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Sample records for leg length inequalities

  1. A radiographic method for measurement of leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, O; Koivisto, E; Wegelius, C

    1985-01-01

    An accurate and simple radiographic method for the measurement of weight-bearing leg length inequality with a minimum of radiated body area is described. The measurement can be made in a conventional chest X-ray unit without other extra equipment than a gonad shield described here.

  2. Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part I, anatomic leg-length inequality: prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson Gary A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leg-length inequality is most often divided into two groups: anatomic and functional. Part I of this review analyses data collected on anatomic leg-length inequality relative to prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance. Part II examines the functional "short leg" including anatomic-functional relationships, and provides an outline for clinical decision-making. Methods Online database – Medline, CINAHL and MANTIS – and library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality". Results and Discussion Using data on leg-length inequality obtained by accurate and reliable x-ray methods, the prevalence of anatomic inequality was found to be 90%, the mean magnitude of anatomic inequality was 5.2 mm (SD 4.1. The evidence suggests that, for most people, anatomic leg-length inequality does not appear to be clinically significant until the magnitude reaches ~ 20 mm (~3/4". Conclusion Anatomic leg-length inequality is near universal, but the average magnitude is small and not likely to be clinically significant.

  3. Reasonable designing method for fillet welding leg length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiso, T; Michiyuki, T; Nagao, S; Yoshikawa, M; Miyazaki, S

    1976-12-01

    In VLCC and ULCC vessels, the scantling of structural members, especially the thickness of web plate, increases naturally. The present rule of each classification society generally prescribes that welding leg length should be based on the thickness of the web plate. Welding leg length between this web plate and skin plate such as shell plate, deck plate, etc., or face plate, increases according to increase of the thickness of the web plate. We investigated the method to decide reasonable welding leg length and its programming by using the results of finite element method structural analysis, without adhering to the above rule about welding leg length. As a result of applying this method to actual ships under classification societies' approval, the amount of welding decreased by from about 10 percent to 15 percent compared with that required by the above rule. The rationality of the method has been already confirmed by successful results of the application to several vessels in service.

  4. Measuring Clearance Mechanics Based on Dynamic Leg Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Danino, Barry; Hayek, Shlomo; Carmeli, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify clearance mechanics during gait. Seventeen children diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis evaluation. Dynamic leg lengths were measured from the hip joint center to the heel, to the ankle joint center and to the forefoot throughout the gait cycle. Significant…

  5. Distance Between the Malleoli and the GroundA New Clinical Method to Measure Leg-Length Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Estela Gomez; Domínguez, Águeda Gómez; Peña-Algaba, Carolina; Castillo-López, José M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to introduce a useful method for the clinical diagnosis of leg-length inequality: distance between the malleoli and the ground (DMG). A transversal observational study was performed on 17 patients with leg-length discrepancy. Leg-length inequality was determined with different clinical methods: with a tape measure in a supine position from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the internal and external malleoli, as the difference between the iliac crests when standing (pelvimeter), and as asymmetry between ASISs (PALpation Meter [PALM]; A&D Medical Products Healthcare, San Jose, California). The Foot Posture Index (FPI) and the navicular drop test were also used. The DMG with Perthes rule (perpendicular to the foot when standing), the distance between the internal malleolus and the ground (DIMG), and the distance between the external malleolus and the ground were designed by the authors. The DIMG is directly related to the traditional ASIS-external malleolus measurement (P = .003), the FPI (P = .010), and the navicular drop test (P DMG) is useful for diagnosing leg-length discrepancy and is related to the ASIS-external malleolus measurement. The DIMG is significantly inversely proportional to the degree of pronation according to the FPI. Conversely, determination of leg-length discrepancy with a tape measure from the ASIS to the malleoli cannot be performed interchangeably at the level of the internal or external malleolus.

  6. Does structural leg-length discrepancy affect postural control? Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliks, Małgorzata; Ostiak-Tomaszewska, Wioleta; Lisiński, Przemysław; Koczewski, Paweł

    2017-08-09

    Leg-length inequality results in an altered position of the spine and pelvis. Previous studies on the influence of leg asymmetry on postural control have been inconclusive. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of structural leg-length discrepancy (LLD) on the control of posture. We studied 38 individuals (19 patients with structural LLD, 19 healthy subjects). The examination included measurement of the length of the lower limbs and weight distribution as well as a static posturography. All statistical analyses were performed with Statistica software version 10.0. Non-parametrical Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post test and Spearman test were used. Differences between the groups and correlation between mean COP sway velocity and the value of LLD as well as the value of LLD and weight distribution were assumed as statistically significant at p  0.05). Meaningful differences in mean COP velocity in mediolateral direction between tandem stance with eyes open and closed were detected in both groups (in controls p = 0.000134, in patients both with the shorter leg in a front and rear position, p = 0.029, p = 0.026 respectively). There was a positive moderate correlation between the value of LLD and the value of mean COP velocity in normal standing in mediolateral direction with eyes open (r = 0.47) and closed (r = 0.54) and in anterioposterior plane with eyes closed (r = 0.05). The fact that there were no significant differences in posturography between the groups might indicate compensations to the altered posture and neuromuscular adaptations in patients with structural leg-length inequality. LLD causes an increased asymmetry of weight distribution. This study confirmed a fundamental role of the sight in postural control, especially in unstable conditions. The analysis of mean COP sway velocity may suggest a proportional deterioration of postural control with the increase of the value of leg-length asymmetry. Trial registry: Clinical

  7. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-07-11

    Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011. We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table system developed by the World Health Organization to model mortality rates, life expectancy, and length of life for Ethiopian population groups stratified by wealth quintiles, gender and residence. We then estimated and compared within-group and between-group inequality in length of life using the Gini index and absolute length of life inequality. Length of life inequality has decreased and life expectancy has increased for all population groups between 2000 and 2011. Length of life inequality within wealth quintiles is about three times larger than the between-group inequality of 9 years. Total length of life inequality in Ethiopia was 27.6 years in 2011. Longevity has increased and the distribution of health in Ethiopia is more equal in 2011 than 2000, with length of life inequality reduced for all population groups. Still there is considerable potential for further improvement. In the Ethiopian context with a poor and highly rural population, inequality in length of life within wealth quintiles is considerably larger than between them. This suggests that other factors than wealth substantially contribute to total health inequality in Ethiopia and that identification and quantification of these factors will be important for identifying proper measures to further reduce length of life inequality.

  8. OSTEOPATHIC APPROACH: LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY AND LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg length discrepancy (LLD is a biomechanical impediment, which is a potential factor in affecting musculoskeletal disorders in the rest of life, such as scoliosis, osteoarthritis and muscle tightness, or even tenderness in lumbar and pelvic area. Athletes who have developed LLD have symptoms in gait, running, standing posture. Skeletal regions related to the disorder are the lumbar spine, ilium, hip joint, greater trochanter and knee, or even ankle and plantar region. Muscles involved in these areas are numeous. In osteopathic management, the manual practitioner can use a lot of basic techniques to handle these dysfunctions. To cope with musculoskeletal problems, osteopathic manipulation techniques would be an ideal modality to alleviate the LLD syndrome. An overview of the mentioned topics of concern will be discussed in the review.

  9. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. PMID:20617018

  10. Children with lower limb length inequality: The measurement of inequality, the timing of physiodesis and gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.I.H. Lampe

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe symmetry of the human locomotion apparatus makes inequality of the limbs an aberrant finding for both patient and doctor. 4-15% of the healthy, adult population, has a limb length inequality (LLI) of one cm or more. A minor discrepancy of less than one cm is therefore common and many

  11. Problems with Excessive Residual Lower Leg Length in Pediatric Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osebold, William R; Lester, Edward L; Christenson, Donald M

    2001-01-01

    We studied six pediatric amputees with long below-knee residual limbs, in order to delineate their functional and prosthetic situations, specifically in relation to problems with fitting for dynamic-response prosthetic feet. Three patients had congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia secondary to neurofibromatosis, one had fibular hemimelia, one had a traumatic amputation, and one had amputation secondary to burns. Five patients had Syme's amputations, one had a Boyd amputation. Ages at amputation ranged from nine months to five years (average age 3 years 1 month). After amputation, the long residual below-knee limbs allowed fitting with only the lowest-profile prostheses, such as deflection plates. In three patients, the femoral dome to tibial plafond length was greater on the amputated side than on the normal side. To allow room for more dynamic-response (and larger) foot prostheses, two patients have undergone proximal and distal tibial-fibular epiphyseodeses (one at age 5 years 10 months, the other at 3 years 7 months) and one had a proximal tibial-fibular epiphyseodesis at age 7 years 10 months. (All three patients are still skeletally immature.) The families of two other patients are considering epiphyseodeses, and one patient is not a candidate (skeletally mature). Scanogram data indicate that at skeletal maturity the epiphyseodesed patients will have adequate length distal to their residual limbs to fit larger and more dynamic-response prosthetic feet. PMID:11813953

  12. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  14. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo R; Hjarbæk, John; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels W; Gerke, Oke; Torfing, Trine

    2017-09-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.05), respectively; 0.10 cm (95% CI, 0.02-0.17) and 0.06 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.14) for the femoral measurements and 0.12 cm (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26) and 0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.19) for total leg length discrepancy. ICCs were >0.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion The data strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images.

  15. Application of force-length curve for determination of leg stiffness during a vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the methodology for estimation of a leg stiffness during a countermovement jump. The question was asked whether leg stiffness in the countermovement and take-off phases are similar to each other as demonstrated in previous reports. It was also examined whether the stiffness in left lower limb is similar to the one in right lower limb. The research was conducted on 35 basketball players. Each participant performed three countermovement jumps with arm swing to the maximum height. Measurements employed a Kistlerforce plate and a BTS SMART system for motion analysis. Leg stiffness (understood as an inclination of the curve of ground reaction forces vs. length) was computed for these parts of countermovement and take-off phases where its value was relatively constant and F(Δl) relationship was similar to linear. Mean value (±SD) of total stiffness of both lower limbs in the countermovement phase was 7.1 ± 2.3 kN/m, whereas this value in the take-off phase was 7.5 ± 1 kN/m. No statistically significant differences were found between the leg stiffness in the countermovement and the take-off phases. No statistically significant differences were found during the comparison of the stiffness in the right and left lower limb. The calculation methodology allows us to estimate the value of leg stiffness based on the actual shape of F(Δl) curve rather than on extreme values of ΔF and Δl. Despite different tasks of the countermovement and the take-off phases, leg stiffness in these phases is very similar. Leg stiffness during a single vertical jump maintains a relatively constant value in the parts with a small value of acceleration.

  16. Mass and scattering length inequalities in QCD and QCD-like theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, S.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia; Sathiapalan, B.

    1985-01-01

    Some observations about mass scattering length inequalities in QCD-like theories are presented. It is shown that the Weingarten mass inequality can be used to argue that global vector symmetries are unbroken in such theories. For QCD, in the limit Nsub(c)->infinite, it is shown that Msub(baryon)>=1/2Nsub(c)Msub(meson), provided there are at least Nsub(c) degenerate flavors of quarks. It is argued that when there are not bound states in a scattering channel, the mass inequalities can be used to derive inequalities beteen scattering lengths. Some rigorous inequalities for two and higher point functions for operators bilinear in currents are derived, and used to extract inequalities between quartic coupling constants. (orig.)

  17. The efficacy of a modified general hip technique in the treatment of leg length discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Dip.Tech. Functional leg length discrepancies, as distinct from anatomical discrepancies, are often associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This may result in back pain and discomfort. Chiropractors usually treat this condition using a side posture sacroiliac adjustment, but in some cases, an adjustment may not be indicated. This study aims to determine whether a Modified General Hip technique would be an acceptable alternative treatment. For this study, 30 patients who suffered fr...

  18. On Graceful Spider Graphs with at Most Four Legs of Lengths Greater than One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graceful labeling of a tree T with n edges is a bijection f:V(T→{0,1,2,…,n} such that {|f(u-f(v|:uv∈E(T} equal to {1,2,…,n}. A spider graph is a tree with at most one vertex of degree greater than 2. We show that all spider graphs with at most four legs of lengths greater than one admit graceful labeling.

  19. Insect-computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed an insect-computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g., gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e., applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo Redder; Hjarbæk, John

    2017-01-01

    To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10......-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested...... with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0...

  1. Assessing Leg length Discrepancy Using a Biplane Low Dose Imaging System. A Comparative Diagnostic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo Redder; Torfing, Trine

    study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of leg length (LL) measurements performed on low dose pre-view images acquired using a new bi-planar imaging system. The administered radiation dose from the pre-view image is approximately 20,17μGycm2 vs. 2670μGycm2 when acquiring the diagnostic image.......84) for the tibial measurements and the mean difference for total LLD was 0.01cm (p=0.92) and 0.03cm (p=0.73). All ICC calculations were >.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion. The results strongly imply that LL measurements performed on pre-view images acquired with a new bi...

  2. Selection on male size, leg length and condition during mate search in a sexually highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foellmer, Matthias W; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2005-02-01

    Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The "gravity hypothesis" states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males have to climb to reach females, because body length is inversely proportional to achievable speed on vertical structures. However, locomotive performance of males may also depend on relative leg length. Here we examine selection on male body size and leg length during mate search in the highly dimorphic orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia, using a multivariate approach to distinguish selection targeted at different components of size. Further, we investigate the scaling relationships between male size and energy reserves, and the differential loss of reserves. Adult males do not feed while roving, and a size-dependent differential energy storage capacity may thus affect male performance during mate search. Contrary to predictions, large body size was favoured in one of two populations, and this was due to selection for longer legs. Male size was not under selection in the second population, but we detected direct selection for longer third legs. Males lost energy reserves during mate search, but this was independent of male size and storage capacity scaled isometrically with size. Thus, mate search is unlikely to lead to selection for small male size, but the hypothesis that relatively longer legs in male spiders reflect a search-adapted morphology is supported.

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN MILD LEG-LENGTH INEQUALITY AND ABLE-BODIED GAIT ASYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Seeley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of able-bodied gait asymmetries are unclear. Mild ( 1 cm; n = 7. Statistically significant relationships were observed between LLI and the symmetry coefficient for knee joint moment (r = -0.48 and power (r = -0.51, and ankle joint moment (r = -0.41 and power (r = -0.42. Similarly, subjects with relatively large LLI exhibited significantly lower symmetry coefficients for knee joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.35, and ankle joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.22 than subjects with relatively small LLI. Degree of bilateral symmetry for knee and ankle joint kinetics appears to be related to LLI in able- bodied gait. This finding supports the idea that LLI is one cause of able-bodied gait asymmetries. Other factors, however, are also likely to contribute to these gait asymmetries; these may include other morphological asymmetries as well as asymmetrical neuromuscular input to the lower limb muscles

  4. Inequalities for trace anomalies, length of the RG flow, distance between the fixed points and irreversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2004-01-01

    I discuss several issues about the irreversibility of the RG flow and the trace anomalies c, a and a'. First I argue that in quantum field theory: (i) the scheme-invariant area Δ a' of the graph of the effective beta function between the fixed points defines the length of the RG flow; (ii) the minimum of Δ a' in the space of flows connecting the same UV and IR fixed points defines the (oriented) distance between the fixed points and (iii) in even dimensions, the distance between the fixed points is equal to Δ a = a UV - a IR . In even dimensions, these statements imply the inequalities 0 ≤ Δ a ≤ Δ a' and therefore the irreversibility of the RG flow. Another consequence is the inequality a ≤ c for free scalars and fermions (but not vectors), which can be checked explicitly. Secondly, I elaborate a more general axiomatic set-up where irreversibility is defined as the statement that there exist no pairs of non-trivial flows connecting interchanged UV and IR fixed points. The axioms, based on the notions of length of the flow, oriented distance between the fixed points and certain 'oriented-triangle inequalities', imply the irreversibility of the RG flow without a global a function. I conjecture that the RG flow is also irreversible in odd dimensions (without a global a function). In support of this, I check the axioms of irreversibility in a class of d = 3 theories where the RG flow is integrable at each order of the large N expansion

  5. Functional leg length discrepancy between theories and reliable instrumental assessment: a study about newly invented NPoS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Asmaa; Abundo, Paolo; Basile, Luisanna; Albensi, Caterina; Marasco, Morena; Bellizzi, Letizia; Galasso, Franco; Foti, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In spite the instinct social&financial impact of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD), controversial and conflicting results still exist regarding a reliable assessment/correction method. For proper management it's essential to discriminate between anatomical&functional Leg Length Discrepancy (FLLD). With the newly invented NPoS (New Postural Solution), under the umbrella of the collaboration of PRM Department, Tor Vergata University with Baro Postural Instruments srl, positive results were observed in both measuring& compensating the hemi-pelvic antero-medial rotation in FLLD through personalized bilateral heel raise using two NPoS components: Foot Image System (FIS) and Postural Optimizer System (POS). This led our research interest to test the validity of NPoS as a preliminary step before evaluating its implementations in postural disorders. After clinical evaluation, 4 subjects with FLLD have been assessed by NPoS. Over a period of 2 months, every subject was evaluated 12 times by two different operators, 48 measurements in total, results have been verified in correlation to BTS GaitLab results. Intra-Operator&inter-operator variability analysis showed statistically insignificant differences, while inter-method variability between NPoS and BTS parameters expressed a linear correlation. Results suggest a significant validity of NPoS in assessment&correction of FLLD, with high degree of reproducibility with minimal operator dependency. This can be considered a base for promising clinical implications of NPoS as a reliable cost effective postural assessment/corrective tool. V.

  6. Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Many low‐ and middle‐income countries are achieving good rates of economic growth, while high inequality remains a priority concern. Some countries meanwhile have low growth, high inequality, and pervasive poverty—often linked to their fragility. There is now active debate on how countries should...... set themselves goals for achieving both absolute poverty reduction and lower inequality. But policy action needs to be better served by analysis and data....

  7. Leg length, skull circumference, and the prevalence of dementia in low and middle income countries: a 10/66 population-based cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Acosta, Isaac; Albanese, Emiliano; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Stewart, Robert; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, A T; Kumar, P Senthil; Li, Shuran; Guerra, Juan C Llibre; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina

    2011-03-01

    Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. There is a limited literature linking short legs and small skulls to an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. One phase cross-sectional surveys were carried out of all residents aged over 65 years in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru (n = 14,960). The cross-culturally validated 10/66 dementia diagnosis, and a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for the effect of leg length and skull circumference upon 10/66 dementia, controlling for age, gender, education and family history of dementia. The pooled meta-analyzed fixed effect for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and for skull circumference 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89). While point estimates varied between sites, the proportion of the variability attributable to heterogeneity between studies as opposed to sampling error (I2) was 0% for leg length and 22% for skull circumference. The effects were independent and not mediated by family history of dementia. The effect of skull circumference was not modified by educational level or gender, and the effect of leg length was not modified by gender. Since leg length and skull circumference are said to remain stable throughout adulthood into old age, reverse causality is an unlikely explanation for the findings. Early life nutritional programming, as well as neurodevelopment may protect against neurodegeneration.

