WorldWideScience

Sample records for leg fat mass

  1. Leg to leg bioelectrical impedance analysis of percentage fat mass in obese patients-Can it tell us more than we already know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John B; Bhasker, Aparna G; Lambert, Gavin W; Lakdawala, Muffazal

    2016-08-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is well tolerated, inexpensive, and readily available, but can it be used to detect with clinical precision aberrant changes in the proportion of fat mass to fat-free mass during weight loss? To assess the variance in percentage body fat mass explained by the readily available inputs and assess residual variance provided by leg-to-leg BIA scales. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of 665 patients of Indian ethnicity presenting for bariatric surgery, we examine the determinants of percentage body fat as provided by leg-to-leg output from Tanita SC-330 BIA scales. Four input factors-sex, weight, height, and age-contributed to provide 92% and 95% explanation in output variance for percentage fat mass (%FM) and actual fat mass, respectively, in 665 patients. Body mass index alone explained 89% and 81% of variance in %FM output for women and men, respectively. Neither weight distribution, as indicated by waist and hip circumference or waist to hip ratio, nor plasma lipids or markers of glucose metabolism contributed additional variance in %FM when controlled for the 4 key inputs. Simple, known input variables dominate the leg-to-leg BIA output of %FM, and this may compromise the detection of aberrant changes in %FM and fat-free mass with substantial weight loss. For clinical research, validated methods not largely dependent on known inputs should be used for evaluating changes in body composition after substantial weight loss. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of body mass index and fat mass on balance force platform measurements during a one-legged stance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camila; Silva, Rubens A da; de Oliveira, Marcio R; Souza, Rejane D N; Borges, Renata J; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) and fat mass on balance force platform measurements in older adults. The sample consisted of 257 participants who were stratified into four groups by BMI: low weight, normal weight, pre-obesity and obesity. For fat mass variables, older individuals were classified into low and high-fat mass. All groups investigated performed three trials of one-legged stance balance on a force platform. Center of pressure (COP) domain parameters were computed from the mean across trials. Analysis of variance results revealed no significant interactions for groups and sexes for all COP parameters. Comparable balance results were found for BMI and fat groups for all COP parameters. A statistical effect (P COP parameters, regardless of BMI and fat mass variables. Overall, women presented better balance than men. In conclusion, BMI and fat mass do not seem to influence the balance of older adults during a one-leg stance task.

  3. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  4. Associations of Leg Fat Accumulation with Adiposity-Related Biological Factors and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Emily A.; Wu, Hongyu; Malik, Vasanti; Sun, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The association between regional fat mass distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors has been inconsistent in the literature, and data for ethnic minority groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, are lacking. We aimed to examine this association among 8802 US residents who participated in the 1999-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Leg fat indices included leg fat mass (FM), leg fat mass percent (FM%), leg to whole body FM ratio (leg/whole) and leg to trunk FM ratio (leg/trunk). We evaluated the correlation between leg fat indices and adiposity-related risk factors, as well as the association of these indices with metabolic syndrome (MetS). After adjusting for covariates including age, gender, and trunk FM or trunk FM%, higher leg FM and leg FM% were, in general, correlated favorably with adiposity-related risk factors and associated with lower odds of MetS in all ethnicities, including non-Hispanic whites and blacks and Hispanic groups. In addition, in all multivariate-adjusted models, leg/whole and leg/trunk ratios were strongly associated with lower levels of most risk factors and decreased odds of MetS in these ethnicities (all odds ratios comparing extreme quintiles leg fat accumulation is inversely associated with adiposity-related biological factors and risk of MetS in both whites and ethnic groups, suggesting that regional fat distribution plays an important role in the etiology of adiposity-related diseases in these populations. PMID:23404933

  5. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  6. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    of relative fat mass in their kicking leg. Higher relative lean mass reduces the relative muscular impulses required to produce a given action, allowing greater limb control with proportionately reduced volitional effort.Kicking accuracy was unable to be explained by either foot velocity or leg mass in isolation; rather, it was the co-contribution and interrelation of these characteristics which were the discriminatory factors between accurate and inaccurate kickers.

  7. Validity of leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body fat in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret Linares, Célia; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Coupaye, Muriel; Declèves, Xavier; Poitou, Christine; Basdevant, Arnaud; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a safe and easy method of assessing body composition. Its accuracy to predict fat mass (FM) in obesity and the change in FM following weight loss is questioned. Our objective was to compare leg-to-leg BIA to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the assessment of FM in a large population, the changes in FM after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and to estimate between-method differences (bias) and limits of agreement. BIA (Tanita BC-420MA) and DXA (Hologic Discovery W) were used in 5,740 consecutive patients (mean BMI, 37.7 ± 8.2 kg/m(2)) examined in a clinical nutrition department and in 72 women undergoing RYGB (BMI, 47.2 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)). Analyses included correlations between methods and Bland Altman analysis. In the entire population, BIA significantly overestimated FM in comparison with DXA (1.1 ± 6.1 kg, 0.8 ± 5.6%). FM estimates by each method were significantly correlated in absolute value (kg; r(2) = 0.9 in the whole population), and in percentage (r(2) = 0.6). However, wide limits of agreement were observed. In surgery patients, BIA significantly overestimated FM both before and 12 months after bypass. BIA significantly overestimated changes in FM after RYGB at 3 months (2.9 ± 5.0 kg) and at 12 months (1.9 ± 3.9 kg) but not at 6 months (0.9 ± 5.0 kg; p = 0.08). Estimates of changes in FM by each method were significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.4, 0.6, and 0.9, respectively). According to the wide limits of agreement, BIA seems more interesting for epidemiological rather than individual use to evaluate body FM and FM changes in obese women undergoing RYGB.

  8. Leg muscle activation patterns during walking and leg lean mass are different in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Timothy T T; Fong, Shirley S M

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have a higher body fat and greater gait variability. Little research has investigated the gait muscle activity and lean mass measures in children with DCD. To compare the leg muscle activation patterns of the gait cycle and leg lean mass between children with and without DCD. Fifty-one children were in the DCD group (38 males and 13 females; 7.95 ± 1.04 years) and fifty-two in the control group (34 males and 18 females; 8.02 ± 1.00 years). Peak muscle activation patterns of treadmill walking in the right leg for the eight-gait phases were measured by means of surface electromyography, an electrogoniometer, and foot contact switches. Leg lean mass measures were evaluated using a whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Children with DCD had a lower leg lean mass and appendicular lean mass index compared to the control group. Furthermore, they exhibited a less-pronounced peak muscle activation during the heel strike (gastrocnemius medialis), early swing (biceps femoris) and late swing phases (gastrocnemius medialis) of gait. Although lower limb total mass was similar between groups, the DCD group displayed lower lean mass measures than controls. Furthermore, children with DCD illustrated a lower leg peak muscle activation during the heel strike, early swing and late swing phases of gait when walking on a treadmill. Our results emphasize the need to incorporate lower limb phasic muscle strengthening components into gait rehabilitation programs for children with DCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the body mass index and leg profiles of Asian women after total leg sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Chou; Chen, Chien-Hao; Lin, Chan-Yi; Ho, Li-Yung

    2009-08-01

    In addition to the conventional methods used to improve leg contours, total leg sculpture, including liposuction, selective neurectomy, and transilluminated powered phlebectomy, provides a one-time solution of leg contour problems, which is a major aesthetic concern among Asian women. The authors present the postoperative results of total leg sculpture and determine any significance and correlation between the leg variables and body mass index by statistical analysis. Thirty female patients who underwent total leg sculpture between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study, and prospective analysis of the patients' data was performed during a follow-up period of 1 year. Local measurement variables and body mass index were recorded, and the correlation between them was determined by Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. A paired t test was used to compare the postoperative outcomes. Subjectively, all patient results were satisfactory. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements for all variables for total leg sculpture. Body mass index was strongly correlated with all leg indexes, and there was a significant positive correlation between the index and variables related to the buttocks and upper thigh. The satisfactory postoperative leg variables were buttocks circumference (87.85 cm), thigh circumference (T60, 44.20 cm), maximal calf circumference (32.24 cm), and calf ratio (0.78). Each preoperative body mass index increment represents a 0.3 percent circumference improvement around the buttocks after surgery. No obvious morbidities or long-term hospital stays were noted. Total leg sculpture provides a combined aesthetic solution for improving limb contours with minimal morbidity. Patients with larger body mass index values exhibit better aesthetic improvement than those with smaller values.

  10. Leg mass characteristics of accurate and inaccurate kickers--an Australian football perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2013-01-01

    Athletic profiling provides valuable information to sport scientists, assisting in the optimal design of strength and conditioning programmes. Understanding the influence these physical characteristics may have on the generation of kicking accuracy is advantageous. The aim of this study was to profile and compare the lower limb mass characteristics of accurate and inaccurate Australian footballers. Thirty-one players were recruited from the Western Australian Football League to perform ten drop punt kicks over 20 metres to a player target. Players were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with leg mass characteristics assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly greater relative lean mass (P ≤ 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (P ≤ 0.024) across all segments of the kicking and support limbs, while also exhibiting significantly higher intra-limb lean-to-fat mass ratios for all segments across both limbs (P ≤ 0.009). Inaccurate kickers also produced significantly larger asymmetries between limbs than accurate kickers (P ≤ 0.028), showing considerably lower lean mass in their support leg. These results illustrate a difference in leg mass characteristics between accurate and inaccurate kickers, highlighting the potential influence these may have on technical proficiency of the drop punt.

  11. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus......, and plasma leptin was higher in O than in PO and C.Conclusions:In O subjects, maximal fat oxidation during exercise and the eliciting relative exercise intensity are increased. This is associated with higher intramuscular triglyceride levels and higher resting non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...

  12. Relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douchi, T; Yoshimitsu, N; Nagata, Y

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects were 67 women with PCOS (mean age +/- standard deviation, 28.8 +/- 6.6 years). Baseline characteristics included age and height. Trunk-leg fat ratio and trunk-leg muscle ratio were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured with radioimmunoassays. Relationships among serum testosterone levels, body fat and muscle mass distribution were investigated using Pearson and partial correlation tests. Serum testosterone levels were positively correlated with trunk-leg fat ratio (r = 0.398, P fat ratio (r = -0.360, P testosterone levels were still correlated with trunk-leg fat ratio (r = 0.500, P fat ratio was still correlated with trunk-leg muscle ratio, after adjusting for age, height, and serum testosterone levels. Based on these results, we concluded that higher serum testosterone levels may contribute to the upper body fat distribution and peripheral muscle mass distribution. In addition, peripheral muscle mass distribution may also contribute to the upper body fat distribution.

  13. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.

  14. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  15. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  16. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  17. Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass and fat percentage and to examine the relationship between BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and fat percentage as the measurement of obesity among university students.

  18. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key Points Strength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes. An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength. Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance. PMID:24570620

  19. Leg strength and lean mass symmetry influences kicking performance in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key PointsStrength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes.An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength.Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance.

  20. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  1. Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to 79 : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Stamm, Elizabeth; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: The loss of muscle mass with aging, or sarcopenia, is hypothesized to be associated with the deterioration of physical function. Our aim was to determine whether low leg muscle mass and greater fat infiltration in the muscle were associated with poor lower extremity performance (LEP).

  2. Fat mass measured by DXA varies with scan velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Kreutzer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight.......To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight....

  3. Bone mineral content has stronger association with lean mass than fat mass among Indian urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.

  4. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eutsler, Eric P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of segmental fat free mass in Taiwanese elderly females ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to develop new predictive equations for evaluating the fat free mass (FFM) of body segments in ... prediction of fat free mass by our new BIA model, it provides potential in monitoring the body composition in ..... Body composition in middle-aged women with special reference to.

  6. Difference in non-weight-bearing effects on bone mineral density between trunk and peripheral fat mass in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Yumi; Kawamura, Yukie; Kuwahata, Akiko; Yonehara, Yukie; Matsuo, Takashi; Iwamoto, Ichiro; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the difference in non-weight-bearing effects on bone mineral density (BMD) between trunk and peripheral fat mass in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects were 123 amenorrheic PCOS women with right side dominance. Age, height, body weight, and body mass index were recorded. Trunk, peripheral (extremities), trunk-leg fat ratio as an index of body fat distribution, left arm (non-weight-bearing site) lean mass and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum testosterone and estradiol levels were measured. Relationships of BMD with trunk, peripheral fat mass, and sex hormones levels were investigated. Trunk fat mass amount was 9.8 + or - 6.7 kg and was lower than the peripheral fat mass amount (12.2 + or - 4.4 kg, P fat mass and left arm lean mass were positively correlated with arm BMD (r = 0.359, P fat mass and serum testosterone levels were not correlated with BMD (r = 0.083 and 0.114, respectively, NS). On multiple regression analysis, trunk fat mass was positively correlated with BMD (t-value = 3.465; P fat mass, despite the smaller amount, is more associated with arm BMD than peripheral fat mass is through its non-weight-bearing effects.

  7. An extended steepness model for leg-size determination based on Dachsous/Fat trans-dimer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Bando, Tetsuya; Mito, Taro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2014-03-11

    What determines organ size has been a long-standing biological question. Lawrence et al. (2008) proposed the steepness hypothesis suggesting that the protocadherin Dachsous/Fat (Ds/Ft) system may provide some measure of dimension to the cells in relation to the gradient. In this paper we extended the model as a means of interpreting experimental results in cricket leg regeneration. We assumed that (1) Ds/Ft trans-heterodimers or trans-homodimers are redistributed during cell division, and (2) growth would cease when a differential of the dimer across each cell decreases to a certain threshold. We applied our model to simulate the results obtained by leg regeneration experiments in a cricket model. The results were qualitatively consistent with the experimental data obtained for cricket legs by RNA interference methodology. Using our extended steepness model, we provided a molecular-based explanation for leg size determination even in intercalary regeneration and for organ size determination.

  8. NIRS PREDICTION FOR PROTEIN AND INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT OF RABBIT HIND LEG MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gy. Bázár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop calibration equations to predict the chemical composition of raw, homogenized rabbit meat by means of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. 44 Pannon White rabbits were housed in groups in three different pen types (16 anim./m2, and were fed the same diet. Another 45 animals were housed in cages (12 anim./m2 and fed by different feeding regimes. Rabbits were slaughtered at the bodyweight of 2.4-2.5 kg. Homogenized fresh and freeze-dried left total hind leg muscles were investigated by NIRS using a NIRSystem 6500 equipment with small ring cup sample holder. The ether extract and protein content of all samples were determined chemically. Samples 44 of housing experiment were applied in producing LOCAL calibration equations tested on the 45 samples from the separate feeding experiment. Coefficients of determination (R2 of the predictions were 0.89 and 0.99 for fat, 0.85 and 0.96 for protein in fresh and freeze-dried samples, respectively. Results are reassuring, because the equations were applicable, however the analyzed samples were from independent housing and feeding systems. Therefore the chemical compositions differed in the two datasets, i.e. 9.46%, and 11.79% for fat, 85.75% and 83.44% for protein content in calibration and prediction datasets, respectively. The average of NIRS predicted values for fat and protein was 11.36%, 83.88% or 11.54%, 83.45% when using fresh or freeze-dried samples, respectively.

  9. Leg Muscle Mass and Foot Symptoms, Structure, and Function: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T; Hillstrom, Howard J; Katz, Patricia P; Jordan, Joanne M

    2016-03-01

    Loss of muscle mass occurs with aging and in lower limbs it may be accelerated by foot problems. In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the relationship of leg muscle mass to foot symptoms (presence or absence of pain, aching, or stiffness), structure while standing (high arch or low arch), and function while walking (pronated or supinated) in a community-based study of Caucasian and African American men and women who were 50-95 years old. In the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, leg muscle mass was measured with whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plantar foot pressure data, using predetermined values, were used to classify foot structure and function. Sex-specific crude and adjusted (age, body mass index, and race) linear regression models examined associations of leg muscle mass index (Leg muscle mass [kg]/Height [m](2)) with foot symptoms, structure, and function. Complete data were available for 1,037 participants (mean age 68 years, mean body mass index 31 kg/m(2), 68% women, 29% African American). In women, pronated foot function was associated with lower leg muscle mass in crude (p = .02), but not adjusted (p = .22), models. A low arch was associated with a higher leg muscle mass in adjusted models for both men and women (p Leg muscle mass was associated with foot structure in our biracial sample, whereas relations between leg muscle mass and foot function were attenuated by age, body mass index, and race. Future longitudinal analyses are needed to explain the temporal relationship between these conditions and how they relate to other aspects of impairment and physical function. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  11. Dietary egg-white protein increases body protein mass and reduces body fat mass through an acceleration of hepatic β-oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao

    2017-09-01

    Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.

  12. New fat free mass - fat mass model for use in physiological energy balance equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougall Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Forbes equation relating fat-free mass (FFM to fat mass (FM has been used to predict longitudinal changes in FFM during weight change but has important limitations when paired with a one dimensional energy balance differential equation. Direct use of the Forbes model within a one dimensional energy balance differential equation requires calibration of a translate parameter for the specific population under study. Comparison of translates to a representative sample of the US population indicate that this parameter is a reflection of age, height, race and gender effects. Results We developed a class of fourth order polynomial equations relating FFM to FM that consider age, height, race and gender as covariates eliminating the need to calibrate a parameter to baseline subject data while providing meaningful individual estimates of FFM. Moreover, the intercepts of these polynomial equations are nonnegative and are consistent with observations of very low FM measured during a severe Somali famine. The models preserve the predictive power of the Forbes model for changes in body composition when compared to results from several longitudinal weight change studies. Conclusions The newly developed FFM-FM models provide new opportunities to compare individuals undergoing weight change to subjects in energy balance, analyze body composition for individual parameters, and predict body composition during weight change when pairing with energy balance differential equations.

  13. Perirenal fat thickness measured with computed tomography is a reliable estimate of perirenal fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Favre

    Full Text Available Deposition of perirenal adipose tissue has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular events. We compared various methods to measure perirenal adipose tissue using computerized tomography (CT-scan and performed correlations with anthropometric measures associated with renal and cardiovascular events. Voluntary overweight and obese subjects undergoing a CT-scan for diagnostic purposes were included in the study. Perirenal adipose tissue volume, adipose tissue area of the renal sinus and perirenal fat thickness were manually measured bilaterally. The intra- and inter-observer coefficient correlations and the correlation between the diverse measures of renal adipose tissue, subcutaneous (SC-fat and anthropometrics measures were analyzed using Pearson's correlation tests. The forty included patients (24 men, 16 women had a mean age of 57.6 ± 18.1 years and a mean body mass index of 28.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Despite comparable waist circumference, women had a greater SC-fat thickness compared to men, and therefore a smaller amount of visceral fat, as well as smaller perirenal fat volumes. Perirenal fat thickness was better correlated with perirenal fat volume than adipose area of the renal sinus (p <0.02. The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measures. In women, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a negative correlation with SC-fat thickness and no correlation with waist circumference. In men, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a positive correlation with waist circumference and no correlation with subcutaneous fat thickness. In conclusion, perirenal fat thickness measured with CT-scan at the level of the renal veins is a simple and reliable estimate of perirenal fat volume, that correlated negatively with SC-fat in women and positively with waist circumference in men. The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measure.

  14. Perirenal fat thickness measured with computed tomography is a reliable estimate of perirenal fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Guillaume; Grangeon-Chapon, Caroline; Raffaelli, Charles; François-Chalmin, Florence; Iannelli, Antonio; Esnault, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of perirenal adipose tissue has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular events. We compared various methods to measure perirenal adipose tissue using computerized tomography (CT)-scan and performed correlations with anthropometric measures associated with renal and cardiovascular events. Voluntary overweight and obese subjects undergoing a CT-scan for diagnostic purposes were included in the study. Perirenal adipose tissue volume, adipose tissue area of the renal sinus and perirenal fat thickness were manually measured bilaterally. The intra- and inter-observer coefficient correlations and the correlation between the diverse measures of renal adipose tissue, subcutaneous (SC-)fat and anthropometrics measures were analyzed using Pearson's correlation tests. The forty included patients (24 men, 16 women) had a mean age of 57.6 ± 18.1 years and a mean body mass index of 28.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Despite comparable waist circumference, women had a greater SC-fat thickness compared to men, and therefore a smaller amount of visceral fat, as well as smaller perirenal fat volumes. Perirenal fat thickness was better correlated with perirenal fat volume than adipose area of the renal sinus (p perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a negative correlation with SC-fat thickness and no correlation with waist circumference. In men, perirenal fat volume and thickness showed a positive correlation with waist circumference and no correlation with subcutaneous fat thickness. In conclusion, perirenal fat thickness measured with CT-scan at the level of the renal veins is a simple and reliable estimate of perirenal fat volume, that correlated negatively with SC-fat in women and positively with waist circumference in men. The adipose area of the renal sinus did not correlate with any anthropometric measure.

