-10-27

    Morphogenesis and physiology of tissues and organs requires planar cell polarity (PCP) systems that orient and coordinate cells and their behaviors, but the relationship between PCP systems has been controversial. We have characterized how the Frizzled and Dachsous-Fat PCP systems are connected through the Spiny-legs isoform of the Prickle-Spiny-legs locus. Two different components of the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, can each independently interact with Spiny-legs and direct its localization in vivo. Through characterization of the contributions of Prickle, Spiny-legs, Dachsous, Fat, and Dachs to PCP in the Drosophila wing, eye, and abdomen, we define where Dachs-Spiny-legs and Dachsous-Spiny-legs interactions contribute to PCP, and provide a new understanding of the orientation of polarity and the basis of PCP phenotypes. Our results support the direct linkage of PCP systems through Sple in specific locales, while emphasizing that cells can be subject to and must ultimately resolve distinct, competing PCP signals.

  2. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Clark, J, E-mail: schmitjo@engr.orst.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  3. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-03-01

    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  4. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  5. Force feedback reinforces muscle synergies in insect legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2015-11-01

    The nervous system solves complex biomechanical problems by activating muscles in modular, synergist groups. We have studied how force feedback in substrate grip is integrated with effects of sense organs that monitor support and propulsion in insects. Campaniform sensilla are mechanoreceptors that encode forces as cuticular strains. We tested the hypothesis that integration of force feedback from receptors of different leg segments during grip occurs through activation of specific muscle synergies. We characterized the effects of campaniform sensilla of the feet (tarsi) and proximal segments (trochanter and femur) on activities of leg muscles in stick insects and cockroaches. In both species, mechanical stimulation of tarsal sensilla activated the leg muscle that generates substrate grip (retractor unguis), as well as proximal leg muscles that produce inward pull (tibial flexor) and support/propulsion (trochanteral depressor). Stimulation of campaniform sensilla on proximal leg segments activated the same synergistic group of muscles. In stick insects, the effects of proximal receptors on distal leg muscles changed and were greatly enhanced when animals made active searching movements. In insects, the task-specific reinforcement of muscle synergies can ensure that substrate adhesion is rapidly established after substrate contact to provide a stable point for force generation.

  6. Restless abdomen: a phenotypic variant of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Hernando; Iranzo, Alex; Rye, David B; Santamaría, Joan

    2011-09-27

    A diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) requires an urge to move the legs in combination with sensory leg discomfort. Localization of the symptoms to other body areas in the absence of leg involvement is not recognized as part of the phenotypic spectrum of RLS. We describe 3 patients who presented with sensorimotor symptoms confined to the abdominal wall and, with the exception of not involving the legs, satisfied the primary and secondary diagnostic criteria for RLS. Patients underwent detailed clinical history, video-polysomnography, abdominal imaging, and serologic and genotyping assessment. Unpleasant abdominal symptoms emerged at night during periods of rest and were accompanied by an urge to move and temporized by movement. Patients reported sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia due to their abdominal symptomatology. Abdominal imaging was normal. Secondary features included periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS), and dramatic symptom amelioration with the D(2)-D(3) dopaminergic agonist pramipexole. Two subjects were anemic. Conventional RLS emerged in one subject and resolved after dose escalation. Each subject was homozygous for the most common RLS/PLMS-associated risk allele in the BTBD9 gene. Our observations indicate that the restricted abdominal symptomatology manifest in our subjects represents a phenotypic variant of RLS. Physicians should be vigilant to the existence of this unique phenotype when encountering subjects who present with insomnia and abnormal abdominal sensations. Our experience emphasizes the importance of supportive clinical features in rendering a correct diagnosis such that the most cost-effective workups and treatment can be realized.

  7. Criteria in diagnosing nocturnal leg cramps: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2017-02-28

    Up to 33% of the general population over 50 years of age are affected by nocturnal leg cramps. Currently there are no generally accepted clinical characteristics, which identify nocturnal leg cramps. This study aims to identify these clinical characteristics and to differentiate between them and the characteristics of restless leg syndrome and periodic limb disorder. A systematic literature study was executed from December 2015 to May 2016. This study comprised of a systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials, observational studies on nocturnal and rest cramps of legs and other muscles, and other systematic and narrative reviews. Two researchers independently extracted literature data and analyzed this using a standardized reviewing protocol. Modified versions of the Cochrane Collaboration tools assessed the risk of bias. A Delphi study was conducted to assess agreement on the characteristics of nocturnal leg cramps. After systematic and manual searches, eight randomized trials and ten observational studies were included. On the basis of these we identified seven diagnostic characteristics of nocturnal leg cramps: intense pain, period of duration from seconds to maximum 10 minutes, location in calf or foot, location seldom in thigh or hamstrings, persistent subsequent pain, sleep disruption and distress. The seven above characteristics will enhance recognition of the condition, and help clinicians make a clear distinction between NLC and other sleep-related musculoskeletal disorder among older adults.

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Hatice; Yıldız, Özlem Kayım; Çil, Gülsüm; Şentürk, İlteriş Ahmet; Erselcan, Taner; Bolayır, Ertuğrul; Topaktaş, Suat

    2012-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome is characterised by discomfort during rest and an urge to move the limbs that is accompanied by abnormal sensations. Studies on disease pathophysiology have focused on dopaminergic dysfunction. Vitamin D may play an important role in dopamine function, but the role of vitamin D in restless legs syndrome has not been examined. We compared the serum vitamin D levels of RLS patients and matched controls and explored the correlation of plasma vitamin D levels with disease severity. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 36 patients with restless legs syndrome and compared them to 38 healthy control subjects. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 7.31±4.63 ng/mL in female patients with restless legs syndrome and 12.31±5.27 ng/mL in female control subjects (p=0.001). We found a significant inverse correlation between vitamin D levels and disease severity in females (p=0.01, r=-0.47). The mean serum vitamin D levels were lower in female patients with restless legs syndrome. Low vitamin D levels may cause dopaminergic dysfunction in restless legs syndrome patients. Further studies are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  10. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Liu; Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows:(i) improve-ment of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii) development of an intelligent control tech-nique, and (iii) development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  11. NEW GENERATIONS RAISED IN APARTMENT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Salih ŞEKER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of private preparatory schools is preparing students for higher education institutions, they dealt a severe blow to the formal educatio nal institutions. Various solutions generated to close down these schools brought many concerns led to deepening of the problem. In this study, the issue of closing private preparatory schools, which function for preparation for the university entrance ex am, down and converting them into private schools in the academic year of 2014/2015 by regulations enforced by the ministry is discussed. Obviously, this period will results in generations with obesity, physical impairment, postural disorders, respiratory system disorders, cardiovascular and circulatory disorders as well as permanent diseases. These schools are established in apartments and commercial building employed by private preparatory schools previously. It is clearly seen that these physical condi tions may cause serious problems in physical activities and sport practices. The aim of this study is discussing the predicted problems either experienced or will be faced by students since they will continue formal education at schools called “Basic High School” converted from private preparatory schools into formal educational institutions with same physical conditions but different educational programs.