  8. Leg length, skull circumference, and the prevalence of dementia in low and middle income countries; a 10/66 population-based cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D.; Acosta, Isaac; Albanese, Emiliano; Dewey, Michael E.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Stewart, Robert; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, AT.; Senthil Kumar, P; Li, Shuran; Llibre Guerra, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina

    2017-01-01

    Background Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. There is a limited literature linking short legs and small skulls to an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. Methods One phase cross-sectional surveys of all over 65 year old residents (n=14,960) in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru. The cross-culturally validated 10/66 dementia diagnosis, and a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for the effect of leg length and skull circumference upon 10/66 Dementia, controlling for age, gender, education and family history of dementia. Results The pooled meta-analysed fixed effect for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and for skull circumference 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89). While point estimates varied between sites, the proportion of the variability attributable to heterogeneity between studies as opposed to sampling error (I2) was 0% for leg length and 22% for skull circumference. The effects were independent and not mediated by family history of dementia. The effect of skull circumference was not modified by educational level or gender, and the effect of leg length was not modified by gender. Conclusions Since leg length and skull circumference are said to remain stable throughout adulthood into old age, reverse causality is an unlikely explanation for the findings. Early life nutritional programming, as well as neurodevelopment may protect against neurodegeneration. PMID:20701817

  9. Leg length, skull circumference, and the incidence of dementia in Latin America and China: A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Dewey, Michael E; Guerchet, Maelenn M; Liu, Zhaorui; Llibre Guerra, Jorge J; Prina, A Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. Cross-sectional studies indicate inverse associations with dementia risk, but there have been few prospective studies. Population-based cohort studies in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken, with ascertainment of incident dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. Of the original at risk cohort of 13,587 persons aged 65 years and over, 2,443 (18.0%) were lost to follow-up; 10,540 persons with skull circumference assessments were followed up for 40,466 person years, and 10,400 with leg length assessments were followed up for 39,954 person years. There were 1,009 cases of incident dementia, and 1,605 dementia free deaths. The fixed effect pooled meta-analysed adjusted subhazard ratio (ASHR) for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.97) and for skull circumference was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25), with no heterogeneity of effect between sites (I2 = 0%). Leg length measurements tended to be shorter at follow-up, particularly for those with baseline cognitive impairment and dementia. However, leg length change was not associated with dementia incidence (ASHR, per cm 1.006, 95% CI 0.992-1.020), and the effect of leg length was little altered after adjusting for baseline frailty (ASHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). A priori hypotheses regarding effect modification by gender or educational level were not supported. However, the effect of skull circumference was modified by gender (M vs F ASHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.98), but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized with a greater protective effect of larger skull dimensions in men. Consistent findings across settings provide quite strong support for an

  10. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  11. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  12. Validation of the multiplier method for leg-length predictions on a large European cohort and an assessment of the effect of physiological age on predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, J J; Cheesman, C L; Schade, A T; Monsell, F P

    2017-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective cohort was used to determine the accuracy of the Paley multiplier method for predicting leg length. Using menarche as a proxy, physiological age was then used to increase the accuracy of the multiplier. Chronological age was corrected in female patients over the age of eight years with documented date of first menses. Final sub-ischial leg length and predicted final leg length were predicted for all data points. Good correlation was demonstrated between the Paley and ALSPAC data. The average error in prediction depended on the time of assessment, tending to improve as the child got older. It varied from 2.2 cm at the age of seven years to 1.8 cm at the age of 14 years. When chronological age was corrected, the accuracy of multiplier increased. Age correction of 50% improved multiplier predictions by up to 28%. There appears to have been no significant change in growth trajectories of the two populations who were chronologically separated by 40 years. While the Paley data were based on extracting trends from averaged data, the ALSPAC dataset provides descriptive statistics from which it is possible to compare populations and assess the accuracy of the multiplier method. The data suggest that the accuracy improves as the patient gets close to the average skeletal maturity but that results need to be interpreted in conjunction with a radiological assessment of the growth plates. The magnitude of the errors in prediction suggest that when using the multiplier, the clinician must remain vigilant and prepared to perform a contralateral epiphyseodisis if the prediction proves to be wrong. The data suggest a relationship between the multiplier and menarche. There appears to be a factorisation and when accounting for physiological age, one needs to correct by 50% of the difference between chronological and physiological age.

  13. Minimizing Leg Length Discrepancy After Intramedullary Nailing of Comminuted Femoral Shaft Fractures: A Quality Improvement Initiative Using the Scout Computed Tomography Scanogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheraibeh, Petra; Vaidya, Rahul; Hudson, Ian; Meehan, Robert; Tonnos, Frederick; Sethi, Anil

    2018-05-01

    To prevent leg length discrepancy (LLD) after locked femoral nailing in patients with comminuted femoral shaft fractures. Prospective consecutive case series aimed at quality improvement. Level 1 Trauma Center PATIENTS:: Ninety-eight consecutive patients with a comminuted femoral shaft fracture underwent statically locked intramedullary nailing, with a focused attempt at minimizing LLD during surgery. A computed tomography scanogram of both legs was performed on postoperative day 1 to assess for residual LLD. Patients were offered the option to have LLD >1.5 cm corrected before discharge. LLD >1.5 cm. Twenty-one patients (21.4%) were found to have an LLD >1.5 cm. An LLD >1.5 cm occurred in 10/55 (18%) antegrade nail patients and 11/43 (26%) retrograde nail patients (P = 0.27). No difference was noted based on the mechanism of injury, surgeon training and OTA/AO type B versus C injury. Ninety of 98 patients left with 1.5 cm after locked intramedullary nailing for a comminuted femoral shaft fracture without being informed and the option of early correction. We recommend using a full-length computed tomography scanogram after IM nailing of comminuted femur fractures to prevent iatrogenic LLD. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lumbar spine in elite horseback riders: correlations with back pain, body mass index, trunk/leg-length coefficient, and riding discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Clayton N; Pennekamp, Peter H; Becker, Ute; Young, Mei; Diedrich, Oliver; Lüring, Christian; von Falkenhausen, Makus

    2009-11-01

    Most orthopaedic problems experienced by competitive horseback riders are related to pain in the lower back, hip joint, and hamstring muscles. Riders-especially, show jumpers-are frequently hampered in their performance because of lumbar pain. To date, there has been no research into lumbar disk degeneration in elite competitive riders. Competitive horseback riding accelerates lumbar disk degeneration. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-eight elite riders (18 men, 40 women; mean age, 32.4 years) and a control group of 30 nonriding volunteers (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.7 years) were evaluated for lumbar disk degeneration, cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of disk degeneration between the 2 groups was compared, and the relationship was investigated between low back pain (LBP), riding discipline, body mass index (BMI), trunk/leg-length coefficient, and MRI results. Eighty-eight percent of elite riders (n = 51) had a history of LBP, versus 33% of the controls (P back pain. Although riders have a high prevalence of LBP, there is no conclusive MRI evidence to suggest that the cause lies in undue disk degeneration, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or pathologic changes of the paraspinal muscles of the lumbar spine.

  15. Comparison of injury rates between cadets with limb length inequalities and matched control subjects over 1 year of military training and athletic participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Donald Lee; Moore, Josef H; Slivka, Erin M; Hatler, Brian S

    2006-06-01

    To compare lower-limb overuse injury and low back pain incidence among cadets with and without limb length inequality (LLI) over 1 year of military training and athletic participation. A total of 1,100 cadets were screened for LLIs; 126 of 1,100 were identified to have a LLI of > 0.5 cm and were assigned a matched control cadet. Injury rates, numbers of visits to sick call, and numbers of days spent on medical excusal during a 1-year period were then compared for the 252 cadets. There was no difference in prevalence of injury between the groups and no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the groups in injury rates, visits to sick call, or number of days spent on medical excusal. These findings do not support any increased incidence of injuries in a young, healthy, athletic, military population with mild LLIs, compared with matched control subjects without LLIs, over 1 year.

  16. A tour of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a concise and up-to-date tour to the realm of inequality indices. Originally devised for socioeconomic applications, inequality indices gauge the divergence of wealth distributions in human societies from the socioeconomic 'ground state' of perfect equality, i.e. pure communism. Inequality indices are quantitative scores that take values in the unit interval, with the zero score characterizing perfect equality. In effect, inequality indices are applicable in the context of general distributions of sizes - non-negative quantities such as count, length, area, volume, mass, energy, and duration. For general size distributions, which are omnipresent in science and engineering, inequality indices provide multi-dimensional and infinite-dimensional quantifications of the inherent inequality - i.e., the statistical heterogeneity, the non-determinism, the randomness. This paper compactly describes the insights and the practical implementation of inequality indices.

  17. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood Medicines (such as diuretics and statins) Muscle fatigue or strain from overuse, too much exercise, or holding a muscle in the same position for a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) Hairline ...

  18. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  19. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  20. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  1. Soffer's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.R.; Jaffe, R.L.; Ji, X.

    1995-01-01

    Various issues surrounding a recently proposed inequality among twist-two quark distributions in the nucleon are discussed. We provide a rigorous derivation of the inequality in QCD, including radiative corrections and scale dependence. We also give a more heuristic, but more physical derivation, from which we show that a similar inequality does not exist among twist-three quark distributions. We demonstrate that the inequality does not constrain the nucleon's tensor charge. Finally we explore physical mechanisms for saturating the inequality, arguing it is unlikely to occur in nature

  2. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  3. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  4. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  5. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  6. Desigualdade estrutural discreta de membros inferiores é suficiente para causar alteração cinética na marcha de corredores? Is structural and mild leg length discrepancy enough to cause a kinetic change in runners' gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sonsino Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desigualdade de membros inferiores (DMI está presente em cerca de 70% da população geral, podendo ser do tipo estrutural onde existe diferença no comprimento de estruturas ósseas, ou funcional, como resultado de alterações mecânicas dos membros inferiores. A desigualdade pode ainda ser classificada quanto a sua magnitude, sendo discreta, moderada, ou grave. As desigualdades discretas têm sido associadas especificamente à fratura por estresse, dor lombar e osteoartrite, e quando uma desigualdade está presente em indivíduos cuja sobrecarga mecânica é acentuada pela sua prática profissional, diária ou recreativa, estas alterações ortopédicas podem se manifestar precoce e gravemente. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar e comparar a força reação do solo (FRS durante a marcha de corredores com e sem DMI discreta. Os resultados mostraram que os sujeitos com desigualdades de 0,5 a 2,0 cm apresentaram no membro menor maiores valores da força vertical mínima (0,57 ± 0,07 PC em relação ao membro maior (0,56 ± 0,08 PC. Logo, sujeitos com DMI discreta adotam mecanismos compensatórios capazes de gerar sobrecarga adicional ao sistema musculoesquelético para promover uma marcha simétrica como demonstrado pelos valores do Índice de Simetria Absoluto das variáveis da FRS vertical e horizontal.Leg length discrepancy (LLD affects about 70% of the general population, and can be either structural - when the difference occurs in bone structures - or functional, because of mechanical changes at the lower limbs. The discrepancy can be also classified by its magnitude into mild, intermediate, or severe. Mild LLD has been particularly associated with stress fracture, low back pain and osteoarthritis, and when the discrepancy occurs in subjects whose mechanical loads are increased by their professional, daily or recreational activities, these orthopaedic changes may appear early and severely. The aim of this study was to analyze and

  7. Functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Ghoussoub, Nassif

    2013-01-01

    The book describes how functional inequalities are often manifestations of natural mathematical structures and physical phenomena, and how a few general principles validate large classes of analytic/geometric inequalities, old and new. This point of view leads to "systematic" approaches for proving the most basic inequalities, but also for improving them, and for devising new ones--sometimes at will and often on demand. These general principles also offer novel ways for estimating best constants and for deciding whether these are attained in appropriate function spaces. As such, improvements of Hardy and Hardy-Rellich type inequalities involving radially symmetric weights are variational manifestations of Sturm's theory on the oscillatory behavior of certain ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most geometric inequalities, including those of Sobolev and Log-Sobolev type, are simply expressions of the convexity of certain free energy functionals along the geodesics on the Wasserstein manifold of...

  8. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  9. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  10. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Health inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Social investment policy has become a central response to the demographic and economic challenges facing European welfare states. This focus on investment in human capabilities and their efficient use is, however, challenged by health inequalities where education, health and employment...... are increasingly linked. This paper outlines the main principles of social investment policies (learning, activation and protection) and links them to a conceptual model of health inequalities and the policy entry-points tackling them by addressing the processes of social stratification, differential exposure...... investments in health so as to enable social investments to tackle the health divide....

  12. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  13. Approach to leg edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Pomero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Leg edema is a common problem with a wide range of possible causes and is the result of an imbalance in the filtration system between the capillary and interstitial spaces. Major causes of edema include venous obstruction, increased capillary permeability and increased plasma volume secondary to sodium and water retention. In both hospital and general practice, the patient with a swollen leg presents a common dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. The cause may be trivial or life-threatening and it is often difficult to determine the clinical pathway. The diagnosis can be narrowed by categorizing the edema according to its duration, distribution (unilateral or bilateral and accompanying symptoms. This work provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults.

  14. Leg som ustyrlig deltagelseskultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2017-01-01

    - og spilteoretikere Johan Huizinga og Roger Caillois. Deres teorier og begrebsdannelser har været brugt til at påpege leg dels som et æstetisk baseret betydningssystem, dels som et affektivt og stemningsbaseret oplevelsessystem samt endelig som et socialt baseret relationssystem. I artiklen vælger vi...... at fokusere på leg som et socialt baseret relationssystem og yderligere zoome ind på et af legens systemiske væsenstræk, nemlig brugen af regulerbare regelsæt, som legerne uden ’politi’ forhandler sig frem til før, under og efter legen. Fælles for Huizinga og Caillois er, at de knytter leg uløseligt sammen...

  15. Leg og dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    lederen i det pædagogiske tidskrift Asterisk: ”Leg i skolen, leg i klasserummet, ja legende læring i skolen udgør derimod en enorm, seriøs og ubrugt læringsressource – ikke alene med effekter på kreativiteten, men også på den faglige læring” (Holm, 2015, p. 2). Legens værdi gøres altså først og fremmest...

  16. Venous leg ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  17. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, particularly if they experience onset at an early age; many years may pass before symptoms occur regularly. top What causes restless legs syndrome? In most cases, the cause of RLS is unknown (called primary RLS). However, RLS has a genetic component and ...

  20. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  1. Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The rise in consumption inequality in response to the increase in income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality while the standard incomplete

  2. Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The rise in within-group consumption inequality in response to the increase in within-group income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality

  3. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    digitai~y thro)ugh a ribbon cable. lhe dcsign effort required to mount power sources and computing u(m board would hive distracted us fiorn our main...angular momentum. "The model used in this paper, shown in Fig. 6-1, has 3 single springy leg that articular •s ,ith respect to a body about a simple hince

  4. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  5. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    the laboratory. Harry Asada, Wayne Book, Nancy Cornelius, Sesh Murthy and Ivan Sutherland read various drafts of this report, for which we are...particularly helpful in providing an atmosphere where things could get started. Craig Fields and Clint Kelly deserve special credit for letting the idea of...legged technology capture their imaginations, even before we could show them tangible results. We are especially indebted to Ivan Sutherland for his

  6. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  7. Skipping on uneven ground: trailing leg adjustments simplify control and enhance robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Andrada, Emanuel

    2018-01-01

    It is known that humans intentionally choose skipping in special situations, e.g. when descending stairs or when moving in environments with lower gravity than on Earth. Although those situations involve uneven locomotion, the dynamics of human skipping on uneven ground have not yet been addressed. To find the reasons that may motivate this gait, we combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations on a bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model (BSLIP). To drive the model, the following parameters were estimated from nine subjects skipping across a single drop in ground level: leg lengths at touchdown, leg stiffness of both legs, aperture angle between legs, trailing leg angle at touchdown (leg landing first after flight phase), and trailing leg retraction speed. We found that leg adjustments in humans occur mostly in the trailing leg (low to moderate leg retraction during swing phase, reduced trailing leg stiffness, and flatter trailing leg angle at lowered touchdown). When transferring these leg adjustments to the BSLIP model, the capacity of the model to cope with sudden-drop perturbations increased.

  8. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  9. Health inequity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frausing, Kristian Park; Smærup, Michael; Maibom, Kirsten

    living alone. Social and psychological needs were of primary concern whereas practical needs were of lesser concern. The second study showed older men living alone with no/short education to rate their health significantly worse on almost all items compared to men of higher education. The third study......Background: Being male, living alone and being of low socioeconomic status (SES) are all risk factors for health inequities, including a shorter lifespan. Not much is known, however, about older low-SES men living alone. This study maps their health. Methods: Three studies were conducted. First......, an electronic survey with municipal preventive home visitors nationwide inquiring into their perception of the health and needs of old men living alone. The second study compared older men's self-rated health according to their living arrangements and educational level using data from 29.791 older men from...

  10. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...

  11. Two-legged walking robot prescribed motion on a rough cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Yury; Melkumova, Elena

    2018-05-01

    The motion of a walking robot with n legs, that ensure the desired motion of the robot body, is described using general dynamics theoretical framework. When each of the robot legs contacts the surface in a single foothold, the momentum and angular momentum theorems yield a system of six differential equations that form a complete description of the robot motion. In the case of two-leg robot (n = 2) the problem of the existence of the solution can be reduced to a system of algebraic inequalities. Using numerical analysis, the classification of footholds positions for different values of the friction coefficient is obtained.

  12. Study on unified fatigue strength assessment method for welded structure. Hot spot stress evaluating method for various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length; Yosetsu kozo no toitsutekina hiro kyodo hyokaho ni kansuru kenkyu. Itaatsu to yosetsu ashinaga no kumiawase ni taisuru hot spot oryoku sanshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.; Inamura, F.; Koe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    There has been tried to apply unified assessment method using hot spot stress, which is effective to evaluate fatigue strength of fillet welded structures for ships and marine structures. This method can be applied to complicated structures and is independent of welding processes. In this study, first, stress analysis has been conducted for two-dimensional fillet welded joint models with various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length of general fillet structures by means of boundary element method. Then, critical position, which is not affected by local stress concentration due to bead, was determined from the detailed stress distribution in the vicinity of weld toe. As a result, a general equation has been proposed to estimate the hot spot stress by one-point representative method. Second, the fatigue tests of typical fillet welded joints have been conducted by applying this method. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the unified fatigue strength can be evaluated by the S-N data based on hot spot stress range determined from the proposed equation, independent of structural stress concentration. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Study on unified fatigue strength assessment method for welded structure. Hot spot stress evaluating method for various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length; Yosetsu kozo no toitsutekina hiro kyodo hyokaho ni kansuru kenkyu. Itaatsu to yosetsu ashinaga no kumiawase ni taisuru hot spot oryoku sanshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K; Inamura, F; Koe, S [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    There has been tried to apply unified assessment method using hot spot stress, which is effective to evaluate fatigue strength of fillet welded structures for ships and marine structures. This method can be applied to complicated structures and is independent of welding processes. In this study, first, stress analysis has been conducted for two-dimensional fillet welded joint models with various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length of general fillet structures by means of boundary element method. Then, critical position, which is not affected by local stress concentration due to bead, was determined from the detailed stress distribution in the vicinity of weld toe. As a result, a general equation has been proposed to estimate the hot spot stress by one-point representative method. Second, the fatigue tests of typical fillet welded joints have been conducted by applying this method. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the unified fatigue strength can be evaluated by the S-N data based on hot spot stress range determined from the proposed equation, independent of structural stress concentration. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  14. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  15. Problems with Excessive Residual Lower Leg Length in Pediatric Amputees

    OpenAIRE

    Osebold, William R; Lester, Edward L; Christenson, Donald M

    2001-01-01

    We studied six pediatric amputees with long below-knee residual limbs, in order to delineate their functional and prosthetic situations, specifically in relation to problems with fitting for dynamic-response prosthetic feet. Three patients had congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia secondary to neurofibromatosis, one had fibular hemimelia, one had a traumatic amputation, and one had amputation secondary to burns. Five patients had Syme's amputations, one had a Boyd amputation. Ages at amputa...

  16. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  17. A Generalized Affine Isoperimetric Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenxiong; Howard, Ralph; Lutwak, Erwin; Yang, Deane; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2004-01-01

    A purely analytic proof is given for an inequality that has as a direct consequence the two most important affine isoperimetric inequalities of plane convex geometry: The Blaschke-Santalo inequality and the affine isoperimetric inequality of affine differential geometry.

  18. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  19. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  20. Determinants of income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Afandi, Akhsyim; Rantung, Vebryna Permatasari; Marashdeh, Hazem

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether changing economic structure, social conditions, and financialization are responsible for increased income inequality in Indonesia. By employing panel data of 32 provinces in Indonesia that spans from 2007 to 2013, it finds that structural change affects income inequality, increased share of finance reduces inequality, which is against the financialization hypothesis, and social conditions have expected effects on income inequality. While an increased share of both ...

  1. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  2. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  3. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  4. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  5. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J; Clark, J

    2009-01-01

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  6. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  7. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Scholars studying economic inequality in China have maintained that regional inequality and economic divergence across provinces have steadily increased over the past 30 years. New studies have shown that this trend is a statistical aberration; calculations show that instead of quickly and sharply...... rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...... across provinces in order to show that without these processes, we would have seen more of a rise in interprovincial income inequality. We conclude by arguing that inequality in China is still increasing, but it is changing and becoming less place-based. As regional inequality decreases, there are signs...

  8. Dynamic inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi; Saker, Samir

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph devoted to recent research and results on dynamic inequalities on time scales. The study of dynamic inequalities on time scales has been covered extensively in the literature in recent years and has now become a major sub-field in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, this book will cover recent results on integral inequalities, including Young's inequality, Jensen's inequality, Holder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, Steffensen's inequality, Hermite-Hadamard inequality and Čebyšv's inequality. Opial type inequalities on time scales and their extensions with weighted functions, Lyapunov type inequalities, Halanay type inequalities for dynamic equations on time scales, and Wirtinger type inequalities on time scales and their extensions will also be discussed here in detail.