  15. Non-Discriminant Relationships between Leg Muscle Strength, Mass and Gait Performance in Healthy Young and Old Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Granacher, Urs; Borde, Ron; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gait speed declines with increasing age, but it is unclear if gait speed preferentially correlates with leg muscle strength or mass.  Objective: We determined the relationship between gait speed and (1) leg muscle strength measured at 3 lower extremity joints and (2) leg lean tissue mass

  16. An analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Chung, Hae Yong; Lee, Sang Jong

    1996-07-01

    An analysis methodology for the hot leg break mass and energy release is developed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A analysis is suggested. For the post-blowdown period a new computer model named COMET is developed. Differently from previous post-blowdown analysis model FLOOD3, COMET is capable of analyzing both cold leg and hot leg break cases. The cold leg break model is essentially same as that of FLOOD3 with some improvements. The analysis results by the newly proposed hot leg break model in the COMET is in the same trend as those observed in scaled-down integral experiment. And the analyses results for the UCN 3 and 4 by COMET are qualitatively and quantitatively in good agreement with those predicted by best-estimate analysis by using RELAP5/MOD3. Therefore, the COMET code is validated and can be used for the licensing analysis. 6 tabs., 82 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  17. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P hip bone strength was observed to have a consistent and unchanged positive association with AFM and a negative association with AOI, whereas its association with other variables of body composition was not significant after adjusting for age, years since menopause, height, body weight, and BMI. AFM may be a positively protective effect for hip bone strength while AOI, rather than android fat, shows a strong negative association with hip bone strength after making an adjustment for confounders (age, YSM, height, body weight, and BMI) in healthy

  18. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Emma M; Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbet; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Hitz, Mette F; Michaelsen, Kim F; Cortes, Dina; Pryds, Ole

    2016-04-01

    Offspring of obese women have both short-term and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by an oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free masses in the offspring of obese mothers. Obese mother-newborn dyads were recruited and 2-h plasma glucose levels were assessed during gestational weeks 27-30; neonatal body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 h of birth. Among 264 term, healthy, and singleton infants eligible for inclusion, 248 were included. Of these, 205 (83%) obese mother-newborn dyads had a DXA scan and 2-h plasma glucose measurements. Linear regression analysis showed that birthweight z-scores correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels (p = 0.002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, prepregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, prepregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal newborn fat masses, but not to fat-free mass. Interventions targeting maternal postprandial glucose levels may induce more appropriate birthweight, thereby reducing the risk of subsequent morbidity. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Contributions of lean mass and fat mass to bone mineral density: a study in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Thai Q

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative contribution of lean and fat to the determination of bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women is a contentious issue. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that lean mass is a better determinant of BMD than fat mass. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 210 postmenopausal women of Vietnamese background, aged between 50 and 85 years, who were randomly sampled from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam. Whole body scans, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMD were measured by DXA (QDR 4500, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA. Lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM were derived from the whole body scan. Furthermore, lean mass index (LMi and fat mass index (FMi were calculated as ratio of LM or FM to body height in metre squared (m2. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, both LM and FM were independent and significant predictors of BMD at the spine and femoral neck. Age, lean mass and fat mass collectively explained 33% variance of lumbar spine and 38% variance of femoral neck BMD. Replacing LM and FM by LMi and LMi did not alter the result. In both analyses, the influence of LM or LMi was greater than FM and FMi. Simulation analysis suggested that a study with 1000 individuals has a 78% chance of finding the significant effects of both LM and FM, and a 22% chance of finding LM alone significant, and zero chance of finding the effect of fat mass alone. Conclusions These data suggest that both lean mass and fat mass are important determinants of BMD. For a given body size -- measured either by lean mass or height --women with greater fat mass have greater BMD.

  20. An extended steepness model for leg-size determination based on Dachsous/Fat trans-dimer system

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Yoshida; Tetsuya Bando; Taro Mito; Hideyo Ohuchi; Sumihare Noji

    2014-01-01

    What determines organ size has been a long-standing biological question. Lawrence et al. (2008) proposed the steepness hypothesis suggesting that the protocadherin Dachsous/Fat (Ds/Ft) system may provide some measure of dimension to the cells in relation to the gradient. In this paper we extended the model as a means of interpreting experimental results in cricket leg regeneration. We assumed that (1) Ds/Ft trans-heterodimers or trans-homodimers are redistributed during cell division, and (2)...

  1. Estimation of segmental fat free mass in Taiwanese elderly females ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop new predictive equations for evaluating the fat free mass (FFM) of body segments in Taiwan elderly female. Modified bioelectrical impedance analysis with eight electrodes (BIA8) and referenced standard dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was applied to measure the segment ...

  2. Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Morais de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross-sectional study was with 403 adolescents aged 10–14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Results: Regarding the nutritional status, 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight, 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents who had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Conclusions: Adolescents who had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective.

  3. [Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Morais; da Silva, Fabiana Almeida; Souza Oliveira, Renata Maria; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Netto, Michele Pereira; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Cross-sectional study with 403 adolescents aged 10-14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Regarding the nutritional status; 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight; 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents that had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Adolescents that had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be of risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    ,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...

  5. Greater Neonatal Fat-Free Mass and Similar Fat Mass Following a Randomized Trial to Control Excess Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Rosenn, Barak; Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Paley, Charles; Gidwani, Sonia; Horowitz, Michelle; Crane, Janet; Lin, Susan; Thornton, John C; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlling maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in the second and third trimesters on neonate body composition. Two hundred ten healthy women with overweight (25 > BMI fat and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth were measured by using air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) and by using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). At baseline, there were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics (mean [SD]): age: 33.8 (4.3) years, weight: 81.9 (13.7) kg, BMI: 30.4 (4.5), and gestational age at randomization: 14.9 (0.8) weeks. GWG was less in the LI group by 1.79 kg (P = 0.003) or 0.0501 kg/wk (P = 0.002). Compared with UC infants, LI infants had greater weight (131 ± 59 g P = 0.03), FFM (98 ± 45 g; P = 0.03) measured by PEA POD, and lean mass (105 ± 38 g; P = 0.006) measured by QMR. Fat mass and percent fat were not significantly different. Intervening in women with overweight and obesity through behaviors promoting healthy diet and physical activity to control GWG resulted in neonates with similar fat and greater FFM. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  6. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L

    2015-01-01

    Background:In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to anabolic effects of protein could explain this.Objective:To examine associations between...... protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...... nitrogen. Estimated from DHI, FM increased 46 gram/year with every 1 E% protein substituted for fat (95%CI: 13, 79; P=0.006) and FFM increased 15 gram/year (1, 30; P=0.046). Results were similar in other substitution models. Estimated from urinary nitrogen, FM increased 53 gram/year with 1 E% protein...

  7. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo In Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in adult populations.MethodsA total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010. Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsThe odds ratios (ORs for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001.ConclusionThe relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance.

  8. Influence of different sports on fat mass and lean mass in growing girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ubago-Guisado

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Impact sports (football, basketball, and handball and low-impact sports (swimming provide an appropriate development of lean mass in growing girls. We can conclude that people practicing sports at early ages ensure a lower fat mass and higher lean mass compared to those who do not practice. These results may be useful as a preventive method of adult obesity.

  9. Age and gender-related fat mass index and fat- free mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean FMI for males fell from 2.6 kg/m² at 10 years to a trough of 1.5 kg/m² at 16 years before a slight rise to 1.9 kg/ m² at 18 years. FFM in boys increased consistently with age, overtaking that of girls at 12 years with the gap widening up to 18 years. Measures of body fat were much lower in study subjects than reported ...

  10. Accretion of fat-free mass rather than fat mass in infancy is positively associated with linear growth in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu Wossen, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    . Conclusions: In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.......Background: We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. Objective: This study...... examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. Methods: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth...

  11. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  12. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  13. Analysis of Foot Slippage Effects on an Actuated Spring-Mass Model of Dynamic Legged Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhar Or

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP and its extensions have been widely accepted as a simple description of dynamic legged locomotion at various scales in humans, legged robots and animals. Similar to the majority of models in the literature, the SLIP model assumes ideal sticking contact of the foot. However, there are practical scenarios of low ground friction that causes foot slippage, which can have a significant influence on dynamic behaviour. In this work, an extension of the SLIP model with two masses and torque actuation is considered, which accounts for possible slippage under Coulomb's friction law. The hybrid dynamics of this model is formulated and numerical simulations under representative parameter values reveal several types of stable periodic solutions with stick-slip transitions. Remarkably, it is found that slippage due to low friction can sometimes increase average speed and improve energetic efficiency by significantly reducing the mechanical cost of transport.

  14. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  15. Effect of genetic rabbit lines on lipid content, lipolytic activities and fatty acid composition of hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Cesari, V; Blasco, A

    2008-04-01

    The influence of genetic origin on lipid content, lipolytic activities and fatty acid composition of rabbit leg meat and perirenal fat was studied and changes in free fatty acids and oxidative parameters during refrigerated storage evaluated. Three rabbits lines were used, line R selected for growth rate and lines V and A selected for litter size at weaning. Line R had higher fat contents and higher lipolytic activities in the meat of the hind leg than lines A and V. Differences between lines were found in the fatty acids of the meat and perirenal fat. Lower SFA and higher PUFA percentages were found in line A. Free fatty acids and oxidative parameters were little influenced by rabbit line. Animals were measured at the same stage of maturity, thus it can be considered that differences found between lines are genetic differences and not differences due to the degree of maturity.

  16. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  17. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...... 1407 men and women of various ethnicities, degrees of adiposity and weight-loss interventions. The hypothesized allometric equation relating changes of VAT and FM accurately modeled the data for both men and women and for all methods of weight loss studied. The best-fit value for the dimensionless...... constant was k=1.3±0.1 and the resulting model had an R 2=0.73. Conclusion: This is the first report to reveal an allometric relationship between changes of VAT and FM that holds for both genders as well as a wide variety of weight-loss interventions including bariatric surgery, caloric restriction...

  18. New insights into the effects of irisin levels in HIV-infected subjects: correlation with adiposity, fat-free mass, and strength parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombeta, Joice Cristina Dos Santos; Prestes, Jonato; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Lima, Thiago da Rosa; Fraga, Géssica Alves; Vieira-Junior, Roberto Carlos; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo

    2017-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.

  19. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, H R; Blum, Y; Daley, M A; Hurst, J W

    2013-12-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration.

  20. Spontaneous physical activity protects against fat mass gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, J A; Billington, C J; Kuskowski, M A; Kotz, C M

    2012-04-01

    It is unclear whether elevated spontaneous physical activity (SPA, very low-intensity physical activity) positively influences body composition long term. We determined whether SPA and caloric intake were differentially related to the growth curve trajectories of body weight, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) between obesity resistant and Sprague-Dawley rats at specific age intervals. Body composition, SPA and caloric intake were measured in selectively-bred obesity-resistant and out-bred Sprague-Dawley rats from 1 to 18 months. Data from development throughout maturation were analyzed by longitudinal growth curve modeling to determine the rate and acceleration of body weight, FM- and FFM-gain. Obesity-resistant rats had a lower rate of FM gain overall, a lower acceleration in body weight early in life, significantly greater SPA and lower cumulative caloric intake. Greater SPA in obesity-resistant rats was significantly associated with a lower rate of FM gain overall and lower acceleration in body weight early in life. Obesity resistant rats lost less FFM compared with Sprague-Dawley rats despite that obesity-resistant rats had a lower acceleration in FFM gain early in life. Obesity-resistant rats gained less FM and more FFM per gram body weight and were less energy efficient than Sprague-Dawley rats. Caloric intake was significantly and positively related to body weight, FM and FFM gain in both groups. Circadian patterns of caloric intake were group and age-dependent. Our data demonstrate that elevated and sustained SPA during development and over the lifespan are related to the reduced the rate of FM gain and may preserve FFM. These data support the idea that SPA level is a reproducible marker that reliably predicts propensity for obesity in rats, and that elevated levels of SPA maintained during the lifespan promote a lean phenotype.

  1. Segmental fat-free and fat mass measurements by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 2,224 healthy Spanish women aged 18-85 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Vera, Vicente; Martinez, Mariana; Moran, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    This study provides updated data on body composition in adult Spanish women. We considered data, including height and weight, from a survey conducted on a total of 4,013 adult women between 2009 and 2010. A subgroup of 2,224 women completed a bioelectrical body impedance analysis of body composition using a Tanita Body Composition Analyzer (Model no. BF-418). Total fat mass (FM) gradually increased between 18 and 74 years of age and decreased thereafter. FM increased in both legs between 65 and 74 years of age (5.69 ± 1.4 Kg and 5.66 ± 1.4 Kg for right and left legs, respectively) and decreased thereafter. FM in the right arm increased until 44 years of age (1.22 ± 2.6 Kg), decreased to 1.19 ± 0.5 Kg between 45 and 54 years of age, and increased to 1.54 ± 0.63 from 65 to 74 years of age. FM in the left arm increased constantly until it reached a peak of 1.63 ± 0.6 Kg between 65 and 74 years of age and decreased thereafter. FM increased in the trunk throughout life (peaks at 13.27±3.8 Kg) until subjects reached between 65 and 74 years of age. Fat free mass increased until 44 years of age (42.42 ± 4.17 Kg) and decreased thereafter. The prevalence of overweight/obesity significantly increased with age in the entire sample. Our results indicate that age-related increases in weight were at least partially due to increased adiposity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cohen

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment.We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA and the Netherlands (NL, and in healthy controls (SA. Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time.In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013. In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001, with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003.Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally.

  3. Body mass and fat mass in refractory asthma: an observational 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafadhel, Mona; Singapuri, Amisha; Terry, Sarah; Hargadon, Beverley; Monteiro, William; Green, Ruth H; Bradding, Peter H; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D; Brightling, Christopher E

    2010-01-01

    Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ), body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r = 0.9, P < .001). FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r = 0.3, P = .01). After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV(1) change (r = -0.3, P = .03), but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  4. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  5. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  6. The importance of visceral fat mass in obese pregnant women and relation with pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Steve; Johnson, Antoinette; Shehata, Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Maternal obesity is a well established risk factor for gestational diabetes but it is not known if the pattern of maternal fat distribution predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance using Inbody 720® in 302 consecutive obese pregnant women attending a weight management clinic. The relation of visceral fat mass and total percentage body fat with the development of gestational diabetes and perinatal outcomes was evaluated. Women developing gestational diabetes (Group 1; n = 72) were older, had higher body mass indices and greater central obesity (waist:hip ratio, visceral fat mass) compared with those remaining normoglycaemic. Visceral fat mass, but not percentage body fat, correlated with fasting glucose in all patients (r = 0.2, p < 0.001) and particularly those in Group 1 (r = 0.35, p = 0.002). Visceral fat mass, but not percentage body fat, also correlated strongly with glycaemia, particularly in Group 1 (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Visceral fat mass also showed a weak but significant correlation with baby weight (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Central obesity, as assessed by early pregnancy waist:hip ratio and particularly by visceral fat mass, is a predictor of gestational diabetes in addition to classical risk factors and may help identify those obese patients at increased risk of complications.

  7. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  8. Effects of fat and exoskeletal mass on the mass scaling of metabolism in Carabidae beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Bartosz W; Gudowska, Agnieszka; Antoł, Andrzej; Labecka, Anna Maria; Bauchinger, Ulf; Kozłowski, Jan; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2017-10-13

    The rate at which organisms metabolize resources and consume oxygen is tightly linked to body mass. Typically, there is a sub-linear allometric relationship between metabolic rates and body mass (mass-scaling exponent b scaling of metabolic rates. Contrary to our hypothesis, the relative contribution of fat and the exoskeleton to body mass decreased, rather than increased with body mass, as indicated by the sub-linear allometric mass scaling of both components (b scaling, the exponents (b) for metabolism became slightly smaller (b = 0.70, phylogeny not considered; 0.52, phylogeny considered) when we removed lipids and the exoskeleton from body mass calculations and considered only the lean mass of soft tissue in the mass scaling. Overall, our results indicate that, in beetles, the relative content of metabolically inert components changes across species according to species-specific body mass. Nevertheless, we did not find evidence that this changing contribution plays a central role in the origin of interspecific metabolic scaling in carabids. Our findings stress the need for finding alternative explanations, at least in carabids, for the origin of the mass scaling of metabolic rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. GIANT FAT CONTAINING BREAST MASSES: REPORT OF SIX ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-02

    Feb 2, 2003 ... and be mistaken for fibroadenoma(6). Oil cysts (traumatic lipid cyst) represent a focal form of fat necrosis(1). It is produced by saponification of fat by tissue lipase after local destruction of fat cells with release of lipids and associated haemorrhage and fibrotic proliferation. It may result from direct breast.

  10. Effects of BMI, Fat Mass, and Lean Mass on Asthma in Childhood: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-valuesBMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24983943

  11. Fat free mass and obesity in relation to educational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissanen Harri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5% were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview. Results The mean FFM varied by education in older (≥ 65 y. men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y., highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93 compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR. Conclusions The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.

  12. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  13. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  14. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free...

  15. QDR 4500A DXA overestimates fat-free mass compared with criterion methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tylavsky, Frances A; Lohman, Timothy; Blunt, Barbara A; Schoeller, Dale A; Fuerst, Thomas; Cauley, Jane A; Nevitt, Michael C; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    This study evaluated the accuracy with which the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (Hologic QDR 4500A) measured fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and hydration of FFM. In a study of 58 men and women (ages 70-79 yr), the QDR 4500A was found to provide a systematically higher estimate of FFM and

  16. Associations of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy with subcutaneous fat mass in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jharap, Varsha V; Santos, Susana; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-05-01

    Not much is known about the associations of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain with body fat in infancy. To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with infant subcutaneous fat. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 845 mothers and their infants, we obtained maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and measured maternal weight during pregnancy. At 1.5, 6 and 24months, we estimated infant total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat). Maternal body mass index was positively associated with higher infant body mass index from 6months onwards. Maternal body mass index was not associated with infant subcutaneous fat measures at 1.5 or 6months. A 1-standard deviation scores (SDS) higher maternal body mass index was associated with a 0.09 (95% Confidence Interval 0.01, 0.17) SDS higher infant total subcutaneous fat at 24months, but not with central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio. No associations were present for maternal total or period-specific gestational weight gain with infant fat. Maternal body mass index was positively associated with infant body mass index and total subcutaneous fat in late infancy. Maternal total and period-specific gestational weight gain were not associated with infant body fat mass measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  18. Assessment of muscle mass relative to fat mass and associations with physical functioning in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joshua F; Giles, Jon T; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S; Long, Jin; Ibrahim, Said; Katz, Patricia P

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether a novel measure of appendicular lean mass relative to fat mass is associated with physical functioning in RA. In a cross-sectional design, three independent RA cohorts were retrospectively analysed. Whole-body DXA measures of appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m 2 ) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m 2 ) were converted to age, sex and race-specific Z-scores using published National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference ranges. Adiposity-adjusted ALMI Z-scores (ALMI FMI ) were determined using a published method to adjust for normal associations between ALMI and FMI Z-scores. Associations between ALMI Z-scores, ALMI FMI Z-scores and physical functioning were assessed after adjusting for age, sex and study. Functional outcomes assessed included the HAQ, Valued Life Activities assessment and Short Physical Performance Battery. Low lean for age was defined as a Z-score of -1 or less. Our sample consisted of 442 patients with RA. The combined cohort had a mean ALMI Z-score of - 0.51 (1.08) and a mean ALMI FMI Z-score of - 0.58 (1.53), suggesting muscle mass deficits compared with a nationally representative sample. Greater ALMI FMI Z-scores demonstrated stronger associations with better functional outcomes compared with ALMI Z-scores. Associations were not attenuated with adjustment for systemic inflammation or pain. The FMI Z-score was independently associated with physical functioning, with a stronger association seen among patients with greater FMI Z-score. Adiposity-adjusted definitions of low lean mass more clearly identified those with functional impairment. Estimates of appendicular lean mass that are adjusted for adiposity demonstrate stronger positive associations with functional outcomes compared with unadjusted estimates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Accretion of Fat-Free Mass Rather Than Fat Mass in Infancy Is Positively Associated with Linear Growth in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Andersen, Gregers S; Belachew, Tefera; Owino, Victor; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abera, Mubarek; Wibaek, Rasmus; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-04-01

    We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. This study examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized accretion rates were obtained by dividing FM and FFM accretion by their respective SD. FFM accretion from 0 to 6 mo of age was positively associated with length at 1 y (β = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.09; P = 0.005) and linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.07; P = 0.005). The strongest association with FFM accretion was observed at 1 y. The association with linear growth from 1 to 5 y was mainly engendered by the 1-y association. FM accretion from 0 to 4 mo was positively associated with linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.88; P = 0.038) in the fully adjusted model. In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.

  20. Visceral obesity, fat mass/muscle mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia: cross-sectional study. Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marcelo Nicolalde Cifuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution and composition of fat mass is associated with different metabolic risks. The predominance of brown visceral fat is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as: high triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, increased LDL cholesterol, ratio triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol elevated (atherogenic dyslipidemia indicator, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular risk (CVR. Sarcopenia and obesity may act synergistically in functional and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between visceral obesity, fat mass/muscular mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia in adult individuals in order to determine the association pattern between these variables and set strategies for focused attention.Material and Methods: In a sample of 307 subjects of both sexes (21-71 years there was measured atherogenic dyslipidemia as the ratio of triglyceride/HDL cholesterol, visceral obesity measured by bio impedance as the relative score of visceral fat, and the ratio fat mass/lean mass.Results: A cluster analysis was performed to establish the structure of association between these variables with different risk groups. Three groups were identified: the first had visceral obesity with an average relative level of visceral fat of 13.6, the second group with an average of 8.9 and in the third group were placed individuals with the lowest visceral obesity score averaging 6.5. As for the fat mass/lean mas ratio the first two groups had a similar average of this index with a value of 1.56 and 1.69 respectively and the third group with the lowest average value of 1.3. Group 1 presented visceral obesity and impaired fat mass/lean mass ratio and had a high value of triglyceride/HDL ratio 4.1. Group 2 without visceral obesity and a deterioration in the relative fat mass/lean mass ratio had a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol of 3.6 and Group 3; not recorded visceral obesity or

  1. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet

  2. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  3. Association between Interleukin-15 and Obesity: Interleukin-15 as a Potential Regulator of Fat Mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Hojman, Pernille; Erikstrup, Christian

    2008-01-01

    regulate adipose tissue mass. Design: The relation between skeletal muscle IL-15 mRNA expression, plasma IL-15, and adipose tissue mass was studied in 199 humans divided into four groups on the basis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, using a DNA electrotransfer model, we assessed the effect...... of IL-15 overexpression in skeletal muscle of mice. Results: In humans, multiple regression analysis showed a negative association between plasma IL-15 and total fat mass (P associations were...... also found between muscle IL-15 mRNA and obesity parameters. IL-15 overexpression in skeletal muscle of mice reduced trunk fat mass but not sc fat mass. Conclusions: Our results indicate that IL-15 may be a regulator of trunk fat mass....

  4. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  5. Role of parathyroid hormone in determination of fat mass in patients with Vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has become a global epidemic and it is rising is Asia. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is widely prevalent in the Indian subcontinent. Studies have linked VDD to obesity and shown correlation between parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OHD, and fat mass (FM. However, studies on the role of PTH among subjects with VDD are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study is to study the role of PTH in the determination of FM in participants with VDD. Subjects: Five hundred and fifty-one adults (m:247, f:304 were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Total and regional (trunk, arm, and leg FM was assessed by dual X-ray absorptometry. Biochemical and hormonal parameters such as calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, ionic calcium, 25(OHD, and PTH were also analyzed. Results: The mean age of the study population was 58.8 ± 15.8 years (Male: [63.3 ± 13.1], Female: [55.2 ± 16.9]. FM and body mass index were significantly lower in females with higher levels of serum 25(OHD. Total FM was negatively correlated with serum 25(OHD (r = −0.363, P < 0.0001 and positively correlated with serum PTH (r: 0.262, P < 0.0001 in females only. Females with VDD and secondary hyperparathyroidism had higher FM than those with normal PTH. Conclusions: Females with VDD had higher total and regional FM. However, this correlation was evident only in those with high serum PTH levels, suggesting a potential role of PTH in the accumulation of FM.