  12. Reproductive behaviour in bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, C S; Horn, M M; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The present review describes the behavioral characteristics of bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions and emphasizes the difficulties associated with adequately monitoring their performance in the field to predict reproductive potential. Most of the information generated for improving our understanding of bull behavior under range conditions has been generated in Bos taurus bulls. The limited information available in Bos indicus indicates that males searching for cows in estrus display different sexual patterns when compared to B. taurus bulls and a poor selection of a sire utilized in range conditions can have an important impact in cattle production. Screening and selecting [cg1] bulls for desirable reproductive traits and high libido is known to improve the reproductive performance of the herd. The reproductive and genetic potential of a bull is influenced by factors such as management, age, nutrition and problems related to the female such as embryonic death and anestrus. However, behavioral characteristics of bulls when detecting and serving cows in estrus is poorly understood.

  13. Effects of a 10-week conventional strength training program on lower leg muscle performance in adolescent boys compared to adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, D; Thaler, A; Hoppel, F; Macek, C; Schocke, M; Burtscher, M

    2014-04-01

    The use of resistance training by adolescents has been an area of controversy. The aim of the present work was therefore to evaluate the degree of strength trainability in adolescents compared to adults. Thirteen healthy male adolescents (AL) and eight adults (AD) volunteered to participate in a 10-week training program. Subjects performed supervised exercises for the legs, calf raise, leg curl and leg extension three times a week. Maximal strength, explosive power and anaerobic power were assessed prior and after the 10-week training program. Significant interaction effects (time * age group) were found only for explosive strength as improvements of squat jump and counter movement jump performance (Pstrength and anaerobic power. However, significant time effects were observed for these parameters within both groups. Taken together, adolescents show distinct muscular adaptations by a higher gain in explosive power in response to resistance training when compared to adults. This might be related to peak height velocity (PHV) which is a "sensitive" period of trainability and accelerated adaptation to resistance training in adolescents.

  14. Venous leg ulcer patients: a review of the literature on lifestyle and pain-related interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Reimer, W.S. op; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Laat, H.E.W. de

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Having a leg ulcer has a major impact on daily life. Lifestyle is mentioned in most leg ulcer guidelines but mostly without much emphasis on the subject. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence for the effect of nutrition, leg elevation and exercise on the healing of leg ulcers was reconsidered. F

  15. Rate dependent constitutive behavior of dielectric elastomers and applications in legged robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, William; Miles, Paul; Gao, Wei; Clark, Jonathan; Mashayekhi, Somayeh; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers exhibit novel electromechanical coupling that has been exploited in many adaptive structure applications. Whereas the quasi-static, one-dimensional constitutive behavior can often be accurately quantified by hyperelastic functions and linear dielectric relations, accurate predictions of electromechanical, rate-dependent deformation during multiaxial loading is non-trivial. In this paper, an overview of multiaxial electromechanical membrane finite element modeling is formulated. Viscoelastic constitutive relations are extended to include fractional order. It is shown that fractional order viscoelastic constitutive relations are superior to conventional integer order models. This knowledge is critical for transition to control of legged robotic structures that exhibit advanced mobility.

  16. Phonological Consciousness Raising Tasks for the ESP Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlacci, Peter

    A discussion of pronunciation instruction in English for business communication focuses on raising learners' awareness of how English is spoken by various language groups around the world. It is argued that phonological consciousness-raising is an effective approach for limiting breakdowns in communication. The approach assumes that developing…

  17. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with...

  18. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  19. Consciousness-raising Activities in Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    This study is based mainly on the theories of grammatical instruction in communicative methodologies. In review of the related theories,this paper presents the methodologies,and designs three consciousness-raising tasks to verify the effectiveness of consciousness-raising instruction.

  20. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, J. J.; Gokeler, A.; Hof, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that

  1. Influence of skin temperature on central thermoregulatory control of leg blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, D W

    1981-05-01

    This study examined the influence of elevated skin temperature (Tsk) on the central thermoregulatory control of leg blood flow in five unanesthetized, chronically instrumented, resting baboons (Papio anubis and P. cynocephalus). In each experiment, mean iliac blood flow (MIBF), mean arterial blood pressure, arterial blood temperature (Tbl), and Tsk were measured, and iliac vascular conductance (IVC) was calculated. A heat exchanger was incorporated into a chronic arteriovenous femoral shunt to control Tbl. The protocol consisted of raising Tbl approximately 2.6 degrees C in thermoneutral environment (cool Tsk) an then again after Tsk had been elevated by environmental heating. A major influence of raising Tsk was the lowering of threshold Tbl at which the rise in MIBF and IVC commenced. This threshold Tbl was lowered at least 0.8 degrees C on the average. Also, over the whole range of Tbl studied (37.0-39.6 degrees C), MIBF and IVC were higher at high Tsk than at cool Tsk. Thus an elevation of Tsk significantly influences the control of skin blood flow by central thermoreceptors.

  2. Plasma apelin level in patients with restless legs syndrome and its association with periodic leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selda; Aksu, Murat; Baskol, Gulden

    2017-03-01

    Apelin is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule secreted by adipose tissue and has a protective effect on cardiac and neuronal tissue. Recent studies have reported that the risk of vascular disease is increased in restless legs syndrome (RLS). We aimed to measure plasma levels of apelin in patients with RLS. Additionally, we wanted to determine if there is any relationship between apelin levels and RLS disease severity and the periodic leg movement index (PLMI). A total of 14 RLS patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms and 14 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All participants had no concomitant medical disorder nor took medications. The international RLS rating scale (IRLSS) was used to determine disease severity. Polysomnography (PSG) served to exclude other sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders and to measure sleep parameters. The mean plasma apelin level was significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group independent of IRLSS score and PSG findings (p = 0.004). After comparison between the RLS patient group and control group, the patient group was divided into two subgroups based on a PLMI above or below 15 events per hour. A reduced mean apelin level was observed in the patient group having a PLMI above 15 compared to the patient group with PLMI below 15 and the control group (p = 0.003). There was no correlation between plasma apelin levels and disease severity and PLMI in the two patient subgroups. RLS patients especially those with a PLMI above 15 have low plasma apelin levels independent of disease severity and sleep parameters such as sleep duration and quality. Decreased apelin levels may explain the increased risk for vascular diseases in those patients.