  9. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  10. Running over unknown rough terrain with a one-legged planar robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Ben; Miller, Bruce; Clark, Jonathan E; Schmitt, John

    2011-01-01

    The ability to traverse unknown, rough terrain is an advantage that legged locomoters have over their wheeled counterparts. However, due to the complexity of multi-legged systems, research in legged robotics has not yet been able to reproduce the agility found in the animal kingdom. In an effort to reduce the complexity of the problem, researchers have developed single-legged models to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of legged running. Inspired by studies of animal locomotion, researchers have proposed numerous control strategies to achieve stable, one-legged running over unknown, rough terrain. One such control strategy incorporates energy variations into the system during the stance phase by changing the force-free leg length as a sinusoidal function of time. In this research, a one-legged planar robot capable of implementing this and other state-of-the-art control strategies was designed and built. Both simulated and experimental results were used to determine and compare the stability of the proposed controllers as the robot was subjected to unknown drop and raised step perturbations equal to 25% of the nominal leg length. This study illustrates the relative advantages of utilizing a minimal-sensing, active energy removal control scheme to stabilize running over rough terrain.

  11. Extension and customization of self-stability control in compliant legged systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, M; Blickhan, R; Geyer, H

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies on the control of legged locomotion in animal and robot running focus on the influence of different leg parameters on gait stability. In a preceding investigation self-stability controls showing deadbeat behavior could be obtained by studying the dynamics of the system in dependence of the leg orientation carefully adjusted during the flight phase. Such controls allow to accommodate disturbances of the ground level without having to detect them. Here we further this method in two ways. Besides the leg orientation, we allow changes in leg stiffness during flight and show that this extension substantially improves the rejection of ground disturbances. In a human like example the tolerance of random variation in ground level over many steps increased from 3.5% to 35% of leg length. In single steps changes of about 70% leg length (either up or down) could be negotiated. The variable leg stiffness not only allows to start with flat leg orientations maximizing step tolerances but also increase the control subspace. This allows to customize self-stability controls and to consider physical and technical limitations found in animals and robots. (paper)

  12. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    length during overground locomotion: task-specific modulation of the locomotor synergy. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15(3). Raibert, M. I. 1986...energy conversions that intermediates between combus- tion of a fluid fuel such as gasoline , and the controlled delivery of force and power to the...question of this study: Can the extremely high energy density and rapid response of combustible fluid fuels such as gasoline be harnessed to produce

  13. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  14. Assessing Children's Legs and Feet

    OpenAIRE

    Wedge, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Shoes are necessary for protection and warmth. Normal children do not require shoes for support. There is no scientific evidence that shoes—‘orthopedic’ or otherwise—influence or alter the growth or shape of the normal child's foot except, perhaps, adversely if they fit poorly. Family physicians must understand common variations of normal foot and leg development if they are to effectively advise and reassure parents about appropriate footwear. Flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, in-toeing, and...

  15. Improving venous leg ulcer management

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Carolina Dragica

    2017-01-01

    This thesis reports several different methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions designed to improve venous leg ulcer management. Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU) are the most common chronic wound problem in the community. Its health and economic burden is predicted to increase due to ageing of the community and increase in prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Although many patients seek health care for VLU, most do not receive the most effective management. Patients with this condi...

  16. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  17. An MRI volumetric study for leg muscles in congenital clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Ernesto; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Antonicoli, Marco; Farsetti, Pasquale; Simonetti, Giovanni; Masala, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    To investigate both volume and length of the three muscle compartments of the normal and the affected leg in unilateral congenital clubfoot. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (VMRI) of the anterior, lateral and postero-medial muscular compartments of both the normal and the clubfoot leg was obtained in three groups of seven patients each, whose mean age was, respectively, 4.8 months, 11.1 months and 4.7 years. At diagnosis, all the unilateral congenital clubfeet had a Pirani score ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 points, and all of them had been treated according to a strict Ponseti protocol. All the feet had percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon. A mean difference in both volume and length was found between the three muscular compartments of the leg, with the muscles of the clubfoot side being thinner and shorter than those of the normal side. The distal tendon of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and triceps surae (Achilles tendon) were longer than normal on the clubfoot side. Our study shows that the three muscle compartments of the clubfoot leg are thinner and shorter than normal in the patients of the three groups. The difference in the musculature volume of the postero-medial compartment between the normal and the affected side increased nine-fold from age group 2 to 3, while the difference in length increased by 20 %, thus, showing that the muscles of the postero-medial compartment tend to grow in both thickness and length much less than the muscles of the other leg compartments.

  18. Bell's inequalities for quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaas, H.E.

    1991-10-01

    Inequalities corresponding to the generalized Bell's inequalities of local realism are derived for the quantum case. The extremal values permitted by these inequalities exceed those allowed by the generalized Bell's inequalities. Quantum predictions for systems of two spin-1/2 particles prepared as mixtures do not violate Bell's inequalities. 15 refs

  19. A comparison and update of direct kinematic-kinetic models of leg stiffness in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Bernard X W; Morris, Susan; Masters, Ashleigh; Netto, Kevin

    2017-11-07

    Direct kinematic-kinetic modelling currently represents the "Gold-standard" in leg stiffness quantification during three-dimensional (3D) motion capture experiments. However, the medial-lateral components of ground reaction force and leg length have been neglected in current leg stiffness formulations. It is unknown if accounting for all 3D would alter healthy biologic estimates of leg stiffness, compared to present direct modelling methods. This study compared running leg stiffness derived from a new method (multiplanar method) which includes all three Cartesian axes, against current methods which either only include the vertical axis (line method) or only the plane of progression (uniplanar method). Twenty healthy female runners performed shod overground running at 5.0 m/s. Three-dimensional motion capture and synchronised in-ground force plates were used to track the change in length of the leg vector (hip joint centre to centre of pressure) and resultant projected ground reaction force. Leg stiffness was expressed as dimensionless units, as a percentage of an individual's bodyweight divided by standing leg length (BW/LL). Leg stiffness using the line method was larger than the uniplanar method by 15.6%BW/LL (P method by 24.2%BW/LL (P stiffness from the uniplanar method was larger than the multiplanar method by 8.5%BW/LL (6.5 kN/m) (P stiffness estimate with the multiplanar method. Given that limb movements typically occur in 3D, the new multiplanar method provides the most complete accounting of all force and length components in leg stiffness calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE DAMASCUS INEQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Dannan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 Prof. Fozi M. Dannan from Damascus, Syria, proposed an interesting inequality for three positive numbers with unit product. It became widely known but was not proved yet in spite of elementary formulation. In this paper we prove this inequality together with similar ones, its proof occurred to be rather complicated. We propose some proofs based on different ideas: Lagrange multipliers method, geometrical considerations, Klamkin–type inequalities for symmetric functions, usage of symmetric reduction functions of computer packages. Also some corollaries and generalizations are considered, they include cycle inequalities, triangle geometric inequalities, inequalities for arbitrary number of values and special forms of restrictions on numbers, applications to cubic equations and symmetric functions.

  1. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  2. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  3. Globalisation, Inequality and Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Brian

    2017-01-01

    read before the Society, 20 April 2017; Symposium 2016-2017: Globalisation, Inequality and the Rise of Populism Inequality in the distribution of income and wealth among individuals has now come to the fore as a core concern across the industrialised world. In 2013 then President of the United States Barack Obama identified rising income inequality as ?the defining challenge of our times?. The Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund Christine Lagarde has stated that ?reducing ...

  4. Inequalities in Science

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative ...

  5. Inequalities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  6. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  7. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  8. Inequality and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Gavrilović Biljana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Inequality can be analyzed from various aspects. In this paper our attention is drawn to economic inequality, most frequently manifested through income and wealth. The measurement of economic inequality is a complex task. The Lorenz curve and a number of numerical indices are applied, and let us mention the following ones: the Gini coefficient, the coefficient of variation, the Theil index and the Atkinson measure. These indices do satisfy the criteria (principles presenting, according to general consent an appropriate measure of economic inequality: anonymity (symmetry principle, population principle, relative income principle and the Dalton principle of transfer. In recent times, the problem of inequality has been attracting a lot of attention. The explanation should be sought in the widening of income differences (within individual countries and between them and also in new knowledge about the relationship between inequality and development. The attitude to inequality being determined mainly by the economic development level (as presented in the Kuznets hypothesis is gradually being replaced by the attitude to inequality being the determinant of income and its growth. Contrary to previous beliefs about the stronger income inequalities being favorable to the economic growth, more recent research has pointed to the fact that a more equal distribution of income through various channels, can possibly act as an efficient stimulus of growth.

  9. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  11. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  12. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  13. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  14. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  15. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  16. The Ginibre inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    In the Ising-type models of statistical mechanics and the related quantum field theories, an inequality of Ginibre implies useful positivity and monotonicity properties: the Griffiths correlation inequalities. Essentially, the Ginibre inequality states that certain functions on the cycle group of a graph are positive definite. This has been proved for arbitrary graphs when the spin dimensions is 1 or 2 (classical Ising or plane rotator models). We give a counterexample to show that these spin dimensions are the only ones for which the Ginibre inequality is generally true: there are graphs for which it never holds when the spin dimension is at least 3. On the other hand, we show that for any graph the inequality holds for the apparent leading term in the large-spin-dimension limit. (The leading term vanishes in the graph of the counterexample.) Based on these results, one expects the Ginibre inequality to be true in most instances, with infrequent exceptions. A numerical survey supports this. The surprising failure of the Ginibre inequality in higher dimensions need not necessarily mean the Griffiths inequalities fail as well, but a different approach to them is required. (orig.)

  17. Health Inequality and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…

  18. Dual affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities for the dual -centroid bodies which are the dual forms of the results by Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. Further, we establish a Brunn-Minkowski-type inequality for the polar of dual -centroid bodies.

  19. Inequalities for Differential Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Presents a series of local and global estimates and inequalities for differential forms, in particular the ones that satisfy the A-harmonic equations. This work focuses on the Hardy-Littlewood, Poincare, Cacciooli, imbedded and reverse Holder inequalities. It is for researchers, instructors and graduate students

  20. Global Inequality: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country inequalities since at least the 1870s when a wave of economic globalization under the Pax Britannica increased average wages in the core while leaving most of the periphery and the semiperiphery at subsistence levels. Increasing inequality was one of the most important consequences of nineteenth century globalization, and this fact is pregnant with importance for those who seek to understand what the consequences of twentieth century globalization may be. Resistance to global capitalism and attacks on symbols of power are likely to increase, just as they did in the decades following the great expansion of trade and investment in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Research into the causes of increasing inequalities is thus extremely important for social scientists, policy makers and global citizens who need to understand how the world-system works in order to change it.

  1. Inequalities with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Cloud, Michael J; Lebedev, Leonid P

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to mathematical inequalities for graduate students and researchers in the fields of engineering and applied mathematics. It begins by reviewing essential facts from algebra and calculus and proceeds with a presentation of the central inequalities of applied analysis, illustrating a wide variety of practical applications. The text provides a gentle introduction to abstract spaces, such as metric, normed, and inner product spaces. It also provides full coverage of the central inequalities of applied analysis, such as Young's inequality, the inequality of the means, Hölder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Chebyshev's inequality, Jensen's inequality, and the triangle inequality. The second edition features extended coverage of applications, including continuum mechanics and interval analysis. It also includes many additional examples and exercises with hints and full solutions that may appeal to upper-level undergraduate and graduate...

  2. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  3. Leggett–Garg inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities which probe entanglement between spatially separated systems, the Leggett–Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett–Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. The last few years has seen a number of experimental tests and violations of these inequalities in a variety of microscopic systems such as superconducting qubits, nuclear spins, and photons. In this article, we provide an introduction to the Leggett–Garg inequalities and review these latest experimental developments. We discuss important topics such as the significance of the non-invasive measurability assumption, the clumsiness loophole, and the role of weak measurements. Also covered are some recent theoretical proposals for the application of Leggett–Garg inequalities in quantum transport, quantum biology and nano-mechanical systems. (review article)

  4. Income Inequality and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Breen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators have seen the growing gap in earnings and income between those with a college education and those without as a major cause of increasing inequality in the United States and elsewhere. In this article we investigate the extent to which increasing the educational attainment of the US population might ameliorate inequality. We use data from NLSY79 and carry out a three-level decomposition of total inequality into within-person, between-person and between-education parts. We find that the between-education contribution to inequality is small, even when we consider only adjusted inequality that omits the within-person component. We carry out a number of simulations to gauge the likely impact on inequality of changes in the distribution of education and of a narrowing of the differences in average incomes between those with different levels of education. We find that any feasible educational policy is likely to have only a minor impact on income inequality.

  5. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  6. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  7. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  8. Volume Inequalities for Isotropic Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lutwak, Erwin; Yang, Deane; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct approach to Ball's simplex inequality is presented. This approach, which does not use the Brascamp-Lieb inequality, also gives Barthe's characterization of the simplex for Ball's inequality and extends it from discrete to arbitrary measures. It also yields the dual inequality, along with equality conditions, and it does both for arbitrary measures.

  9. [Problems and complications of leg lengthening with the Wagner apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, R; Hefti, F

    1992-06-01

    Since 1971, we have performed 189 leg lengthening procedures using the Wagner method at our institution. The results obtained in the first 26 cases (1971-1973) showed a high complication rate, which led us to reconsider the indications for this procedure. In the present paper, we analyze the results of 37 leg lengthening procedures carried out in 32 patients during the last 10 years (1981-1990) in the children's unit of the orthopedic department of the University of Basle. We found a complication rate of 78%, and in 46% of cases there was more than one major complication. We did not distinguish between "complications" and "problems", because such distinctions are of little importance to the patient. The average age at the time of surgery was 14.8 years, and the average increase in length was 4.3 (2.2-9.2) cm. For each 1 cm of lengthening, an average of 21 days in hospital and 64 days of reduced weight-bearing were needed. Our conclusion is that the Wagner method makes it possible to attain the goal of leg lengthening, but the second step cannot reduce the length of stay in hospital or the length of time the patient needs the help of crutches. Bone remodeling is disturbed. Our preliminary experience with the Ilizarov method is more encouraging.

  10. Firming Up Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Song; David J. Price; Fatih Guvenen; Nicholas Bloom; Till von Wachter

    2015-01-01

    Earnings inequality in the United States has increased rapidly over the last three decades, but little is known about the role of firms in this trend. For example, how much of the rise in earnings inequality can be attributed to rising dispersion between firms in the average wages they pay, and how much is due to rising wage dispersion among workers within firms? Similarly, how did rising inequality affect the wage earnings of different types of workers working for the same employer—men vs. w...

  11. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke.

  12. Inequalities an approach through problems

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatachala, B J

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses about the basic topics on inequalities and their applications. These include the arithmetic mean–geometric mean inequality, Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Chebyshev inequality, rearrangement inequality, convex and concave functions and Muirhead's theorem. The book contains over 400 problems with their solutions. A chapter on geometric inequalities is a special feature of this book. Most of these problems are from International Mathematical Olympiads and from many national mathematical Olympiads. The book is intended to help students who are preparing for various mathematical competitions. It is also a good source book for graduate students who are consolidating their knowledge of inequalities and their applications. .

  13. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...

  14. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  15. Several applications of Cartwright-Field's inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Minculete, Nicuşor; Furuichi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present several applications of Cartwright-Field's inequality. Among these we found Young's inequality, Bernoulli's inequality, the inequality between the weighted power means, H\\"{o}lder's inequality and Cauchy's inequality. We give also two applications related to arithmetic functions and to operator inequalities.

  16. Covariance Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozsgay, Victor; Hirsch, Flavien; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    We introduce Bell inequalities based on covariance, one of the most common measures of correlation. Explicit examples are discussed, and violations in quantum theory are demonstrated. A crucial feature of these covariance Bell inequalities is their nonlinearity; this has nontrivial consequences for the derivation of their local bound, which is not reached by deterministic local correlations. For our simplest inequality, we derive analytically tight bounds for both local and quantum correlations. An interesting application of covariance Bell inequalities is that they can act as "shared randomness witnesses": specifically, the value of the Bell expression gives device-independent lower bounds on both the dimension and the entropy of the shared random variable in a local model.

  17. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  18. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  19. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  20. Child Labour and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Simone; Fioroni, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of child labour, fertility and human capital in an economy characterized by two type of individuals, low and high skilled workers. This heterogeneity allows for an endogenous analysis of inequality generated by child labour. More specifically, according to empirical evidence, we oer an explanation for the emergence of a vicious cycle between child labour and inequality. The basic intuition behind this result is the interdependence between child labour and f...

  1. Corruption and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Uslaner, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption and, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Most corruption models focus on the institutional determinants of government dishonesty. However, such accounts are problematic. Corruption is remarkably sticky over time. There is a very powerful correlation between crossnational measures corruption in 1980 and in 2004. In contrast, measures of democracy such as the Freedom House scores are not so strongly correlated over time, ...

  2. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  3. Inequalities for Humbert functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by an open problem of Luke’s theorem. We consider the problem of developing a unified point of view on the theory of inequalities of Humbert functions and of their general ratios are obtained. Some particular cases and refinements are given. Finally, we obtain some important results involving inequalities of Bessel and Whittaker’s functions as applications.

  4. Boole and Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.

  5. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  6. GABAergic inhibition of leg motoneurons is required for normal walking behavior in freely moving Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Swetha B M; Paranjpe, Pushkar D; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Thiagarajan, Devasena; Palliyil, Sudhir; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2018-02-27

    Walking is a complex rhythmic locomotor behavior generated by sequential and periodical contraction of muscles essential for coordinated control of movements of legs and leg joints. Studies of walking in vertebrates and invertebrates have revealed that premotor neural circuitry generates a basic rhythmic pattern that is sculpted by sensory feedback and ultimately controls the amplitude and phase of the motor output to leg muscles. However, the identity and functional roles of the premotor interneurons that directly control leg motoneuron activity are poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the powerful genetic methodology available in Drosophila to investigate the role of premotor inhibition in walking by genetically suppressing inhibitory input to leg motoneurons. For this, we have developed an algorithm for automated analysis of leg motion to characterize the walking parameters of wild-type flies from high-speed video recordings. Further, we use genetic reagents for targeted RNAi knockdown of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in leg motoneurons together with quantitative analysis of resulting changes in leg movement parameters in freely walking Drosophila Our findings indicate that targeted down-regulation of the GABA A receptor Rdl (Resistance to Dieldrin) in leg motoneurons results in a dramatic reduction of walking speed and step length without the loss of general leg coordination during locomotion. Genetically restricting the knockdown to the adult stage and subsets of motoneurons yields qualitatively identical results. Taken together, these findings identify GABAergic premotor inhibition of motoneurons as an important determinant of correctly coordinated leg movements and speed of walking in freely behaving Drosophila . Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  8. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  9. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  10. Product spaces and Nelson's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain inequalities for unbounded linear operators in L 2 extend to product spaces. This product space property is used to give a new proof that Gross's inequality for matrices implies Nelson's inequality for ordinary differential operators, and that this in turn implies Nelson's inequality for partial differential operators in infinitely many dimensions. A new proof of Gross's inequality is given. There is also a discussion of the physical meaning of Nelson's inequality in quantum field theory. The article may serve as an introduction for non-specialists to some of the recent mathematical work in this subject. (Auth.)

  11. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  12. A Novel Perforator Flap Training Model Using a Chicken Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Ignacio J; Yañez, Ricardo A; Salisbury, Maria C; Rodriguez, José R; Varas, Julian E; Dagnino, Bruno L

    2016-04-01

    Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training.

  13. The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…

  14. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...... consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non......-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude...

  15. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms......, and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between...

  16. Spatially Embedded Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... and ethnification of job categories. However, the same spatial structures allows for a variety of opposition and conciliation strategies among minority employees, even though the latter tend to prevail in a reproduction rather than a transformation of the organizational opportunity structures. Research limitations...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...

  17. Economic inequality increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Hannay, Jason W

    2017-05-02

    Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments ( n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior.

  18. Industrialization and inequality revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work combines economic and demographic data to examine inequality of living standards in Stockholm at the turn of the twentieth century. Using a longitudinal population register with occupational information, we utilize event-history models to show that despite absolute decreases in mortality......, relative differences between socioeconomic groups remained virtually constant. The results also show that child mortality continued to be sensitive to short-term fluctuations in wages and that there were no socioeconomic differences in this response. We argue that the persistent inequality in living...

  19. Ordinal bivariate inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlationincreasing switches and/or median......-preserving spreads. For the canonical 2x2 case (with two binary indicators), we derive a simple operational procedure for checking ordinal inequality relations in practice. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood deprivation in Mozambique....

  20. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both......Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  1. Ordinal Bivariate Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and....../or median-preserving spreads. For the canonical 2 × 2 case (with two binary indicators), we derive a simple operational procedure for checking ordinal inequality relations in practice. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood deprivation in Mozambique....