  6. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leslie H; Slentz, Cris A; Bateman, Lori A; Shields, A Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W; Bales, Connie W; Houmard, Joseph A; Kraus, William E

    2012-12-15

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweight or obese adults who were randomized to one of three 8-mo exercise protocols: 1) RT: resistance training, 2) AT: aerobic training, and 3) AT/RT: aerobic and resistance training (combination of AT and RT). Primary outcomes included total body mass, fat mass, and lean body mass. The AT and AT/RT groups reduced total body mass and fat mass more than RT (P body mass more than AT (P body mass reductions over AT alone. Balancing time commitments against health benefits, it appears that AT is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass and body mass, while a program including RT is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged, overweight/obese individuals.

  7. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  8. Visceral fat mass determination in rodent: validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric techniques in fat and lean rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because abdominal obesity is predisposed to various metabolic disorders, it is of major importance to assess and track the changes with time of this specific fat mass. The main issue for clinicians or researchers is to use techniques for assessing abdominal fat deposition and its accumulation or changes over time, without sacrificing of experimental subjects. In the rat, techniques to investigate in-vivo visceral fat mass are lacking. The purpose of the study was to validate indirect Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry technique and abdominal circumference measurement as tools to predict visceral adipose tissue in rats. Forty-three Wistar male rats from different body weight, fat mass and ages were included in the study. Visceral fat mass was assessed by weighing the total perirenal and peri-epididymal adipose tissues after dissection. Statistical methods were used to discriminate the best region of interest allowing the in-vivo measure of Central Fat Mass by DXA. Abdominal circumference was measured at the same time as the DXA scan. Results A region of interest including Central Fat Mass from the whole body DXA scan (extending from L2 to L5 vertebrae, correlated strongly with ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.94, p ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.82, p ex-vivo Fat Mass but disappeared for the lean group between abdominal circumference and ex-vivo Fat Mass. Conclusions This study validates the Central Fat Mass determined by DXA as a non-sacrificial technique to assess visceral fat for in-vivo investigations in rats. The abdominal circumference measure appears useful in studying overweight or obese rats. These two techniques could be convenient tools in follow-up and longitudinal studies.

  9. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  10. Changes in regional body fat, lean body mass and body shape in trans persons using cross-sex hormonal therapy: results from a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; de Blok, C J M; Wiepjes, C M; Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Schreiner, T; Fisher, A D; T'Sjoen, G; den Heijer, M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT) in trans persons affects their total body fat and total lean body mass. However, it is unknown how separate body regions are affected and whether these changes alter body shape. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects on body fat and lean body mass in separate body regions and on body shape after one year of CHT. In a multicenter prospective study at university hospitals, 179 male-to-female gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transwomen, and 162 female-to-male gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transmen, were included. All underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measurements before and after one year of CHT. In transwomen, increases in body fat ranged from +18% (95% CI: 13%;23%) in the android region to +42% (95% CI: 37%;46%) in the leg region and +34% (95% CI: 29%;38%) in the gynoid region. In transmen, changes in body fat ranged from -16% (95% CI: -19;-14%) in the leg region and -14% in the gynoid region (95% CI: -16%;-12) to no change in the android region (+1%, 95% CI: -3%;5%). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased in transwomen (-0.03, 95% CI: -0.04;-0.02) mainly due to an increase in hip circumference (+3.2 cm, 95% CI: 2.3;4.0). Transmen have a decrease in hip circumference (-1.9 cm, 95% CI: -3.1;-0.7) resulting in an increase in WHR (+0.01, 95% CI: 0.00;0.02). CHT causes a more feminine body fat distribution and a lower WHR in transwomen and a more masculine body fat distribution with a lower hip circumference in transmen. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Possible regulatory factors for intra-abdominal fat mass in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranuki, Sachi; Arai, Chie; Terada, Shin; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-02-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) lose body weight primarily due to decreased body fat mass. The purpose of this study was to elucidate possible factors related to reduction in the intra-abdominal fat mass of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated rats, which are frequently used as an animal model for PD. Sham-operated (NPD: n = 4) and unilaterally 6-OHDA-injected (PD: n = 4) 14-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a relatively high-fat diet for 2 wk, during which food intake and body weight were measured. After the 2-wk feeding period, intra-abdominal fat was dissected out and weighed. Carbohydrate and fat absorption-related gene expressions in the jejunum and serum insulin and glucose concentrations were analyzed. Although final body weights did not differ, total intra-abdominal fat weight, expressed relative to body weight, was significantly lower in the PD group than in the NPD group (P NPD rats (P < 0.05). PD model rats displayed loss of intra-abdominal fat, similar to the progressive loss of fat in PD patients. Our results provide preliminary evidence that reduced lipogenesis due to lower insulin levels, rather than impaired digestion/absorption, might have been involved in this decrease in intra-abdominal fat mass. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. MASS CHANGES IN MIGRATING BIRDS - THE EVIDENCE FOR FAT AND PROTEIN STORAGE REEXAMINED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIERSMA, T

    The fact that one cannot kill a bird twice makes it very difficult to determine the relative contributions of fat and non-fat components to increases in body mass before migratory flights in individual birds. Knowing the relative contributions of these components is of obvious energetic interest

  13. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-01-18

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  15. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    in a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. METHODS: Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included...... an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P

  16. The effectiveness of leucine on muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass and leg lean mass accretion in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe-rong; Tan, Zhong-ju; Zhang, Qin; Gui, Qi-feng; Yang, Yun-mei

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the ability of leucine supplementation to increase the muscle protein fraction synthetic rate and to augment lean body mass or leg lean mass in elderly patients. A literature search was conducted on Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases up to 31 December 2013 for clinical trials that investigated the administration of leucine as a nutrient that affects muscle protein metabolism and muscle mass in elderly subjects. The included studies were randomised controlled trials. The primary outcome for the meta-analysis was the protein fractional synthetic rate. Secondary outcomes included lean body mass and leg lean mass. A total of nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the muscle protein fractional synthetic rate after intervention significantly increased in the leucine group compared with the control group (pooled standardised difference in mean changes 1·08, 95% CI 0·50, 1·67; Pmass (pooled standardised difference in mean changes 0·18, 95% CI - 0·18, 0·54; P= 0·318) or leg lean mass (pooled standardised difference in mean changes 0·006, 95% CI - 0·32, 0·44; P= 0·756). These findings suggest that leucine supplementation is useful to address the age-related decline in muscle mass in elderly individuals, as it increases the muscle protein fractional synthetic rate.

  17. Lean Mass Appears to Be More Strongly Associated with Bone Health than Fat Mass in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotunde, O F; Kruger, H S; Wright, H H; Havemann-Nel, L; Kruger, I M; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Kruger, A; Tieland, M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), habitual physical activity (Activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured using an accelerometer with combined heart rate monitor and physical activity questionnaire) and bone health (BMD using dual-energy X ray absorptiometry, DXA and fracture risk). Urban community dwellers from Ikageng in the North-West Province of South Africa. One hundred and eighty nine (189) healthy postmenopausal women aged ≥43 years. Fat mass and lean mass were significantly associated with BMD and fracture risk when adjusted for potential confounders. However, lean mass and not fat mass remained significantly associated with femoral neck BMD (β = 0.49, p South African women. Our finding suggests that increasing lean mass rather than fat mass is beneficial to bone health. Our study emphasises the importance of positive lifestyle changes, intake of calcium from dairy and adequate weight to maintain and improve bone health of postmenopausal women.

  18. Fat mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis is not associated with increased risk of Barrett esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Aaron P; Kramer, Jennifer R; Alsarraj, Abeer; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate whether the association between obesity and Barrett esophagus (BE) is due to total body fatness, abdominal obesity, or both. BE risk seems to be more strongly related to central obesity than total obesity. However, no studies have investigated the association between total obesity and BE using direct measures of total body fatness. We conducted a case-control study among patients scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and a sample of patients eligible for screening colonoscopy recruited from primary care clinics. BE cases were patients with specialized intestinal metaplasia, whereas controls had no endoscopic or histopathologic BE. All patients underwent a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy and had body measurements taken. Fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using multivariable logistic regression. There were 70 BE cases, 229 endoscopy controls, and 118 primary care controls. BMI and BIA-derived fat mass were highly correlated; however, we found no association between BMI, fat mass, and BE (vs. all controls: BMI, OR/1 SD=1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34; fat mass, OR=1.02; 95% CI, 0.77-1.36). Waist-to-hip ratio was significantly associated with increased BE risk (vs. all controls: OR/1 SD=1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.04). We found similar results when we analyzed the control groups separately. Waist-to-hip ratio, but not fat mass or BMI, was associated with increased BE risk. This study provides strong evidence that BE is related to body size and composition through central adiposity and not through total body fatness.

  19. Fat mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis is not associated with increased risk of Barrett's esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Aaron P.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Alsarraj, Abeer; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2013-01-01

    Goal To evaluate whether the association between obesity and Barrett's esophagus (BE) is due to total body fatness, abdominal obesity, or both. Background BE risk appears more strongly related to central obesity than total obesity. However, no studies have investigated the association between total obesity and BE using direct measures of total body fatness. Study We conducted a case-control study among patients scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), and a sample of patients eligible for screening colonoscopy recruited from primary care clinics. BE cases were patients with specialized intestinal metaplasia; while controls had no endoscopic or histopathologic BE. All patients underwent a study EGD and had body measurements taken. Fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) using multivariable logistic regression. Results There were 70 BO cases, 229 endoscopy controls and 118 primary care controls. BMI and BIA derived fat mass were highly correlated; however we found no association between BMI, fat mass and BE (vs. all controls: BMI, OR per 1 standard deviation [s.d.] = 1.01, 95%CI 0.76–1.34; fat mass, OR=1.02, 95%CI 0.77–1.36). WHR was significantly associated with increased BE risk (vs. all controls: OR=1.45, 95%CI 1.03–2.04). We found similar results when we analyzed the control groups separately. Conclusion WHR, but not fat mass or BMI, was associated with increased BE risk. This study provides strong evidence that BE is related to body size and composition via central adiposity and not via total body fatness. PMID:23842216

  20. Suprapatellar fat-pad mass effect: MRI findings and correlation with anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsavalas, Nikolaos; Karantanas, Apostolos H

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MRI characteristics of the suprapatellar fat-pad, determine the prevalence and pattern of suprapatellar fat-pad edema, and correlate the findings with the presence of anterior knee pain, patellofemoral malalignment, and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. We retrospectively reviewed 879 consecutive knee MRI examinations of 843 patients for the presence of a suprapatellar fat-pad mass effect on the suprapatellar joint recess. The relative signal intensity and the maximum anteroposterior, craniocaudal, and oblique diameters of the suprapatellar fat-pad on sagittal fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted turbo spin-echo images were measured. Findings of anterior knee pain, patellofemoral malalignment, and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis were also recorded. The Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, and independent samples Student t tests and Spearman rank correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of suprapatellar fat-pad mass effect on the suprapatellar joint recess in our study population was 13.8%. The relative signal intensity (p anterior knee pain, patellofemoral malalignment, or patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Six patients with suprapatellar fat-pad edema had anterior knee pain. Suprapatellar fat-pad edema with a mass effect on the suprapatellar joint recess is a common finding at MRI examinations of the knee that is rarely associated with anterior knee pain.

  1. Development of Novel Methods to Define Deficits in Appendicular Lean Mass Relative to Fat Mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Weber

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity.Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2 and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2. Correlations between ALMI and FMI Z- and T-Scores were assessed within demographic categories. Fat-adjusted ALMI (ALMIFMI scores were determined using residual methods. Sarcopenia was defined as a T-Score 0.50; p<0.001 within all demographic categories. The impact of a unit greater FMI Z-score on ALMI Z-score was less in the elderly, men, white subjects, and among individuals with lower FMI (all tests for interaction p<0.001. There was fair agreement between ALMI and ALMIFMI estimates of sarcopenia and low lean for age [Kappa: 0.46, 0.52, respectively (p<0.0001]. Elderly subjects were likely to be re-classified as sarcopenic while young subjects were likely to be re-classified as normal using ALMIFMI. ALMIFMI T-scores resulted in approximately twice the number of subjects defined as sarcopenic, compared with ALMI T-Scores. (1299 v. 534. Among rheumatoid arthritis patients, ALMIFMI Z-scores correlated with physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire: rho = -0.22, p = 0.04; Short Physical Performance Battery: rho = 0.27, p = 0.01; however, the ALMI Z-Score did not.Adjustment of ALMI for the confounding association with FMI impacts the definition of lean mass deficits. These methods provide a practical tool for investigators and clinicians based on population-based reference data.

  2. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  3. Is BMI a relevant marker of fat mass in 4 year old children? Results from the MINISTOP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Pontus; Ek, Anna; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2018-03-20

    Due to the increase in childhood obesity, identifying children with excess body fat as early as possible is essential. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a marker of body fat in children, adolescents, and adults, yet whether BMI is a valid marker of body fat in pre-school aged children remains to be confirmed. Therefore, we analyzed the associations of BMI with fat and fat-free mass in healthy 4-year-old Swedish children. The study comprised of 303 children (135 girls) participating in the MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Fat and fat-free mass were measured using air displacement plethysmography and we computed fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) as fat and fat free mass (kg)/height 2 (m). BMI was positively yet weakly associated with percent fat mass (boys: r 2  = 0.120, P BMI and the FMI (boys: r 2  = 0.468, P BMI and the FFMI (boys: r 2  = 0.621, P BMI was strongly associated to both FMI and FFMI. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting body fat status based on BMI values in pre-school children.

  4. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  5. Venogram - leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebogram - leg; Venography - leg; Angiogram - leg ... into a vein in the foot of the leg being looked at. An intravenous (IV) line is ... vein. A tourniquet may be placed on your leg so the dye flows into the deeper veins. ...

  6. Development of fat tissue and body mass index from infancy to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T

    1996-06-01

    This paper gives a short overview of our recent research on changes in the body mass index (BMI) or in body fat for children studied longitudinally from birth to adulthood. The BMI shows characteristic changes in childhood and adolescence which are different from those known for skeletal growth. A period of loss of BMI from 1 to 6 years is followed by a pubertal spurt which is larger in females than in males. Fat shows a dramatic increase in the 1st year, and velocity is higher for girls than for boys after 3 years of age. At puberty there is a pre-pubertal and a post-pubertal spurt in total body fat or in arm fat and a dip in between. Those heavy or fat as adults have a qualitatively similar pattern of developmental changes, but much more accentuated fluctuations. The analysis relies on new statistical techniques.

  7. A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relative influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content (BMC) among 1600 early postmenopausal women aged 45-59 y from four geographical locations (Nottingham, United Kingdom; Portland, OR; Honolulu; and Copenhagen). Bone sites investigated included the major fracture sites......: hip, spine, and radius. Body weight had strong associations at all skeletal sites examined [BMC differences of 4-6% per interquartile range (IQR) of weight]. Associations with the fat and lean components of weight were more variable. The BMC differences per IQR of lean mass were 5-7% at the hip sites......, 3% at the spine, and 2% at the radial sites. The greater differences for lean mass at the hip may reflect the high physical mobility and muscular activity of this site. The BMC differences per IQR of fat mass were 4-6% at the hip sites, 4% at the spine, and 5% at the ultradistal radius...

  8. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  9. Lifestyle-induced decrease in fat mass improves adiponectin secretion in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Solomon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have identified relationships between weight loss and adipokine levels; however, none have looked at the combined effect of aerobic exercise training with the consumption of a low- or a high-glycemic diet. We examined the effects of 12 wk of aerobic exercise combined...... = 0.003) after the 12-wk intervention. Total body fat was reduced after both interventions. Visceral fat mass was inversely correlated with HMW adiponectin, whereas subcutaneous fat correlated with leptin. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that exercise training, independent of dietary glycemic index......, favorably alters HMW adiponectin and leptin secretion and that a reduction in visceral fat mass is a key factor regulating HMW adiponectin in older obese persons....

  10. Modelling fat mass as a function of weekly physical activity profiles measured by Actigraph accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, Nicole H; Faraway, Julian J; Mattocks, Calum; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R

    2012-01-01

    We show results on the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) using a new approach for modelling the relationship between health outcomes and physical activity assessed by accelerometers. The key feature of the model is that it uses the histogram of physical activity counts as a predictor function, rather than scalar summary measures such as average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Three models are fitted: (1a) A regression of fat mass at age 12 (N = 4164) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12; (1b) A regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2403) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12 and (1c) a regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2413) onto the accelerometer counts at age 14. All three models significantly improve on models including MVPA instead of the histogram and improve the goodness of fit of models (2a), (2b) and (2c) from R 2 = 0.267, 0.248 and 0.230 to R 2 = 0.292, 0.263 and 0.258 for models (1a), (1b) and (1c) respectively. The proportion of time spent in sedentary and very light activity (corresponding to slow walking and similar activities) has a positive contribution towards fat mass and time spent in moderate to vigorous activity has a negative contribution towards fat mass. (paper)

  11. Ketogenic diet-fed rats have increased fat mass and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Letícia C; Chittó, Ana L; Müller, Alexandre P; Rocha, Juliana K; Castro da Silva, Mariane; Quincozes-Santos, André; Nardin, Patrícia; Rotta, Liane N; Ziegler, Denize R; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Da Silva, Roselis S M; Perry, Marcos L S; Gottfried, Carmem

    2008-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), characterized by high fat and low carbohydrate and protein contents, has been proposed to be beneficial in children with epilepsy disorders not helped by conventional anti-epileptic drug treatment. Weight loss and inadequate growth is an important drawback of this diet and metabolic causes are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine body weight variation during KD feeding for 6 wk of Wistar rats; fat mass and adipocyte cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were also observed. PEPCK activity was determined based on the [H(14)CO(3) (-)]-oxaloacetate exchange reaction. KD-fed rats gained weight at a less rapid rate than normal-fed rats, but with a significant increment in fat mass. The fat mass/body weight ratio already differed between ketogenic and control rats after the first week of treatment, and was 2.4 x higher in ketogenic rats. The visceral lipogenesis was supported by an increment in adipocyte PEPCK, aiming to provide glycerol 3-phosphate to triacylglycerol synthesis and this fat accumulation was accompanied by glucose intolerance. These data contribute to our understanding of the metabolic effects of the KD in adipose tissue and liver and suggest some potential risks of this diet, particularly visceral fat accumulation.

  12. Relationship of pressure to be thin with gains in body weight and fat mass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suelter, C S; Schvey, N; Kelly, N R; Shanks, M; Thompson, K A; Mehari, R; Brady, S; Yanovski, S Z; Melby, C L; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Yanovski, J A; Shomaker, L B

    2018-01-01

    Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m 2 ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up. At baseline, adolescents and their mothers reported pressure to be thin by questionnaire. At baseline and follow-up, BMI was calculated, and fat mass was assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between baseline pressure to be thin and 1-year changes in BMI and fat mass. Accounting for multiple covariates, including baseline BMI or fat, adolescent-reported pressure from parents and peers and mother-reported pressure toward their teen were associated with greater gains in either adolescent BMI or fat (ps weight status was a moderator of multiple effects (ps < .05). Parental and peer pressure to be thin were associated with increases in BMI and fat mass during adolescence, particularly in heavier adolescents. Further research is necessary to clarify how this association operates reciprocally and to identify underlying explanatory mechanisms. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity.This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  14. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Emmett, Pauline M; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andy R; Hattersley, Andrew T; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Jebb, Susan A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g) was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609) variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51), suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  15. Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat) obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialich, Mirele Savegnago; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso

    2014-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been one of the methods most frequently used for diagnose obesity, but it isn't consider body composition. This study intends to apply one new adiposity index, the BMI adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat) developed by Mialich et al. (2011), in a adult Brazilian sample. A cross-sectional study with 501 individuals of both genders (366 women, 135 men) aged 17 to 38 years and mean age was 20.4 ± 2.8 years, mean weight 63.0 ± 13.5 kg, mean height 166.9 ± 9.0 cm, and BMI 22.4 ± 3.4 kg/m2. High and satisfactory R2 values were obtained, i.e., 91.1%, 91.9% and 88.8% for the sample as a whole and for men and women, respectively. Considering this BMIfat were developed new ranges, as follows: 1.35 to 1.65 (nutritional risk for malnutrition), > 1.65 and ≤2.0 (normal weight) and > 2.0 (obesity). The BMIfat had a more accurate capacity of detecting obese individuals (0.980. 0.993, 0.974) considering the sample as a whole and women and men, respectively, compared to the traditional BMI (0.932, 0.956, 0.95). Were also defined new cut-off points for the traditional BMI for the classification of obesity, i.e.: 25.24 kg/m2 and 28.38 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively. The BMIfat was applied for the present population and can be adopted in clinical practice. Further studies are needed to determine its application to different ethnic groups and to compare this index to others previously described in the scientific literature. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual dimorphism, age and fat mass are key phenotypic drivers of proteomic signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curran, Aoife M; Fogarty Draper, Colleen; Scott-Boyer, Marie-Pier

    2017-01-01

    by differences in physiological states limiting the ability to translate research results to clinically useful diagnostic tests. Aptamer based affinity assays were used to test whether low abundant serum proteins differed based on age, sex and fat mass in a healthy population of 94 males and 102 females from......, age, and fat mass, respectively. Pathway analysis classified a subset of proteins from the 3 phenotypes to the complement and coagulation cascades pathways and to immune and coagulation processes. These results demonstrated that specific proteins were statistically associated with dichotomous (male v...... female) and continuous phenotypes (age, fat mass) which may influence the identification and use of biomarkers of clinical utility for health diagnosis and therapeutic strategies....