  3. Numerical Estimation of Balanced and Falling States for Constrained Legged Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummolo, Carlotta; Mangialardi, Luigi; Kim, Joo H.

    2017-08-01

    Instability and risk of fall during standing and walking are common challenges for biped robots. While existing criteria from state-space dynamical systems approach or ground reference points are useful in some applications, complete system models and constraints have not been taken into account for prediction and indication of fall for general legged robots. In this study, a general numerical framework that estimates the balanced and falling states of legged systems is introduced. The overall approach is based on the integration of joint-space and Cartesian-space dynamics of a legged system model. The full-body constrained joint-space dynamics includes the contact forces and moments term due to current foot (or feet) support and another term due to altered contact configuration. According to the refined notions of balanced, falling, and fallen, the system parameters, physical constraints, and initial/final/boundary conditions for balancing are incorporated into constrained nonlinear optimization problems to solve for the velocity extrema (representing the maximum perturbation allowed to maintain balance without changing contacts) in the Cartesian space at each center-of-mass (COM) position within its workspace. The iterative algorithm constructs the stability boundary as a COM state-space partition between balanced and falling states. Inclusion in the resulting six-dimensional manifold is a necessary condition for a state of the given system to be balanced under the given contact configuration, while exclusion is a sufficient condition for falling. The framework is used to analyze the balance stability of example systems with various degrees of complexities. The manifold for a 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) legged system is consistent with the experimental and simulation results in the existing studies for specific controller designs. The results for a 2-DOF system demonstrate the dependency of the COM state-space partition upon joint-space configuration (elbow-up vs

  4. Numerical Estimation of Balanced and Falling States for Constrained Legged Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummolo, Carlotta; Mangialardi, Luigi; Kim, Joo H.

    2017-01-01

    Instability and risk of fall during standing and walking are common challenges for biped robots. While existing criteria from state-space dynamical systems approach or ground reference points are useful in some applications, complete system models and constraints have not been taken into account for prediction and indication of fall for general legged robots. In this study, a general numerical framework that estimates the balanced and falling states of legged systems is introduced. The overall approach is based on the integration of joint-space and Cartesian-space dynamics of a legged system model. The full-body constrained joint-space dynamics includes the contact forces and moments term due to current foot (or feet) support and another term due to altered contact configuration. According to the refined notions of balanced, falling, and fallen, the system parameters, physical constraints, and initial/final/boundary conditions for balancing are incorporated into constrained nonlinear optimization problems to solve for the velocity extrema (representing the maximum perturbation allowed to maintain balance without changing contacts) in the Cartesian space at each center-of-mass (COM) position within its workspace. The iterative algorithm constructs the stability boundary as a COM state-space partition between balanced and falling states. Inclusion in the resulting six-dimensional manifold is a necessary condition for a state of the given system to be balanced under the given contact configuration, while exclusion is a sufficient condition for falling. The framework is used to analyze the balance stability of example systems with various degrees of complexities. The manifold for a 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) legged system is consistent with the experimental and simulation results in the existing studies for specific controller designs. The results for a 2-DOF system demonstrate the dependency of the COM state-space partition upon joint-space configuration (elbow-up vs

  5. Association between restless leg syndrom and slow coronary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, İsmail; Çakcak Erden, Emine; Durmuş, Hacer; Tıbıllı, Hakan; Tabakçı, Mustafa; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Türker, Yasin; Akçakoyun, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder in which patients feel unpleasent leg sensations and urge to move the legs during rest, especially at night, and symptoms are improved by leg movement. Prior studies analyzing the associations between cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome has shown controversial results. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between restless legs syndrome and slow coronary flow (SCF). The present study was cross-sectional and observational and consists of 176 individuals who underwent coronary angiography and had angiographically normal coronary arteries of varying coronary flow rates. The study included 86 patients with isolated SCF and 90 control participants with normal coronary flow (NCF). RLS was assessed the day after the coronry flow was evaluated, using a self-administered questionnaire based on the International Restless Legs Study Group criteria. The following question was asked: "Do you have unpleasant leg sensations (like crawling, paraesthesia, or pain) combined with motor restlessness and an urge to move?" The possible responses were as follows: no, less than once/month, 2-4 times/month, 5-14 times/month, and 15 or more times per month. Those who answered that they had these feelings were asked the following two more questions: 1) "Do these symptoms occur only at rest and does moving improve them?" and 2) "Are these symptoms worsen in the evening/at night compared with the morning?" RLS is considered to be probable if the participant has answered "yes" for all three of the above questions, and has a frequency of ≥5 times/month. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, multiple logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome was 48 (27%) and increased significantly with age. Patients with SCF have more likely had RLS than the control group (p<0.001). The age-adjusted prevalence odds of SCF were 3.11 times higher (95% CI: 1

  6. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  7. [Restless Legs Syndrome : A Threat to the quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Cárcamo, Mauricio; Escobar-Cordoba, Franklin; Rey de Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder associated with the imperative need to move the legs, starting at different times of day and it gets worse at night, relieved by activity, affecting the quality of life and sleep who sufferers it. Despite being a common disorder at any age, in adults with a prevalence of up to 10%, is not diagnosed by doctors and first level specialists that is why diagnostic and therapeutic interventions get delayed contributing to the perpetuation of symptoms and worsening quality of life. Since its diagnosis is purely clinical, getting familiar with this disorder is essential to ensure proper focus and thus rule out other diseases commonly confused with this one. Restless legs syndrome has a multi-factorial etiology that ranges from a genetic and hereditary, which are called primary restless legs syndrome, to its association with multiple pathologies, known as secondary restless legs syndrome. As for its management, drug therapy and non-drug therapy is aimed at symptom control, as its cure is not possible, although occasionally the condition can refer to later repeat in months or years.