  2. Wringing out better Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, S.L.; Caves, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Local realism implies constraints on the statistics of two physically separated systems. These constraints, known collectively as Bell inequalities, can be violated by quantum mechanics. We generalize the standard Bell inequalities in two ways: first, by 'chaining' the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for two-state systems and, second, by formulating information-theoretic Bell inequalities that apply to any pair of systems. (orig.)

  3. Quantum mechanics and Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.T.; Adelberger, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    Santos argues that, if one interprets probabilities as ratios of detected events to copies of the physical system initially prepared, the quantum mechanical predictions for the classic tests of Bell's inequalities do not violate the inequalities. Furthermore, he suggests that quantum mechanical states which do violate the inequalities are not physically realizable. We discuss a physically realizable experiment, meeting his requirements, where quantum mechanics does violate the inequalities

  4. Gender Inequality Index Appropriateness for Measuring Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Elham; Sabermahani, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequality means unequal distribution of wealth, power, and benefits among women and men. The gender inequality index (GII) measures the lost human development in three important dimensions: reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic status. The first purpose of this study was to calculate the index for provinces of Iran, and the second purpose was to survey the appropriateness of that, for comparing different regions, through regression estimations. In this study, GII has been calculated for Iran between the years 2006-2011 and provinces have been ranked based on it. Then, a panel composed of 30 sections was estimated for five years to determine the most important factor affecting level of index. Some changes have been made to analyze values of the index and the ranking of provinces. Based on panel model, share of parliamentary seats was the most effective factor for determination of the index. After applying adjustments, some differences were seen in the ranking of provinces and general level of index. Weighing of dimensions of the index and considering an overall variable, such as life expectancy in the field of health, will give a more accurate comparison of the GII among different regions though concurrent attention to non-discriminatory cultural dimensions of political participation of women; therefore, making more analyses possible for a more correct comparison of the extensive geographical regions, such as countries.

  5. Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.

    2005-01-01

    We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame

  6. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  7. Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacelli Bessa, G.; Montenegro, J.F.

    2007-09-01

    Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)

  8. The Growth-Inequality Association:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This note suggests that the association between income inequality and economic growth rates might arguably depend on the political ideology of incumbent governments. Estimates indicate that under leftwing governments, inequality is negatively associated with growth while the association is positive...... under rightwing governments. This may provide a qualification to recent studies of inequality....

  9. On weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachizawa K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an alternate proof of weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities which are essentially proved by Sawyer and Wheeden. We use the Bellman function approach of Nazarov and Treil. As an application we give an alternate proof of weighted inequalities for dyadic fractional maximal operators. A result on weighted inequalities for fractional integral operators is given.

  10. A Hydroxyurea-induced Leg Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Seon-Wook; Hong, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jong-Keun; Lee, Deborah; Sung, Ho-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a cytostatic agent that has recently become the drug of choice in the treatment of various myeloproliferative diseases. The cutaneous side effects of hydroxyurea include xerosis, hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, and scaling. Leg ulcers have only rarely been reported in association with hydroxyurea treatment. A 75-year-old woman presented with leg ulcers, nail discoloration, and xerosis. The leg ulcers were refractory to conventional treatment. She had been taking oral hyd...

  11. A new biarticular actuator design facilitates control of leg function in BioBiped3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbafi, Maziar Ahmad; Rode, Christian; Kurowski, Stefan; Scholz, Dorian; Möckel, Rico; Radkhah, Katayon; Zhao, Guoping; Rashty, Aida Mohammadinejad; Stryk, Oskar von; Seyfarth, Andre

    2016-07-01

    Bioinspired legged locomotion comprises different aspects, such as (i) benefiting from reduced complexity control approaches as observed in humans/animals, (ii) combining embodiment with the controllers and (iii) reflecting neural control mechanisms. One of the most important lessons learned from nature is the significant role of compliance in simplifying control, enhancing energy efficiency and robustness against perturbations for legged locomotion. In this research, we investigate how body morphology in combination with actuator design may facilitate motor control of leg function. Inspired by the human leg muscular system, we show that biarticular muscles have a key role in balancing the upper body, joint coordination and swing leg control. Appropriate adjustment of biarticular spring rest length and stiffness can simplify the control and also reduce energy consumption. In order to test these findings, the BioBiped3 robot was developed as a new version of BioBiped series of biologically inspired, compliant musculoskeletal robots. In this robot, three-segmented legs actuated by mono- and biarticular series elastic actuators mimic the nine major human leg muscle groups. With the new biarticular actuators in BioBiped3, novel simplified control concepts for postural balance and for joint coordination in rebounding movements (drop jumps) were demonstrated and approved.

  12. Inequality in health versus inequality in lifestyle choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnstein Øvrum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Norwegian cross-sectional data for the period 2005 to 2011 are used to compare sources of inequality in health, as represented by self-assessed health and obesity, with sources of inequality in lifestyles that are central to the production of health, as represented by physical activity, cigarette smoking and dietary behavior. Sources of overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in these lifestyle and health indicators are compared by estimating probit models, and by decomposing the explained part of the associated Gini and concentration indices with respect to education and income. As potential sources of inequality, we consider education, income, occupation, age, gender, marital status, psychological traits and childhood circumstances. Our results suggest that sources of inequality in health are not necessarily representative of sources of inequality in underlying lifestyles. While education is generally an important source of overall inequality in both lifestyles and health, income is unimportant in all lifestyle indicators except physical activity. In several cases, education and income are clearly outranked by other factors in terms of explaining overall inequality, such as gender in eating fruits and vegetables and age in fish consumption. These results suggest that it is important to decompose both overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in different lifestyle and health indicators. In indicators where other factors than education and income are clearly most important, policy makers should consider to target these factors to efficiently improve overall population health.

  13. Inequality in Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kappel, Nanna

    The overall purpose of the research we want to present, is to discuss how social inequality in health can both be maintained and strengthened- and changed through the health system and health efforts. Our contribution provides a view of a special point of intersection in which the health system...

  14. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  15. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  16. Inequity aversion revisted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first systematic study of the robustness of parameter estimates for the Fehr-Schmidt (1999) model of inequity aversion with respect to (i) the occurrence of efficiency concerns; (ii) the scale of payoffs; and (iii) the game used (i.e., cross-game consistency). Moreover, we provide

  17. Roots of inequity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomba, Susan Wangui; Kariuki, Juliet; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    policy of the project maps onto the existing unequal land distribution, it reinforces inequality. By illustrating how current, well-intended, REDD+ efforts inadvertently come to entrench a long process of dispossession of marginalized people, we call attention to the pivotal importance that historical...

  18. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  19. Inequality and Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2013-01-01

    We argue that perceived fairness of the income generation process affects the association between income inequality and subjective well-being, and that there are systematic differences in this regard between countries that are characterized by a high or, respectively, low level of actual fairness...

  20. Analysis of income inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Federičová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, 7-8 (2011), s. 13-15 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : inequalities * Europe * labour market Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/index.php?disp=teorie&shw=478&lst=117

  1. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  2. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  3. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  4. Health inequality - determinants and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie

    2012-01-01

    The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy....... The review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas...

  5. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  6. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  7. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Wahbi AM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-Wahbi1, Shaza Elmoukaied2 1Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Surgery, Dr Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. Keywords: varicocele, varicocelectomy, complications, vascular injuries

  8. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  9. Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Broström, Stig

    Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed er et rigt felt med mange perspektiver, indgangsvinkler og nuancer. I denne bog kædes leg og det eksperimenterende og skabende sammen som to gensidigt forbundne fænomener og belyses i pædagogisk og didaktisk perspektiv. Desuden beskrives potentialet i båd...

  10. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of val...

  11. Tackling Health Inequalities Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen

    of this study. It is based on three sources: 1. Interviews with policymakers (administrators and politicians) within healthcare administrations, childhood/education, and labour market administrations from September 2014 to March 2015*. 2. Textual analysis of available policy documents from regions...... of translating small inequalities in wealth into small inequalities in health. Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have legislation that indifferent ways offers local governments key roles in public health. This is partly due to local governments’ responsibility for many policy areas of great relevance to health...... state model, including its health policy, as an area of Nordic collaboration (104). However, realising the principle of health (equity) in all policiesis no simple matter. The national authorities and local government federations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have therefore initiated various activities...

  12. Inequalities in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    would have been expected on the assumption of additivity of the singular effects of these variables. It is suggested that it is necessary to highlight in further research the complex interactions and pathways between factors associated with health outcomes to improve our understanding of the causal...... of the study is to analyse the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances in explaining inequalities in health. It is based on a theoretical framework which presupposes that inequalities in health are likely to be explained by a complicated process involving a multitude of factors....... At the same time, differential exposures and differential responses to risk factors between socio-economic classes for certain health outcomes are determined. The joint effect on general health status, seven years later, of being a manual worker and having reported psychosomatic symptoms is 113% greater than...

  13. Globalization, Inequality, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...

  14. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  15. Financial Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Kunieda, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how financial globalization and financial development affect income inequality within a country. We demonstrate that when a country is financially closed to the world market, the Gini coefficient is monotonically decreasing with respect to the degree of financial development, whereas when a country becomes so small due to financial globalization that financial development in the country does not affect the world interest rate, the Gini coefficient is monotonically incr...

  16. Limitation on Bell's inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e., all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory).

  17. Global carbon inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Munoz Castillo, Raul; Sun, Laixiang; Xue, Jinjun

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  18. Some Nonlinear Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions. The inequalities given here unify and extend some inequalities in (B G Pachpatte, On some new inequalities related to a certain inequality arising in the theory of differential ...

  19. More on operator Bellman inequality | Mirzapour | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a Bellman inequality involving operator means for operators acting on a Hilbert space. We also give some Bellman inequalities concerning sesquilinear forms. Finally, we re ne the Jensen's operator inequality and use it for obtaining a re nement of the Bellman operator inequality. Keywords: Bellman inequality ...

  20. Inequality, poverty and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, M S

    1976-12-01

    Dicussion explores the nature of the relationship between the distribution of income and the process of development on the basis of cross country data on income inequality. The results presented are based on a sample of 60 countries, including 40 developing countries, 14 developed countries, and 6 socialist countries. The approach adopted is essentially exploratory. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate cross country relationships between the income shares of different percentile groups and selected variables reflecting aspects of the development process which are likely to influence income inequality. The estimated equations are then used as a basis for broad generalizations about the relationship between income distribution and development. There was strong support for the proposition that relative inequaltiy increases substantially in the early stages of development, with a reversal of this tendency in the later stages. The propositions held whether the sample was restricted to developing countries or expanded to include developed and socialist countries. The process was most prolonged for the poorest group. There were a number of processes occurring "pari passu" with development which were correlated with income inequality and which can plausibly be interpreted as causal. These were intersectoral shifts in the structure of production, expansion in education attainment and skill level of the labor force; and reduction in the growth of population. The operation of these processes appeared to explain some of the improvement in income distribution observed in the later stages of development, but they did not serve to explain the marked deterioration observed in the earlier stages. The cross section results failed to support the stronger hypothesis that the deterioration in relative inequality reflected a prolonged absolute impoverishment of large sections of the population in the course of development. The cross country pattern showed average

  1. Conference on Inequalities and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Losonczi, László; Gilányi, Attila; Páles, Zsolt; Plum, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Inequalities continue to play an essential role in mathematics. Perhaps, they form the last field comprehended and used by mathematicians in all areas of the discipline. Since the seminal work Inequalities (1934) by Hardy, Littlewood and Pólya, mathematicians have laboured to extend and sharpen their classical inequalities. New inequalities are discovered every year, some for their intrinsic interest whilst others flow from results obtained in various branches of mathematics. The study of inequalities reflects the many and various aspects of mathematics. On one hand, there is the systematic search for the basic principles and the study of inequalities for their own sake. On the other hand, the subject is the source of ingenious ideas and methods that give rise to seemingly elementary but nevertheless serious and challenging problems. There are numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, from mathematical physics to biology and economics. This volume contains the contributions of the participants of th...

  2. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  3. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  4. Predicting a 10 repetition maximum for the free weight parallel squat using the 45 degrees angled leg press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willardson, Jeffrey M; Bressel, Eadric

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to devise prediction equations whereby a 10 repetition maximum (10RM) for the free weight parallel squat could be predicted using the following predictor variables: 10RM for the 45 degrees angled leg press, body mass, and limb length. Sixty men were tested over a 3-week period, with 1 testing session each week. During each testing session, subjects performed a 10RM for the free weight parallel squat and 45 degrees angled leg press. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed leg press mass lifted to be a significant predictor of squat mass lifted for both the advanced and the novice groups (p squat mass lifted for the novice group and 55% of the variance in squat mass lifted for the advanced group. Limb length and body mass were not significant predictors of squat mass lifted for either group. The following prediction equations were devised: (a) novice group squat mass = leg press mass (0.210) + 36.244 kg, (b) advanced group squat mass = leg press mass (0.310) + 19.438 kg, and (c) subject pool squat mass = leg press mass (0.354) + 2.235 kg. These prediction equations may save time and reduce the risk of injury when switching from the leg press to the squat exercise.

  5. Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0355 YIP Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Greg Ver Steeg UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final Report 10/26...performance report PI: Greg Ver Steeg Young Investigator Award Grant Title: Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Grant #: FA9550-12-1-0417 Reporting...October 20, 2015 Final Report for “Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks” Greg Ver Steeg Abstract This effort studied new methods to understand the effect

  6. Non-commutative Nash inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L p spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups

  7. Against inequality Contra la desigualdad

    OpenAIRE

    Dugger William

    1998-01-01

    William Dugger questions the conventional idea that inequality is necessary for economic development through a historical and institutional examination of five of the major systems of inequality currently existing: racism, sexism, classism, jingoism, and antisemitismo It puts forward various reasons to justify that redistribution is not the solution; that inequality is pathological, cumula tive, and social; that it rests on myth and that current economic doctrine is a mythological
    ...

  8. The Geography of Gender Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset ...

  9. Globalization and Income Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Florian; Fuest, Clemens; Potrafke, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    This paper re-examines the link between globalization and income inequality. We use data for 140 countries over the period 1970-2014 and employ an IV approach to deal with the endogeneity of globalization measures. We find that the link between globalization and income inequality differs across different groups of countries. There is a robust positive relationship between globalization and inequality in the transition countries including China and most countries of Middle and Eastern Europe. ...

  10. Improvement of Aczél's Inequality and Popoviciu's Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhe Wu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We generalize and sharpen Aczél's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality by means of two classical inequalities, a unified improvement of Aczél's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality is given. As application, an integral inequality of Aczél-Popoviciu type is established.

  11. Quantifying Leg Movement Activity During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany

    2016-12-01

    Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  13. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  14. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state

  15. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Koji [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-26

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state.

  16. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  17. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  18. Leg stiffness during phases of countermovement and take-off in vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    With respect to cyclic movements such as human gait, running or hopping, leg stiffness is a little variable parameter. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in leg stiffness during the phase of countermovement and take-off when performing a single maximum counter-movement jump. Kistler force plates and a BTS SMART system for comprehensive motion analysis were employed in the study. The study covered a group of 12 athletes from university basketball teams. Leg stiffness was calculated in those parts of countermovement and take-off phases where its level is relatively constant and the relationship F(Δl) is similar to linear one. Mean total stiffness (±SD) in both legs in the countermovement phase amounted to 6.5 ± 1.5 kN/m, whereas during the take-off phase this value was 6.9 ± 1 kN/m. No statistically significant differences were found between leg stiffness during the countermovement phase and takeoff phase in the study group at the level of significance set at α = 0.05. This suggests that the leg stiffness in phase of countermovement and phase of take-off are much similar to each other, despite different function of both phases. Similar to cyclic movements, leg stiffness turned out relatively constant when performing a single vertical jump. There are also reported statistically significant correlations between body mass, body height, length of lower limbs and leg stiffness. The stiffness analysed by the authors should be understood as quasi-stiffness because the measurements of ΔF(Δl) were made during transient states where inertia and dumping forces are likely to affect the final result.

  19. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  20. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  1. Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Wang, Yin; Liu, Zhishun

    2008-10-08

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common movement disorder for which patients may seek treatment with acupuncture. However, the benefits of acupuncture in the treatment of RLS are unclear and have not been evaluated in a systematic review until now. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in patients with RLS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2007), EMBASE (January 1980 to 2007 Week 8), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1978 to February 2007), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to February 2007), VIP Database (1989 to February 2007), Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to 2007) and Korean Medical Database (1986 to 2007). Four Chinese journals, relevant academic conference proceedings and reference lists of articles were handsearched. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no intervention, placebo acupuncture, sham acupuncture, pharmacological treatments, or other non-acupuncture interventions for primary RLS were included. Trials comparing acupuncture plus non-acupuncture treatment with the same non-acupuncture treatment were also included. Trials that only compared different forms of acupuncture or different acupoints were excluded. Two authors independently identified potential articles, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Relative risk (RR) was used for binary outcomes and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Results were combined only in the absence of clinical heterogeneity. Fourteen potentially relevant trials were identified initially, but twelve of them did not meet the selection criteria and were excluded. Only two trials with 170 patients met the inclusion criteria. No data could be combined due to clinical heterogeneity between trials. Both trials had methodological and/or reporting shortcomings. No significant difference was detected

  2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Calculus of variations, shape optimization, isoperimetric prob- lems. Figure 1. Starting from the triangle inequality, we will dis- cuss a series of shape optimization problems us- ing elementary geometry and ultimately derive the classical isoperimetric inequality in the plane. One of the important results we learn in plane geom ...

  3. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Global carbon inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubacek, Klaus [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Masaryk University, Department of Environmental Studies, Brno (Czech Republic); Baiocchi, Giovanni [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD (United States); Feng, Kuishuang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Munoz Castillo, Raul [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Sun, Laixiang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); SOAS, University of London, London (United Kingdom); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Xue, Jinjun [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya (Japan); Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  5. The Grothendieck inequality revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Blei, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The classical Grothendieck inequality is viewed as a statement about representations of functions of two variables over discrete domains by integrals of two-fold products of functions of one variable. An analogous statement is proved, concerning continuous functions of two variables over general topological domains. The main result is the construction of a continuous map \\Phi from l^2(A) into L^2(\\Omega_A, \\mathbb{P}_A), where A is a set, \\Omega_A = \\{-1,1\\}^A, and \\mathbb{P}_A is the uniform probability measure on \\Omega_A.

  6. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StanislawSzweda

    2001-01-01

    during blasting. The majority of recorded force changes in the legs has been caused by a dynamic interaction of the roof. They are characterized by a load increase coefficient Kd, satisfying the inequality i .06 < Kd = Fm/Fst.p < 1.24. A much smeller number of cases, when the external load acted on the bases, was recorded. Individual, recorded results of measurements indicate that changes of the force in the legs, caused by external loads of this type, run more intensively due to roof loads (1.08 < Kd< l. 80), particularly in these cases when the nearthe-roof layer of the seam Is under mining. A determination of more precise relations among the changes of forces in the legs, caused by a dynamic interaction of the floor and the bases and the mining and geological conditions requires a performance of additional underground tests. Keywords longwall, bumping hazard, powered roof support unit

  7. Maximal loads acting on legs of powered roof support unit in longwalls with bumping hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Szweda

    2001-01-01

    acting on a unit du ring blasting. The majority of recorded force changes in the legs has been caused by a dyna mic interaction of the roof. They are characterized by a load increase coefficie nt Kd, satisfying the inequality 1.06legs, caused by external loads of this type, run more inten sively due to roof loads (1.08legs, caused by a dynamic interacti on of the floor and the bases and the mining and geological conditions requires a performance of additional underground tests.

  8. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    was defined as absence of hock infection, swollen hock, and bruising. The potential indicators were locomotion and foot and leg conformation, represented by rear leg side view, rear leg rear view, foot angle, and apparent hock quality and bone structure. The study was conducted using records from 429......,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0.......01 for all 3 combined claw and leg health traits (on the observed binary scale), 0.09 for locomotion, 0.14 for rear leg rear view, 0.19 for rear leg side view, 0.13 for foot angle, 0.22 for apparent hock quality, and 0.27 for apparent bone structure. Heritabilities were 0.06 and 0.01 for claw health and leg...

  9. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  10. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…

  11. Reinterpreting between-group inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, C.T.M.; Lanjouw, P.F.; Mistiaen, J.; Özler, B

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate observed inequality between population groups against a benchmark of the maximum between-group inequality attainable given the number and relative sizes of those groups under examination. Because our measure is normalized by these parameters, drawing comparisons across different settings

  12. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  13. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.

  14. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Fisher

    Full Text Available Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.