  17. Effects of protein supplementation on fat-free mass in response to different weight loss programs in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andiara Schwingel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether protein supplementation helps prevent the loss of fat-free mass during weight loss. The sample was composed of seventy-eight obese adult Japanese women, assigned into four different programs: diet-alone (D, n=24, diet-alone with protein supplementation (DP, n=16, diet-plusexercise (DE, n=17, and diet-plus-exercise with protein supplementation (DEP, n=21. All participants restricted their energy intakes to 1200 kcal/day, and participants in DE and DEP had the exercise session including aerobic exercise of approximately 90 min/day, 3 day/week. Participants enrolled in protein supplementation groups received an additional 14 g/day of protein. Measures on body composition were conducted before and after the program by DXA. All programs yielded significant weight (6.9 to 9.5 kg and fat (4.1 to 7.6% reduction. Total fat-free mass significantly decreased in D, DP and DE groups, whereas for DEP group the decrease was not significant. Regionalfat-free mass lowered for D and DP groups in leg, arms and trunk. For those in DE group, fat-free mass in trunk was not significantly decreased, and for those in DEP group, fat-free mass in leg and trunk did not differ significantly after the program. However, no significant differences of changes in fat-free mass were observed in comparisons among all groups. Our results confirmed the efficiency of weight loss intervention on fat-mass reduction through diet and exercise. However, fat-free mass does not appear to be preserved by protein supplementation, suggesting that its influence on a short-term weight reduction program is not apparent. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da suplementação protéica na preservação da massa magra durante programas de emagrecimento. Setenta e oito mulheres adultas japonesas e obesas foram submetidas a quatro programas diferentes: dieta (D, n=24, dieta com suplementação proteica (DP, n=16, dieta com exerc

  18. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Leslie H.; Slentz, Cris A.; Bateman, Lori A.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweig...

  19. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  20. Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Wing-Gaia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure.

  1. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    -free masses in the offspring of obese mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Obese mother-newborn dyads were recruited and 2-h plasma glucose levels were assessed during gestational weeks 27-30; neonatal body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 hours of birth. RESULTS...

  2. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI, and high-intensity training group (HI. Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50–56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI or 65–70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI. Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI. Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  3. The androgen receptor in bone marrow progenitor cells negatively regulates fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Patricia K; Mangiafico, Salvatore; Fam, Barbara C; Clarke, Michele V; Marin, Evelyn S; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Wiren, Kristine M; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Davey, Rachel A

    2018-04-01

    It is well established that testosterone negatively regulates fat mass in humans and mice; however, the mechanism by which testosterone exerts these effects is poorly understood. We and others have shown that deletion of the androgen receptor (AR) in male mice results in a phenotype that mimics the three key clinical aspects of hypogonadism in human males; increased fat mass and decreased bone and muscle mass. We now show that replacement of the Ar gene specifically in mesenchymal progenitor cells (PCs) residing in the bone marrow of Global-ARKO mice, in the absence of the AR in all other tissues (PC-AR Gene Replacements), completely attenuates their increased fat accumulation. Inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue and intra-abdominal retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue depots in PC-AR Gene Replacement mice were 50-80% lower than wild-type (WT) and 75-90% lower than Global-ARKO controls at 12 weeks of age. The marked decrease in subcutaneous and visceral fat mass in PC-AR Gene Replacements was associated with an increase in the number of small adipocytes and a healthier metabolic profile compared to WT controls, characterised by normal serum leptin and elevated serum adiponectin levels. Euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies reveal that the PC-AR Gene Replacement mice have improved whole-body insulin sensitivity with higher glucose infusion rates compared to WT mice and increased glucose uptake into subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence for an action of androgens via the AR in mesenchymal bone marrow PCs to negatively regulate fat mass and improve metabolic function. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Association of DXA-derived bone mineral density and fat mass with African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Preus, Leah; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Nie, Jing; Johnson, Nicholas A; Zakharia, Fouad; Tang, Hua; Carlson, Chris; Carty, Cara; Chen, Zhao; Hoffman, Thomas; Hutter, Carolyn M; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kaplan, Robert C; Li, Li; Liu, Song; Neuhouser, Marian L; Peters, Ulrike; Robbins, John; Seldin, Michael F; Thornton, Timothy A; Thompson, Cheryl L; Kooperberg, Charles; Sucheston, Lara E

    2013-04-01

    Both genes and environment have been implicated in determining the complex body composition phenotypes in individuals of European ancestry; however, few studies have been conducted in other race/ethnic groups. We conducted a genome-wide admixture mapping study in an attempt to localize novel genomic regions associated with genetic ancestry. We selected a sample of 842 African-American women from the Women's Health Initiative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Health Association Resource for whom several dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and fat mass phenotypes were available. We derived both global and local ancestry estimates for each individual from Affymetrix 6.0 data and analyzed the correlation of DXA phenotypes with global African ancestry. For each phenotype, we examined the association of local genetic ancestry (number of African ancestral alleles at each marker) and each DXA phenotype at 570 282 markers across the genome in additive models with adjustment for important covariates. We identified statistically significant correlations of whole-body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and all 6 measures of BMD with a proportion of African ancestry. Genome-wide (admixture) significance for femoral neck BMD was achieved across 2 regions ∼3.7 MB and 0.3 MB on chromosome 19q13; similarly, total hip and intertrochanter BMD were associated with local ancestry in these regions. Trunk fat was the most significant fat mass phenotype showing strong, but not genomewide significant associations on chromosome Xp22. Our results suggest that genomic regions in postmenopausal African-American women contribute to variance in BMD and fat mass existence and warrant further study.

  5. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  6. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFA) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the interrelationships between body fat, sex and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, non-diabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0–56.0 % body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: 1) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass and total FFA Ra (µmol·min−1); 2) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=−0.806; P<0.001); 4) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; 5) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects. PMID:19629053

  8. Fat-free mass index: changes and race/ethnic differences in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, HR; Thornton, J; Wang, J; Pierson, RN; Kaleem, Z; Pi-Sunyer, X; Heymsfield, S; Albu, J; Fernandez, JR; VanItallie, TB; Gallagher, D

    2012-01-01

    Objective Nutritional status is assessed by measuring BMI or percent body fat (%fat). BMI can misclassify persons who carry more weight as fat-free mass and %fat can be misleading in cases of malnutrition or in disease states characterized by wasting of lean tissue. The fat-free mass index (FFMI) is proposed to assess body composition in individuals who have a similar body composition but differ in height allowing identification of those suffering from malnutrition, wasting or those that possess a relatively high muscle mass. The purpose was to determine whether the FFMI differs in a group of racially/ethnically diverse adults. Design Cross-sectional. Subjects Subjects were a multi-ethnic sample (Caucasian, CA; African American, AA; Hispanic, HIS and Asian, AS) of 1339 healthy males (n = 480) and females (n = 859) ranging in age from 18–110 years. Total body fat, total fat-free mass and bone mineral density were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results FFMI differed among the four ethnic groups (P ≤ 0.05) for both genders. A curvilinear relationship was found between age and FFMI for both genders although the coefficients in the quadratic model differed between genders (P ≤ 0.001) indicating the rate of change in FFMI differed between genders. The estimated turning point where FFMI started to decline was in the mid 20s for male and mid 40s for female participants. An age × gender interaction was found such that the rate of decline was greater in male than female participants (P ≤ 0.001). For both genders, FFMI was greatest in AA and the least in AS (P ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between race and age or age2 (P = 0.06). However, male participants consistently had a greater FFMI than female participants (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions These findings have clinical implications for identifying individuals who may not be recognized as being malnourished based on their BMI or %fat but whose fat-free mass corrected for height is

  9. Hormone replacement therapy dissociates fat mass and bone mass, and tends to reduce weight gain in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2003-01-01

    in women randomized to HRT (1.94 +/- 4.86 kg) than in women randomized to no HRT (2.57 +/- 4.63, p = 0.046). A similar pattern was seen in the group receiving HRT or not by their own choice. The smaller weight gain in women on HRT was almost entirely caused by a lesser gain in fat. The main determinant...... of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor...... of bone changes in untreated women, whereas the change in lean body mass was the strongest predictor when HRT was given. Body weight increases after the menopause. The gain in weight is related to a decrease in working capacity. HRT is associated with a smaller increase in fat mass after menopause. Fat...

  10. The black-legged kittiwake preen gland—an overlooked organ for depuration of fat-soluble contaminants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Aakre Solheim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most birds preen their feathers with an oily excrete from the uropygial (preen gland. This oily excrete contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs, which make the preen gland a potential route of depuration of POPs in birds. Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla were studied during two periods of high energy demand: incubation and chick-rearing. A rather high concentration of POPs in preen gland tissue indicates that the preen gland secrete is an excretory pathway for POPs in kittiwakes. The similarity in the POP profile detected in this study of liver, preen gland and feathers suggests that POPs found in the feathers are excreted through the preen gland. The finding also indicates that excretion of POPs through the preen gland is compound unspecific. This qualitative study should be followed up by a new quantitative study to determine the importance of excretion of POPs through the preen gland.

  11. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  12. Fat mass gain predicts estimated GFR decline in a relatively healthy Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young Youl; Kim, Hyang; Lee, Kyu Beck

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between fat mass directly measured by bioimpedance analysis and eGFR is not well known. We analyzed 21,859 participants without CKD at baseline who underwent two health checkups at a 5-year interval during 2002-2009. Fat mass was measured by Inbody 3.0 (Biospace, Seoul, Korea). eGFR decline was defined as eGFR 1.2 kg). After 5 years, 246 cases of eGFR decline were observed. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.22-3.40, p = 0.007), baseline eGFR (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.83, p < 0.001) and higher tertile of fat mass change (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.13, p = 0.003) were associated with eGFR decline after adjustment for sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, smoking status, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Fat mass gain over 5 years was independently associated with eGFR decline to <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in a relatively healthy Korean population. This finding suggests that lifestyle changes to prevent fat mass gain could be protective against the development of CKD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, and fat-free mass index (FFMI. Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI (p < 0.03 after adjusting for maternal overweight, the average annual income of family, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity energy expenditure, and energy intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI (p < 0.003, but not related to %BF and FMI (p > 0.09, while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI (p = 0.03. Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  14. Giant fat containing breast masses: report of six cases | Hanna | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six patients with giant fat containing breast masses encountered over a 20 year period are presented including a brief review of the literature. These benign tumours especially the giant varieties are rare but are likely to be increasingly diagnosed because of the widespread use of mammography. (East African Medical ...

  15. Relationship between actigraphy-assessed sleep quality and fat mass in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, Julia; Karschin, Judith; Breusing, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-02-01

    Only a few studies have used objective measurements to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and obesity. These studies showed controversial results. Sleep efficiency was measured by Actiwatch 2 in 132 healthy students (age 23.3 ± 3.7 years, BMI 23.1 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) ) for 12 ± 3 nights, differentiating between work and free days. Physical activity, dietary habits, and autonomic function (heart rate variability, HRV) were analyzed as potential determinants of sleep quality and its relationship with body composition. Sleep efficiency was 87.0% in women and 84.9% in men (P sleep efficiency was associated with a higher fat mass. This was true for sleep efficiency on work days in women [fat mass index (FMI): r = -0.35, P sleep efficiency was associated with less physical activity (r = 0.29, P sleep efficiency was associated with higher fat mass. The relationship between sleep quality and fat mass differs between work and free days and may be explained by physical activity and autonomic function in women and dietary habits in men. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  17. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  18. Association of a common rs9939609 variant in the fat mass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is a key challenge to conduct reproducibility in genetic research, especially association studies in obesity. While susceptibility of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene to obesity has been reported in various populations, data from Asians is less conclusive.

  19. Unexpected relationship between fat mass and basal metabolic rate in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, M N; Mak, R P; King, J C

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the relationships between BMR, fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass in pregnancy. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was assessed by densitometry in seventeen non-pregnant women (79.9 (SD 26.3, range 50.5-151.4) kg) and sixteen pregnant women (75.7 (SD 20.6, range 54.5-115.9) kg). The pregnant women were evaluated during weeks 31-35 of gestation. Multiple regression analysis of BMR with FFM and fat mass in the non-pregnant women showed that FFM was a highly significant predictor of BMR (P relationships of BMR with FFM and fat mass differ significantly in non-pregnant and pregnant women. It is proposed that pregnancy represents a unique condition during which BMR is regulated by maternal adipose reserves. An augmented BMR in overweight pregnant women may be protective, given that excessive weight gain may be detrimental to neonatal and maternal health.

  20. Effects of fat mass on motor development during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: This study characterized total body fat mass and motor development during the first two years of life in healthy infants. Design: Participants (N=469) from the Beginnings’ cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of early infant feeding, were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age...

  1. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI ( p intake: Girls in the highest tertile of screen time/homework had 16.7%/23.3% higher relative FMI and 2.9%/2.9% higher relative FFMI than girls in the lowest tertile. Among boys, screen time was positively associated with FFMI ( p 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI ( p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  2. An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deierlein Andrea L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days, anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh, and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg + 0.055*weight (kg2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh; R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.

  3. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of later aerobic fitness, and whether fat-free mass may mediate this association. Methods. The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a population-based cohort of two age groups (9 and 15 years) from Denmark...

  4. Associations of 18-year-old daughters' and mothers' serum leptin, body mass index and DXA-derived fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sanae; Bin, Wu; Honda, Mari; Nanbu, Seiki; Suzuki, Kazuhisa; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2010-10-27

    We assessed the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) of 187 college female students aged 18 years with the reported BMI of their middle-aged biological parents measured on 2 occasions: when the parents were 18-20 years old and at the time of the study. The relationships of fat mass measured using whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum leptin levels were also determined between 148 daughters and middle-aged parents (148 mothers and 59 fathers). The BMI of daughters was associated with their mothers' BMI (r=0.30, pfathers' BMI measured when they were 18 years old. Daughters' BMI showed a stronger association with the current BMI of their mothers BMI (r=0.36, pfathers' BMI (r=0.19, p=0.01). In addition, the serum leptin levels of daughters were correlated with their mothers' leptin values (r=0.22, p=0.04). Further, not only total body fat mass (r=0.19, pdaughters and their mothers. The significant correlation between daughters' and mothers' BMI measured when their mothers were 18 years old did not result from shared environmental factors, including the intrauterine environment. The results in the present study therefore suggest that adiposity in 18-year-old daughters may be influenced by the maternal effect. The associations of serum leptin and DXA-derived fat mass between daughters and their mothers may support our hypothesis.

  5. Leg blood flow is impaired during small muscle mass exercise in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2017-01-01

    -extensor exercise, and during arterial infusions of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD and eight age- and sex matched healthy controls were studied. During knee-extensor exercise (10 W), leg blood flow was lower in the patients compared...... the formation of interstitial prostacyclin (vasodilator) was only increased in the controls. There was no difference between groups in the nitrite/nitrate levels (vasodilator) in plasma or interstitial fluid during exercise. Moreover, patients and controls showed similar vasodilatory capacity in response...

  6. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Tordecilla, Alejandra; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; Cobo-Mejía, Elisa Andrea; Castellanos-Vega, Rocío del Pilar; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles. PMID:28902162

  7. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  8. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  9. Lipodystrophy defined by Fat Mass Ratio in HIV-infected patients is associated with a high prevalence of glucose disturbances and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Paula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART in the treatment of HIV-1 infection has been associated with complications, including lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR and diabetes. Aims To compare the prevalence of glucose homeostasis disturbances and IR in HIV patients on cART according to the presence of lipodystrophy (defined clinically and by Fat Mass Ratio and different patterns of fat distribution and to establish their associations. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods We evaluated body composition and IR and insulin sensitivity indexes in 345 HIV-infected adults. Results Patients with clinical lipodystrophy (CL had higher plasma glucose levels than patients without CL, without significant differences in plasma insulin levels, A1c, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, QUICKI, or MATSUDA index. Patients with lipodystrophy defined by FMR had higher plasma glucose and insulin levels, A1c, HOMA-IR, QUICKI and MATSUDA than patients without lipodystrophy, without differences in HOMA-B. Higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥ 4 was present in patients with FMR-defined lipodystrophy. Patients with FMR-defined lipodystrophy had a higher prevalence of IFG, IGT and DM than patients without lipodystrophy. Significant associations between HOMA-IR and total, central and central/peripheral fat evaluated by CT at abdominal level were found and no association between HOMA-IR and peripheral fat. Association between HOMA-IR and total and trunk fat but no association with leg and arm fat (evaluated by DXA was found. Conclusions IR and glucose disturbances were significantly increased in patients with FMR-defined lipodystrophy. FMR lipodystrophy definition seems to be a more sensitive determinant of insulin resistance and glucose disturbances than clinical definition.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILK FAT PHASE USING UNIVERSAL PEARSON DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of approximating the experimental values of the coefficient of attenuation of ultrasonic oscillations and the mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products. The analysis of experimental data in terms of the choice of the method of approximation was done. A approximating dependence is based on the solution of Pearson differential equations. The advantages of the proposed method for the type of approximation of the experimental data obtained. An algorithm for constructing a mathematical model describing the relaxation spectrum and mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products was implemented. As a result, a family of Pearson approximation curves of the experimental data shows the ability to qualitatively correctly describe the change in the distribution of the fat phase in the process of homogenization. It estimates the error of approximating dependence, which amounted to 18 %. It is shown that during of the process of homogenization of dairy products changes shape of the curve describing the distribution of the fat globules, in view of the fact that there is a local extremum, caused by the presence of the non-homogenized fat globules. The accuracy of the selected mathematical model is significantly reduced. At the same time, it loses its physical meaning and its parameters. To address the identified deviations in the proposed mass distribution of fat globules as a function with two modes. It is proved that the complexity of the model is not only doubles the number of its parameters, but also complicates the interpretation of measurement results in a control system, and makes it difficult to analyze the obtained parameters of approximation by decision-maker. As a result of approximation of experimental data suggested to use statistical moments of the distribution for problem decision.

  11. Body weight homeostat that regulates fat mass independently of leptin in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, John-Olov; Hägg, Daniel A.; Schéle, Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Anesten, Fredrik; Bake, Tina; Montelius, Mikael; Bellman, Jakob; Johansson, Maria E.; Cone, Roger D.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Wu, Jianyao; Aleksic, Biljana; Törnqvist, Anna E.; Sjögren, Klara; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Windahl, Sara H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2018-01-01

    Subjects spending much time sitting have increased risk of obesity but the mechanism for the antiobesity effect of standing is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a homeostatic regulation of body weight. We demonstrate that increased loading of rodents, achieved using capsules with different weights implanted in the abdomen or s.c. on the back, reversibly decreases the biological body weight via reduced food intake. Importantly, loading relieves diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. The identified homeostat for body weight regulates body fat mass independently of fat-derived leptin, revealing two independent negative feedback systems for fat mass regulation. It is known that osteocytes can sense changes in bone strain. In this study, the body weight-reducing effect of increased loading was lost in mice depleted of osteocytes. We propose that increased body weight activates a sensor dependent on osteocytes of the weight-bearing bones. This induces an afferent signal, which reduces body weight. These findings demonstrate a leptin-independent body weight homeostat (“gravitostat”) that regulates fat mass. PMID:29279372

  12. Endogenous testosterone, muscle strength, and fat-free mass in men with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarrán, Secundino; Pousa, Montserrat; Castro, María Jesús; González, Berta; Martínez, Aurelia; Barril, Guillermina; Aguilera, Abelardo; Coronel, Francisco; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Testosterone deficiency is a common finding in men with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Testosterone is thought to play an important anabolic role in muscle synthesis, and muscle wasting is an important and deleterious characteristic of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in CKD. It is presently unknown if reduced endogenous testosterone associates with features of muscle wasting in men with CKD. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 267 men with CKD stages 2-4 (mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 13 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 42.9 [interquartile range 30.2-56.7] mL/min/1.73 m²) with measurements of endogenous testosterone and surrogates of PEW such as albumin, prealbumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA). Fat-free mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and muscle strength by handgrip dynamometry. Across decreasing thirds of testosterone distribution, patients were incrementally older and CRP levels rose significantly. Prealbumin, hemoglobin, nPNA, handgrip strength, and BIVA estimated surrogates of muscle mass and nutritional status (fat-free mass, body cell mass, and phase angle) were progressively reduced (P testosterone significantly and independently contributed to explain the variances of handgrip strength and fat-free mass (P testosterone independently associates with muscle strength and fat-free mass in men with moderate CKD. It is plausible that the reduction in testosterone levels that accompanies CKD may further contribute to the procatabolic environment leading to muscle wasting. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive validity of four bioelectrical impedance equations in determining percent fat mass in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Jane; Daniells, Suzie; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka; Nicholls, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance equations are frequently used by food and nutrition professionals to estimate percent fat mass in overweight and obese children. However, it is not known whether they are accurate for such children, as they have been primarily developed for children of varying body weights. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the predictive validity of four previously published prediction equations developed for the pediatric population, among a sample of overweight and obese children. Thirty overweight or obese children (mean age=7.57+/-1.28 years) underwent measurement of fat mass, percent fat mass, and fat-free mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Impedance values from the BIA were entered into the four prediction equations and Pearson correlations used to determine the significance of associations between each of the BIA prediction equations and DEXA for percent fat mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass. For percent fat mass, paired t tests were used to assess differences between the methods and the technique of Bland and Altman was used to determine bias and error. Results showed that the mean percent fat mass as determined by DEXA for this age group was 40.79%. In comparison with other BIA prediction equations, the Schaefer equation had the closest mean value of 41.98%, and was the only equation not to significantly differ from the DEXA (P=0.121). This study suggests that the Schaefer equation is the only accurate BIA prediction equation for assessing percent fat mass in this sample of overweight and obese children from primarily white backgrounds.

  14. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF on fat mass (FM development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8–10, 10–12, 12–14, 14–16 years with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter’s anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years.

  15. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Goswami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age.

  16. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelena Vidakovic, Aleksandra; Santos, Susana; Williams, Michelle A; Duijts, Liesbeth; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2016-08-01

    The associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations during pregnancy with infant subcutaneous fat were examined. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 904 mothers and their infants, maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations were measured at midpregnancy. Body mass index, total subcutaneous fat, and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio were calculated at 1.5, 6, and 24 months. Maternal n-3 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant body mass index or total subcutaneous fat. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, were associated with higher central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months, whereas higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 6 months (all P values fat. A higher n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months only (P value fat. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of maternal PUFA concentrations on fat mass development during early infancy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...