  8. Leg strength and the VO2 max of older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, D; Cuneo, R; Delphinus, E; Gass, G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if leg strength limits VO2 max and the ability to reach a plateau during VO2 max test in older men during cycle ergometry. Men aged 70-80 years were randomly selected into a strength training (ST, n=12) 3 times weekly for 16 weeks, followed by 4 weeks detraining or a non-training control group (C, n=12). Leg strength and VO2 max were assessed every 4 weeks for 20 weeks; body composition and cardiac function were assessed before and after 16 weeks training and after 4 weeks detraining. Leg strength, upper leg muscle mass (ULMM), arterial-venous O2 difference (a-v O2 difference) and VO2 max increased in the ST group (95±0.6%, 7±0.7%. 6.2±0.5% and 8±0.8%, respectively; PVO2 max and a-v O2 difference returned to pre-training levels. There was no change in the ability of the participants to reach a plateau during VO2 max testing over the 20-week study. These findings indicate that leg strength may not limit either VO2 max or the ability to plateau during VO2 max tests in older men during cycle ergometry. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions. PMID:28400816

  10. The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.

  11. Hybrid control and motion planning of dynamical legged locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    "This book provides a comprehensive presentation of issues and challenges faced by researchers and practicing engineers in motion planning and hybrid control of dynamical legged locomotion. The major features range from offline and online motion planning algorithms to generate desired feasible periodic walking and running motions and tow-level control schemes, including within-stride feedback laws, continuous time update laws and event-based update laws, to asymptotically stabilize the generated desired periodic orbits. This book describes the current state of the art and future directions across all domains of dynamical legged locomotion so that readers can extend proposed motion planning algorithms and control methodologies to other types of planar and 3D legged robots".

  12. Survey of the leg exocrine glands in termites(Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Xavier Soares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the leg exocrine glands in the termite workers of 16 species of the families Kalotermitidae and Termitidae was carried out through scanning electron microscope. Glandular openings were not found in the legs of Anoplotermes sp., Ruptitermes sp. (Apicotermitinae, Termitidae or Glyptotermes planus (Kalotermitidae, but they are present, spread over the ventral surface of the first, second and third tarsomeres of other Termitidae such as Armitermes euamignathus, Cornitermes cumulans, Nasutitermes coxipoensis, Rhynchotermes nasutissimus, Syntermes nanus, Embiratermes festivellus (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes beaumonti, Hoplotermes amplus, Microcerotermes sp., Neocapritermes opacus, Orthognathotermes sp., Spinitermes brevicornutus and Termes sp. (Termitinae. The pores are usually isolated but they can also be grouped inside a round depression. The occurrence of leg exocrine glands in the family Termitidae is reported for the first time.

  13. On the magnetism and dynamics of prominence legs hosting tornadoes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, M J Martinez; Arregui, I; Collados, M; Beck, C; Rodriguez, J de la Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires understanding their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here, we analyze four consecutive spectropolarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs which help us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that 1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no ...

  14. Myonecrosis in the leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørring, S; Kolmos, H J; Klareskov, B

    1994-01-01

    Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myonecr......Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case...... of myonecrosis with gas production in a leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis, in which the patient survived, and the limb was saved....

  15. A summary of Selected Data: DSDP Legs 20-44,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Sites 366-370, Southeast North Atlantic Ocean Leg-20, Sites 194-202 Western North Leg-42, Cites 371-381, Mediter - Pacific Ocean ranean Sea Leg-21...4- £ 0M - 04a) C14 CN Ei U 04-4 Q) 9 NTEFAC O 0 Ez() )l CD1-~O 4 (10WK celON m -4 4 r4 4J4 0-1 Ln0 - ( c 0Q) .4~U tC)0Q I Vr 4 0 V - d g -0 4 CU 0 4...0 4i4iu4 *.0 AiI $4 -1 4) >1 NW Q 4) w r.4)4- I% r 0 040 G)G)v-0 .4O k -4 .)4)M A4U * E * - 0 NNN 0)~ r4 0 Vr P *11 r.)0 0))04 #4 -H 4) E-4 *" 4" w w

  16. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  17. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari eKalliokoski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL (VI vs VL, p<0.05, whereas the coefficient of variation was highest in VL (VL vs VI, p<0.05. Coefficient of variation between the mean values of the four QF muscles in the exercising leg was 35±9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%, GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity.

  18. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Døssing, Simon; Kjær, Andreas; Kjær, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity.

  19. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory correlates of sickle leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anazoeze Jude; Ubesie, Agozie; Madu, Kenechi Anthony; Okwor, Bismarck; Anigbo, Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    The exact mechanism for the occurrence of sickle leg ulcers (SLUs) has not been fully explained, although, popular opinion supports a multifactorial etio-pathogenetic process. Leg ulceration in sickle cell is a chronic and debilitating condition which is difficult to treat and may worsen the psychosocial impact of this illness. This study aims to evaluate the laboratory and clinical correlates of SLUs. One hundred sixty-seven patients who had been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (homozygous S) had their steady-state hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit, white cell count, platelet count, serum bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase (AST) as well as frequency of crisis per annum evaluated with respect to their relationship to the occurrence of leg ulcers. They were aged 6-53 years (mean age 24.3 years), and prevalence of leg ulcer was found to be 2.75 per 1000 (2.54 per 1000 in females and 2.83 per 1000 in males). The independent sample t-test showed a significant difference in the serum AST levels in those with SLU (p = 0.029), though a positive correlation did not exist. Other predictors of disease severity found to have positive relationship with each other were the AST and total serum bilirubin 0.207 (p = 0.012); Hb and age 0.130 (p = 0.035); Hb and white cell count -0.159 (p = 0.010), white cell count and age -0.113 (p = 0.018). SLUs do not occur in patients with severe disease in sickle cell. The clinical and laboratory indicators of severe sickle cell disease do not correlate positively with the occurrence of SLU. Serum AST may have a relationship with leg ulceration in these patients. Environmental factors most likely play a major part in the etiopathogenesis of leg ulcer and this may require further studies in different sociocultural settings.