  15. Bell inequalities for random fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Peter [Physics Department, Yale University, CT 06520 (United States)

    2006-06-09

    The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not satisfied for random field models in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.

  16. Bell inequalities for random fields

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not usually satisfied for random fields in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.

  17. Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)

  18. Nonlocal interactions and Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garuccio, A.; Selleri, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that natural extensions of the local hidden variable theories to include nonlocal effects still lead to a full validity of Bell's inequality. It is conjectured that the essential point expressed by this inequality is not locality, but the wave-particle dualism

  19. Strongly nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, F E; Brézis, H

    1980-02-01

    An existence and uniqueness result is established for a general class of variational inequalities for parabolic partial differential equations of the form partial differentialu/ partial differentialt + A(u) + g(u) = f with g nondecreasing but satisfying no growth condition. The proof is based upon a type of compactness result for solutions of variational inequalities that should find a variety of other applications.

  20. Universal patterns of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2010-07-01

    Probability distributions of money, income and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for the USA. We show that the increase in income inequality in the USA originates primarily from the increase in the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000 and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.

  1. Bilateral differences in muscle fascicle architecture are not related to the preferred leg in jumping athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeles, Jeroen; Lenchant, Sietske; Vanlommel, Liesbeth; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-07-01

    In many sports, athletes have a preferred leg for sport-specific tasks, such as jumping, which leads to strength differences between both legs, yet the underlying changes in force-generating mechanical properties of the muscle remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) is different between both legs in well-trained jumping athletes and untrained individuals. In addition, we investigated the effect of two ankle joint positions on ultrasound muscle architecture measurements. Muscle architecture of both legs was measured in 16 athletes and 11 untrained individuals at two ankle joint angles: one with the ankle joint in a tendon slack length (TSL) angle and one in a 90° angle. Fascicle lengths and pennation angles at TSL were not different between the preferred and non-preferred legs in either group. The comparison between groups showed no difference in fascicle length, but greater pennation angles were found in the athletes (21.7° ± 0.5°) compared to the untrained individuals (19.8° ± 0.6°). Analyses of the muscle architecture at a 90° angle yielded different results, mainly in the comparison between groups. These results provide only partial support for the notion of training-induced changes in muscle architecture as only differences in pennation angles were found between athletes and untrained individuals. Furthermore, our results provide support to the recommendation to take into account the tension-length relationship and to measure muscle architecture at individually determined tendon slack joint angles.

  2. How education determine wage inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Student Ionuț Constantin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems the economy of the past 50 years has been generated by the increase to differences in income between workers with a level of preparedness higher compared to those with a poor level of training. There is a view that education can lead to greater inequality of income. Analyzing the current situation of increasing inequalities in most developed societies in which there is a high level of education, with schools that are financed by public funds, we can reach the conclusion that a labor force educated young will be associated with an increase in inequality of income, so education does not reduce social inequality, reducing inequality is necessary for the education of the active population is high but one uniform

  3. Inequalities, assessment and computer algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary curricula. We consider the formal mathematical processes by which such inequalities are solved, and we consider the notation and syntax through which solutions are expressed. We review the extent to which current CAS can accurately solve these inequalities, and the form given to the solutions by the designers of this software. Finally, we discuss the functionality needed to deal with students' answers, i.e. to establish equivalence (or otherwise) of expressions representing unions of intervals. We find that while contemporary CAS accurately solve inequalities there is a wide variety of notation used.

  4. (Mis)perceptions of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P; Norton, Michael I

    2017-12-01

    Laypeople's beliefs about the current distribution of outcomes such as income and wealth in their country influence their attitudes toward issues ranging from taxation to healthcare - but how accurate are these beliefs? We review the burgeoning literature on (mis)perceptions of inequality. First, we show that people on average misperceive current levels of inequality, typically underestimating the extent of inequality in their country. Second, we delineate potential causes of these misperceptions, including people's overreliance on cues from their local environment, leading to their erroneous beliefs about both the overall distributions of wealth and income and their place in those distributions. Third, we document that these (mis)perceptions of inequality - but not actual levels of inequality - drive behavior and preferences for redistribution. More promisingly, we review research suggesting that correcting misperceptions influences preferences and policy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On stochastic inequalities and comparisons of reliability measures for weighted distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyede Broderick O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inequalities, relations and stochastic orderings, as well as useful ageing notions for weighted distributions are established. Also presented are preservation and stability results and comparisons for weighted and length-biased distributions. Relations for length-biased and equilibrium distributions as examples of weighted distributions are also presented.

  6. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  7. Scaling of avian bipedal locomotion reveals independent effects of body mass and leg posture on gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra

    2018-05-22

    Birds provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationships between body size, limb morphology and bipedal locomotor function. Birds are ecologically diverse and span a large range of body size and limb proportions, yet all use their hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass from painted quail to ostriches. Using dynamic similarity theory to interpret scaling trends, we find evidence for independent effects of body mass, leg length and leg posture on gait. We find no evidence for scaling of duty factor with body size, suggesting that vertical forces scale with dynamic similarity. However, at dynamically similar speeds, large birds use relatively shorter stride lengths and higher stride frequencies compared with small birds. We also find that birds with long legs for their mass, such as the white stork and red-legged seriema, use longer strides and lower swing frequencies, consistent with the influence of high limb inertia on gait. We discuss the observed scaling of avian bipedal gait in relation to mechanical demands for force, work and power relative to muscle actuator capacity, muscle activation costs related to leg cycling frequency, and considerations of stability and agility. Many opportunities remain for future work to investigate how morphology influences gait dynamics among birds specialized for different habitats and locomotor behaviors. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  9. Fast and scalable inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2016-09-07

    Inequality joins, which is to join relations with inequality conditions, are used in various applications. Optimizing joins has been the subject of intensive research ranging from efficient join algorithms such as sort-merge join, to the use of efficient indices such as (Formula presented.)-tree, (Formula presented.)-tree and Bitmap. However, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are notably very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms based on sorted arrays and space-efficient bit-arrays. We further introduce a simple method to estimate the selectivity of inequality joins which is then used to optimize multiple predicate queries and multi-way joins. Moreover, we study an incremental inequality join algorithm to handle scenarios where data keeps changing. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, a distributed version on top of Spark SQL, and an existing data cleaning system, Nadeef. By comparing our algorithms against well-known optimization techniques for inequality joins, we show our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  10. Health Inequalities in Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2017-01-01

    The existence of social inequalities in health is well established. One strand of research focuses on inequalities in health within a single country. A separate and newer strand of research focuses on the relationship between inequality and average population health across countries. Despite the theorization of (presumably variable) social conditions as “fundamental causes” of disease and health, the cross-national literature has focused on average, aggregate population health as the central outcome. Controversies currently surround macro-structural determinants of overall population health such as income inequality. We advance and redirect these debates by conceptualizing inequalities in health as cross-national variables that are sensitive to social conditions. Using data from 48 World Values Survey countries, representing 74% of the world’s population, we examine cross-national variation in inequalities in health. The results reveal substantial variation in health inequalities according to income, education, sex, and migrant status. While higher socioeconomic position is associated with better self-rated health around the globe, the size of the association varies across institutional context, and across dimensions of stratification. There is some evidence that education and income are more strongly associated with self-rated health than sex or migrant status. PMID:29104292

  11. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  12. Inequality in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Rikke; Poulsen, Ingrid

    OBJECTIVES: The overall Ph.d.-study aims to investigate rehabilitation trajectories in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, and to describe mechanisms behind the institutionalized (health care) part of inequality in health with emphasis on interfaces and critical transitions...... from time of accident to twelve month follow-up. The case study aims to explore the process of rehabilitation in a high status patient, related to professions in healthcare. The focus is on how a high status patient is perceived and handled in organizations and among professions, and strategies applied...... by the patient and relatives. METHODS: Observation and qualitative interview has been conducted of one patient following the patients’ trajectories though different phases of the rehabilitation process during admission at Traumatic Brain Unit. Interdisciplinary meetings are regarded as key elements...

  13. Testing Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris

    1991-01-01

    Testing Bell's inequalities described in the paper 'On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox' the conclusions were extremely clear and completely convincing, but there was something special about this paper: it led to two contradictory conclusions. The first part showed that EPR correlations predicted by quantum mechanics are so strong that one can hardly avoid the conclusion that quantum mechanics should be completed by some supplementary parameters (the so-called 'hidden-variables'). But the second part demonstrated that the hidden-variables description in fact contradicts some predictions of quantum mechanics, which is to say both theories predict different results. At the end of the sixties, there was no experimental result to answer the question. The contradiction discovered by John Bell is so subtle that it was necessary to design and build specific experiments. The problems of such experiments are discussed. (R.P.) 7 refs., 4 figs

  14. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The kinematic differences between off-spin and leg-spin bowling in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Aaron J; Ferdinands, René E D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Spin bowling is generally coached using a standard technical framework, but this practice has not been based upon a comparative biomechanical analysis of leg-spin and off-spin bowling. This study analysed the three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of 23 off-spin and 20 leg-spin bowlers using a Cortex motion analysis system to identify how aspects of the respective techniques differed. A multivariate ANOVA found that certain data tended to validate some of the stated differences in the coaching literature. Off-spin bowlers had a significantly shorter stride length (p = 0.006) and spin rate (p = 0.001), but a greater release height than leg-spinners (p = 0.007). In addition, a number of other kinematic differences were identified that were not previously documented in coaching literature. These included a larger rear knee flexion (p = 0.007), faster approach speed (p < 0.001), and flexing elbow action during the arm acceleration compared with an extension action used by most of the off-spin bowlers. Off-spin and leg-spin bowlers also deviated from the standard coaching model for the shoulder alignment, front knee angle at release, and forearm mechanics. This study suggests that off-spin and leg-spin are distinct bowling techniques, supporting the development of two different coaching models in spin bowling.

  16. The Oxford handbook of economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Smeeding, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential guide for students and researchers interested in economic inequality Contains 27 original research contributions from the top names in economic inequality. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality presents a new and challenging analysis of economic inequality, focusing primarily on

  17. Jensen's operator inequality and its converses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...

  18. Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…

  19. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The effects of income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candidate Ionuţ Constantin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time have been addressed many possible effects arising from inequalities of income. Criticism for each of these effects were immediate, most of them claiming that the selection of samples used to demonstrate the assumptions made were „carefully” selected in order to achieve the target and that there is not a direct relationship between income inequality (their increment and these effects. Of the many effects that income inequalities have, identified in the literature, this paper will analyze three of them, namely: economic growth, human capital and social cohesion.

  1. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omabegho, Tosan; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-04-03

    A substantial challenge in engineering molecular motors is designing mechanisms to coordinate the motion between multiple domains of the motor so as to bias random thermal motion. For bipedal motors, this challenge takes the form of coordinating the movement of the biped's legs so that they can move in a synchronized fashion. To address this problem, we have constructed an autonomous DNA bipedal walker that coordinates the action of its two legs by cyclically catalyzing the hybridization of metastable DNA fuel strands. This process leads to a chemically ratcheted walk along a directionally polar DNA track. By covalently cross-linking aliquots of the walker to its track in successive walking states, we demonstrate that this Brownian motor can complete a full walking cycle on a track whose length could be extended for longer walks. We believe that this study helps to uncover principles behind the design of unidirectional devices that can function without intervention. This device should be able to fulfill roles that entail the performance of useful mechanical work on the nanometer scale.

  2. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  3. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  4. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  5. Inequalities for majorizing analytic functions and their applications to rational trigonometric functions and polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesov, A V

    2014-01-01

    New inequalities are established for analytic functions satisfying Meiman's majorization conditions. Estimates for values of and differential inequalities involving rational trigonometric functions with an integer majorant on an interval of length less than the period and with prescribed poles which are symmetrically positioned relative to the real axis, as well as differential inequalities for trigonometric polynomials in some classes, are given as applications. These results improve several theorems due to Meiman, Genchev, Smirnov and Rusak. Bibliography: 27 titles

  6. Correlations in star networks: from Bell inequalities to network inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Renou, Marc Olivier; Gisin, Nicolas; Brunner, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The problem of characterizing classical and quantum correlations in networks is considered. Contrary to the usual Bell scenario, where distant observers share a physical system emitted by one common source, a network features several independent sources, each distributing a physical system to a subset of observers. In the quantum setting, the observers can perform joint measurements on initially independent systems, which may lead to strong correlations across the whole network. In this work, we introduce a technique to systematically map a Bell inequality to a family of Bell-type inequalities bounding classical correlations on networks in a star-configuration. Also, we show that whenever a given Bell inequality can be violated by some entangled state ρ , then all the corresponding network inequalities can be violated by considering many copies of ρ distributed in the star network. The relevance of these ideas is illustrated by applying our method to a specific multi-setting Bell inequality. We derive the corresponding network inequalities, and study their quantum violations. (paper)

  7. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....

  8. Homogenization of variational inequalities for obstacle problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Results on the convergence of solutions of variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities are defined by a non-linear monotone operator of the second order with periodic rapidly oscillating coefficients and a sequence of functions characterizing the obstacles. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting variational inequalities are obtained. Derivation methods for such inequalities are presented. Connections between the limiting variational inequalities and two-scale and macroscale minimization problems are established in the case of potential operators.

  9. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  10. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  11. Income inequality in today's China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-05-13

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.

  12. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Mikkelson

    Full Text Available Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  13. Non-commutative Hardy inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We extend Hardy's inequality from sequences of non-negative numbers to sequences of positive semi-definite operators if the parameter p satisfies 1 1. Applications to trace functions are given. We introduce the tracial geometric mean...

  14. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D

    2007-05-16

    Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  15. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  16. Health inequalities--gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Antonina

    2012-01-01

    Health inequalities have become recently one of the major concerns of European health policy. Observed differences in health status of men and women are also frequently discussed within this framework, and are becoming a subject of growing interest of researchers. Clinical and epidemiological researches document male-female health differences, trying to explain them within bio-medical model. However, apart of biological (sex) divergence, health inequalities reflect differences in social roles, social status and culturally established patterns and stereotypes of femininity and masculinity (gender differences). The article, using sociological perspective, attempts to show that observed differences in man's and women's health may be attributable to the differing sociocultural and structural arrangements, social support and lifestyle factors of both genders. As a result, many of these differences are of inequality character. Another dimension of inequality discussed in this article is the way man and women are treated by the institution of medicine.

  17. [Social inequality in home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A

    2013-06-01

    Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.

  18. Bell's inequalities and Kolmogorov's axioms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After recalling proofs of the Bell inequality based on the assumptions of separability and of noncontextuality, the most general noncontextual contrapositive conditional probabilities consistent with the Aspect experiment are constructed. In general these probabilities are not all positive.

  19. Chebyshev splines and Kolmogorov inequalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagdasarov, Sergey

    1998-01-01

    .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.2 Cases of the complete solution of the Kolmogorov problem... 0.2 Kolmogorov - Landau problem in the Sobolev class W~+l(I) ... 0.2.1 Inequalities...

  20. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  2. Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the ...

  3. Inequalities for nonideal correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the inefficiency loophole in the Bell theorem. The author examines factorizable stochastic models for the Bell inequalities, where they allow the detection efficiency to depend both on the hidden state of the measured system and also its passage through an analyzer. They show that, nevertheless, if the efficiency functions are symmetric between the two wings of the experiment, one can dispense with supplementary assumptions and derive new inequalities that enable the models to be tested even for highly inefficient experiments

  4. Geometric inequalities methods of proving

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2017-01-01

    This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .

  5. Experimental violation of entropic inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, F.A.; Castagnoli, G.; Ekert, A.; Horodecki, P.; Alves, C.M.; Sergienko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We report the experimental evidence that polarization entangled photons violate the inequality based on Renyi entropy. Our experimental method is based on four-photon coincidences in photon bunching and antibunching effects. We introduce an additional 'phase marking' technique, which allow observing the violation of the inequalities even with non-deterministic sources of entangled photons. Our method can be applied to measure selected non-linear properties of bipartite quantum states, such as purity or entanglement. (author)

  6. Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelson, Gregory M.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D.

    2007-01-01

    Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of sp...

  7. Broadband Internet and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...

  8. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  9. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Arne A.; Pitassi, Luiza H. U.; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia,

  10. Leg og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Leg synes at have et potentiale som metode til at fremme læring. Men hvordan? Legen har en vis grad af parallelitet med den virkelige verden i dens interaktive og relationelle strukturer. Det bliver muligt at finde nye meninger i interaktioner, som refererer til vante interaktionsformer, men...

  11. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  12. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  13. Parallel kinematics robot with five legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Robot with multiple degrees of freedom comprising five legs (2) linked at a first of their ends to a base ( 3), and at a second of their ends opposite to the first ends to a mobile platform (4), which platform carries at least one tool (5, 6, 121, 12 "), and wherein the robot further comprises an

  14. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  15. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  16. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Chronic leg ulcer caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Miriam A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; van Soolingen, Dick; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Faber, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Rare tropical skin diseases are seen more frequently in Western countries because of the increased popularity of visiting tropical regions. A 55-year-old white man developed a painless leg ulcer after traveling in Guatemala and Belize. A mycobacterium was cultured from a biopsy specimen and was

  18. Length scales for the Navier-Stokes equations on a rotating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrychko, Yuliya N.; Bartuccelli, Michele V.

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter we obtain the dissipative length scale for the Navier-Stokes equations on a two-dimensional rotating sphere S 2 . This system is a fundamental model of the large scale atmospheric dynamics. Using the equations of motion in their vorticity form, we construct the ladder inequalities from which a set of time-averaged length scales is obtained

  19. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  20. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    .01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama...... Papers”)—matched to population-wide wealth records in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. We find that tax evasion rises sharply with wealth, a phenomenon random audits fail to capture. On average about 3% of personal taxes are evaded in Scandinavia, but this figure rises to close to 30% in the top 0...

  1. Analysis of balance control methods based on inverted pendulum for legged robots

    OpenAIRE

    Denisov, A.; Iakovlev, R.; Mamaev, I.; Pavliuk, N.

    2017-01-01

    Methods of balance control for a legged robot, the model of which is presented as a two-section inverted pendulum, are considered. The following balance methods for humanoid robots are analysed: the parallel algorithm of the network operator method; the method of natural synergies; the method of fuzzy control, the spherical inverted pendulum mode, a dual length linear inverted pendulum method. The best of these methods will be used in the development of the Russian anthropomorphic robot Antares.

  2. Analysis of balance control methods based on inverted pendulum for legged robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of balance control for a legged robot, the model of which is presented as a two-section inverted pendulum, are considered. The following balance methods for humanoid robots are analysed: the parallel algorithm of the network operator method; the method of natural synergies; the method of fuzzy control, the spherical inverted pendulum mode, a dual length linear inverted pendulum method. The best of these methods will be used in the development of the Russian anthropomorphic robot Antares.

  3. Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the  Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...

  4. Incorporating concepts of inequality and inequity into health benefits analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchmann Jessica L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although environmental policy decisions are often based in part on both risk assessment information and environmental justice concerns, formalized approaches for addressing inequality or inequity when estimating the health benefits of pollution control have been lacking. Inequality indicators that fulfill basic axioms and agree with relevant definitions and concepts in health benefits analysis and environmental justice analysis can allow for quantitative examination of efficiency-equality tradeoffs in pollution control policies. Methods To develop appropriate inequality indicators for health benefits analysis, we provide relevant definitions from the fields of risk assessment and environmental justice and consider the implications. We evaluate axioms proposed in past studies of inequality indicators and develop additional axioms relevant to this context. We survey the literature on previous applications of inequality indicators and evaluate five candidate indicators in reference to our proposed axioms. We present an illustrative pollution control example to determine whether our selected indicators provide interpretable information. Results and Conclusions We conclude that an inequality indicator for health benefits analysis should not decrease when risk is transferred from a low-risk to high-risk person, and that it should decrease when risk is transferred from a high-risk to low-risk person (Pigou-Dalton transfer principle, and that it should be able to have total inequality divided into its constituent parts (subgroup decomposability. We additionally propose that an ideal indicator should avoid value judgments about the relative importance of transfers at different percentiles of the risk distribution, incorporate health risk with evidence about differential susceptibility, include baseline distributions of risk, use appropriate geographic resolution and scope, and consider multiple competing policy alternatives. Given

  5. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs syndrome Diagnosis Talk to a board certified sleep medicine physician if you think you have restless legs ... He or she can refer you to a sleep medicine physician if necessary. The sleep physician may ask ...

  6. Six-legged walking robot for service operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ihme, T.; Schneider, A.; Schmucker, U.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the control system of a six-legged vehicle including force control. Considered control schemes are control of forces and control of body motion. The experimental result with a six-legged robot is presented.