  18. [Predictive accuracy of body mass index in estimating body fatness measured by bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fernando; Reyes, Eliana; Rimler, Olga; Rios, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the performance of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity and as a predictor of body fatness in adult Chilean subjects. We conducted a study in 433 women (18-73 years old; BMI: 19.7 to 69.7 kg/m2) and 264 men (18-83 y.; BMI: 19.1 to 54.8 kg/m2). Bioelectrical resistance was measured by impedance method and fat mass percent (FM%) was calculated by fatness-specific equations developed by Segal et al. Obesity was defined as a BMI of at least 30 kg/m2. Increased fatness was defined by the FM% cut-off points of at least 25% for men and at least 30% for women. Sixty-four percent of women and 23.6% of men with BMI below 30 kg/m2 had FM% higher than 30% and 25%, respectively. A value of BMI of 26 kg/m2 in women and 30 kg/m2 in men had the best agreement to the cut-off points of fatness according to sensitivity vs. specificity analysis The following equations were developed to predict individual fatness: women FM% = 0.96 x BMI + 0.154 x age + 1.44 (r2 = 0.75; standard error 3.8%); men FM% = 0.99 x BMI + 0.141 x age - 9.914 (r2 = 0.66; standard error 4.4%). Differences between measured and predicted FM% presented a wide variation, with a range of +/- 2 sd of 7.5% in women and 8.8% in men. The commonly used value of BMI 330 kg/m2 as a cut-off point for obesity does not have adequate sensitivity and specificity for the screening of increased fatness subjects, specially in women. In this study BMI shows a low reliability as a predictor of individual body fatness, particularly in men and in subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2.

  19. Body fat mass of exclusively breastfed infants born to overweight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Badger, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    Although there is evidence that maternal prepregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)] ≥30) results in elevated risk of obesity in the offspring later in life, maternal prepregnancy overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) has not been clearly demonstrated as a risk factor for the future development of obesity in the offspring. Our objective was to determine if body composition differs between infants born to lean or overweight breastfeeding women. Body composition (PeaPod, COSMED USA, Inc) and anthropometric outcomes were measured in 65 infants born to lean mothers (n=46) (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) or overweight mothers (n=19) (BMI 25 to 29.9) between 2006 and 2007. Maternal body composition (BodPod, COSMED USA, Inc) was also measured. Body fat mass was higher in infants born to overweight mothers compared with infants born to lean mothers at age 2 weeks and 3 months (11.9% vs 15.3% and 24.1% vs 26.8%, respectively; Pweight gain and birth weight, body fat mass was significantly greater only at age 2 weeks. Infants of overweight mothers have greater body fat mass in the neonatal period compared with infants of lean mothers, suggesting that maternal overweight may predispose fetal metabolism to favor fat storage. Although our data suggest that this effect is short lived, future studies are needed to investigate children beyond the infancy period to test if body composition is greater in offspring of overweight women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R Ness

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity.We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001 in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006 in girls.We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  2. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  3. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Atherton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical application of body composition (BC measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. OBJECTIVES: (1 To compare fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM standard deviation scores (SDS generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C model; (2 To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. DESIGN: FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT; and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2/Z in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients. RESULTS: DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62; FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72, and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2. BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  4. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to ...

  5. Effect of Raised Body Fat on Vitamin D, Leptin and Bone Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S. S.; Alam, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate leptin, vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in individuals with high fat mass, and to assess any correlation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Aga Khan University, Karachi, from August 2012 to July 2014, and comprised healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18-60 years. Body fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the participants were classified as: Group A (15-21.9); Group B (22-27.9); and Group C (>28). Bone mineral density was calculated by ultrasound bone densitometer (T-score between +1 and -1 considered normal). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the levels of vitamin D and leptin. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 male subjects participated in this study, with each of the 3 groups having 44(33.3 percent). Despite all groups having low Vitamin D, a marked decrease was observed in group C compared to groups A and B (p <0.018). Bone mineral density T-score was <-1; total calcium was within normal range in all three groups. Serum leptin was raised in Group C compared to group A and B (p=0.03). Body fat percentage was negatively associated with vitamin D (p=0.004; r = -0.351), while it was positively correlated with leptin (p =0.038; r = 0.256). Conclusion: Excess of body fat percentage led to decreased vitamin D and raised leptin. However, bone mineral density and calcium levels were within normal range, suggesting that other factors might have played a role in maintaining bone mass in obese individuals, such as leptin. (author)

  6. Exercise associated hormonal signals as powerful determinants of an effective fat mass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, B; Vlcek, M; Galusova, A; Imrich, R; Penesova, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age. The aim of this review is to summarize, evaluate, and clarify the literature data focusing on the endocrine responses to different types of exercise, including the frequency, intensity, and type of movement with regard to the fat loss strategies. Many studies have investigated anabolic [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone] and gluco- and appetite- regulatory (insulin, cortisol, ghrelin) hormone responses and adaptations of skeletal muscles to exercise. Muscle tissue is a critical endocrine organ, playing important role in the regulation of several physiological and metabolic events. Moreover, we are also describing the response of some other substances to exercise, such as myokines [irisin, apelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), myostatin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)]. It is proposed that reducing intra-abdominal fat mass and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness through improving nutritional quality, reducing sedentary behavior, and increase the participation in physical activity/exercise, might be associated with clinical benefits, sometimes even in the absence of weight loss.

  7. Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Megumi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Hikihara, Yuki; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Torii, Suguru; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length) 2 /Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R 2 = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the cross-validation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

  8. Does running with or without diet changes reduce fat mass in novice runners? A 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus O; Videbaek, Solvej; Hansen, Mette; Parner, Erik T; Rasmussen, Sten; Langberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included in a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering an average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; Pdiet changes, the mean difference in fat mass between groups was 3.81 kg (95% CI: -5.96; -1.66; Pdiet. An average running distance of more than 5 km per week in runners who took up running to lose weight combined with a targeted diet change seems effective in reducing fat mass over a one-year period among novice runners. Still, randomized controlled trials are needed to better document the effects of self-selected diet changes.

  9. The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, Kerrin; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Travison, Thomas G; Sambrook, Philip N; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Creasey, Helen M; Seibel, Markus J

    2011-12-01

    Weight loss is associated with bone loss; however, it is unclear whether loss of fat or loss of lean body mass plays the key role in this relationship. The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to clarify the relationship between hip BMD, hip BMC and whole body BMC with changes in fat and lean tissue mass in older men. The Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) is a population-based study in Sydney, Australia, involving 1705 men aged 70-97 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the hip and whole body (WB), lean mass and fat mass were measured with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess relationships. Over 2.2 years of follow-up, 368(33%) men lost at least 2% of their body weight, which included a mean loss of 0.8 kg/year of lean body mass and 0.9 kg/year of fat body mass. Fat loss was strongly associated with BMD loss in men who lost weight. As a group, weight losers lost 1.0% of hip BMD annually compared to 0.2% in men who gained weight, with each kilo of fat loss associated with 0.6%/year hip BMD loss (p<0.0001). Lean mass was not associated with hip BMD loss in weight losers, however, lean mass change was associated with BMD change in men who gained weight (0.3% hip BMD increase per kilo increase of lean mass p<0.01). Maintaining body weight is important for bone health in elderly men. Body fat plays an important role in this relationship, which may reflect the additional metabolic function of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort.

  11. Mass transfer kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobukola, O. P.; Bouchon, P.

    2014-06-01

    Mass transfer (moisture loss and oil uptake) kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks was investigated. Both followed a modified first order reaction. Activation energies, z-value, and highest values of D and k for moisture loss and oil uptake were 28.608 kJ/mol, 129.88 °C, 490 and 0.0080 s-1; and 60.398 kJ/mol, 61.79 °C, 1,354.71 and 0.0052 s-1, respectively.

  12. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  13. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p<0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p<0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal circumference, and

  14. Validity of anthropometric equations to estimate infant fat mass at birth and in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauble, Jennifer S; Dewi, Mira; Hull, Holly R

    2017-03-27

    In newborns and children, body fat estimation equations are often used at different ages than the age used to develop the equations. Limited validation studies exist for newborn body fat estimation equations at birth or later in infancy. The study purpose was to validate 4 newborn fat mass (FM) estimation equations in comparison to FM measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP; the Pea Pod) at birth and 3 months. Ninety-five newborns (1-3 days) had their body composition measured by ADP and anthropometrics assessed by skinfolds. Sixty-three infants had repeat measures taken (3 months). FM measured by ADP was compared to FM from the skinfold estimation equations (Deierlein, Catalano, Lingwood, and Aris). Paired t-tests assessed mean differences, linear regression assessed accuracy, precision was assessed by R 2 and standard error of the estimate (SEE), and bias was assessed by Bland-Altman plots. At birth, FM measured by ADP differed from FM estimated by Deierlein, Lingwood and Aris equations, but did not differ from the Catalano equation. At 3 months, FM measured by ADP was different from all equations. At both time points, poor precision and accuracy was detected. Bias was detected in most all equations. Poor agreement, precision, and accuracy were found between prediction equations and the criterion at birth and 3 months.

  15. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  17. Maternal fat mass at mid-pregnancy and birth weight in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Sichieri, Rosely; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between maternal body composition and foetal development is unclear. To determine the relationship between maternal body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)] and foetal growth and birth weight, independent of potential confounding factors. This study consisted of 92 women, normal and overweight/obese, recruited from the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Body composition (FM and FFM) was estimated using bioelectrical impedance. Foetal growth was assessed using serial ultrasound measurements at the second and third trimester and infant's weight and length were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between maternal FM and FFM and birth weight adjusted for gestational age (BWt) and change in estimated foetal weight (ΔEFW), controlling for infant gender, maternal serum glucose, energy intake, parity, height and income. Maternal FM, but not FFM, was positively associated with BWt (p = 0.02) and borderline with ΔEFW (p = 0.05). FM expressed as a percentage of body weight (%FM) showed a significant positive association with BWt (p maternal FM at mid-pregnancy is associated with neonatal BW and foetal growth.

  18. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Wahyuni

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DMPA treatment induces oxidative stress in visceral fat. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  19. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Rubin, Susan M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: Lower muscle mass has been correlated with poor physical function; however, no studies have examined this relationship prospectively. This study aims to investigate whether low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and greater fat infiltration into the muscle predict incident mobility

  20. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  1. The role of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass in knee osteoarthritis is different for men and women: the NEO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.W. de; Mutsert, R. de; Loef, M.; Cessie, S. le; Heijer, M. den; Bloem, J.L.; Reijnierse, M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Kloppenburg, M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the amount of fat mass (FM) or skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is more strongly associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in both men and women. METHODS: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45-65 years, including 5313

  2. Maternal fat, but not lean, mass is increased among overweight/obese women with excess gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Erica K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Presley, Larraine; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick M

    2016-06-01

    Weight gain in pregnancy is an essential physiologic adaptation that supports growth and development of a fetus and is distributed among lean mass that includes total body water and fat mass gains. Although gestational weight gain provides a source of energy for the mother and fetus, excess gestational weight gain may underlie reported associations between parity and future metabolic disorders and is linked to postpartum weight retention and insulin resistance. Although weight gain often is proposed as a modifiable variable to mitigate adverse maternal and offspring health outcomes, our knowledge of specific maternal body composition changes with weight gain and the potential metabolic consequences is limited. Furthermore, although gestational weight gain alters maternal body composition, the impact of excess weight gain on fat and lean mass is not well-studied. Understanding the accrual of fat and lean body mass may improve our understanding of the role of excessive gestational weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. The purpose of our study was to quantify the relationship between gestational weight gain and maternal fat and lean body mass accrual and to compare fat and lean body mass accrual according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy adherence. We hypothesized that exceeding current weight gain guidelines would be associated with greater fat, compared with lean body, mass accrual. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 49 overweight/obese women; all 49 are included in this secondary analysis. Maternal weight and body composition were collected in early (13 0/6 to 16 6/7 weeks gestation) and late (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation) pregnancy with the use of air densitometry. Correlations were drawn between gestational weight gain and change in fat and lean body mass. We compared change in fat and lean body mass by adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational

  3. Lower lean mass and higher percent fat mass in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, R; Mereu, E; Putzu, P; Mereu, R M; Marini, E

    2014-10-01

    In this study we analyzed body composition in relation to cognitive and functional status, in a cross-sectional sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy individuals (27 men, 78.1±6.5years; 43 women, 80.4±5.6years) with mild-moderate stages of AD (clinical dementia ratings 1 and 2) were selected from the Alzheimer Center, SS. Trinità Hospital, ASL 8 of Cagliari (Italy). Cognitive and psycho-functional status was evaluated using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), activities of daily living (ADL) scale, and geriatric depression scale (GDS). Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) was applied. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body composition was assessed by means of specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), using the references for the elderly. In comparison with the reference group, patients with AD showed similar BMI and MNA, but peculiar bioelectrical characteristics: lower phase angles and longer vectors (pnutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (p<0.001) than either 63.3% using %FM (95% CI: 50.6-74.8) or 70.0% (95% CI: 57.5-80.1) using FMI. The median time to detect the outcome was 71 days using FMI, shorter than 88 days using %FM, and similar to 70 days using BMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Depot-specific differences in fat mass expansion in WT and ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Yu, Caihua; Feng, Jie; Chen, Jin; Jiang, Qin; Kuang, Shihuan; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-07-11

    The study was designed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying the differential fat expansion in different fat depots in wild type (WT) and ob/ob (OB) mice. At 6 weeks old, no differences in fat mass were found between SAT and VAT in WT mice, while O-SAT showed significantly higher weight than that of O-VAT. The average adipocyte size of SAT (~ 4133.47 μm2) was smaller than that of VAT (~ 7438.91 μm2) in OB mice. O-SAT preadipocytes gained higher triglyceride contents and higher levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα than did O-VAT preadipocytes upon in vitro differentiation. W-SAT and W-VAT displayed no significant differences in fatty acid uptake, while 1.36 fold significantly higher fatty acid uptake was found in O-SAT compared to O-VAT. Approximately 52% of the radioactivity recovered in cellular lipids was found in TAG in O-SAT, which was significantly higher than the other three adipocyte types. Significantly more radiolabelled oleic acid was β-oxidized to CO2 in adipocytes from O-VAT than that from O-SAT. ATP production was significantly lower in W-SAT compared with W-VAT, whereas no significantly ATP level was observed between O-SAT and O-VAT. Expression of UCP-1 in SAT from either WT or OB mice was significantly higher than the counterpart of VAT, which demonstrated higher uncoupled respiration and lower oxidative phosphorylation in SAT. Together, a combined increase in adipogenesis and FA uptake, and decreases in β-oxidation and ATP production, contributed to greater expansion of SAT compared to VAT in obese mice.

  6. Do body mass index and fat volume influence vocal quality, phonatory range, and aerodynamics in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsties, Ben; Verfaillie, Rudi; Roy, Nelson; Maryn, Youri

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the impact of body weight and body fat volume on selected parameters of vocal quality, phonatory range, and aerodynamics in females. Based on measurements of body mass index in combination with body fat volume, 29 normophonic female subjects were classified as normal weight, underweight, and obese. Voice quality was investigated via auditory-perceptual ratings of breathiness, roughness, and overall dysphonia severity, via various acoustic measures and a multiparametric index. Phonatory range performance was examined using selected measures of the voice range profile and speech range profile. Measures of vocally relevant aerodynamics included vital capacity (i.e., VC), expected VC, phonation quotient, and maximum phonation time (i.e., MPT). Significant differences between the three weight groups were found across several measures of intensity, VC, MPT, and shimmer. As compared to the other groups, significantly higher values of maximum and minimum intensity levels, as well as sound pressure level during habitual running speech were observed for the obese group (all p-valuesrange performance.

  7. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease severity, central fat mass and adinopectin: a close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; DI Renzo, Laura; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Milic, Natasa; DE Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the general population. Overweight is a common condition in patients with NAFLD, and body composition (BC) assessment is useful to evaluate nutritional status and the efficacy of nutritional strategies. A valid tool for assessing BC is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Adiponectin has been shown to be relevant to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of this observational study is to define the relationship between the severity of NAFLD, the central fat mass evaluated by DXA, and the circulating levels of adiponectin. The study was carried out in 31 overweight patients. The degree of liver steatosis was evaluated by ultrasound (US) examination. Anthropometric parameters were measured according to standard methods. Fasting glucose and insulin level were used also to calculate insulin resistance (IR), according to the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was performed to dose fasting serum levels of adiponectin. NAFLD progression was significantly associated with increased central fat (ppractice, can improve the nutritional strategies and follow-up. In the clinical setting adiponectin may represent a potential marker for the staging of NAFLD.

  8. The relationship between fat mass, eating behaviour and obesity-related psychological traits in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barry V; Bullmore, Edward T; Miller, Sam; McHugh, Simon; Simons, David; Dodds, Chris M; Koch, Annelize; Napolitano, Antonella; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2012-12-01

    Behavioural and psychological factors related to eating have been associated with obesity, although their relationship to anthropometric measures, more specifically fat mass, has not been fully examined. This study examined the relationship between fat mass (n=98; 75M, 23 F) and behavioural measures of eating and obesity related psychological traits (n=337; 226M, 111 F) in overweight and obese individuals (Mean BMI 30.5±4.0; BMI range 25-46kg/m(2)). Two sets of principal component analyses (PCA) were performed: one on validated questionnaires of eating behaviour and psychological traits and a second on fat mass and body weight related anthropometric measures (BMI, weight) and the aforementioned questionnaire measures. From the initial PCA (n=337), the primary principal component, P1 (R(2) value of 0.33), represented a latent variable associated with overeating or binge eating behaviour. In a second PCA (questionnaire measures augmented by anthropometric variables, n=98), a single component was identified, P1(+) (R(2) of 0.28), similar to that identified as P1 in the previous analysis and this component was highly correlated with fat mass (ρ=0.68). These findings suggest that levels of body fat and eating behaviour (namely, binging or overeating) are strongly related and, at least in a subgroup of individuals, obesity may be driven by behavioural factors associated with eating in combination with pre-existing environmental and genetic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (−20%), limited fat mass accumulation (−23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (−50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (−60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain. PMID:27307576

  10. Reducing effect of calcium in combination with magnesium and lactulose on body fat mass in middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Nobuo; Asano, Yuzou; Ochi, Hiroshi; Abe, Fumiaki; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Kudou, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that adequate calcium intake decreases body fat and appropriate intakes of magnesium suppress the development of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, lactulose increases the absorption of calcium and magnesium. An optimal combination of calcium, magnesium and lactulose may therefore reduce body fat mass. An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the body fat-reducing effects of a test food containing 300 mg calcium, 150 mg magnesium, and 4.0 g lactulose. Body composition parameters and blood hormone and urine mineral concentrations were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Whole-body fat mass was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Seventy-six middle-aged Japanese women (47.5±4.7 years) were randomized to the intake group (n=48) or the non-intake control group (n=28). At 12 months the difference in body fat mass change between the two groups (intake group - control group) was -0.8 kg (95% CI: -1.5 - 0.0 kg, p=0.046), although there were no differences in anthropometric data between the two groups. Body fat percentage at 12 months tended to be lower in the intake group, but the difference was not significant (p=0.09). These findings may suggest that calcium in combination with magnesium and lactulose can reduce body fat mass in middle-aged Japanese women. However, the contribution of magnesium and lactulose are unclear in this study. Further studies are needed to clarify these contributions.

  11. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  12. Predicting fat-free mass index and sarcopenia in assisted-living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Taylor M; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2014-01-01

    Age-related muscle loss, termed sarcopenia, has been linked to functional deficits and an increased risk of falling. Such risk is of alarming concern due to the high disability and mortality rates associated with falling in older adults. Our laboratory recently developed a prediction model for fat-free mass index (FFMI) and, subsequently, sarcopenia within a community-dwelling older adult population using functional measures that are easily accessible to clinicians. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine how our prediction model performed in an older and less mobile assisted-living population, and if performance of the model was poor; (2) to improve and modify our previous prediction model using data acquired from this unique population. Forty assisted-living older adults (10 males) aged 86.1 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Each completed four questionnaires to examine their mental and physical health status and anxiety levels related to falling. Anthropometric, balance, strength, and gait tests were conducted. Fat-free mass values, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, were normalized by height to obtain FFMI. Using an algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, FFMI along with grip strength and gait speed were used to identify sarcopenic individuals. FFMI was significantly correlated with sex, body mass index (BMI), circumference measures, handgrip strength, gait velocity, and measures of gait variability. The percentage of the variable variation explained by our previous model was reduced for a population of assisted-living older adults (R(2) of 0.6744 compared to the reported R(2) of 0.9272 for community-dwelling older adults; McIntosh et al. Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 2013). The prediction equation that accounted for the greatest variability of FFMI for the assisted living group included the independent variables of forearm circumference, BMI, handgrip strength, and variability of the double

  13. Regional distribution of muscle and fat mass in men--new insight into the risk of abdominal obesity using computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Björntorp, P; Sjöström, L.; Sannerstedt, R; Krotkiewski, M; Kvist, H

    1989-01-01

    We studied 24 healthy men (25-50 years old) covering a wide range of fatness (body mass index range: 21-34 kg/m2) and fat distribution (waist/hip range: 0.75-1.06). Computed tomography scans were taken at five levels (thigh, hip, waist, arm, and liver) from which fat, muscle and bone areas were

  14. Effects of combination of change in visceral fat and thigh muscle mass on the development of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Kahn, Steven E; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the association between combined changes of visceral fat and thigh muscle over 5 years and incident type 2 diabetes in a prospective study of Japanese Americans. We followed 420 nondiabetic Japanese American subjects for 5 years and assessed visceral fat and thigh muscle by computed tomography (CT) at baseline and at 5 years. We categorized study subjects into 4 body composition change groups: visceral fat loss/thigh muscle gain (VF-loss/TM-gain), visceral fat loss/thigh muscle loss (VF-loss/TM-loss), visceral fat gain/thigh muscle gain (VF-gain/TM-gain), and visceral fat gain/thigh muscle loss (VF-gain/TM-loss) by combining changes from baseline in CT measured visceral fat and estimated thigh muscle areas. We fit a logistic regression model to examine the association between body composition categories and the development of incident type 2 diabetes at 5 years. Cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was 9.8% at 5 years. VF-gain/TM-gain and VF-loss/TM-loss groups had higher risk for incident type 2 diabetes in a model adjusted for age, sex, family history of diabetes, and body mass index compared to VF-loss/TM-gain group as the reference category (OR=6.83 (1.85-25.17), 4.55 (1.06-19.48), respectively). However, the VF-gain/TM-loss group did not show a significant association with the odds of incident diabetes (3.24; 95% CI. 0.78-13.47). Concordant gain or loss in visceral fat and thigh muscle was related to higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared to the reference combination of loss of visceral fat and gain of thigh muscle in Japanese Americans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  16. Relationship of life style choices on body fat mass in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; ullah Shaikh, Saif; Syed, Sadiqa; Shakeel, Nayyab

    2010-01-01

    Healthy diets and regular, adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout entire life course. Accumulation of fat occurs whenever energy consumed by food and drinks exceeds that which can be utilised by an individual's metabolism and physical activity. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of lifestyle characteristics of a representative segment of medical students in terms of fast food preferences and participation in physical activity with respect to Body Mass Index (BMI). This cross-sectional study was carried out in Physiology Department, Bahria University Medical & Dental College, Karachi on 192 students of 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Body Mass index of students was calculated. They were classified into 4 groups with BMI or = 25 respectively. A life style questionnaire, based on preferences for healthy/unhealthy food, dietary habits and participation in physical activity was filled. Most of medical students (65%) had BMI less than 23. It was because of selection of healthy dietary pattern with nutritious food (p < 0.09) and participation in outdoor games (p < 0.03). Males who had high BMI showed a tendency to daily intake of fast food (p < 0.03). Walking in both the sexes had a positive impact in maintaining normal BMI (p = Males < 0.04, females < 0.001). Obesity can be prevented by innovative approaches, easiest of which is to promote active life styles with intake of healthy diet and involvement in physical activity.