  20. Willis-Ekbom Disease or Restless Legs Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, K; Prado, L B F; Carvalho, L B C; Prado, G F

    2015-09-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom Disease (WED) is highly prevalent, but patients and healthcare providers alike know little about it. Furthermore, controversy persists as to the best way of diagnosing this nosological entity. To verify whether the term used to refer to this disease entity (Restless Legs Syndrome or Willis-Ekbom Disease) affects the prevalence of self-diagnosed RLS/WED in a sample of newly graduated physicians. Newly graduated physicians were asked to self-evaluate for the presence of RLS/WED. Briefly, participants were allocated randomly across two groups. One was asked to self-assess for RLS, while the other was asked to self-assess for WED. The evaluation form given to one group asked 'Do you have Restless Legs Syndrome?' whereas the form given to participants in the other group asked 'Do you have Willis-Ekbom Disease?'. Both forms also contained the four criteria for diagnosing RLS proposed by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) and instructions for self-diagnosis according to these criteria. The study sample comprised 1413 newly graduated physicians. Of the 708 participants who were given the form that used the term RLS, 87 (12.28%) diagnosed themselves with the condition. Conversely, of 705 physicians given the form with the term WED, 13 (1.84%) diagnosed themselves with the condition (p Restless Legs Syndrome than when presented with the term Willis-Ekbom Disease. This suggests that the term Restless Legs Syndrome may not be the most appropriate term to denote this nosological entity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quadrupedal gaits in hexapod animals - inter-leg coordination in free-walking adult stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Martyna; Godlewska, Elzbieta; Schmidt, Joachim; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2012-12-15

    The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms that control leg coordination in hexapeds. We analysed inter-leg coordination in C. morosus that freely walked on straight paths on plane surfaces with different slopes. Consecutive 1.7 s sections were assigned inter-leg coordination patterns (which we call gaits) based on footfall patterns. Regular gaits, i.e. wave, tetrapod or tripod gaits, occurred in different proportions depending on surface slopes. Tetrapod gaits were observed most frequently, wave gaits only occurred on 90 deg inclining slopes and tripod gaits occurred most often on 15 deg declining slopes, i.e. in 40% of the sections. Depending on the slope, 36-66% of the sections were assigned irregular gaits. Irregular gaits were mostly due to multiple stepping by the front legs, which is perhaps probing behaviour, not phase coupled to the middle legs' cycles. In irregular gaits, middle leg and hindleg coordination was regular, related to quadrupedal walk and wave gaits. Apparently, front legs uncouple from and couple to the walking system without compromising middle leg and hindleg coordination. In front leg amputees, the remaining legs were strictly coordinated. In hindleg and middle leg amputees, the front legs continued multiple stepping. The coordination of middle leg amputees was maladapted, with front legs and hindlegs performing multiple steps or ipsilateral legs being in simultaneous swing. Thus, afferent information from middle legs might be necessary for a regular hindleg stepping pattern.

  2. Evaluation of the biofidelity of the HIII and MIL-Lx lower leg surrogates under axial impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenneville, Cheryl E; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2012-01-01

    Lower leg injury risk is commonly assessed using an anthropomorphic test device (ATD). The current standard leg (the HIII) has been shown to have low biofidelity due to its geometry and material properties. A new surrogate (the MIL-Lx) was developed to address these issues, specifically for anti-vehicular mine blast scenarios but with potential applications to high-force crashes in the automotive industry. Before it is adopted for use, the MIL-Lx must be evaluated under impact loading to ensure that it represents the natural lower leg response. Axial impact loads were applied to both the HIII and the MIL-Lx at impact velocities of 2 to 7 m/s using a pneumatic impacting device. Testing was also conducted with the foot removed from both surrogates to enable comparison with previous tests of isolated cadaveric tibias at noninjurious and injurious (i.e., fracture) levels. To evaluate the effect of a boot on load attenuation, the HIII was impacted with and without a hiking boot. Forces in the MIL-Lx were between 25 and 100 percent of those in the HIII (depending on impact conditions). The use of a boot reduced the peak force by approximately 65 percent at the highest impact velocities. The MIL-Lx fit the data from noninjurious cadaveric tibia tests with R(2) = 0.83. The MIL-Lx is a new surrogate that represents the response of the natural tibia under axial impact loading better than the HIII. The inclusion of a boot has a significant effect on loads in the leg and may influence injury assessment results. The MIL-Lx will be a useful tool for predicting lower leg injury risk over a wide range of impact velocities.

  3. Progress in the research of restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs especially at rest. Symptoms worsen in the evening and night and improve with activity such as walking. RLS may be secondary to, or exacerbated by, a number of conditions that include iron deficiency, pregnancy, end stage renal disease, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, or with neurological disorders such as peripheral neuropathy. Treatments for RLS include: dopaminergic agents, dopamine receptor agonists, opioids, sedative hypnotics, anticonvulsants, clonidine, minerals and vitamins et al.

  4. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infec......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  5. [The Paltrinieri operation in treatment of pseudarthroses of the leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghele, N; Troianescu, O; Serban, N; Niţu, C; Zamfirescu, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors present 8 cases of pseudarthroses of the tibia secondary to surgical and orthopaedic treatments of fractures of the leg, in whom para-focal osteotomia was performed. The Paltrinieri method is a simple and efficient intervention based on the biochemical principle of re-establishing a normal tibial axis, and on exclusion of the pseudarthrosis focus from under the influence of negative mechanical factors, an intervention which leads to a revival of the capacities of consolidation of the pseudarthrosis. The very good results obtained justify the recommendation ofthis therapeutical method in the treatment of pseudarthroses, especially of the suppurated pseudarthroses of the leg.

  6. Novel Solution for Leg Motion with 5-Link Belt Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Ch., Lovasz; Pop, C.; Pop, F.; Dolga, V.

    2014-11-01

    From the analysis of Theo Jansen walking mechanism and of the path curve that it describes the reduced capability for crossing over obstacles of the Jansen leg (1 DOF) is pointed out. By using a 5 link belt mechanism with 2 DOF can be adapted for generating similar Jansen mechanism path curve, where the step height of this path can be increased. For this purpose a mathematical model is conceived in order to analyse and determine the parameters for driving and control of the operation of the novel walking leg solution.

  7. Diagnosis of Restless Leg Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom disease, is a neurosensorimotor disorder with significant impact that is diagnosed through 5 clinical criteria. Adherence to 5 criteria and a thorough physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosis. Associated features prove helpful in young children or the cognitively impaired. Polysomnography is not routinely required unless the patient has other sleep-related symptoms. The finding of periodic leg movements in sleep only suggests, instead of confirms, the diagnosis. It is important to arrive at appropriate diagnosis because the prevalence is in the millions and treatment significantly improves sleep quality and daytime function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic time-savers, Tx tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Darlene E; Zayas-Bazan, Javier; Reese, Gary

    2009-08-01

    To diagnose restless legs syndrome (RLS), start with the 4 "essential criteria": (1) a powerful urge to move the legs that is (2) rest-induced, (3) improves with activity, and (4) worsens in the evening. Carefully screen for secondary causes of RLS, including renal failure, pregnancy, iron deficiency, and medications that can cause or exacerbate symptoms. Carbidopa/levodopa is the first-line treatment for patients with intermittent symptoms of RLS; dopamine agonists are recommended for those with daily or refractory symptoms.