  7. Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.

  8. Healthcare investment and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ayona; Shin, Jong Kook; Subramanian, Chetan; Swaminathan, Shailender

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines how the relative shares of public and private health expenditures impact income inequality. We study a two period overlapping generation's growth model in which longevity is determined by both private and public health expenditure and human capital is the engine of growth. Increased investment in health, reduces mortality, raises return to education and affects income inequality. In such a framework we show that the cross-section earnings inequality is non-decreasing in the private share of health expenditure. We test this prediction empirically using a variable that proxies for the relative intensity of investments (private versus public) using vaccination data from the National Sample Survey Organization for 76 regions in India in the year 1986-87. We link this with region-specific expenditure inequality data for the period 1987-2012. Our empirical findings, though focused on a specific health investment (vaccines), suggest that an increase in the share of the privately provided health care results in higher inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás

    2009-02-01

    We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.

  10. Thermal epiphysiodesis Made with RFA. An Alternative Treatment for Leg Length Discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel

    of staples or tension devices, and destruction with curettes or drills. Complications such as breaching of the cortex, damage to the metaphysis, and vascular or nerve injury have potentially serious consequences. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable and precise procedure which overcomes...... the complications. Radiofrequency ablation involves the application of energy in the radio wave frequency resulting in local thermal coagulative necrosis. It has been shown to be a reliable technique for creating thermally induced coagulation necrosis. The experience with this technique has been reported...

  11. Leg intravenous pressure during head-up tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Poelkens, F.; Wouters, C.W.; Kooijman, H.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Leg vascular resistance is calculated as the arterial-venous pressure gradient divided by blood flow. During orthostatic challenges it is assumed that the hydrostatic pressure contributes equally to leg arterial, as well as to leg venous pressure. Because of venous valves, one may question whether,

  12. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders

  13. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  14. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  15. Experimental violation of Svetlichny's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J; Kaltenbaek, R; Resch, K J

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that quantum mechanics is incompatible with local realistic theories. Svetlichny showed, through the development of a Bell-like inequality, that quantum mechanics is also incompatible with a restricted class of nonlocal realistic theories for three particles where any two-body nonlocal correlations are allowed (Svetlichny 1987 Phys. Rev. D 35 3066). In the present work, we experimentally generate three-photon GHZ states to test Svetlichny's inequality. Our states are fully characterized by quantum state tomography using an overcomplete set of measurements and have a fidelity of (84±1)% with the target state. We measure a convincing, 3.6σ, violation of Svetlichny's inequality and rule out this class of restricted nonlocal realistic models.

  16. Income Inequality: Does it Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Wong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality has gained considerable prominence worldwide in recent years. The growing discontent among the lower-income segment of industrialized societies is limited largely to resentment because of economic wealth being perceived to be steadily concentrating among fewer people. Quantified economic inequality does not necessarily mean the extreme deprivation of people, especially in Europe and North America. There will be no revolutionary-scale social unrest among the middle class if their expectation of satisfactory wellbeing is continually met. The connection between income inequality and poverty is uncertain because of the variable definition of poverty. The classical characterization of poverty is largely deficient as the actual economic hardships encountered by the lowest-income segment of society are never fully described in the socio-geographic context. What is deprivation in Europe and North America may be considered to be “luxurious” in economically poorer countries.

  17. Pictorial essay: Ultrasonography in 'tennis leg'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jeshil R; Shah, Bipin R; Shah, Ankit B

    2010-11-01

    Tennis leg is caused by a rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, usually at its distal musculotendinous junction region. However, tears in this muscle and its tendon are also included under the term 'tennis leg'. It is seen regularly in practice and is an important cause of a painful calf. The common USG findings include: disruption of the pinnate pattern of the distal medial gastrocnemius, usually near the junction of the triceps surae (which is the echogenic line between the gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the plantaris muscles), fluid tracking along the fascia, adjacent hematoma, and intramuscular tears as well as hematomas. USG is useful for confirming the diagnosis, excluding other causes of a painful calf, for assessing the severity of the disease, and in follow-up.

  18. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, V.

    1980-01-01

    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  19. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  20. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices-the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we shift from the notion of Lorenz curves to the notion of Lorenz sets, define inequality indices in terms of Lorenz sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of Lorenz sets. In particular, three principle diameters of Lorenz sets are established as meaningful quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality-thus indeed providing a geometric quantification of socioeconomic inequality.

  1. New Integral Inequalities through Invexity with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Qaisar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some inequalities of Simpson’s inequality type for functions whose derivatives absolute values are quasi-preinvex function. Applications to some special means are considered.

  2. The analysis and geometry of Hardy's inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Balinsky, Alexander A; Lewis, Roger T

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents advances that have been made over recent decades in areas of research featuring Hardy's inequality and related topics. The inequality and its extensions and refinements are not only of intrinsic interest but are indispensable tools in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Hardy inequalities on domains have a substantial role and this necessitates a detailed investigation of significant geometric properties of a domain and its boundary. Other topics covered in this volume are Hardy- Sobolev-Maz’ya inequalities; inequalities of Hardy-type involving magnetic fields; Hardy, Sobolev and Cwikel-Lieb-Rosenbljum inequalities for Pauli operators; the Rellich inequality.   The Analysis and Geometry of Hardy’s Inequality provides an up-to-date account of research in areas of contemporary interest and would be suitable for a graduate course in mathematics or physics. A good basic knowledge of real and complex analysis is a prerequisite.

  3. Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...

  4. Noncommutative Blackwell-Ross martingale inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Ali; Moslehian, Mohammad Sal; Sadeghi, Ghadir

    We establish a noncommutative Blackwell-Ross inequality for supermartingales under a suitable condition which generalizes Khan’s work to the noncommutative setting. We then employ it to deduce an Azuma-type inequality.

  5. On the Lp affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of − p K . Author Affiliations. Wuyang Yu1 Gangsong Leng2. Institute of Management Decision ...

  6. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  7. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    OpenAIRE

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a...

  8. Comparative morphology of the prothoracic leg in heliconian butterflies: Tracing size allometry, podite fusions and losses in ontogeny and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gilson R P; Silva, Denis S; Gonçalves, Gislene L

    2017-07-01

    Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on host plants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels. Female tarsi were similar, club-shaped, showing from four to five tarsomeres, each bearing sensilla chaetica and trichodea. Male tarsi were cylindrical, formed from five (early diverging lineages) to one (descendant lineages) either partially or totally fused tarsomeres, all deprived of sensilla. Pretarsi were reduced in both sexes, in some species being either vestigial or absent. Tarsal lengths were smaller for males in almost all species. An abrupt decrease in size was detected for the prothoracic legs during molting to the last larval instar at both histological and morphometric levels. In both sexes, most allometric coefficients found at the population level for the prothoracic legs were negative compared to the mesothoracic leg and also to wings. Prothoracic tarsi decreased proportionally in size over evolutionary time; the largest and smallest values being found for nodes of the oldest and youngest lineages, respectively. Our results demonstrate that evolution of the prothoracic leg in heliconian butterflies has been based on losses and fusions of podites, in association with negative size allometry at static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels. These processes have been more pronounced in males. Our study provided further support to the hypothesis that evolution of these leg structures is driven by females, by changing their use from walking to drumming during oviposition site selection. In males the

  9. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  10. Sleep board review question: restless legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobomi O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Ms. Jones (not her real name is a 63-year-old woman who states that she gets very fidgety when sitting in a theater, watching a movie or when flying long distances on a plane. She is unable to find words to describe the sensation but she states that moving her legs make them feel better. Lately, she has been getting this feeling almost every night. She reports no leg discomfort in the daytime. She denies muscle cramps her legs. She had some recent investigations done by her primary care physician because of complaints of fatigue. Which of the following will be helpful in the diagnosis and management in this patient? 1. An overnight polysomnogram showing apnea hypopnea index of 1.6 events per hour and no periodic limb movements (PLMs 2. Ferritin level of 18 ng/ml (normal range 20-200 ng/ml 3. Serum Bicarbonate of 29 mEq/L (normal range 23-29 mEq/L 4. Thyroid …

  11. Social inequality and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, N. C.; Hansen, L.; Judge, A.

    2015-01-01

    Social inequality appears to be increasing in many countries. We explored whether risk of hip fracture was associated with markers of inequality and whether these relationships changed with time, using data from Danish Health Registries. Methods: All patients 60 years or older with a primary hip...... fracture (ICD10: S720, S721, S722 and S729) were identified from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2011. Hip fracture patients were matched 1:1 on age, gender and year of fracture to a non-hip fracture control. An individual's education attainment was defined as basic, secondary or higher, and their income...

  12. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolovsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics

  13. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolovsky, M

    2003-09-15

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.

  14. Bell's inequality without alternative settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2003-01-01

    A suitable generalized measurement described by a 4-element positive operator-valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality

  15. Carbon emissions and income inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravallion, M.; Heil, M.; Jalan, J.

    2000-01-01

    We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. (Author)

  16. Quality-controlled dose reduction of full-leg radiography in patients with knee malalignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, Jost Karsten; Neumann, Regina; Stiller, Wolfram; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Stillfried, Eva von; Ewerbeck, Volker [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Digital plain radiographs of the full leg are frequently performed examinations of children and young adults. Thus, the objective of this work was to reduce the radiation exposure dependent on specific indications, and to determine objective quality-control criteria to ensure accurate assessment. Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all participants were obtained. In this prospective, randomized controlled, blinded, two-armed single-center study, 288 evaluable patients underwent plain radiography of the full leg with standard and reduced doses. The evaluation of the plain radiographs was conducted using the following criteria: mechanical axis, leg length, and maturation of the epiphyseal plate. Two blinded radiologists evaluated these criteria using a score ranging from 1 (definitely assessable) to 4 (not assessable). If a single criterion had been evaluated with a score of 3 or more points or all criteria with 2 points, the radiograph was scored as ''not assessable''. The study was designed as a non-inferiority trial. Eleven (3.8 %) examined X-rays were scored as not assessable. The rate of non-assessable radiographs with 33 % reduced dose was significantly not inferior to the rate of non-assessable radiographs with standard dose. The evaluation of the quality criteria was dose independent. Full-leg plain radiography in patients with knee malalignment can be performed at 33 % reduced dose without loss of relevant diagnostic information. (orig.)

  17. Duplex sonography of the near-surface leg veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.

    2007-01-01

    The book contains the following contributions: The ultrasonograph, selection of the ultrasonic transducer, anatomy of the near-surface vein system, physiology of the near-surface vein system, varicose status classification, systematics of the duplex sonography of near-surface leg veins, provocational maneuver for the duplex sonographic varicose diagnostics, exploration of vena saphena parva, perforans veins, side branches, phlebitis, sonography for varicose therapy, postsurgical sonography, deep leg veins, examination of near-surface leg veins for the pathology of the deep vein system, differential diagnostic clarification of leg oedema from the phlebologic-lymphological view, diagnostic side features along the near-surface leg veins

  18. results on an integral inequality of the opial- type

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We obtain integral inequalities which are Opial-type inequalities, mainly by using Jensen's inequality for the case of convex function. KEYWORDS: Integral inequalities, Opial's inequality, Jensen's inequality and convex functions. 2010 Subject Classification: 15A31. INTRODUCTION. Opial ([8])established the following ...

  19. Sources of Income Inequality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    HANS DE KRUIJK

    1987-01-01

    In a paper presented at the 1985 Conference of this Society [Kruijk and Leeuwen (1985)] we described some structural changes in poverty and income inequality in Pakistan during the 1970s. All inequality measures and poverty indicators pointed to the conclusion that poverty has declined while at the same time inequality has increased. Htlwever, the paper did not go deep enough into the reasons why inequality has increased. It did appear that neither the urban/rural distinction nor interprovinc...

  20. Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    A method for construction of the multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. A unified framework to establish all kinds of CHSH-type Bell inequalities by increasing step by step the number of observers is given. As an application, compact Bell inequalities, for eight observers, involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They...

  1. Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Muhamad; Badziag, Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

    2011-01-01

    Which is the simplest logical structure for which there is quantum nonlocality? We show that there are only three bipartite Bell inequalities with quantum violation associated with the simplest graph of relationships of exclusivity with a quantum-classical gap. These are the most elementary logical Bell inequalities. We show that the quantum violation of some well-known Bell inequalities is related to them. We test the three Bell inequalities with pairs of polarization-entangled photons and r...

  2. Competitive Pressure on China: Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the preceding paper we have seen that the top types of labor are relatively scarce in China and this raises the issue of income inequality under competition.Our main finding is that inequality would multiply indeed. Subsidiary, the nature of inequality would shift from the rural-urban divide to differences between social classes.The existing negative relationship between development and inequality would be dissolved by competition.

  3. On some fractional order hardy inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kufner Alois

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Weighted inequalities for fractional derivatives ( fractional order Hardy-type inequalities have recently been proved in [4] and [1]. In this paper, new inequalities of this type are proved and applied. In particular, the general mixed norm case and a general twodimensional weight are considered. Moreover, an Orlicz norm version and a multidimensional fractional order Hardy inequality are proved. The connections to related results are pointed out.

  4. Leg lengthening and femoral-offset reduction after total hip arthroplasty: where is the problem - stem or cup positioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiry, Bariq; Mahmood, Sarwar; Krupic, Ferid; Sayed-Noor, Arkan

    2017-09-01

    Background Restoration of femoral offset (FO) and leg length is an important goal in total hip arthroplasty (THA) as it improves functional outcome. Purpose To analyze whether the problem of postoperative leg lengthening and FO reduction is related to the femoral stem or acetabular cup positioning or both. Material and Methods Between September 2010 and April 2013, 172 patients with unilateral primary osteoarthritis treated with THA were included. Postoperative leg-length discrepancy (LLD) and global FO (summation of cup and FO) were measured by two observers using a standardized protocol for evaluation of antero-posterior plain hip radiographs. Patients with postoperative leg lengthening ≥10 mm (n = 41) or with reduced global FO >5 mm (n = 58) were further studied by comparing the stem and cup length of the operated side with the contralateral side in the lengthening group, and by comparing the stem and cup offset of the operated side with the contralateral side in the FO reduction group. We evaluated also the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the radiological measurements. Results Both observers found that leg lengthening was related to the stem positioning while FO reduction was related to the positioning of both the femoral stem and acetabular cup. Both inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were moderate to excellent (intra-class correlation co-efficient, ICC ≥0.69). Conclusion Post THA leg lengthening was mainly caused by improper femoral stem positioning while global FO reduction resulted from improper positioning of both the femoral stem and the acetabular cup.

  5. Inequality observed. A study of Attitudes towards Income Inequality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, Adam

    1986-01-01

    If people in two societies with similar distributions of income, experience income lnequality in very different ways, the consequences of income lnequality wilf also be very different in these societies. Where the tolerance for inequality is low and there is a widespread feeling that the

  6. Comparable indicators of inequality across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, B.; Marx, I.; Salverda, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the key issue for the GINI project of how best to approach the measurement of income inequality and wage inequality to enhance comparability across different studies. It focuses fi rst on income inequality, dealing with the defi nition of income, the income recipient unit, and the

  7. Some Inequalities for the -Curvature Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Wei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutwak introduced the notion of -curvature image and proved an inequality for the volumes of convex body and its -curvature image. In this paper, we first give an monotonic property of -curvature image. Further, we establish two inequalities for the -curvature image and its polar, respectively. Finally, an inequality for the volumes of -projection body and -curvature image is obtained.

  8. Wage Inequality and the Location of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David

    agglomeration and congestion forces. The model bridges the gap between the spatial inequality literature which abstracts from geography, and the economic geography literature which abstracts from inequality. We find that geographical location explains 9.2% of observed variation in wage inequality across...

  9. Inequity in the face of death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. García-Gómez (Pilar); E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); T.M. Bago d'Uva (Teresa)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different

  10. Competitive Pressure on China : Income Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the preceding paper we have seen that the top types of labor are relatively scarce in China and this raises the issue of income inequality under competition.Our main finding is that inequality would multiply indeed. Subsidiary, the nature of inequality would shift from the rural-urban divide to

  11. Volume inequalities for asymmetric Wulff shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Franz E.; Weberndorfer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Sharp reverse affine isoperimetric inequalities for asymmetric Wulff shapes and their polars are established, along with the characterization of all extremals. These new inequalities have as special cases previously obtained simplex inequalities by Ball, Barthe and Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. In particular, they provide the solution to a problem by Zhang.

  12. Noncommutative and vector-valued Rosenthal inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of a class of probabilistic inequalities, called Rosenthal inequalities. These inequalities provide two-sided estimates for the p-th moments of the sum of a sequence of independent, mean zero random variables in terms of a suitable norm on the sequence itself.

  13. Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…

  14. Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to

  15. Two Conceptions of Inequality | Strandberg | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following Temkin's Inequality I take my point of departure in an individualistic approach according to which a situation is bad in respect of inequality to the extent individuals in it have egalitarian complaints. After having criticised some of Temkin's notions of inequality, I argue that there are two proper egalitarian conceptions, ...

  16. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  17. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  18. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  19. General strongly nonlinear variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.; Ansari, Q.H.

    1990-07-01

    In this paper we develop iterative algorithms for finding approximate solutions for new classes of variational and quasi-variational inequalities which include, as special case, some known results in this field. It is shown that the solutions of the iterative schemes converge to the exact solutions. (author). 15 refs

  20. Fast and scalable inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair; Lucia, William; Singh, Meghna; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Kalnis, Panos

    2016-01-01

    an incremental inequality join algorithm to handle scenarios where data keeps changing. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, a distributed version on top of Spark SQL, and an existing data cleaning system, Nadeef

  1. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  2. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  3. Inequalities for quantum skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information...... with respect to this order structure in the set of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations....

  4. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  5. Probability inequalities for decomposition integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 315, č. 1 (2017), s. 240-248 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decomposition integral * Superdecomposition integral * Probability inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0470959.pdf

  6. Inequality, Environmental Protection and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsiliani, L.; Renstrom, T.I.

    2000-01-01

    Why do Scandinavian countries perform better in terms of environmental protection than other European Union countries? In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that societies characterised by low income inequality (such as the nordic European countries) generate political-economic equilibria where

  7. Two polynomial division inequalities in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetgheluck P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a first attempt to give numerical values for constants and , in classical estimates and where is an algebraic polynomial of degree at most and denotes the -metric on . The basic tools are Markov and Bernstein inequalities.

  8. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  9. Experimental tests of Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses the experiments related to Bell's inequalities. After first introducing Bell's theorem, the author presents a brief review of the experiments carried out between 1970 and 1976. Finally, some details on experiments that are in progress in the Institut d'Optique d'Orsay are given. (Auth.)

  10. Some higher order Hardy inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kufner, Alois; Kuliev, K.; Persson, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, Mar 26 (2012), s. 69 ISSN 1029-242X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2012 http://www.journalofinequalitiesandapplications.com/content/2012/1/69

  11. Effect of Leg-to-Body Ratio on Body Shape Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiire, Satoru

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have examined various aspects of human physical attractiveness. Attractiveness is considered an evolved psychological mechanism acquired via natural selection because an attractive body reflects an individual's health and fertility. The length of the legs is an often-emphasized aspect of attractiveness and has been investigated using the leg-to-body ratio (LBR), which reflects nutritional status of the infant, health status, fecundity, and other factors that are predictive of physical fitness. However, previous studies of leg length and physical fitness have produced mixed results. The present study investigated the relationship between LBR, defined as the height to perineum divided by total height, and perceived attractiveness. Three-dimensional stimuli (11 male and 11 female) were constructed with various LBR features. Each stimulus was rated by 40 women and 40 men in Japan on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the values closest to the average LBRs were rated as the most attractive. Furthermore, by fitting a quadratic curve on the relationship between attractiveness and LBR, an inverted U-shaped curve with the peak located at the average LBR was observed. In addition, high LBR values were rated as more attractive in females, whereas the opposite was true for males. These results suggest that average LBR is indicative of good health and good reproductive potential, whereas more extreme values are avoided because they could be indicative of diseases and other maladaptive conditions.

  12. Selection on an extreme weapon in the frog-legged leaf beetle (Sagra femorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Devin M; Katsuki, Masako; Emlen, Douglas J

    2017-11-01

    Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog-legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hind leg length) and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hind leg length and body size), and provide evidence for directional selection on weapon size per se and stabilizing selection on a particular scaling relationship in this population. We suggest that whenever growth in body size is sensitive to external circumstance such as nutrition, then considering deviations from population-level scaling relationships will better reflect patterns of selection relevant to evolution of the ornament or weapon than will variation in trait size per se. This is because trait-size versus body-size scaling relationships approximate underlying developmental reaction norms relating trait growth with body condition in these species. Heightened condition-sensitive expression is a hallmark of the exaggerated ornaments and weapons favored by sexual selection, yet this plasticity is rarely reflected in the way we think about-and measure-selection acting on these structures in the wild. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Effects of Wheelchair Seat-height Settings on Alternating Lower Limb Propulsion With Both Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.