  17. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index and body composition on endometrial thickness and bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study that included 531 healthy postmenopausal women aged 48 to 65 years. Endometrial thickness was measured...

  18. Effect of physical training on fat-free mass in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, Margareta; Hallin, Runa; Arnardottir, Ragnheiður Harpa; Janson, Christer

    2015-03-01

    Weight loss and depletion of fat-free mass are common problems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are related to muscular weakness and exercise intolerance. Physical training of COPD patients has good effect on exercise tolerance and quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine factors that affect change in fat-free mass after physical training, in patients with COPD. Patients were examined before and after a 4-month exercise period. Weight and height were measured, and bioelectrical impedance was performed. Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated, by a three-compartment model, and fat-free mass index (FFMI) was calculated as FFM kg/m(2) and body mass index (BMI) as kg/m(2). A symptom-limited ramp ergometer test and 12-minute walk test (12MWT) were performed. Dyspnoea score of daily activities was determined by Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ). Blood was taken for analyses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Patients with a BMI patients completed the training (64 years, FEV1 31% of predicted). Patients with low FFMI gained 1.2 kg, whereas those with normal FFMI lost 0.7 kg (p = 0.04). In multivariate analyses high age (p = 0.03), low FEV1 (p = 0.02), and a high level of dyspnoea (p = 0.01) at baseline were found to be negative predictors for increase in FFM. Difficulties in increasing the fat-free mass in COPD patients by physical training seem to be associated with dyspnoea in daily life and impaired lung function (FEV1).

  19. The Relationship of Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance with Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J A de Paula

    Full Text Available Bone marrow harbors a significant amount of body adipose tissue (BMAT. While BMAT might be a source of energy for bone modeling and remodeling, its increment can also represent impairment of osteoblast differentiation. The relationship between BMAT, bone mass and insulin sensitivity is only partially understood and seems to depend on the circumstances. The present study was designed to assess the association of BMAT with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine as well as with visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of insulin and glucose. This cross-sectional clinical investigation included 31 non-diabetic women, but 11 had a pre-diabetes status. Dual X-ray energy absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess fat deposition in BMAT, visceral adipose tissue and liver. Our results suggest that in non-diabetic, there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density in lumbar spine and BMAT and a trend persists after adjustment for weight, age, BMI and height. While there is a positive association between visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids with serum insulin levels, there is no association between BMAT and serum levels of insulin. Conversely, a positive relationship was observed between BMAT and serum glucose levels, whereas this association was not observed with other fat deposits. These relationships did not apply after adjustment for body weight, BMI, height and age. The present study shows that in a group of predominantly non-obese women the association between insulin resistance and BMAT is not an early event, as occurs with visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipids. On the other hand, BMAT has a negative relationship with bone mineral density. Taken together, the results support the view that bone has a complex and non-linear relationship with energy metabolism.

  20. Validation of equations and proposed reference values to estimate fat mass in Chilean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; Pacheco Carrillo, Jaime; Almonacid Fierro, Alejandro; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Cossío-Bolaños, Marco

    2018-03-01

    (i) To propose regression equations based on anthropometric measures to estimate fat mass (FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method, and (ii)to establish population reference standards for equation-derived FM. A cross-sectional study on 6,713 university students (3,354 males and 3,359 females) from Chile aged 17.0 to 27.0years. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist circumference) were taken in all participants. Whole body DXA was performed in 683 subjects. A total of 478 subjects were selected to develop regression equations, and 205 for their cross-validation. Data from 6,030 participants were used to develop reference standards for FM. Equations were generated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Percentiles were developed using the LMS method. Equations for men were: (i) FM=-35,997.486 +232.285 *Weight +432.216 *CC (R 2 =0.73, SEE=4.1); (ii)FM=-37,671.303 +309.539 *Weight +66,028.109 *ICE (R2=0.76, SEE=3.8), while equations for women were: (iii)FM=-13,216.917 +461,302 *Weight+91.898 *CC (R 2 =0.70, SEE=4.6), and (iv) FM=-14,144.220 +464.061 *Weight +16,189.297 *ICE (R 2 =0.70, SEE=4.6). Percentiles proposed included p10, p50, p85, and p95. The developed equations provide valid and accurate estimation of FM in both sexes. The values obtained using the equations may be analyzed from percentiles that allow for categorizing body fat levels by age and sex. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  2. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  4. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  5. Association Between MCT1 A1470T Polymorphism and Fat-Free Mass in Well-Trained Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Eynon, Nir; Bachis, Valeria; Corrias, Laura; Culigioni, Claudia; Cugia, Paolo; Scorcu, Marco; Calò, Carla M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MCT1 A1470T polymorphism and fat-free mass in young Italian elite soccer players. Participants were 128 Italian male soccer players. Fat-free mass was estimated for each of the soccer player using age- and gender-specific formulas with plicometry. Genotyping for the MCT1 A1470T polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The MCT1 A1470T genotypes were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution. The percentage of fat-free mass was significantly higher in soccer players with the TT genotype and in the T-allele-dominant model group (TT + AT) compared with the soccer players with the AA genotype. The MCT1 T allele is associated with the percentage of fat-free mass in young elite male soccer players. Elucidating the genetic basis of body composition in athletes could potentially be used as an additional tool for strength and conditioning professionals in planning and adjusting training. However, these results are preliminary and need to be replicated in more cohorts.

  6. Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs. Fat Mass/Height3 as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI and fat mass index (FMI have been proposed as alternative approaches for assessing body fat since BMI does not ensure an accurate screening for obesity and overweight status in children and adolescents. This study proposes thresholds of the TMI and FMI for the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and young people. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 4673 participants (57.1% females, who were 9–25 years of age. As part of the study, measurements of the subjects’ weight, waist circumference, serum lipid indices, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were taken. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The TMI and FMI were calculated as weight (kg/height (m3 and fat mass (kg/height (m3, respectively. Following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition, MetS is defined as including three or more metabolic abnormalities. Cohort-specific thresholds were established to identify Colombian children and young people at high risk of MetS. The thresholds were applied to the following groups: (i a cohort of children where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.13 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 12.10 kg/m3; (ii a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.48 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 11.19 kg/m3; (iii a cohort of young adults where the women’s TMI ≥ 13.21 kg/m3 and the men’s TMI ≥ 12.19 kg/m3. The FMI reference cut-off values used for the different groups were as follows: (i a cohort of children where the girls’ FMI ≥ 2.59 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.98 fat mass/m3; (ii a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ FMI ≥ 3.12 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.46 fat mass/m3; (iii a cohort of adults where the women’s FMI ≥ 3.27 kg/m3 and the men’s FMI ≥ 1.65 kg/m3. Our results showed that the FMI and TMI had a moderate discriminatory power to detect MetS in Colombian children, adolescents, and young adults.

  7. Clinical diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis in subcutaneous fat aspirates by mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, Julie A; Theis, Jason D; Dasari, Surendra; Mereuta, Oana M; Dispenzieri, Angela; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Gertz, Morie A; Kurtin, Paul J; Grogg, Karen L; Dogan, Ahmet

    2014-07-01

    Examination of abdominal subcutaneous fat aspirates is a practical, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis. Here we describe the development and implementation of a clinical assay using mass spectrometry-based proteomics to type amyloidosis in subcutaneous fat aspirates. First, we validated the assay comparing amyloid-positive (n=43) and -negative (n=26) subcutaneous fat aspirates. The assay classified amyloidosis with 88% sensitivity and 96% specificity. We then implemented the assay as a clinical test, and analyzed 366 amyloid-positive subcutaneous fat aspirates in a 4-year period as part of routine clinical care. The assay had a sensitivity of 90%, and diverse amyloid types, including immunoglobulin light chain (74%), transthyretin (13%), serum amyloid A (%1), gelsolin (1%), and lysozyme (1%), were identified. Using bioinformatics, we identified a universal amyloid proteome signature, which has high sensitivity and specificity for amyloidosis similar to that of Congo red staining. We curated proteome databases which included variant proteins associated with systemic amyloidosis, and identified clonotypic immunoglobulin variable gene usage in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis, and the variant peptides in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis. In conclusion, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of subcutaneous fat aspirates offers a powerful tool for the diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis. The assay reveals the underlying pathogenesis by identifying variable gene usage in immunoglobulin light chains and the variant peptides in hereditary amyloidosis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. Evidence Acquisition: We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. Evidence Synthesis: The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Conclusions: Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22238401

  9. Implications of Lipids in Neonatal Body Weight and Fat Mass in Gestational Diabetic Mothers and Non-Diabetic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar

    2018-02-05

    Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity. The proportions of maternal plasma arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids decrease from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, and at term these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in cord blood plasma than in mothers, indicating efficient placental transfer. In control or pregnant women with GDM at term, the maternal concentration of individual fatty acids does not correlate with neonatal body weight or fat mass, but cord blood fatty acid levels correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity-positively in controls, but negatively in GDM. The proportion of AA and DHA in umbilical artery plasma in GDM is lower than in controls but not in umbilical vein plasma. Therefore, an increased utilization of those two fatty acids by fetal tissues, rather than impaired placental transfer, is responsible for their smaller proportion in plasma of GDM newborns. In control pregnant women, maternal glycemia controls neonatal body weight and fat mass, whereas in mothers with GDM-even with good glycemic control-maternal lipids and their greater utilization by the fetus play a critical role in neonatal body weight and fat mass. We propose that altered lipid metabolism rather than hyperglycemia constitutes a risk for macrosomia in GDM.

  10. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maris Nápolis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and cross-over study. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients were randomly assigned to either home-based, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation or sham stimulation for six weeks. The training intensity was adjusted according to each subject's tolerance. Fat-free mass, isometric strength, six-minute walking distance and time to exercise intolerance (Tlim were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.4% patients responded to high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation; that is, they had a post/pre Δ Tlim >10% after stimulation (unimproved after sham stimulation. Responders had a higher baseline fat-free mass and six-minute walking distance than their seventeen (53.6% non-responding counterparts. Responders trained at higher stimulation intensities; their mean amplitude of stimulation during training was significantly related to their fat-free mass (r = 0.65; p<0.01. Logistic regression revealed that fat-free mass was the single independent predictor of Tlim improvement (odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.15 [1.04-1.26]; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the exercise capacity of COPD patients with better-preserved fat-free mass because they tolerated higher training stimulus levels. These data suggest that early training with high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation before tissue wasting begins might enhance exercise tolerance in patients with less advanced COPD.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE FAT PHASE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND RELAXATION SPECTRA OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  12. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  13. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  14. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  15. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  16. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ju Mizuno,1 Toru Takahashi2 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 2Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja-shi, Okayama, Japan Background: Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods: Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®. Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI] were analyzed. Results: All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion: EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. Keywords: well-leg compartment syndrome, pressure-distribution measurement system, peak contact pressure

  17. Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd; Mull, Stephanie; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT; n = 10), dietary intervention only (DIET; n = 10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET; n = 10), and control (CON; n = 10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 3.1 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training only. There was a nonsignificant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

  18. Home parenteral nutrition increases fat free mass in patients with incurable gastrointestinal cancer. Results of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obling, Sine Roelsgaard; Wilson, Benedicte Vibjerg; Pfeiffer, Per

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Preventing loss of muscle mass and function is an enduring challenge in malnourished patients with incurable cancer. The benefit of supplemental home parenteral nutrition has not been firmly established. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of supplemental home parenteral nutrition......, the primary endpoint being fat free mass (FFM) and secondary: muscle function, quality of life and overall survival. Design and methods: In a single centre open-label randomised controlled trial, patients with incurable gastrointestinal cancer, nutritionally at risk, were randomly assigned to either; a) best.......8-35.7) and (91%) were receiving palliative chemotherapy. Median FFM and fat free mass index increased in the sHPN group. At 12 weeks a significant difference (p

  19. Twelve weeks’ progressive resistance training combined with protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes increases upper leg lean tissue mass, muscle strength and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, P

    2016-01-01

    The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50 – 70y women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 ...

  20. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  1. Association between Body Mass Index and depression: the "fat and jolly" hypothesis for adolescents girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza Mario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results concerning the association between Body Mass Index (BMI and depression in adolescence are conflicting, some describing a linear association (increase in BMI with level of depression, some a U-shaped association (both underweight and obesity are associated with high levels of depression, and they mostly concern small samples. The purpose of this study was to describe the association between BMI and depression in a large representative sample of French adolescents. Methods The association between BMI and depression, measured on the Adolescent Depression Rating Scale (ADRS, was tested in a French national representative sample of 39542 adolescents aged 17. Self-report data is derived from the 2008 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. We used spline function analysis to describe the association between BMI and depression. Results The association between BMI and depression is significant (p Conclusion There is evidence for a gender difference in the association between BMI and depression in adolescents, supporting the need to study boys and girls separately. Overweight adolescent girls are more likely to be depressed than obese adolescent girls, giving support for "fat and jolly" hypothesis not only among older women but also among adolescent girls.

  2. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample, linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05 and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM.

  3. Accuracy of plantar electrodes compared with hand and foot electrodes in fat-free-mass measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Bousbiat, Sana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI) with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  4. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zeng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF and body mass index (BMI for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961, group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381, group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681, and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836. When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45 and 2.06 (1.26-3.35 times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89. Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  5. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  6. Comparison of Different Measures of Fat Mass and Their Association with Serum Cystatin C Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Wee Teo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystatin C (CysC is a glomerular filtration rate (GFR marker affected by GFR and obesity. Because percentage body fat (%BF distribution is affected by ethnicity, different measures of %BF may improve CysC prediction. This study aims to create multivariate models that predict serum CysC and determine which %BF metric gives the best prediction. Methods. Serum CysC was measured by nephelometric assay. We estimated %BF by considering weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, triceps skin fold, bioimpedance, and Deurenberg and Yap %BF equations. A base multivariate model for CysC was created with a %BF metric added in turn. The best model is considered by comparing P values, R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Results. There were 335 participants. Mean serum CysC and creatinine were 1.27 mg/L and 1.44 mg/dL, respectively. Variables for the base model were age, gender, ethnicity, creatinine, serum urea, c-reactive protein, log GFR, and serum albumin. %BF had a positive correlation with CysC. The best model for predicting CysC included bioimpedance-derived %BF (P=0.0011, with the highest R2 (0.917 and the lowest AIC and BIC (−371, −323. Conclusion. Obesity is associated with CysC, and the best predictive model for CysC includes bioimpedance-derived %BF.

  7. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  9. Effects of exercise improves muscle strength and fat mass in patients with high fracture risk: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chang, Chirn-Bin; Han, Der-Sheng; Hong, Cian-Hui; Hwang, Jawl-Shan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2017-10-26

    The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC) model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE) in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX ® )) ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point) or fall (≧2 falls in previous year). Patients were assigned randomized to participate in either IC or LEE group (n = 55 each) for 3 months. All participants received education including home-based exercise. The IC group consisted of different modalities of exercise while the LEE group performed machine-based low extremities exercise. Fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were measured at their baseline and 3-months follow-up. Mean age was 73.8 ± 7 years with 69.1% women. Entire cohort demonstrated significant increment in fat free mass, muscle strength (4 indicators) and physical performance (3 indicators). However, between group differences were not significant. With regular supervise exercise; both groups are equally effective in decreasing fat mass and increasing physical performance, muscle mass and strength. However, the IC group required fewer resources and thus more financially feasible in a community setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The effect of sex, carcass mass, back fat thickness and lean meat content on pork ham and loin characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Knecht

    2016-01-01

    P  ≤ 0.01. Half-carcass mass showed a strong negative correlation with bone content in ham and loin (r = −0.35 and r = −0.21, respectively. Back fat thickness and meat content strongly and inversely correlated with the content of ham and loin in half-carcasses (r = −0.41 and r = 0.59 for back fat thickness; r = 0.66 and r = −0.57 for lean meat content. Close and inverse correlations of back fat thickness and lean meat content were observed with regard to their content in ham and loin (P  ≤ 0.01.

  11. Block-step asymmetry 5 years after large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty is related to lower muscle mass and leg power on the implant side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, M H; Stilling, M; Lorenzen, N D; Jakobsen, S S; Soballe, K; Mechlenburg, I

    2014-06-01

    Metal-on-metal articulations mimic the human hip anatomy, presumably lower dislocation rates and increase the range-of-motion. This study aims to measure the muscle mass and power of both legs in patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, and to investigate their effect on block-step test, spatio-temporal gait parameters and self-reported function. Twenty-eight patients (7 women), mean age 50 (28-68) years, participated in a 5-7 year follow-up. Patients had received one type unilateral large-head metal-on-metal total hip articulation, all of which were well-functioning at follow-up. Mean muscle mass was measured by the total-body Dual energy X-ray Absorption scans, and muscle power was measured in a leg extensor power rig. Block-step test and spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured with an inertial measurement unit. Self-reported function was assessed by the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. We found a significant difference between the mean muscle mass of the implant-side leg and the non-implant-side leg in hip, thigh and calf areas (Ppower (P=0.025). Correlations between mean muscle mass and mean muscle power were significant for both the implant-side leg (r=0.45, P=0.018) and the non-implant-side leg (r=0.51, P=0.007). The difference in mean muscle power between legs correlated with block-step test asymmetry during ascending (r=0.40, P=0.047) and descending (r=0.53, P=0.006). Correlations between self-reported function and power of the implant-side leg were not significant. Young patients have not fully regained muscle mass, muscle power and function 5-7 years after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Girousse

    Full Text Available When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT provides fatty acids (FAs for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.

  13. Partial inhibition of adipose tissue lipolysis improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity without alteration of fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girousse, Amandine; Tavernier, Geneviève; Valle, Carine; Moro, Cedric; Mejhert, Niklas; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Houssier, Marianne; Roussel, Balbine; Besse-Patin, Aurèle; Combes, Marion; Mir, Lucile; Monbrun, Laurent; Bézaire, Véronic; Prunet-Marcassus, Bénédicte; Waget, Aurélie; Vila, Isabelle; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Louche, Katie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Mairal, Aline; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Galitzky, Jean; Holm, Cecilia; Mouisel, Etienne; Thalamas, Claire; Viguerie, Nathalie; Sulpice, Thierry; Burcelin, Rémy; Arner, Peter; Langin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.

  14. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Long term testosterone administration increases visceral fat mass in female-to-male transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.H.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J.C.; Megens, J.A.J.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We,

  16. Leg Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 31, ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/leg-swelling/basics/definition/SYM-20050910 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  17. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of modified fasting therapy on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koh-Woon; Song, Mi-Yeon; Chung, Seok-Hee; Chung, Won-Seok

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in obese subjects. Twenty-six patients participated in a 14-day fast, during which they ingested a supplement made from fermented medicinal herbs and carbohydrates (intake: 400-600 kcal/d). The schedule included 7 prefasting relief days and 14 days of stepwise reintroduction of food. The patients also took part in an exercise program that incorporated Qigong, weight training, and walking exercises. The efficacy of treatments was observed by assessing body fat mass and muscle mass, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and triglycerides in each study period. Specific symptoms or side effects were reported. Body weight and body fat mass both decreased significantly by (5.16 ± 0.95) and (3.89 ± 0.79) kg (both P fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise could be effective and safe on obese patients.

  19. Impact of exercise training without caloric restriction on inflammation, insulin resistance and visceral fat mass in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Michallet, A-S; Monneret, D; Perrin, C; Estève, F; Lombard, P R; Faure, P; Lévy, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2015-08-01

    Exercise training has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health in obese adolescents. Evaluate the impact of a 12-week exercise-training programme (without caloric restriction) on obese adolescents' cardiometabolic and vascular risk profiles. We measured systemic markers of oxidation, inflammation, metabolic variables and endothelial function in 20 obese adolescents (OB) (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 age- and gender-matched normal-weight adolescents (NW). Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imagery. Peak aerobic capacity and maximal fat oxidation were evaluated during specific incremental exercise tests. OB participated in a 12-week exercise-training programme. OB presented lower peak aerobic capacity (24.2 ± 5.9 vs. 39.8 ± 8.3 mL kg(-1)  min(-1) , P training, despite lack of weight loss, VO2peak (mL.kg(-1) .min(-1) ) and maximal fat oxidation increased (P training on improving the inflammatory profile and insulin resistance of OB in the absence of weight loss. However, those who lost a greater amount of visceral fat mass showed greater benefits in terms of insulin profile, triglycerides and maximal fat oxidation. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  20. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-03-28

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, -0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations.