  9. Restless leg syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kovalchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless leg syndrome (RLS is a chronic sensory‑motor disorder characterized by sensory discomfort in legs, appearing or worsening during rest in the evening or night time, evoking the urge to move. Despite its wide prevalence (around 5−10% in the population and essential influence on the quality of life, not all the physicians, specialists of the primary care and even neurologists are common with this disorder. Because of that RLS stays commonly unrecognized.

  10. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H;

    2002-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...

  11. Empirical evaluation of the accuracy of diagnostic criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Heike; von Eye, Alexander; Kohnen, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    In accordance with the diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Study Group, the diagnosis of RLS is exclusively based on subjective information. Patients must report an urge to move the legs (and arms) with or without unpleasant sensations which is engendered by rest, relieved by movement, and worse in the evening or at night than during the day (essential criteria). Objective information such as excessive periodic leg movements, positive response to dopaminergic medication, family history of RLS or findings of a neurological examination cannot substitute any of the essential criteria but are considered both supportive for the RLS diagnosis and important for decisions on differential diagnoses. In this article, we report a systematic empirical analysis of the accuracy of diagnostic decisions based on all diagnostic criteria being either "essential" or "non-essential." We re-analyzed data from a validation study for the RLS Diagnostic Index, in which ten items related to diagnostic criteria were compared with an expert diagnosis of RLS (n = 86) and other sleep-related diagnoses (n = 93). The value of individual diagnostic criteria and features of RLS predictive of the expert diagnoses were analyzed with logistic regression models by increasing the set of diagnostic criteria stepwise based on delta-chi(2) tests. The essential diagnostic criteria share a large amount of variance in the prediction of the expert diagnosis. Three of the four essential criteria (urge to move the legs, which is engendered by rest and worse in the evening) almost completely determine the expert diagnosis. However, adding response to dopaminergic medication to the set of the essential criteria increased the effect size in the logistic regression model from 69.4% to 88.4%, indicating a relevant improvement of the accuracy in supporting or excluding the diagnosis of RLS. On the basis of our exploratory empirical analysis we conclude that the accuracy of diagnostic

  12. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  13. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  14. Certain Jobs Linked to Raised Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain Jobs Linked to Raised Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk was doubled among men who did electrical ... 2017 THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Rheumatoid arthritis, a painful disease in which a person's immune ...

  15. Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160651.html Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids: Study Infants ... Topics Asthma in Children Genetic Testing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  16. Raising Social Competencies in a Skill Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenski, Charlotte M.; Kaufman, Alan G.

    1976-01-01

    Horizon House, a psycho-social rehabilitation center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has developed a Clerical Preparatory Program which has simultaneously raised achievement levels in the areas of social competency and job skill proficiencies for its clients. (LH)

  17. Raising capital: the role of sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article describes what sovereign wealth funds do, where their funding comes from, and what drives their investment strategies. It also highlights some of the policy issues that their activities raise.

  18. Review Raises Questions about Herbal Meds for Heart Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163808.html Review Raises Questions About Herbal Meds for Heart Problems ... popular among people with heart disease, a new review suggests. "Physicians should improve their knowledge of herbal ...

  19. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to engage in the raising of livestock as a prerequisite for the exemption of an employee employed in the operations described in section 13(b) (13). Engagement by the farmer in one or more of the other...

  20. Heartburn Drugs May Raise Risk of Stomach Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan. 5 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , aren't the first to raise such concerns. ... led by Dr. Thomas MacDonald, a professor of pharmacology at the University of Dundee in Scotland. They ...

  1. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  2. Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164428.html Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of ... researchers said. "This means more severe grades of obesity correspond to increasingly higher risk," said study co- ...

  3. Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166931.html Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk: Study New research debunks other studies suggesting ... drugs may increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in people aged 75 and older. PPIs ...

  4. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163536.html Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Study ... Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type ...

  5. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  6. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  7. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  8. A biological mechanism for Bayesian feature selection: Weight decay and raising the LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Patrick; Hollensen, Paul; Krigolson, Olav; Trappenberg, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Biological systems are capable of learning that certain stimuli are valuable while ignoring the many that are not, and thus perform feature selection. In machine learning, one effective feature selection approach is the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) form of regularization, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplacian prior distribution on the parameters. We review how such Bayesian priors can be implemented in gradient descent as a form of weight decay, which is a biologically plausible mechanism for Bayesian feature selection. In particular, we describe a new prior that offsets or "raises" the Laplacian prior distribution. We evaluate this alongside the Gaussian and Cauchy priors in gradient descent using a generic regression task where there are few relevant and many irrelevant features. We find that raising the Laplacian leads to less prediction error because it is a better model of the underlying distribution. We also consider two biologically relevant online learning tasks, one synthetic and one modeled after the perceptual expertise task of Krigolson et al. (2009). Here, raising the Laplacian prior avoids the fast erosion of relevant parameters over the period following training because it only allows small weights to decay. This better matches the limited loss of association seen between days in the human data of the perceptual expertise task. Raising the Laplacian prior thus results in a biologically plausible form of Bayesian feature selection that is effective in biologically relevant contexts.

  9. The hyperaemic response to passive leg movement is dependent on nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Askew, Christopher D; Walker, Meegan;

    2012-01-01

    interstitial space. Inhibition of NO synthesis lowered the vasodilatory response to passive leg movement by ~90%. The increase in leg blood flow was lower in elderly subjects compared to young subjects and leg blood flow did not increase when passive leg movement was performed by elderly with peripheral artery...... disease. The results suggest that the hyperaemia induced by passive leg movement is NO dependent. The hyperaemic response to passive leg movement and to ACh was also assessed in elderly subjects and patients with peripheral artery disease....

  10. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning;

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron...... in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared...... to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between...