  14. Inequalities theory of majorization and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Olkin, Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Although they play a fundamental role in nearly all branches of mathematics, inequalities are usually obtained by ad hoc methods rather than as consequences of some underlying ""theory of inequalities."" For certain kinds of inequalities, the notion of majorization leads to such a theory that is sometimes extremely useful and powerful for deriving inequalities. Moreover, the derivation of an inequality by methods of majorization is often very helpful both for providing a deeper understanding and for suggesting natural generalizations.Anyone wishing to employ majorization as a tool in applicati

  15. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  16. Results on an integral inequality of the opial- type | Rauf | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We obtain integral inequalities which are Opial-type inequalities, mainly by using Jensen's inequality for the case of convex function. Keywords: Integral inequalities, Opial's inequality, Jensen's inequality and convex functions ...

  17. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A, E-mail: juergen.rummel@uni-jena.d, E-mail: andre.seyfarth@uni-jena.d [Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena, Dornburger Strasse 23, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  18. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  19. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  20. Sleep disturbances in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jasmina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Resteless legs syndrome (RLS is chronical neurological disorder characterized by urge to move legs that is usually accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities. Sleep disturbance is one of the main accompanying symptoms of RLS which exists in approximatelly 90% of patients. Impairment of sleep is related to daily sleepiness, depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to detect frequency and characterisitics of sleep-related symptoms in patients with RLS, and its impairrment to daily sleepiness, fatique, anxiety and depression. Methods. We have examinated 94 patients with RLS. The diagnose of RLS was based on questionnaire with 4 specific questions according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG criteria updated in 2003. Severity of symptoms was astimated with IRLSSG Rating Scale, depression and anxiety with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS and sleepiness with Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS. We astimated sleep characteristics and disturbances with specific questionnaire. Results. In our study 79.9% of patients had sleep-related symptoms. Average sleep duration was 6.50 ± 1.42 hours, with average frequency of awakening 2.34 ± 1.69 times per night. Average ESS score was 5.12 ± 4.08 (0–17. Patients with more severe symptoms had higher degree of sleepiness (p = 0.005. Patients with higher symptoms frequency, significantly more often had sleep disturbance (p = 0.016, tiredness and daily sleepiness (p = 0.001. Daily sleepiness (ESS also significantly correlates with depression (p < 0.05 and anxiety (p = 0.012. Conclusion. Our results confirm that sleep disturbances are one of the key accompanying symptoms of RLS which cause daily sleepiness, tiredness, depression and anxiety. Therefore, their early recognition and appropriate treatment must be a priority in RLS patients.

  1. Inpatient care of the elderly in Brazil and India: Assessing social inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Andrew Amos; Andrade, Monica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya; Leone, Tiziana; Dilip, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly growing older adult populations in Brazil and India present major challenges for health systems in these countries, especially with regard to the equitable provision of inpatient care. The objective of this study was to contrast inequalities in both the receipt of inpatient care and the length of time that care was received among adults aged over 60 in two large countries with different modes of health service delivery. Using the Brazilian National Household Survey from 2003 and the Indian National Sample Survey Organisation survey from 2004 inequalities by wealth (measured by income in Brazil and consumption in India) were assessed using concentration curves and indices. Inequalities were also examined through the use of zero-truncated negative binomial models, studying differences in receipt of care and length of stay by region, health insurance, education and reported health status. Results indicated that there was no evidence of inequality in Brazil for both receipt and length of stay by income per capita. However, in India there was a pro-rich bias in the receipt of care, although once care was received there was no difference by consumption per capita for the length of stay. In both countries the higher educated and those with health insurance were more likely to receive care, while the higher educated had longer stays in hospital in Brazil. The health system reforms that have been undertaken in Brazil could be credited as a driver for reducing healthcare inequalities amongst the elderly, while the significant differences by wealth in India shows that reform is still needed to ensure the poor have access to inpatient care. Health reforms that move towards a more public funding model of service delivery in India may reduce inequality in elderly inpatient care in the country. PMID:23041128

  2. Tracking control of a leg rehabilitation machine driven by pneumatic artificial muscles using composite fuzzy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Kun

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve excellent tracking performance for a two-joint leg rehabilitation machine driven by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) because the system has a coupling effect, highly nonlinear and time-varying behavior associated with gas compression, and the nonlinear elasticity of bladder containers. This paper therefore proposes a T-S fuzzy theory with supervisory control in order to overcome the above problems. The T-S fuzzy theory decomposes the model of a nonlinear system into a set of linear subsystems. In this manner, the controller in the T-S fuzzy model is able to use simple linear control techniques to provide a systematic framework for the design of a state feedback controller. Then the LMI Toolbox of MATLAB can be employed to solve linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) in order to determine controller gains based on the Lyapunov direct method. Moreover, the supervisory control can overcome the coupling effect for a leg rehabilitation machine. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can achieve excellent tracking performance, and guarantee robustness to system parameter uncertainties.

  3. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  4. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  5. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  6. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  7. 2D motion analysis of rabbits after Achilles tendon rupture repair and histological analysis of extracted tendons: can the number of animals be reduced by operating both hind legs simultaneously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Nicholls, Flora; Achermann, Rita; Bürgisser, Gabriella Meier; Baumgartner, Walter; Calcagni, Maurizio; Giovanoli, Pietro

    2013-10-01

    Considering the 3Rs principle in animal experiments, there is a demand to perform research experiments with the fewest number of animals possible while warranting the welfare of the animals. Orthopaedic experimental studies involving operations on the hind legs of rabbits are either performed on one hind leg with the second hind leg serving as control or on both hind legs simultaneously (control: rabbits with no operations at all). The Achilles tendon of rabbits was transected and sutured, and the two-dimensional motion pattern of animals having only one leg operated was compared to rabbits having both hind legs operated (control: non-treated animals). Step length, maximum ankle angle, minimum ankle angle and the resulting range of motion of both hind legs were determined weekly over a time span from 3 weeks to 12 weeks post-operation. The results were fitted by a linear mixed effects model including time dependency. Moreover, all tendon specimen were analysed histologically. Tenocyte and tenoblast density, tenocyte and tenoblast nuclei width, inflammation level and collagen fibre alignment were determined. Statistically significant differences in the motion pattern were found when one-leg treated and two-leg treated animals were compared. However, the absolute differences were on average less than 20%. Histologically, 1-leg treated animals had tendon tissue with higher cell density, but lower inflammation and less ondulated collagen fibres compared to 2-leg treated animals; the nuclei width was the same for both groups. With regard to welfare, all animals were fine during the experiments. While comparative studies should be performed with one-leg treated animals due to interaction effects, for proof-of-principle studies, operating two legs per animal may be justified as the welfare of the animals is warranted. This is a great benefit in the sense of the 3Rs because up to 50% of animals can be spared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social inequality, scientific inequality, and the future of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles E

    2017-12-19

    Despite five decades of increasingly elegant studies aimed at advancing the pathophysiology and treatment of mental illness, the results have not met expectations. Diagnoses are still based on observation, the clinical history, and an outmoded diagnostic system that stresses the historic goal of disease specificity. Psychotropic drugs are still based on molecular targets developed decades ago, with no increase in efficacy. Numerous biomarkers have been proposed, but none have the requisite degree of sensitivity and specificity, and therefore have no usefulness in the clinic. The obvious lack of progress in psychiatry needs exploration. The historical goals of psychiatry are reviewed, including parity with medicine, a focus on diagnostic reliability rather than validity, and an emphasis on reductionism at the expense of socioeconomic issues. Data are used from Thomas Picketty and others to argue that our failure to advance clinical care may rest in part on the rise in social and economic inequality that began in the 1970s, and in part on our inability to move beyond the medical model of specificity of disease and treatment. It is demonstrated herein that the historical goal of specificity of disease and treatment has not only impeded the advance of diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but, in combination with a rapid increase in socioeconomic inequality, has led to poorer outcomes and rising mortality rates in a number of disorders, including schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. It is proposed that Psychiatry should recognize the fact of socioeconomic inequality and its effects on mental disorders. The medical model, with its emphasis on diagnostic and treatment specificity, may not be appropriate for investigation of the brain, given its complexity. The rise of scientific inequality, with billions allocated to connectomics and genetics, may shift attention away from the need for improvements in clinical care. Unfortunately, the future prospects of those

  9. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  10. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  12. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  13. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  14. Association of Income Inequality With Pediatric Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Berry, Jay G; Puls, Henry T; Markham, Jessica L; Plencner, Laura M; Krager, Molly K; Johnson, Matthew B; Queen, Mary Ann; Walker, Jacqueline M; Latta, Grant M; Riss, Robert R; Hall, Matt

    2017-06-05

    The level of income inequality (ie, the variation in median household income among households within a geographic area), in addition to family-level income, is associated with worsened health outcomes in children. To determine the influence of income inequality on pediatric hospitalization rates for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) and whether income inequality affects use of resources per hospitalization for ACSCs. This retrospective, cross-sectional analysis used the 2014 State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of 14 states to evaluate all hospital discharges for patients aged 0 to 17 years (hereafter referred to as children) from January 1 through December 31, 2014. Using the 2014 American Community Survey (US Census), income inequality (Gini index; range, 0 [perfect equality] to 1.00 [perfect inequality]), median household income, and total population of children aged 0 to 17 years for each zip code in the 14 states were measured. The Gini index for zip codes was divided into quartiles for low, low-middle, high-middle, and high income inequality. Rate, length of stay, and charges for pediatric hospitalizations for ACSCs. A total of 79 275 hospitalizations for ACSCs occurred among the 21 737 661 children living in the 8375 zip codes in the 14 included states. After adjustment for median household income and state of residence, ACSC hospitalization rates per 10 000 children increased significantly as income inequality increased from low (27.2; 95% CI, 26.5-27.9) to low-middle (27.9; 95% CI, 27.4-28.5), high-middle (29.2; 95% CI, 28.6-29.7), and high (31.8; 95% CI, 31.2-32.3) categories (P inequality (2.5 days; 95% CI, 2.4-2.5 days) compared with low inequality (2.4 days; 95% CI, 2.4-2.5 days; P income inequality have higher rates of hospitalizations for ACSCs. Consideration of income inequality, in addition to income level, may provide a better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic

  15. Bioinspired template-based control of legged locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sharbafi, Maziar

    2018-01-01

    cient and robust locomotion is a crucial condition for the more extensive use of legged robots in real world applications. In that respect, robots can learn from animals, if the principles underlying locomotion in biological legged systems can be transferred to their artificial counterparts. However, legged locomotion in biological systems is a complex and not fully understood problem. A great progress to simplify understanding locomotion dynamics and control was made by introducing simple mo...

  16. Bell inequalities and waiting times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeltl, Christina; Governale, Michele [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-01

    We propose a Bell test based on waiting time distributions for spin entangled electron pairs, which are generated and split in mesoscopic Coulomb blockade structures, denoted as entanglers. These systems have the advantage that quantum point contacts enable a time resolved observation of the electrons occupying the system, which gives access to quantities such as full counting statistics and waiting time distributions. We use the partial waiting times to define a CHSH-Bell test, which is a purely electronic analogue of the test used in quantum optics. After the introduction of the Bell inequality we discuss the findings on the two examples of a double quantum dot and a triple quantum dot. This Bell test allows the exclusion of irrelevant tunnel processes from the statistics normally used for the Bell correlations. This can improve the parameter range for which a violation of the Bell inequality can be measured significantly.

  17. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  18. Divergence operator and related inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.

  19. Urbanization and Inequality/Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brantley Liddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of world urbanization has crossed the 50% mark, and nearly all future population growth is projected to occur in cities. Cities are disproportionately wealthy, but are associated with poverty, too. Addressing the dual challenges of urbanization and poverty is key to achieving sustainable development. This paper performs cross-sectional regressions, based on Kuznets, as a starting point for understanding the relationship between urbanization and poverty/inequality indicators. Increases in gross domestic product per capita unambiguously lowered poverty and narrowed rural-urban gaps. By contrast, levels of urbanization were either unrelated to poverty/inequality indicators and measures of rural-urban gaps, or had a nonlinear effect where, initially, increases in urbanization likewise led to improvements in those areas, while at higher levels of urbanization, increases in urbanization exacerbated poverty and rural-urban gaps.

  20. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  1. Another China – other inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequality is not simply the unfair treatment of men and women. It is a complex issue tied to a whole range of disparities in society at large, argues Professor Min Dongchao, who has just been awarded a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship and will be a guest professor at the Nordic...... Institute of Asian Studies for the next few years. Her object of study is the travels of gender theory between the Nordic countries and China....

  2. Counterfeit Goods and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Scandizzo

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of counterfeit goods in a world where consumers are differentiated by level of income and innovation is quality enhancing. Counterfeit goods are defined as products with the same characteristics as “originals”, but of lower quality. The effect of imitation on firms’ profits and consumer welfare depends on the distribution of income within the country. In particular, the greater the level of income inequality the larger the increase in consumer welfare due to the...

  3. Time scarcity: another health inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndall Strazdins; Amy L Griffin; Dorothy H Broom; Cathy Banwell; Rosemary Korda; Jane Dixon; Francesco Paolucci; John Glover

    2011-01-01

    Considerable policy action has focused on the social patterning of health, especially the health risks associated with low income. More recent attention has turned to transport, food systems, workplaces, and location, and the way their intersections with social position and income create health inequalities. Time is another dimension that structures what people do; yet the way in which time contours health has been neglected. This paper explores (a) how time might influence health, and (b) th...

  4. Higher dimensional discrete Cheeger inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gundert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For graphs there exists a strong connection between spectral and combinatorial expansion properties. This is expressed, e.g., by the discrete Cheeger inequality, the lower bound of which states that $\\lambda(G \\leq h(G$, where $\\lambda(G$ is the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph $G$ and $h(G$ is the Cheeger constant measuring the edge expansion of $G$. We are interested in generalizations of expansion properties to finite simplicial complexes of higher dimension (or uniform hypergraphs. Whereas higher dimensional Laplacians were introduced already in 1945 by Eckmann, the generalization of edge expansion to simplicial complexes is not straightforward. Recently, a topologically motivated notion analogous to edge expansion that is based on $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology was introduced by Gromov and independently by Linial, Meshulam and Wallach. It is known that for this generalization there is no direct higher dimensional analogue of the lower bound of the Cheeger inequality. A different, combinatorially motivated generalization of the Cheeger constant, denoted by $h(X$, was studied by Parzanchevski, Rosenthal and Tessler. They showed that indeed $\\lambda(X \\leq h(X$, where $\\lambda(X$ is the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the ($(k-1$-dimensional upper Laplacian, for the case of $k$-dimensional simplicial complexes $X$ with complete $(k-1$-skeleton. Whether this inequality also holds for $k$-dimensional complexes with non-com\\-plete$(k-1$-skeleton has been an open question.We give two proofs of the inequality for arbitrary complexes. The proofs differ strongly in the methods and structures employed,and each allows for a different kind of additional strengthening of the original result.

  5. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  6. Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: A distributive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Emilio; Serrano, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the inequality in CO 2 emissions across countries (and groups of countries) and the relationship of this inequality with income inequality across countries for the period (1971-1999). The research employs the tools that are usually applied in income distribution analysis. The methodology used here gives qualitative and quantitative information on some of the features of the inequalities across countries that are considered most relevant for the design and discussion of policies aimed at mitigating climate change. The paper studies the relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP and shows that income inequality across countries has been followed by an important inequality in the distribution of emissions. This inequality has diminished mildly, although the inequality in emissions across countries ordered in the increasing value of income (inequality between rich and poor countries) has diminished less than the 'simple' inequality in emissions. Lastly, the paper shows that the inequality in CO 2 emissions is mostly explained by the inequality between groups with different per capita income level. The importance of the inequality within groups of similar per capita income is much lower and has diminished during the period, especially in the low middle income group

  7. Climate policies under wealth inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Levin, Simon A

    2014-02-11

    Taming the planet's climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one's sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior.

  8. A limitation on Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, V.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e. all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory)

  9. Bell inequalities for graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author)

  10. Social attitudes and regional inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Muštra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As the budgets of the European Union (EU become tighter, the questions about the effectiveness of EU’s expenditure, especially the most important parts such as Cohesion policy, are hotly debated. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the presence of social attitudes may influence the effectiveness of EU budget expenditure, measured by the level of regional inequalities. The analysis starts by focusing on individuals’ attitudes towards income from their own effort and income which is derived from other people’s effort, having in mind that individual actions depend on their attitudes. The next step establishes the link between the income from other people’s effort with the re-distributive dimension of the EU budget, considering that different attitudes among individuals in the EU could lead to significant differences in effectiveness of this redistributive policy among European regions and, consequently, diverse regional inequalities. Empirical research uses data for 27 EU countries observed over two waves of European Value Surveys: 1999-2000 (Wave 1 and 2008–2009 (Wave 2. The results indicate a significant role of social attitudes for regional inequalities, which raises the question of the appropriateness of simplification and uniform regional policy instruments in solving EU regional problems.

  11. The Saturation of Several Universal Inequalities in Information-Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Wu Jun-De; Fei Shao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the saturation of four universal inequalities in quantum information theory, including a variant version of strong subadditivity inequality for von Neumann entropy, the coherent information inequality, the Holevo quantity, and average entropy inequalities. These results shed new light on quantum information inequalities. (paper)

  12. Extensions of Heinz–Kato–Furuta inequality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Ritsuo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In our preceding note, we discussed a generalized Schwarz inequality, an improvement of the Heinz–Kato–Furuta inequality and an inequality related to the Furuta inequality. In succession, we give further discussions on them from the viewpoint of the covariance–variance inequality and the chaotic order. Finally, we consider a relation between our improvement and Wielandt's theorem.

  13. Bag-of-steps : Predicting lower-limb fracture rehabilitation length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pla, Albert; López, Beatriz; Nogueira, Cristofor; Mordvaniuk, Natalia; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Holtslag, Herman R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents bag-of-steps, a new methodology to predict the rehabilitation length of a patient by monitoring the weight he is bearing in his injured leg and using a predictive model based on the bag-of-words technique. A force sensor is used to monitor and characterize the patient's gait,

  14. Some thoughts on Harker-Kasper inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfson, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The approach by Harker and Kasper which led to the first inequality relationships between structure factors has not previously been applied to the space group P1 and there seems to have been a view that it could not give useful results for that space group. The idea has also been advanced that Harker-Kasper inequalities are contained within the complete set of determinantal inequalities derived by Karle and Hauptman. It is shown that the Harker-Kasper approach can be applied in space group P1 and gives inequality relationships which are distinct, at least in form, from those derived from determinants. Indeed, in some cases, a simple Harker-Kasper inequality can be more effective than an equally simple determinantal inequality in restricting the allowed values of three-phase invariants. (orig.)

  15. The intergenerational Inequality of Health in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991–2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality...... of opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is robust to various model....... The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition further indicates that 15% to 27% of the rural–urban inequality of child health is attributable to the endowed inequality from their parents' health. An important policy implication of our study is that the increasing inequality of income and opportunity in China can...

  16. Income inequality in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravallion, Martin

    2014-05-23

    Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  19. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  20. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  1. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  2. Local realism and the Bell inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bell inequality has generally been interpreted to involve two requirements for its validity: a locality condition and the existence of hidden variables. The Bell inequality could only be satisfied within the framework of a non-local theory. The Pauli exclusion principle bears an evident non-local character, the origins and implications of which cannot be said to be fully understood; nevertheless, it has not given rise to the conceptual confusions that followed in the wake of the Bell inequality. (Author)

  3. Liapunov-type inequality for universal integral

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Vaezpour, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2012), s. 908-925 ISSN 0884-8173 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : integral inequality * universal integral * Liapunov inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.416, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/mesiar-liapunov-type inequality for universal integral.pdf

  4. Are Teams Less Inequality Averse than Individuals?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team decision-making becau...

  5. Income Satisfaction Inequality and its Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Praag, Bernard M.S. Van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of Income Satisfaction Inequality is operationalized on the basis of individual responses to an Income Satisfaction question posed in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Income satisfaction is the subjective analogue of the objective income concept and includes objective income inequality as a special case. The paper introduces a method to decompose Income Satisfaction Inequality according to the contributions from variables such as income, education, and the n...