  1. Cloning and characterization of chicken fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene: fasting affects Fto expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Ramachandran, R

    2012-01-01

    Fat mass and obesity associated gene (Fto), also known as Fatso, is a member of the Fe-II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Recent studies in humans and rodents suggest that Fto is involved in food intake regulation and lipid metabolism, whereas single nucleotide mutations in the Fto gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The Fto gene is highly conserved from green algae to humans, but little is known about the avian Fto gene or protein. The objectives of the current study were to clone full-length chicken Fto cDNA and to determine the effect of age or feeding status on Fto expression. With the use of rapid amplification of cDNA ends, the full-length chicken Fto cDNA was cloned and found to share 63% to 66% homology with the mammalian Fto nucleotide sequence. Several regions of the chicken Fto protein, including the substrate (2-oxoglutarate) binding domains, were found to be identical to mammalian Fto protein. Western blotting with anti-human Fto antibody and reverse transcription PCR studies showed that Fto protein and gene were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of the chicken. With the use of quantitative PCR, Fto mRNA levels were found to be higher in liver and skeletal muscle of 8-wk-old chickens than in 4-wk-old chickens. In addition, alterations in feeding status resulted in significant changes in Fto mRNA and Fto protein expression in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of broiler chickens. Taken together, our data suggest that Fto probably plays a significant role in liver function and energy metabolism in the chicken. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The interaction effect of body mass index and age on fat-free mass, waist-to-hip ratio, and soft lean mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shahab Jahanlou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that body mass index (BMI does not take into consideration the gender and ethnicity. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the interaction effect of the BMI and age on fat-free mass (FFM, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and soft lean mass (SLM. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the practical significance of the findings by examining effect sizes. Materials and Methods: The study was comparative in nature and employed a factorial design. Due to nonexperimental nature of the investigation, no causal inferences were drawn. The nonprobability sample consisted of 19,356 adults. Analysis of the data included factorial analysis of variance, analysis of simple effects, calculation of mean difference effect sizes, and data transformation. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 was employed for the purpose of data manipulation and analysis. Results: The BMI by age interaction effects on FFM, F (10, 19,338 = 28.26, P < 0.01, on WHR, F (10, 19,338 = 18.46, P < 0.01, and on SLM, F (10, 19,338 = 14.65, P < 0.01, was statistically significant and ordinal in nature. Analysis of the effect sizes, ranging from 0.30 to 1.20, showed that the BMI and age influenced the WHR but their interaction effects on FFM and SLM, ranging from 0.04 to 0.36 and 0.03 to 0.33, respectively, were mainly negligible. Conclusion: Based on the examination of the statistical and practical significance of the results, it is concluded that the BMI and age together can influence the WHR but their interaction effect on the FFM and SLM is questionable.

  3. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a s...

  4. Fat Mass Index and Body Mass Index Affect Peak Metabolic Equivalent Negatively during Exercise Test among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peak metabolic equivalent (MET is the most reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CRF indicated by peak MET and body mass index (BMI or fat mass index (FMI in Taiwanese children and adolescents (C-A. Data of 638 C-A aged 10–18 that received symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing was analyzed. Anthropometry-body composition was measured by vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI was defined as body weight (kg/body height (m2 and FMI was defined as fat mass (kg/body height (m2. BMI was grouped by Taiwanese obesity cut-off points. FMI Class-I was categorized by percentage of body fat. FMI Class-II used the reference values from Korean C-A. Excess adiposity was defined as (1 “overweight” and “obesity” by BMI, (2 greater than the sex- and age-specific 75th percentile of whole subjects by FMI Class-I, and (3 greater than 95th percentiles of reference value by FMI Class-II. Boys had significantly higher fat mass and FMI, and had more excess adiposity than girls (all p < 0.05. Both boys and girls with excess adiposity (by any definition had lower MET at anaerobic threshold (AT MET and peak MET (all p < 0.001. BMI and FMI were significantly negatively associated with both AT MET and peak MET significantly (all p < 0.001. FMI (95% CI: −0.411~−0.548 correlated with peak MET more than BMI (95% CI: −0.134~ −0.372 did. Excess adiposity affected CRF negatively. It is concluded that weight management should start early in childhood.

  5. Association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity in Korean adults: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuwoong; Shin, Doosup; Jung, Go-Un; Lee, Donghoon; Park, Sang Min

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the association between sleep duration, fat mass, lean mass and obesity. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 16 905 adults included into the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sleep duration was assessed by self-reported survey and categorized into ≤ 5, 6, 7, 8 and ≥ 9 h per day. The group reporting 7 h of sleep per day (comprised of those sleeping 7-8 h per day) was used as the reference group. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Obesity was defined based on the criteria from the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. Least-squares means of fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) adjusted for age, employment status, comorbidities and physical activity were used to assess the relation between sleep duration and body composition. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of obesity according to sleep duration after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. After adjustment, FMI increased with fewer hours of sleep (P for trend: obesity (aOR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.45) and 1.32 times more likely to have abdominal obesity (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.10-1.58). Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation might be related to an increase of fat mass and obesity, while oversleeping could be linked to a reduction of lean mass. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  7. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from observational studies indicates that a high calcium intake may reduce body weight and body fat. However, few randomized trials have been conducted. We examined whether calcium supplementation affects body weight and body fat in young girls and whether a relation exists between habitual calcium intake and body weight and body fat. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 110 young girls. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg Ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo for 1 y. Two groups of girls were selected according to habitual calcium intake from a large group; one group consumed 1000-1304 mg/d (40th-60th percentile; n = 60) and the other group consumed body weight, body fat, and calcium intake were measured at baseline and after 1 y. At baseline a significant negative correlation was observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and percentage of body fat (r = -0.242, P = 0.011). However, calcium supplementation had no effect on height, body weight, or percentage body fat. Habitual dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with body fat, but a low-dose calcium supplement had no effect on body weight, height, or body fat over 1 y in young girls. It is possible that the effect of calcium on body weight is only exerted if it is ingested as part of a meal, or the effect may be due to other ingredients in dairy products, and calcium may simply be a marker for a high dairy intake.

  8. Effect of Leg Dominance on The Center-of-Mass Kinematics During an Inside-of-the-Foot Kick in Amateur Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Matteo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soccer kicking kinematics has received wide interest in literature. However, while the instep-kick has been broadly studied, only few researchers investigated the inside-of-the-foot kick, which is one of the most frequently performed techniques during games. In particular, little knowledge is available about differences in kinematics when kicking with the preferred and non-preferred leg. A motion analysis system recorded the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers placed upon the body of nine amateur soccer players (23.0 ± 2.1 years, BMI 22.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2, who performed 30 pass-kicks each, 15 with the preferred and 15 with the non-preferred leg. We investigated skill kinematics while maintaining a perspective on the complete picture of movement, looking for laterality related differences. The main focus was laid on: anatomical angles, contribution of upper limbs in kick biomechanics, kinematics of the body Center of Mass (CoM, which describes the whole body movement and is related to balance and stability. When kicking with the preferred leg, CoM displacement during the ground-support phase was 13% higher (p<0.001, normalized CoM height was 1.3% lower (p<0.001 and CoM velocity 10% higher (p<0.01; foot and shank velocities were about 5% higher (p<0.01; arms were more abducted (p<0.01; shoulders were rotated more towards the target (p<0.01, 6° mean orientation difference.

  9. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  10. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  11. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  12. Oral sensitivity to oleic acid is associated with fat intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell S J

    2011-12-01

    Taste sensitivity to fatty acids influences food ingestion and may regulate fat intake and body weight status. Fatty acids are detected via homologous receptors within the mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where attenuated sensitivity may be associated with greater fat intake and BMI. This study aimed to extend observations surrounding fatty acid taste, specifically the types of foods consumed and dietary behaviours that may be associated with fatty acid taste sensitivity. 51 subjects (41 female; BMI, 21.4 ± 0.46 kg/m², age, 20 ± 0.52 yrs, 10 male; BMI, 23.6 ± 1.4 kg/m², age, 22 ± 1 yrs) were screened for oral sensitivity to oleic acid (3.8 mM) using triplicate sensory evaluations, and classified as hypersensitive; (3/3 correct identifications), or hyposensitive, (sensory-matched custards made with 0, 2, 6, 10% oil), recent diet (4-day diet record) and food habits and behaviours (food habits and behaviours questionnaire) were also established. 75% (n = 38) of subjects were classified as hyposensitive to oleic acid and these subjects differed from those who were classified as hypersensitive. Hyposensitive subjects consumed significantly more energy, fat, saturated fat, fatty foods (butter, meat, dairy), had greater BMI and were less perceptive of small changes in the fat content of custard (all P butter, meat, dairy, and increasing BMI. 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on fat mass and serum leptin concentrations have no impact on bone mineral densities in non-obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-yan; Bi, Yu-fang; Ma, Lin-ying; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Tian-ge; Zhang, Lian-zhen; Tao, Bei; Sun, Li-hao; Zhao, Yong-ju; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-yin; Xu, Man-yin; Chen, Jia-lun; Ning, Guang; Liu, Jian-min

    2012-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may promote obesity, but its effect on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been reported in humans. We aimed to examine the relationships between BPA exposure, body composition, serum estradiol, leptin, osteocalcin levels and BMDs in healthy premenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 246 healthy premenopausal women aged 20 years and older with regular menstrual cycles were investigated. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, fat-free mass and BMDs were measured by DXA. Serum estradiol, leptin, osteocalcin, urinary BPA and NTx levels were also tested. Urinary BPA levels were positively associated with fat mass (r=0.193, p=0.006) and leptin (r=0.236, p=0.001) but not with fat-free mass after adjusting for age and BMI. BPA was not associated with serum estradiol levels, BMDs, or bone resorption marker NTx and bone formation parameter osteocalcin, either. A multivariate stepwise regression analysis confirmed that serum leptin levels were positively influenced by fat mass (β=0.746, pBPA (β=0.127, p=0.01) but negatively correlated with fat-free mass (β=-0.196, pBPA exposure. Although BPA exposure is related with increased amount of fat mass and elevated serum leptin levels, it has neutral effect on BMDs in premenopausal women, possibly due to the exclusive role of fat-free mass, which is unrelated to BPA in determining BMDs. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  15. A low arm and leg muscle mass to total body weight ratio is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; So, Wi-Young

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and arm and leg muscle mass to total weight ratios in Korean adults. This was a randomized, controlled, cross-sectional study. Data from 2,383 adults (1,030 men and 1,353 women) were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011. Blood lipid profiles, blood pressure, and anthropometric characteristics, including weight, height, waist circumference, and muscle mass on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were evaluated in the participants. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The average mass of both arms and legs was determined using regional muscle analysis by DXA. Afterwards, the arm and leg muscle mass to total body weight ratio was determined and classified into 4 quartiles (i.e., quartile 1 [highest muscle ratio] to quartile 4 [lowest muscle ratio]). According to the arm muscle and leg muscle ratios, there was a higher prevalence of MetS in quartile 4 than in quartile 1 in both men and women. A low arm and leg muscle mass to body weight ratio was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS after adjusting for age, physical activity, frequency of smoking, and frequency of alcohol consumption. In conclusion, MetS patients demonstrated a lower arm and leg muscle mass to body weight ratio. Strength training for the lower and upper extremities is recommended because it can have a positive effect on MetS prevention.

  16. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  17. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants...... of the CB1 receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution. DESIGN AND METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs806381, rs......10485179 and rs1049353 were genotyped, and body fat and fat distribution were assessed by the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in a population-based study comprising of 783 Danish men, aged 20-29 years. RESULTS: The rs806381 polymorphism was significantly associated...

  18. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression with atypical features and increase in obesity, body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass: a prospective, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Aurélie M; Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vaucher, Julien; Bastardot, François; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Depression and obesity are 2 prevalent disorders that have been repeatedly shown to be associated. However, the mechanisms and temporal sequence underlying this association are poorly understood. To determine whether the subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD; melancholic, atypical, combined, or unspecified) are predictive of adiposity in terms of the incidence of obesity and changes in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), waist circumference, and fat mass. This prospective population-based cohort study, CoLaus (Cohorte Lausannoise)/PsyCoLaus (Psychiatric arm of the CoLaus Study), with 5.5 years of follow-up included 3054 randomly selected residents (mean age, 49.7 years; 53.1% were women) of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland (according to the civil register), aged 35 to 66 years in 2003, who accepted the physical and psychiatric baseline and physical follow-up evaluations. Depression subtypes according to the DSM-IV. Diagnostic criteria at baseline and follow-up, as well as sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle (alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity), and medication, were elicited using the semistructured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Changes in body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass during the follow-up period, in percentage of the baseline value, and the incidence of obesity during the follow-up period among nonobese participants at baseline. Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat (bioimpedance) were measured at baseline and follow-up by trained field interviewers. Only participants with the atypical subtype of MDD at baseline revealed a higher increase in adiposity during follow-up than participants without MDD. The associations between this MDD subtype and body mass index (β = 3.19; 95% CI, 1.50-4.88), incidence of obesity (odds ratio, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.24-11.35), waist circumference in both sexes (β = 2.44; 95% CI, 0.21-4.66), and fat mass in men

  20. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  1. Lipidomic and spatio-temporal imaging of fat by mass spectrometry in mice duodenum during lipid digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Seyer

    Full Text Available Intestinal absorption of dietary fat is a complex process mediated by enterocytes leading to lipid assembly and secretion of circulating lipoproteins as chylomicrons, vLDL and intestinal HDL (iHDL. Understanding lipid digestion is of importance knowing the correlation between excessive fat absorption and atherosclerosis. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS, we illustrated a spatio-temporal localization of fat in mice duodenum, at different times of digestion after a lipid gavage, for the first time. Fatty acids progressively increased in enterocytes as well as taurocholic acid, secreted by bile and engaged in the entero-hepatic re-absorption cycle. Cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD from enterocytes were originally purified separating chylomicron-like, intermediate droplets and smaller HDL-like. A lipidomic quantification revealed their contents in triglycerides, free and esterified cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and ceramides but also in free fatty acids, mono- and di-acylglycerols. An acyl-transferase activity was identified and the enzyme monoacylglycerol acyl transferase 2 (MGAT2 was immunodetected in all CLD. The largest droplets was also shown to contain the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP, the acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferases (ACAT 1 and 2, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL. This highlights the fact that during the digestion of fats, enterocyte CLD contain some enzymes involved in the different stages of the metabolism of diet fatty acids and cholesterol, in anticipation of the crucial work of endoplasmic reticulum in the process. The data further underlines the dual role of chylomicrons and iHDL in fat digestion which should help to efficiently complement lipid-lowering therapy.

  2. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Long-term leucine supplementation reduces fat mass gain without changing body protein status of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Daiana; Resende, Gabriela Fulin Teodoro; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; Pantaleão, Lucas Carminatti; Donato, Jose; Tirapegui, Julio

    2012-02-01

    Aging is characterized by alterations in body composition such as an increase in body fat and decreases in muscle mass (sarcopenia) and bone density (osteopenia). Leucine supplementation has been shown to acutely stimulate protein synthesis and to decrease body fat. However, the long-term effect of consistent leucine supplementation is not well defined. This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation during aging. Six-month-old rats were divided into three groups: an adult group (n = 10) euthanized at 6 mo of age, a leucine group (n = 16) that received a diet supplemented with 4% leucine for 40 wk, and a control group (n = 19) that received the control diet for 40 wk. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight, food intake, chemical carcass composition, indicators of acquired chronic diseases, and indicators of protein nutritional status. Body weight and fat were lower in the leucine group after 40 wk of supplementation compared with the control group but still higher than in the adult group. The lipid and glycemic profiles were equally altered in the control and leucine groups because of aging. In addition, leucine supplementation did not affect the changes in protein status parameters associated with aging, such as decreases in body and muscle protein and total serum protein. The results indicate that leucine supplementation attenuates body fat gain during aging but does not affect risk indicators of acquired chronic diseases. Furthermore, supplemented animals did not show signs of a prevention of the decrease in lean mass associated with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Twelve weeks' progressive resistance training combined with protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes increases upper leg lean tissue mass, muscle strength and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Mc Cormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Norton, Catherine; Saunders, Jean; Kerin, Emmet; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks. Of the 57 women, 29 also engaged in a PRT intervention (PRO + PRT). In comparison to the PRO group (n = 28), those in the PRO + PRT group had an increase in upper leg LTM [0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01) kg vs. 0.13 (95% CI 0.08-0.18) kg, P = 0.027], as measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; an increase in knee extensor (KE) torque [-1.6 (95% CI -7.3 to 4.4 N m) vs. 10.2 (95% CI 4.3-15.8 N m), P = 0.007], as measured from a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG); and an increase in extended gait speed [-0.01 (95% CI -0.52-0.04) m s -1 vs. 0.10 (95% CI 0.05-0.22) m s -1 , P = 0.001] as measured from a maximal 900 m effort. There was no difference between groups in the time taken to complete 5 chair rises or the number of chair rises performed in 30 s (P > 0.05). PRT in healthy older women ingesting a dietary protein supplement is an effective strategy to improve upper leg LTM, KE torque and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

  5. Associations of physical exercise as a lifestyle habit with lean and fat body mass and handgrip strength and age in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Hart, William G

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated how the intensity of physical exercise as a lifestyle habit is associated with age, body composition and handgrip strength. Total body composition was analyzed using DEXA. Exercise scores were derived from an administered questionnaire and the scoring was calculated using the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET). Handgrip strength was measured using a dynamometer. Age, independent of exercise intensity, was associated with declining lean mass, and handgrip strength and with increasing total body fat. A regular physical exercise regime of intensity greater than 1230 MET-min/week was associated with higher total lean mass and lean mass in the limbs, and handgrip strength and lower fat mass in the limbs. We have shown that age was associated with lower lean mass especially in the limbs and handgrip strength and higher total fat mass. Regular physical exercise as a lifestyle habit of any type and of sufficient intensity could help improve muscle strength in the limbs.

  6. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  7. Evidence of pleiotropic loci for fasting insulin, total fat mass, and abdominal visceral fat in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Després, J P; Rice, T; Nadeau, A; Province, M A; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2000-03-01

    To examine whether there is a major gene effect on fasting insulin and pleiotropic loci for fasting insulin, total fat mass (FM), and abdominal visceral fat (AVF). A major gene hypothesis for fasting plasma insulin levels was assessed using segregation analyses of data on 495 members in 98 normolipidemic sedentary families of white descent who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Segregation analyses were performed on insulin adjusted for age, on insulin adjusted for age and FM, and on insulin adjusted for age and AVF. Before adjustment for AVF and FM, a major gene effect on fasting insulin levels was indicated. The putative locus accounted for 54% of the variance under a recessive inheritance pattern, affecting 11% of the sample (i.e., allele frequency = 0.33). However, after adjusting for the effects of AVF or FM, neither a major effect alone nor a multifactorial component alone could be rejected, and support for a major gene was equivocal, i.e., neither the hypothesis of Mendelian tau values or that of the equal tau(s) were rejected and the equal tau model fit the data better than the Mendelian tau model. This pattern (i.e., major gene evidence for insulin before but not after adjustment for AVF or FM) suggests that there is a putative locus with pleiotropic effects on both insulin and FM and another pleiotropic locus for both insulin and AVF. Although these data do not directly support an additional major gene for insulin independent of AVF and FM, such support cannot be ruled out because there is still a significant major effect on FM- or AVF-adjusted insulin (albeit the Mendelian nature of this effect is ambiguous).

  8. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  9. Night Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night leg cramps By Mayo Clinic Staff Night leg cramps, also called nocturnal leg cramps, are painful, involuntary contractions or spasms of muscles in your legs, usually occurring when you're in bed. Night ...

  10. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height 2 ) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI-FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. We restricted analyses to 4-12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height 5 ) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m - 2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m - 2 ; PAfricans, requiring negative BMI adjustments for Black African children. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (PAfricans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children.

  11. Improved Ventilatory Efficiency with Locomotor Muscle Afferent Inhibition is Strongly Associated with Leg Composition in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Ross, Manda L; Johnson, Bruce D; Carter, Rickey E; Joyner, Michael J; Eisenach, John H; Curry, Timothy B; Olson, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy contributes to increased afferent feedback (group III and IV) and may influence ventilatory control (high VE/VCO2 slope) in heart failure (HF). This study examined the influence of muscle mass on the change in VE/VCO2 with afferent neural block during exercise in HF. 17 participants [9 HF (60±6 yrs) and 8 controls (CTL) (63±7 yrs, mean±SD)] completed 3 sessions. Session 1: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and graded cycle exercise to volitional fatigue. Sessions 2 and 3: 5 min of constant-work cycle exercise (65% of peak power) randomized to lumbar intrathecal injection of fentanyl (afferent blockade) or placebo. Ventilation (VE) and gas exchange (oxygen consumption, VO2; carbon dioxide production, VCO2) were measured. Peak work and VO2 were lower in HF (pLeg fat was greater in HF (34.4±3.0 and 26.3±1.8%) and leg muscle mass was lower in HF (63.0±2.8 and 70.4±1.8%, respectively, pleg muscle mass (r2=0.58, pleg fat mass (r2=0.73, pleg muscle mass had the greatest improvement in VE/VCO2 with afferent blockade with leg fat mass being the only predictor for the improvement in VE/VCO2 slope. Both leg muscle mass and fat mass are important contributors to ventilatory abnormalities and strongly associated to improvements in VE/VCO2 slope with locomotor afferent inhibition in HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  13. Effect of body mass index and intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography on the risk of bowel symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT and bowel symptoms.A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05 different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01, low VAT area (p = 0.01, and low SAT area (p<0.01. Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01 and low SAT area (p<0.01. The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672.Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months.

  14. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  15. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  16. Effects of testosterone supplementation on whole body and regional fat mass and distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Parker, Robert A; Sattler, Fred; Haubrich, Richard; Alston, Beverly; Umbleja, Triin; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2007-03-01

    Whole body and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease. The effects of testosterone therapy on whole body and visceral fat mass in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone therapy on intraabdominal fat mass and whole body fat distribution in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity. IN this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 88 HIV-positive men with abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.95 or mid-waist circumference > 100 cm) and total testosterone 125-400 ng/dl, or bioavailable testosterone less than 115 ng/dl, or free testosterone less than 50 pg/ml on stable antiretroviral regimen, and HIV RNA less than 10,000 copies per milliliter were randomized to receive 10 g testosterone gel or placebo daily for 24 wk. Fat mass and distribution were determined by abdominal computerized tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry during wk 0, 12, and 24. We used an intention-to-treat approach and nonparametric statistical methods. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. In 75 subjects evaluated, median percent change from baseline to wk 24 in visceral fat did not differ significantly between groups (testosterone 0.3%, placebo 3.1%, P = 0.75). Total (testosterone -1.5%, placebo 4.3%, P = 0.04) and sc (testosterone-7.2%, placebo 8.1%, P fat mass decreased in testosterone-treated men, but increased in placebo group. Testosterone therapy was associated with significant decrease in whole body, trunk, and appendicular fat mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (all P fat increased significantly in the placebo group. The percent of individuals reporting a decrease in abdomen (P = 0.01), neck (P = 0.08), and breast size (P = 0.01) at wk 24 was significantly greater in testosterone-treated than placebo-treated men. Testosterone-treated men had greater increase in lean body mass than placebo

  17. 24 weeks of Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutjes AWS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne WS Rutjes,1 Marcello Di Nisio2,31Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Department of Medical, Oral, and Biotechnological Sciences, University G D'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 3Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsWe read with interest the article by Ruiz-Montero et al, in which the authors used a before-and-after study design to examine changes in body composition (fat mass and lean body mass related to an aerobic-Pilates program in elderly Serbian women.1 The authors concluded that "a combined program of aerobic and Pilates, carried out under the supervision of an instructor, at least twice a week, produces health benefits in functionally independent women over the age of 60". This conclusion is overly optimistic and not supported by the evidence provided. View original paper by Ruiz-Montero and colleagues.