  11. Patients with low back pain differ from those who also have leg pain or signs of nerve root involvement – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongsted Alice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leg pain associated with low back pain (LBP is recognized as a risk factor for a poor prognosis, and is included as a component in most LBP classification systems. The location of leg pain relative to the knee and the presence of a positive straight leg raise test have been suggested to have clinical implications. To understand differences between such leg pain subgroups, and whether differences include potentially modifiable characteristics, the purpose of this paper was to describe characteristics of patients classified into the Quebec Task Force (QTF subgroups of: 1 LBP only, 2 LBP and pain above the knee, 3 LBP and pain below the knee, and 4 LBP and signs of nerve root involvement. Methods Analysis of routine clinical data from an outpatient department. Based on patient reported data and clinical findings, patients were allocated to the QTF subgroups and described according to the domains of pain, activity limitation, work participation, psychology, general health and clinical examination findings. Results A total of 2,673 patients aged 18–95 years (median 47 who were referred for assessment of LBP were included. Increasing severity was consistently observed across the subgroups from LBP only to LBP with signs of nerve root involvement although subgroup differences were small. LBP patients with leg pain differed from those with LBP only on a wide variety of parameters, and patients with signs of nerve root involvement had a more severe profile on almost all measures compared with other patients with back-related leg pain. Conclusion LBP patients with pain referral to the legs were more severely affected than those with local LBP, and patients with signs of nerve root involvement were the ones most severily affected. These findings underpin the concurrent validity of the Quebec Task Force Classification. However, the small size of many between-subgroup differences amid the large variability in this sample of cross

  12. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  13. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.

  14. Recurrent varicose veins of the legs. Analysis of a social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardia, G; Catalano, G; Rosafio, I; Granatiero, M; De Fazio, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the experience of a single referral center with recurrent varicose veins of the legs (RVL) over the period 1993-2008. Among a total of 846 procedures for Leg Varices (LV), 74 procedures were for RVL (8.7%). The causes of recurrence were classified as classic: insufficient crossectomy (13); incompetent perforating veins (13); reticular phlebectasia (22); small saphenous vein insufficiency (9); accessory saphenous veins (4); and particular: post-hemodynamic treatment (5); incomplete stripping (1); Sapheno-Femoral Junction (SFJ) vascularization (5); post-thermal ablation (2). For the "classic" RVL the treatment consisted essentially of completing the previous treatment, both if the problem was linked to an insufficient earlier treatment and if it was due to a later onset. The most common cause in our series was reticular phlebectasia; when the simple sclerosing injections are not sufficient, this was treated by phlebectomy according to Mueller. The "particular" cases classified as 1, 2 and 4 were also treated by completing the traditional stripping procedure (+ crossectomy if this had not been done previously), considered to be the gold standard. In the presence of a SFJ neo-vascularization, with or without cavernoma, approximately 5 cm of femoral vein were explored, the afferent vessels ligated and, if cavernoma was present, it was removed. Although inguinal neo-angiogenesis is a possible mechanism, some doubt can be raised as to its importance as a primary factor in causing recurrent varicose veins, rather than their being due to a preexisting vein left in situ because it was ignored, regarded as insignificant, or poorly evident. In conclusion, we stress that LV is a progressive disease, so the treatment is unlikely to be confined to a single procedure. It is important to plan adequate monitoring during follow-up, and to be ready to reoperate when new problems present that, if left, could lead the patient to doubt the

  15. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Tibor Istvan; Grabowska, Martyna; Schmidt, Joachim; Büschges, Ansgar; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  16. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  17. Hydraulic leg extension is not necessarily the main drive in large spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihmann, Tom; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2012-02-15

    Unlike most other arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in major leg joints. Therefore, hydraulic pressure generated in the prosoma provides leg extension. For decades, this mechanism was held responsible for the generation of the majority of the ground reaction forces, particularly in the hind legs. During propulsion, the front leg pairs must shorten whereas the hind legs have to be extended. Assuming that hind legs are essentially driven by hydraulics, their force vectors must pass the leg joints ventrally. However, at least in accelerated escape manoeuvres, we show here for the large cursorial spider species Ancylometes concolor that these force vectors, when projected into the leg plane, pass all leg joints dorsally. This indicates a reduced impact of the hydraulic mechanism on the generation of ground reaction forces. Although hydraulic leg extension still modulates their direction, the observed steep force vectors at the hind legs indicate a strong activity of flexors in the proximal joint complex that push the legs against the substrate. Consequently, the muscular mechanisms are dominant at least in the hind legs of large spiders.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are

  19. Presenting Symptoms in Pediatric Restless Legs Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Al; Arico, Irene; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis restless legs syndrome (RLS) in children depends on the history told by the child and his parents. The description of symptoms given by the child him or herself is most important. Additional criteria are, among others, the results of polysomnography (PSG). Description of the

  20. Vascular leg ulcers: histopathologic study of 293 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misciali, Cosimo; Dika, Emi; Baraldi, Carlotta; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Mirelli, Michele; Stella, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations.

  1. Modelling of LEG tilting pad journal bearings with active lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; García, Asier Bengoechea; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This work constitutes the first step in a research effort aimed at studying the feasibility of introducing an active lubrication concept in tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs) that feature the leading edge groove (LEG) lubrication system. The modification of the oil flow into each pad supply gro...

  2. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are n

  4. Restless legs syndrome in migraine patients : prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, W P J; van Someren, E J W; Louter, M A; Schoonman, G G; Lammers, G J; Rijsman, R M; Ferrari, M D; Terwindt, G M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to study not only the prevalence but more importantly the severity and the correlation between sleep quality and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a large population of well-defined migraine patients as poor sleep presumably triggers migraine attacks. METHODS: In a

  5. Saddle and leg forces during lateral movements in dressage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.; Mooren, M.; Dortmans, A.; Weeren, van P.R.; Timmermans, M.; Muller, M.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: In the equestrian world it is assumed that riders use changes in weight distribution and leg forces as important instruments to give horses directions about speed and direction of movement. However, the changes of these forces have never been quantified. Objectives: To

  6. Test of Gravel to South Leg - Siri Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    A grout connection between one of the legs of the offshore platform, Siri, and a water caisson at the seabed is failed. The failure leaves a gap in the grout connection meaning that the stiffness of the connection is disappeared resulting in movements of the platform. These movements cause cracks...