  6. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  7. Spatial distribution of gender inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Pinheiro Sales Lima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to analyze how gender inequality is distributed all over the Brazil. To that end, it has been built the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Index (MGII, a synthetic index. The main findings underlined that inequality between men and women manifests itself at different degrees in the federal units, but it is determined by a variety of common factors. The asymmetries are observed, mainly, in the political, labor and income dimensions.

  8. Gender Inequality in University Administration and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Estelles Miguel, Sofia; NAVARRO GARCÍA, ANTONIO; Palmer Gato, Marta Elena; Albarracín Guillem, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. This article addresses inequalities between men and women at work. Inequalities in job access and career progression are addressed. The article reviews literature on equal opportunities at work. A case study of administrative and services staff at a public university in Valencia (Spain) is then presented. The case study assesses the current reality of gender inequality in Spanish public institutions. Spanish public uni...

  9. Gender inequality: The challenge of contemporary demography

    OpenAIRE

    Šobot Ankica

    2010-01-01

    Gender perspective is a heuristic device in researching social phenomena, and gender inequality is a social fact which requires an adequate answer. Also, social differences between women and men are examined as relevant factors of demographic phenomena. The contemporary demography is opening up space not only for the gender aspect, but also for gender inequality as a relevant research topic. This paper discusses the possibilities of demographic approach to studying social inequality between w...

  10. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Dalgıç, Başak; Güven, Aytekin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, w...

  11. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  12. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  13. Hardy type inequalities on the sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the L p $L^{p}$ -Hardy inequalities on the sphere. By the divergence theorem, we establish the L p $L^{p}$ -Hardy inequalities on the sphere. Furthermore, we also obtain their best constants. Our results can be regarded as the extension of Xiao’s (J. Math. Inequal. 10:793-805, 2016.

  14. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  15. The different worlds of inequality: Psychological determinants and implications of economic inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Steiniger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Social and economic inequalities have been a concern in human societies throughout history. In recent years especially wealth and income inequality have been the focus of controversial public, political, and scientific debates. The present thesis seeks to contribute to the ongoing inequality debate by regarding economic inequality from a psychological point of view. Together with Detlef Fetchenhauer, Thomas Schlösser, and Daniel Ehlebracht, I experimentally investigated the psychological dete...

  16. The Impact of Educational and Gender Inequality on Income Inequality in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwal, Ayesha; Munir, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of educational and gender inequality in education on income inequality in South Asian countries for the time period of 1980 to 2010. Random effect model (REM) and fixed effect model (FEM) are used for estimation. Using the concept of education Gini the study find that there exist a positive relationship between educational and income inequality. The results also indicate that gender inequality in education at primary and tertiary level has positive and significa...

  17. Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality : a distributive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the inequality in CO2 emissions across countries (and groups of countries) and the relationship of this inequality with income inequality across countries for the period (1971-1999). The research employs the tools that are usually applied in income distribution analysis. The methodology used here gives qualitative and quantitative information on some of the features of the inequalities across countries that are considered most relevant for the design and discussion of poli...

  18. Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: a distributive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Padilla; Alfredo Serrano

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the inequality in CO2 emissions across countries (and groups of countries) and the relationship of this inequality with income inequality across countries for the period (1971-1999). The research employs the tools that are usually applied in income distribution analysis. The methodology used here gives qualitative and quantitative information on some of the features of the inequalities across countries that are considered most relevant for the design and discussion of poli...

  19. Deriving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from the few-body Abner Shimony inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Meng, Hui-Xian; Jiang, Shu-Han; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Ren, Changliang; Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2018-04-01

    For the Abner Shimony (AS) inequalities, the simplest unified forms of directions attaining the maximum quantum violation are investigated. Based on these directions, a family of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequalities is derived from the AS inequalities in a systematic manner. For these inequalities, the local hidden state (LHS) bounds are strictly less than the local hidden variable (LHV) bounds. This means that the EPR steering is a form of quantum nonlocality strictly weaker than Bell nonlocality.

  20. Gender inequality in the Serbian labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Olgica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.

  1. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  2. Decomposing the Gini Inequality Index: An Expanded Solution with Survey Data Applied to Analyze Gender Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraz, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a new breakdown of the Gini inequality ratio into three components ("within-group" inequality, "between-group" inequality, and intensity of "transvariation" between groups to the total inequality index). The between-group inequality concept computes all the differences in salaries…

  3. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammad Yaser Salman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG. Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  4. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Rhee, Kwang Woo; Jeon, Suk Chul; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Ascending contrast venography is the definitive standard method for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Authors analysed 22 cases of DVT clinically and radiographically. 1.The patients ranged in age from 15 to 70 yrs and the most prevalent age group was 7th decade (31%). There was an equal distribution of males and females. 2.In 11 cases of 22 cases, variable etiologic factors were recognized, such as abdominal surgery, chronic bedridden state, local trauma on the leg, pregnancy, postpartum, Behcet's syndrome, iliac artery aneurysm, and chronic medication of estrogen. 3.Nineteen cases out of 22 cases showed primary venographic signs of DVT, such as well-defined filling defect in opacified veins and narrowed, irregularly filled venous lumen. In only 3 cases, the diagnosis of DVT was base upon the segmental nonvisualization of deep veins with good opacification of proximal and distal veins and presence of collaterals. 4.Extent of thrombosis: 3 cases were confined to calf vein, 4 cases extended to femoral vein, and 15 cases had involvement above iliac vein. 5.In 17 cases involving relatively long segment of deep veins, propagation pattern of thrombus was evaluated by its radiologic morphology according to the age of thrombus: 9 cases suggested central or antegrade propagation pattern and 8 cases, peripheral or retrograde pattern. 6.None of 22 cases showed clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. The cause of the rarity of pulmonary embolism in Korean in presumed to be related to the difference in major involving site and propagation pattern of DVT in the leg.

  5. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Rhee, Kwang Woo; Jeon, Suk Chul; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1987-01-01

    Ascending contrast venography is the definitive standard method for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Authors analysed 22 cases of DVT clinically and radiographically. 1.The patients ranged in age from 15 to 70 yrs and the most prevalent age group was 7th decade (31%). There was an equal distribution of males and females. 2.In 11 cases of 22 cases, variable etiologic factors were recognized, such as abdominal surgery, chronic bedridden state, local trauma on the leg, pregnancy, postpartum, Behcet's syndrome, iliac artery aneurysm, and chronic medication of estrogen. 3.Nineteen cases out of 22 cases showed primary venographic signs of DVT, such as well-defined filling defect in opacified veins and narrowed, irregularly filled venous lumen. In only 3 cases, the diagnosis of DVT was base upon the segmental nonvisualization of deep veins with good opacification of proximal and distal veins and presence of collaterals. 4.Extent of thrombosis: 3 cases were confined to calf vein, 4 cases extended to femoral vein, and 15 cases had involvement above iliac vein. 5.In 17 cases involving relatively long segment of deep veins, propagation pattern of thrombus was evaluated by its radiologic morphology according to the age of thrombus: 9 cases suggested central or antegrade propagation pattern and 8 cases, peripheral or retrograde pattern. 6.None of 22 cases showed clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. The cause of the rarity of pulmonary embolism in Korean in presumed to be related to the difference in major involving site and propagation pattern of DVT in the leg

  6. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  7. Linear inequalities and overlap bounds: a novel use of an operator inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Leopold, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bounds to overlap integrals are obtained by an operator inequality technique. The formulation involves a set of linear inequalities with several overlap integrals as unknowns. The 'solution' of this set of inequalities leads to bound expressions which complement those of other workers. (author)

  8. Functional Bell inequalities can serve as a stronger entanglement witness than conventional Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek

    2002-01-01

    We consider a Bell inequality for a continuous range of settings of the apparatus at each site. This 'functional' Bell inequality gives a better range of violation for generalized Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger states. Also a family of N-qubit bound entangled states violate this inequality for N>5

  9. Relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality: a structured regression framework for estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Latouche, Aurélien; Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Rey, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    The relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality are the two major indices used in epidemiologic studies for the measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Yet the current definitions of these indices are not adapted to their main purpose, which is to provide summary

  10. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...... telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors. In both groups, the change from an upright to a supine position at the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous increment in the blood flow rate of 30-40% with a decrease in the central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. After...... approximately 1 h of sleep, a considerable increase in blood flow rate was seen in both patient and control groups which persisted for nearly 100 min. In the patient group, the mean increase was 137% compared to a mean increase of 68% in the control group (P less than 0.01). The blood flow then returned...

  11. Treatment of vasovagal syncope: pacemaker or crossing legs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.; Harms, M. P.; Linzer, M.; Wieling, W.

    2000-01-01

    A 50-year-old male patient continued to experience syncope after implantation of a pacemaker. During cardiovascular examination, the patient showed a typical vasovagal response, with normal pacemaker function. Leg crossing, which prohibits the pooling of blood in the legs and abdomen, at the onset

  12. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  13. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: Uncommon cause of a leg ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, L. B.; Brenninkmeijer, E. E. A.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Most leg ulcers are vascular based. Only if vascular therapy fails other causes are considered. We report the case of a female with incapacitating leg ulcers caused by a rare condition which was only diagnosed after failing treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The female had an extensive previous

  14. Effect of Ankle Positioning During Hamstring Stretches for Improving Straight Leg Hip Flexion Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G; Benjamin, Peter J; Selkow, Noelle M

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of stretching the hamstrings with the ankle in either a plantar-flexed (PF) or dorsiflexed (DF) position for improving straight leg hip flexion range of motion (ROM) over a 4-week period. Randomized, single-blinded, pretest, posttest design. Athletic training facility. Each limb of 34 asymptomatic individuals (15 males, 19 females) was randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups. Twenty-four limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in DF, 24 limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in PF, and 20 limbs received no stretch (control). Ankle position (PF, DF) during hamstring stretching. We measured pretest and posttest passive straight leg hip flexion ROM with the test ankle in a neutral position. For the intervention groups, the test limb was passively stretched with the ankle held in end range DF or PF for their respective group. Each stretch was held for 30 seconds for a total of 3 applications. Two treatment sessions were completed per week for a total of 4 weeks. The control limbs received no stretching during the 4-week period. We conducted 1-way analyses of covariance to determine significant changes in ROM between groups (P hamstrings in either PF or DF improve straight leg hip ROM compared with a control group. The results of this study should be considered by clinicians when determining the optimal stretching techniques aimed at increasing hamstring length.

  15. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Laboratory on Legs: An Architecture for Adjustable Morphology with Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    including walking, running,7 pronking,8,9 leaping and flipping,10 climbing stairs ,11,12 recovering from failures,13 and even running upright on (modified...speed activities requiring large leg torques, such as clambering over rocks and climbing stairs , as well as high speed activities with moderate torques...8] McMordie, D. and Buehler, M., “Towards pronking with a hexapod robot ,” in [International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots

  17. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.

  18. Frustrated S = 1/2 Two-Leg Ladder with Different Leg Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Takashi; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Hikihara, Toshiya; Sakai, Tôru

    2017-04-01

    We explore the ground-state phase diagram of the S = 1/2 two-leg ladder. The isotropic leg interactions J1,a and J1,b between nearest neighbor spins in the legs a and b, respectively, are different from each other. The xy and z components of the uniform rung interactions are denoted by Jr and ΔJr, respectively, where Δ is the XXZ anisotropy parameter. This system has a frustration when J1,aJ1,b employ the physical consideration, the level spectroscopy analysis of the results obtained by the exact diagonalization method and also the density-matrix renormalization-group method. It is found that the non-collinear ferrimagnetic (NCFR) state appears as the ground state in the frustrated region of the parameters. Furthermore, the direct-product triplet-dimer (TD) state in which all rungs form the TD pair is the exact ground state, when J1,a + J1,b = 0 and 0≤ Δ ≲ 0.83. The obtained phase diagrams consist of the TD, XY and Haldane phases as well as the NCFR phase.

  19. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  20. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  1. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  2. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  3. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues.

  4. Measuring health inequalities over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bergonzoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: several methodologies have been used to measure health inequalities. Most of them do so in a cross- sectional fashion, causing significant loss of information. None of them measure health inequalities in social territories over time. Methods: this article presents two approaches measure health inequalities: one approach consists of a refinement of cross-sectional study, by using the analysis of ANOVA variance (ANOVA procedure to explore whether the gap between social territories is real or due to chance. Several adjustments were made to limit errors inevitably found in multiple comparisons. Polynomial procedures were then applied to identify and evaluate any trends. The second sociales se utilizó approach measures the health gap between social territories or strata (as defined in this study over time using the Poisson regression. These approaches were applied using life expectancy and maternal mortality data from Venezuela. Results: a positive relationship between tendenterritories and life expectancy was found, with a significant cia linal trend. The relation between maternal mortality and materna y territorios sociales fue cuadrática. La medición desocial territories was quadratic. The measurement of the la brecha, gap between least developed social territory and the most, a developed territory showed a gap reduction from the first to the second decade, mainly because of an increase of territorio social maternal mortality in the more developed area, rather than a real improvement in the least developed. Conclusions: study helps to clarify the impact that public policies and interventions have in reducing the health gap. Knowledge that a health gap between social territories can decrease without showing improvement in the least developed sector , is an important finding for monitoring and evaluating health interventions for improving living and health conditions in the population.

  5. Correlations between Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study's hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Further studies are needed to confirm these

  6. Nonlinearity and cross-country dependence of income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Kalliovirta; Tuomas Malinen

    2015-01-01

    We use top income data and the newly developed regime switching Gaussian mixture vector autoregressive model to explain the dynamics of income inequality in developed economies within the last 100 years. Our results indicate that the process of income inequality consists of two equilibriums identifiable by high inequality, high income fluctuations and low inequality, low income fluctuations. Our results also show that income inequality in the U.S. is the driver of income inequality in other d...

  7. Social Inequalities in Youth Volunteerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Civic participation among today’s youth is a topic of widespread concern for policy-makers, academics, and the publics of Western countries at large. Though scholars have increasingly become aware of deep-rooted social inequalities in access to volunteering in the adult population, differences...... with multiple waves enriched with national register data. The study sheds light on the changing importance of longstanding dividing lines—gender, social class, and education—in volunteering trends among the young. While young people are seemingly more gender-equal in their volunteering behavior than older...

  8. Against inequality Contra la desigualdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugger William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available William Dugger questions the conventional idea that inequality is necessary for economic development through a historical and institutional examination of five of the major systems of inequality currently existing: racism, sexism, classism, jingoism, and antisemitismo It puts forward various reasons to justify that redistribution is not the solution; that inequality is pathological, cumula tive, and social; that it rests on myth and that current economic doctrine is a mythological
    system which preserves the status quo and confuses the current economy of collective greed and en based on the power of the large corporations- with an economy of individual initiative, efficiency, and competitive markets. And it shows that laissez faire is impractical because the State always ect:s, even when it follows non-interventionist economic policies. Against the oversimplification of those who defend the dichotomy 'State or market', it opposes the old institutionalist conjunction 'State and market'. As for inequality, it summarizes as follows the central question of our age: "how much inequali ty will the State create and allow in order to preserve the structure of the market system?"William Dugger cuestiona la idea convencional de que la desigualdad es necesaria para el desarrollo económico, mediante el examen histórico e institucional de cinco de los principales sistemas de desigualdad existentes en la actualidad: el racismo, el sexismo, el clasismo, el chovinismo y el antisemitismo. Expone diversas razones para justificar que la redistribución no es la solución, que la desigualdad es patológica, acumulativa y social; que se apoya en el mito y que la actual doctrina económica es un sistema mitológico quq preserva el status quo y confunde la actual economía de codicia y envidias colectivas -basada en el poder de las grandes corporaciones- con una economía de iniciativa individual, eficiente y mercados competitivos. Y muestra que el laissez faire

  9. Technological policy and wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido; Impullitti, Giammario

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that government procurement policy played a role in stimulating the wave of innovation that hit the US economy in the 1980's, as well as the simultaneous increase in inequality and in education attainment. Since the early 1980's U.S. policy makers began targeting commercial innovations more directly and explicitly. We focus on the shift in the composition of public demand towards high-tech goods which, by increasing the market-size of innovative �rms, fun...

  10. Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)

  11. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  12. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  13. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarau, Stefan; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  14. Poverty Mapping Project: Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality dataset consists of consumption-based poverty, inequality and related measures for subnational administrative...

  15. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  16. A relevant two qubit Bell inequality inequivalent to the CHSH inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    We computationally investigate the complete polytope of Bell inequalities for two particles with small numbers of possible measurements and outcomes. Our approach is limited by Pitowsky's connection of this problem to the computationally hard NP problem. Despite this, we find that there are very few relevant inequivalent inequalities for small numbers. For example, in the case with three possible 2-outcome measurements on each particle, there is just one new inequality. We describe mixed 2-qubit states which violate this inequality but not the CHSH. The new inequality also illustrates a sharing of bi-partite non-locality between three qubits: something not seen using the CHSH inequality. It also inspires us to discover a class of Bell inequalities with m possible n-outcome measurements on each particle

  17. Children Rectify Inequalities for Disadvantaged Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies,…

  18. Demography, Growth, and Global Income Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rougoor, Ward; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Global income inequality has been declining for several decades. We argue that global income inequality will reach its lowest level around 2027 and then will rise again. This development is the result of both economic and demographic forces. By combining economic projections with demographic

  19. Some new generalizations of Hardy's integral inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntuase, James Adedayo

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, some new generalizations of Hardy's integral inequalities are obtained. These inequalities on the one hand generalize and on the other hand improve some existing results by Bicheng et al. [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 217(1998), 321-327]. (author)

  20. Inequality and growth : The neglected time dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halter, D.; Oechslin, M.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    Inequality affects economic performance through many mechanisms, both beneficial and harmful. Moreover, some of these mechanisms tend to set in fast while others are rather slow. The present paper (i) introduces a simple theoretical model to study how changes in inequality affect economic growth

  1. American Higher Education and Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catharine B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…

  2. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  3. Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, Denis; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  4. Quantum team logic and Bell's inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyttinen, T.; Paolini, G.; Väänänen, J.

    2015-01-01

    A logical approach to Bell’s Inequalities of quantum mechanics has been introduced by Abramsky and Hardy (Abramsky & Hardy, 2012). We point out that the logical Bell’s Inequalities of Abramsky & Hardy (2012) are provable in the probability logic of Fagin, Halpern and Megiddo (Fagin et al., 1990).

  5. Confronting Gender Inequality in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Amanda; Jones, Deborah; Rey Vasquez, Carla; Krisjanous, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    This study, set in a New Zealand Business School, takes an integrative view of the university as an "inequality regime" Acker, J. (2006b). Inequality regimes: Gender, class and race in organizations. "Gender and Society," 20(4), 441-464 including all types of women staff: academic women in permanent positions, academics on…

  6. Growth and Inequality: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; de Dominicis, L.; Florax, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there is a growing interest in determining the impact of inequality on economic growth. Theoretical papers as well as empirical applications have, however, produced controversial results. Although there is a considerable part of the literature that considers inequality detrimental to

  7. Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Denis; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  8. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  9. An index of inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo

    2017-10-01

    Household income is a typical measure of inequality, but it is limited by under-reporting, especially for rural Chinese households. A new study shows that energy consumption measures service flows of household durable electronics, which can provide more precise measurement of rural wealth inequalities and distributions.

  10. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  11. Income Inequality and the Education Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…

  12. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  13. Inequity in the Face of Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. García-Gómez (Pilar); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); T.M. Bago d'Uva (Teresa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe apply the theory of inequality in opportunity to measure inequity in mortality. Our empirical work is based on a rich dataset for the Netherlands (1998-2007), linking information about mortality, health events and lifestyles. We show that distinguishing between different channels via

  14. Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  15. Unhealthy societies: the afflictions of inequality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkinson, Richard G

    1996-01-01

    ... of the corrosive effects of inequality. The public arena becomes a source of supportive social networks rather than of stress and potential conflict. As well as weakening the social fabric and damaging health, inequality increases crime rates and violence. Unhealthy Societies shows that social cohesion is crucial to the quality of life. Increase...

  16. Examining Inequities in Teacher Pension Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuls, James V.

    2017-01-01

    From funding to teacher quality, inequities exist between school districts. This paper adds to the literature on inequities by examining the impact of pension plan formulas on pension benefits. Using data from the salary schedules of 464 Missouri school districts, this paper analyzes how various final average salary calculations would impact the…

  17. Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Rebecca V.

    2009-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A.R. Hosseinpoor (Ahmad); N. Speybroeck (Niko); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); J. Vega (Jeanette)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns

  19. Stolarsky's inequality for Choquet-like expectation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2016), s. 1235-1248 ISSN 0139-9918 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Choquet-like expectation * Stolarsky’s inequality * Minkowski’s inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/mesiar-0469701.pdf

  20. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…