  7. Presenting Symptoms in Pediatric Restless Legs Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Al; Arico, Irene; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis restless legs syndrome (RLS) in children depends on the history told by the child and his parents. The description of symptoms given by the child him or herself is most important. Additional criteria are, among others, the results of polysomnography (PSG). Description of the

  8. Muscle hernias of the lower leg: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M. [Radiology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Cinta, Tortosa, Tarragona (Spain)]|[IDI - Centre Tarragona, Ressonancia Magnetica, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Perez del Palomar, L. [Radiology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Cinta, Tortosa, Tarragona (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    Muscle hernias of the lower leg involving the tibialis anterior, peroneus brevis, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius were found in three different patients. MRI findings allowed recognition of herniated muscle in all cases and identification of fascial defect in two of them. MR imaging findings and the value of dynamic MR imaging is emphasized. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  9. Perforated diverticulitis presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition of increasing age. Complications of diverticulitis including stricture, perforation and fistula formation often require surgery. Perforated diverticulitis may rarely present with spreading superficial sepsis. We describe for the first time, to our knowledge, a case of retroperitoneal diverticula perforation presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the leg necessitating hind-quarter amputation.

  10. Restless legs syndrome in migraine patients : prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, W P J; van Someren, E J W; Louter, M A; Schoonman, G G; Lammers, G J; Rijsman, R M; Ferrari, M D; Terwindt, G M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our aim was to study not only the prevalence but more importantly the severity and the correlation between sleep quality and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a large population of well-defined migraine patients as poor sleep presumably triggers migraine attacks. METHODS: In a

  11. Regulation of arm and leg movement during human locomotion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehr, E.P.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Walking can be a very automated process, and it is likely that central pattern generators (CPGs) play a role in the coordination of the limbs. Recent evidence suggests that both the arms and legs are regulated by CPGs and that sensory feedback also regulates the CPG activity and assists in mediating

  12. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are n

  13. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, N.; Eser, P.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Galea, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  14. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  15. Fabrication of Biomimetic Water Strider Legs Covered with Setae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Zhou; Zhi-wen Liu

    2009-01-01

    Water striders have remarkable water-repellent legs that enable them to stand effortlessly and move quickly on water. Fluid physics indicates this feature is due to a surface-tension effect caused by the special hierarchical structure of the legs, which are covered with a large number of inclined setae with fine nanogrooves inducing water resistance. This inspires us to fabricate special water-repellent structure on functional surfaces through the cooperation between the surface treatment and the surface micro- and nanostructures, which may bring great advantages in a wide variety of applications. In this paper we present a procedure for fabricating biomimetic water strider legs covered with setae using Polycarbonate Track-Etched (PCTE) membranes as templates. By choosing appropriate membrane lengths, diameters, pitches and densities of the setae, the biomimetic legs can be fabricated conveniently and at a low cost. Furthermore we investigated the relationship between stiffness of the molding materials, high aspect ratio and density, which affect the fidelity of fabrication and self adhesion, to optimize the stability of setae. The knowledge we gained from this study will offer important insights into the biomimetic design and fabrication of water strider setae.

  16. Peripheral hypoxia in restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aaro V; Rimpilä, Ville; Polo, Olli

    2014-05-27

    A case-control study to measure oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in the legs in order to assess the involvement of peripheral hypoxia or hypercapnia in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS severity was assessed with a standard questionnaire. Suggested immobilization tests were performed twice in 15 patients with RLS and 14 healthy controls. Patients with RLS participated in the tests with and without pramipexole medication. During the tests, peripheral oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were measured noninvasively on the skin of the legs and the chest. During immobilization, the patients with RLS had lower partial pressure of oxygen in their legs (5.54 vs 7.19 kPa, p < 0.01) but not on the chest (8.75 vs 8.20 kPa, p = 0.355). More severe RLS correlated with high chest-to-foot oxygen gradient (ρ = 0.692, p < 0.01). Carbon dioxide levels did not differ between the groups. Pramipexole corrected the peripheral hypoxia toward the levels observed in the controls (from 5.54 to 6.65 kPa, p < 0.05). Peripheral hypoxia is associated with the appearance of RLS symptoms. Strong correlation with RLS severity suggests a close pathophysiologic link between peripheral hypoxia and the symptoms of RLS. This is further supported by the simultaneous reversal of hypoxia and discomfort by dopaminergic treatment. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Dopaminergic Therapy for Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Rochelle S; Walters, Arthur S

    2015-09-01

    Dopaminergic therapies have been a mainstay of restless legs treatment and are endorsed as first-line therapies by multiple professional societies. This article summarizes the differences and similarities among the dopamine agonists with attention to pharmacology, efficacy, side effects, and dosing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The phantom of the night: restless legs syndrome in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Bradshaw, John L

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain conditions often "mimic" the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with worse pain in the evening and upon rest, associated with an urge to move and relief upon movement. We propose that too little has been made of these parallels, with pain conditions resembling RLS being dismissed as mimics. We found, in a large questionnaire study (n=283) on phantom limb perception, a pattern of phantom pain that resembled RLS: amputees with nocturnal phantom pain were more likely to report worse pain upon rest and/or lying down, with an urge to move the phantom and/or walk to relieve their pain, and to experience spontaneous limb movements akin to periodic leg movements of RLS. We present the hypothesis that a model of restless legs syndrome may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying phantom pain, and lead to new mechanism-based phantom pain treatment. In particular, central changes associated with sensory and motor symptoms of RLS, neuropathy, and dopamine may also be involved in those predisposed to experience phantom pain that mimics the symptoms of RLS. Ultimately, restless legs syndrome may indeed be a pain syndrome, and warrants further investigation in chronic pain populations. .

  19. Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer E; Tolson, Jerry M

    2008-08-01

    To review the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its relevance to nurse practitioners (NPs). Comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the diagnosis and treatment of RLS in adults. RLS is a chronic neurological disorder that, with varying degrees of severity, affects 5%-10% of the general population. Because of the circadian pattern of onset, the symptoms of RLS may be associated with significant sleep disturbance and may have a negative impact on quality of life. RLS is characterized by a compelling urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. Symptoms begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity and are worse in the evening or at night. Other features supportive of a diagnosis include a family history, the presence of periodic leg movements in sleep, and the relief of symptoms after treatment with a dopaminergic therapy. Although the etiology of RLS is unknown, it is thought that symptoms result from a central dopaminergic dysfunction and dopamine agonists are considered first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe primary RLS. Nondopaminergic therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions may also be appropriate in the management of less severe cases of RLS. NPs are often the first healthcare providers to see patients with RLS and therefore need to be able to accurately recognize and diagnose the disorder; this, in turn, will enable them to successfully manage the treatment of RLS.

  20. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.