  18. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An improved estimator for the hydration of fat-free mass from in vivo measurements subject to additive technical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnamon, Daniel D; Ludwig, David A; Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L; Lipsitz, Stuart R

    2010-01-01

    The hydration of fat-free mass, or hydration fraction (HF), is often defined as a constant body composition parameter in a two-compartment model and then estimated from in vivo measurements. We showed that the widely used estimator for the HF parameter in this model, the mean of the ratios of measured total body water (TBW) to fat-free mass (FFM) in individual subjects, can be inaccurate in the presence of additive technical errors. We then proposed a new instrumental variables estimator that accurately estimates the HF parameter in the presence of such errors. In Monte Carlo simulations, the mean of the ratios of TBW to FFM was an inaccurate estimator of the HF parameter, and inferences based on it had actual type I error rates more than 13 times the nominal 0.05 level under certain conditions. The instrumental variables estimator was accurate and maintained an actual type I error rate close to the nominal level in all simulations. When estimating and performing inference on the HF parameter, the proposed instrumental variables estimator should yield accurate estimates and correct inferences in the presence of additive technical errors, but the mean of the ratios of TBW to FFM in individual subjects may not

  20. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan T Ho-Pham

    Full Text Available The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI in the Vietnamese population.The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr who were randomly selected from the general population in Ho Chi Minh City. Lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM were measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500. PBF was derived as FM over body weight.Based on BMI ≥30, the prevalence of obesity was 1.1% and 1.3% for men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25 was ~24% and ~19% in men and women, respectively. Based on the quadratic relationship between BMI and PBF, the approximate PBF corresponding to the BMI threshold of 30 (obese was 30.5 in men and 41 in women. Using the criteria of PBF >30 in men and PBF >40 in women, approximately 15% of men and women were considered obese.These data suggest that body mass index underestimates the prevalence of obesity. We suggest that a PBF >30 in men or PBF >40 in women is used as criteria for the diagnosis of obesity in Vietnamese adults. Using these criteria, 15% of Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City was considered obese.

  1. Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2010-01-01

    Both animal and human studies have associated the endocannabinoid system with obesity and markers of metabolic dysfunction. Blockade of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) caused weight loss and reduction in waist size in both obese and type II diabetics. Recent studies on common variants of the CB1...... receptor gene (CNR1) and the link to obesity have been conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether selected common variants of the CNR1 are associated with measures of obesity and fat distribution....

  2. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  3. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  4. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  5. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Howard, Emma L.; Gillings, Rachel D.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Methods Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}. Results Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Conclusions Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can

  6. Stratification of fat-free mass index percentiles for body composition based on NHANES III bioelectric impedance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudsk, Kenneth A.; Munoz-del-Rio, Alejandro; Busch, Rebecca A.; Kight, Cassandra E.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of protein mass and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI) are associated with longer length of stay, post-surgical complications and other poor outcomes in hospitalized patients Normative data for FFMI of U.S. populations does not exist. This work aims to create a stratified FFMI percentile table for the U.S. population using the large bioelectric impedance analysis data obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Methods Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated from the NHANES III bioelectric impedance analysis and anthropometric data for males and females ages 12 to over 90 years for three race-ethnicities (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American). FFM was normalized by subject height to create a FFMI distribution table for the U.S. population. Selected percentiles were obtained by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Data was collapsed by race-ethnicity before and after removing obese and underweight subjects to create a FFMI decile table for males and females aged 12 and over for the healthy weight U.S. population. Results FFMI increased during adolescent growth but stabilized in the early 20s. The FFMI deciles were similar by race-ethnicity and age group remaining relatively stable between ages of 22 and 80 years. The FFMI deciles for males and females were significantly different. Conclusions After eliminating the obese and extremely thin, FFMI percentiles remain stable during adult years allowing creation of age- and race/ethnicity-independent decile tables for males and females. These tables allow stratification of individuals for nutrition intervention trials to depict changing nutrition status during medical, surgical and nutritional interventions. PMID:26092851

  7. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  8. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R(2) = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R(2) = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  9. Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Prendergast, Luke A; Dupuis, Philippe; Raval, Manjri; Strauss, Boyd J; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-10-07

    Whether testosterone treatment has benefits on body composition over and above caloric restriction in men is unknown. We hypothesised that testosterone treatment augments diet-induced loss of fat mass and prevents loss of muscle mass. We conducted a randomised double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. A total of 100 obese men (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) with a total testosterone level of or below 12 nmol/L and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very low energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of 10-weekly intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 49, cases) or matching placebo (n = 51, controls). The main outcome measures were the between-group difference in fat and lean mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and visceral fat area (computed tomography). A total of 82 men completed the study. At study end, compared to controls, cases had greater reductions in fat mass, with a mean adjusted between-group difference (MAD) of -2.9 kg (-5.7 to -0.2; P = 0.04), and in visceral fat (MAD -2678 mm 2 ; -5180 to -176; P = 0.04). Although both groups lost the same lean mass following VLED (cases -3.9 kg (-5.3 to -2.6); controls -4.8 kg (-6.2 to -3.5), P = 0.36), cases regained lean mass (3.3 kg (1.9 to 4.7), P testosterone treatment was almost exclusively due to loss of body fat. clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01616732 , registration date: June 8, 2012.

  10. Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Ross

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D, relative to short (8L:16D, photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%. On a high fat diet (HFD, containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat, food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10% without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU, which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.

  11. Body composition analysis by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in non-obese and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva-Asiova, Z; Boyanov, M A

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare total weight, % body fat (% BF), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This cross-sectional study included 159 women (mean age: 49.1 +/- 10.0 years) and 124 men (mean age: 51.4 +/- 8.0 years) subdivided according to sex and body mass index (BMI): BMI or = 35 kg/m(2) (40 women and 30 men). Bioelectrical impedance was performed in the fasting state on a Tanita TBF-215 leg-to-leg analyser (Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Whole-body DXA scans were performed on a Hologic QDR 4500 A bone densitometer (Hologic, Bedford, MA, USA). Total weight, % BF, FM and FFM were tested for intermethod differences. Linear regression and correlation analysis was performed. Limits of agreement and Bland-Altman plots were built. DXA-derived body composition parameters were not significantly different from BIA estimates and were highly correlated (e.g. for FFM, r = 0.82-0.95). In lean individuals, BIA tended to produce lower values for FM and % BF and higher ones for FFM in comparison with DXA. This trend was reversed at BMI > 35 kg/m(2). The correlations decreased with increasing BMI. The limits of agreement were much better in men than in women and increased with increasing BMI in both sexes. Compared with DXA, the leg-to-leg Tanita TBF-215 analyser accurately assessed body composition in a heterogeneous group of both sexes. In the very obese women (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)), BIA measurements should be viewed with caution.

  12. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Inverse relationship between "a body shape index" (ABSI) and fat-free mass in women and men: Insights into mechanisms of sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolo, Gianni; Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Breglia, Andrea; Chiuc, Massimiliano; Baglio, Valeria; Vinci, Pierandrea; Toigo, Gabriele; Lucchin, Lucio; Jurdana, Mihaela; Pražnikar, Zala J; Petelin, Ana; Mazzucco, Sara; Situlin, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenic obesity may be defined by a high fat to fat-free mass (FM/FFM) ratio. Skeletal muscle may be negatively influenced by the pro-inflammatory milieu associated with visceral fat, while the loading effect induced by a heavier body mass index (BMI) may enhance muscle anabolism. Recently, a new anthropometric measure based on waist circumference (A Body Shape Index, ABSI) was developed. In this study we have assessed the predictive power of ABSI on the FFM index (FFMI), a surrogate marker of lean mass. Standard anthropometric parameters and ABSI as well as body composition data (fat and fat-free mass determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis) were assessed in 111 female and 89 male overweight/obese subjects, with no clinically significant co-morbidities. Groups with higher- or lower-ABSI were identified according to median values of this index. In women and men, ABSI did not correlate with BMI, while multiple linear regression indicated that BMI (β-coefficients: 0.62 and 0.77, respectively) and ABSI (β-coefficients: -0.26 and -0.22, respectively) independently predicted FFMI (multiple R: 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, P Men and women with lower-ABSI exhibited significantly greater FFMI than the higher-ABSI groups for comparable values of BMI. In men, ABSI was correlated positively with C-reactive protein (CRP) (R = 0.30; P obese individuals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Comparison of bioimpedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for measurement of fat mass in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Don, Burl R; Kaysen, George A

    2012-01-01

    Fat mass (FM) is measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), but is expensive and not portable. Multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measures total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW). FM is calculated by subtracting fat-free mass (FFM) from weight assuming a fractional hydration of FFM of 0.73. Hemodialysis (HD) patients, however, have nonphysiologic expansion of ECW. Our aim was to apply a model to estimate FM in HD patients and controls. We estimated the hydration of FFM in healthy subjects and HD patients with BIS (Impedimed multifrequency) assuming a hydration of 0.73 or using a model allowing ECW and ICW to vary, deriving a value for FM accounting for variances in ECW and ICW. FM was measured by DXA (Hologic Discovery W) in 25 controls and in 11 HD patients. We measured TBW, ECW and ICW with BIS and calculated FM using either weight - TBW/0.73 or with a model accounting for variations in ECW/ICW to estimate FM. ECW/ICW was greater in HD patients than in controls (0.83 ± 0.08 vs. 0.76 ± 0.04; p = 0.001). FM (kg) measured by DXA or estimated from TBW using constant hydration or accounting for variations in ECW/ICW was not significantly different in controls or in HD patients. Values obtained by all methods correlated (p measured by DXA and by BIS in both controls and HD patients combined correlated (r(2) = 0.871). Expansion of ECW in HD patients is statistically significant; however, the effect on hydration of FFM was insufficient to cause significant deviation from values derived using a hydration value of 0.73 within the range of expansion of ECW in the HD patient population studied here. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results.

  17. Association of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein variant (rs1800777) with fat mass, HDL cholesterol levels, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Gomez, Emilia; Lopez, Juan Jose; Ortola, Ana; Aller, Rocio

    2018-04-25

    There is little evidence of the association between CETP SNPs and obesity and/or related metabolic parameters. To analyze the association of the polymorphism rs1800777 of the CETP gene with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome and its components, and adipokine levels in obese subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension. A population of 1005 obese subjects was analyzed. Electrical bioimpedance was performed, and blood pressure, presence of metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, physical activity, and biochemical tests were recorded. Nine hundred and sixty eight patients (96.3%) had the GG genotype, 37 patients the GA genotype (3.7%) (no AA genotype was detected). Fat mass (delta: 4.4±1.1kg; p=0.04), waist circumference (delta: 5.6±2.1cm; p=0.02), and waist to hip ratio (delta: 0.04±0.01cm; p=0.01) were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. HDL cholesterol levels were lower in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers (delta: 4.2±1.0mg/dL; p=0.04). In the logistic regression analysis, the GA genotype was associated to an increased risk of central obesity (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.10-55.70, p=0.02) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.91, p=0.014). The CETP variant at position +82 is associated to lower HDL cholesterol levels, increased fat mass, and central obesity in obese subjects. These results may suggest a potential role of this variant gene in pathophysiology of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernersson Åsa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Methods Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6 years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. Results During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8 kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1 kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4 kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018. DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9 kg (p = 0.01. After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0 kg (p = 0.01 while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5 kg (p = 0.88. Conclusion One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  19. Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Nystrom, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-08-25

    A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects. Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA) at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used. During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1) kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4) kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018). DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p = 0.01). After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0) kg (p = 0.01) while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5) kg (p = 0.88). One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

  20. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Induce Long-Term Changes on the Human Gut Microbiome Contributing to Fat Mass Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremaroli, Valentina; Karlsson, Fredrik; Werling, Malin

    2015-01-01

    or vertical banded gastroplasty and matched for weight and fat mass loss. The two surgical procedures induced similar and durable changes on the gut microbiome that were not dependent on body mass index and resulted in altered levels of fecal and circulating metabolites compared with obese controls....... By colonizing germ-free mice with stools from the patients, we demonstrated that the surgically altered microbiota promoted reduced fat deposition in recipient mice. These mice also had a lower respiratory quotient, indicating decreased utilization of carbohydrates as fuel. Our results suggest that the gut...

  1. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  2. Optimal growth and lower fat mass in preterm infants fed a protein-enriched postdischarge formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amesz, E.M.; Schaafsma, A.; Cranendonk, A.; Lafeber, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Postdischarge formulas with extra energy and protein improve short-term growth but may also influence long-term body composition in an unwanted manner. Energy- and protein-enriched formulas with an increased protein-to-energy ratio improves gain of lean mass. The objective

  3. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benatti FB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Braga Benatti1, Fábio Santos Lira2, Lila Missae Oyama2, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento2, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior11School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Physiology, Division of Nutrition Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the

  4. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Skeletal muscle mass is associated with higher dietary protein intake and lower body fat in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaís R; Spritzer, Poli M

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the association between skeletal muscle mass and dietary protein intake, habitual physical activity, body composition, and metabolic variables. One hundred three healthy postmenopausal women from southern Brazil (age 55.2 ± 4.9 y, body mass index 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m) were enrolled. Bone mineral density, %body fat, %trunk fat mass, and appendicular lean mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, and habitual physical activity by pedometer. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was expressed as appendicular lean mass standardized to body mass index. The cutoff for low lean mass was Protein intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized into tertiles: ≤0.93 g/kg body weight (BW), 0.94 to 1.29 g/kg BW, and ≥1.3 g protein/kg BW. The prevalence of low lean mass (SMI mass, and diastolic blood pressure were higher, whereas SMI and mean daily steps were lower in women with protein intake ≤0.93 g/kg BW. SMI was positively correlated with physical activity (r = 0.205, P = 0.038) and protein intake (r = 0.334, P = 0.001), and negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.505, P protein intake (mean difference 0.007, 95% CI, 0.001-0.014, P = 0.044) and an independent, negative contribution of %body fat (mean difference -0.010, 95%CI, -0.011 to -0.008, P protein intake and negatively associated with %body fat.

  6. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent claudication; Vaso-occlusive disease of the legs; Arterial insufficiency of ...

  7. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Dietary Alteration of the Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Weight and Fat Mass: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kunnackal John

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms. Probiotic use was associated with significant decreases in BMI, weight and fat mass. Studies of subjects consuming prebiotics demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight, whereas synbiotics did not show an effect. Overall, when the utilization of gut microbiome-modulating dietary agents (prebiotic/probiotic/synbiotic was compared to placebo, there were significant decreases in BMI, weight and fat mass. In summary, dietary agents for the modulation of the gut microbiome are essential tools in the treatment of obesity and can lead to significant decreases in BMI, weight and fat mass. Further studies are needed to identify the ideal dose and duration of supplementation and to assess the durability of this effect.

  9. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Adiponectin, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regional fat mass during 12-month randomized treatment with metformin and/or oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if improved body composition during treatment with metformin (M) vs. oral contraceptive pills (OCP) was associated...... with changes in circulating adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with M (2 g/day), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 microgram ethinylestradiol) or OCP. Adiponectin, IL-6, MCP-1...... during the three types of medical intervention. Treatment with M and M + OCP was superior to OCP regarding decreased regional fat mass. Baseline adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with BMI, waist, and trunk fat mass. Changes in trunk fat were significantly associated with changes in IL-6 and MCP-1...

  11. The fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO functions in the brain to regulate postnatal growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Gao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available FTO (fat mass and obesity associated was identified as an obesity-susceptibility gene by several independent large-scale genome association studies. A cluster of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism located in the first intron of FTO was found to be significantly associated with obesity-related traits, such as body mass index, hip circumference, and body weight. FTO encodes a protein with a novel C-terminal α-helical domain and an N-terminal double-strand β-helix domain which is conserved in Fe(II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase family. In vitro, FTO protein can demethylate single-stranded DNA or RNA with a preference for 3-methylthymine or 3-methyluracil. Its physiological substrates and function, however, remain to be defined. Here we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying a conditional deletion allele of Fto. Our results demonstrate that Fto plays an essential role in postnatal growth. The mice lacking Fto completely display immediate postnatal growth retardation with shorter body length, lower body weight, and lower bone mineral density than control mice, but their body compositions are relatively normal. Consistent with the growth retardation, the Fto mutant mice have reduced serum levels of IGF-1. Moreover, despite the ubiquitous expression of Fto, its specific deletion in the nervous system results in similar phenotypes as the whole body deletion, indicating that Fto functions in the central nerve system to regulate postnatal growth.

  12. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO expression is regulated negatively by the transcription factor Foxa2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjin Guo

    Full Text Available Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI and risk for diabetes. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of FTO expression, we created 5'-deletion constructs of the FTO promoter to determine which transcription factors are most relevant to FTO expression. The presence of an activation region at -201/+34 was confirmed by luciferase activity analysis. A potential Foxa2 (called HNF-3β binding site and an upstream stimulatory factor (USF-binding site was identified in the -100 bp fragment upstream of the transcription start site (TSS. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, we identified the Foxa2 binding sequence (-26/-14 as a negative regulatory element to the activity of the human FTO promoter. The USF binding site did not affect the FTO promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were performed to confirm Foxa2 binding to the FTO promoter. Overexpression of Foxa2 in HEK 293 cells significantly down-regulated FTO promoter activity and expression. Conversely, knockdown of Foxa2 by siRNA significantly up-regulated FTO expression. These findings suggest that Foxa2 negatively regulates the basal transcription and expression of the human FTO gene.

  13. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) expression is regulated negatively by the transcription factor Foxa2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianjin; Ren, Wei; Ding, Ying; Li, Aimei; Jia, Lu; Su, Dongming; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Kuanfeng; Yang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI) and risk for diabetes. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of FTO expression, we created 5'-deletion constructs of the FTO promoter to determine which transcription factors are most relevant to FTO expression. The presence of an activation region at -201/+34 was confirmed by luciferase activity analysis. A potential Foxa2 (called HNF-3β) binding site and an upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-binding site was identified in the -100 bp fragment upstream of the transcription start site (TSS). Furthermore, using mutagenesis, we identified the Foxa2 binding sequence (-26/-14) as a negative regulatory element to the activity of the human FTO promoter. The USF binding site did not affect the FTO promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to confirm Foxa2 binding to the FTO promoter. Overexpression of Foxa2 in HEK 293 cells significantly down-regulated FTO promoter activity and expression. Conversely, knockdown of Foxa2 by siRNA significantly up-regulated FTO expression. These findings suggest that Foxa2 negatively regulates the basal transcription and expression of the human FTO gene.

  14. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  15. Body weight and fat mass index as strong predictors of factor VIII in vivo recovery in adults with hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrard, S; Speybroeck, N; Hermans, C

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of hemophilia A requires infusions of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates. The number of units to be given in order to obtain the target level is calculated using the formula: [body weight (BW) × desired FVIII increase]/2, which assumes that each unit infused per kg of BW increases the FVIII level by 2%. The present observational study evaluated the dependence of FVIII recovery on different morphometrical variables: BW, fat mass index (FMI), body mass index, and the difference between actual and ideal BW. FVIII recovery was measured in 46 non-actively bleeding hemophilia A patients, being treated with a recombinant FVIII concentrate. Regression trees were used to identify morphometrical predictors of recovery. The median recovery was 2.08 for all patients, 2.63 for those with a BW ≥ 81.0 kg and 1.87 for others (P recovery was significantly higher when FMI was ≥ 20% compared with FMI recovery: 2.35 vs. 1.74; P = 0.007). Using regression trees, three groups were created: BW recovery in these groups was 1.80, 2.16 and 2.63, respectively (P recovery after different FVIII concentrates should keep in mind morphometrical patient characteristics. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Renner, Wilfried; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Möller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate

    2011-01-01

    A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609) in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence. PMID:21318054

  17. Rs9939609 Variant of the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and Trunk Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A common T/A polymorphism (rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene was found associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children. However, recent observations failed to find associations of FTO with obesity. To investigate the genetic background of early obesity, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9939609 of FTO in 371 styrian adolescents towards degree of obesity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT-distribution determined by lipometry, early metabolic and preatherosclerotic symptoms. The percentage of AA homozygotes for the rs9939609 SNP of FTO was significantly increased in the obese adolescents. Compared to the TT wildtype, AA homozygotes showed significantly elevated values of SAT thickness at the trunk-located lipometer measure points neck and frontal chest, body weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumference. No associations were found with carotis communis intima media thickness, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP, homocystein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, fasted glucose, insulin, HOMA-index, liver transaminases, uric acid, and adipokines like resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report that the rs9939609 FTO SNP is associated with trunk weighted obesity as early as in adolescence.

  18. Gender difference in the impact of gynoid and android fat masses on the progression of hepatic steatosis in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchi, Ryotaro; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Takato; Nakano, Yujiro; Murakami, Masanori; Minami, Isao; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Increased visceral adiposity is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little attention has been paid to the association between the change in subcutaneous adipose mass and the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate whether increased subcutaneous adipose tissue (gynoid fat mass) could be protective against the progression of NAFLD in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a retrospective observational study of 294 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (65 ± 10 years old, 40% female). Liver attenuation index (LAI) measured by abdominal computed tomography was used for the assessment of hepatic steatosis. Both gynoid (kg) and android (kg) fat masses were measured by the whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One-year changes in LAI, gynoid, and android fat masses were evaluated in both male and female patients. Linear regression analysis with a stepwise procedure was used for the statistical analyses to investigate the association of the changes in gynoid and android fat masses with the change in LAI. LAI levels at baseline were 1.15 ± 0.31 and 1.10 ± 0.34 in female and male patients ( p  = 0.455). The change in gynoid fat mass was significantly and positively associated with the change in LAI in both univariate (standardized β 0.331, p  = 0.049) and multivariate (standardized β 0.360, p  = 0.016) models in the female patients. However, no significant association was observed in males. In contrast, the increase in android fat mass was significantly associated with the reduced LAI in both genders in the multivariate models (standardized β -0.651, p  < 0.001 in females and standardized β -0.519, p  = 0.042 in males). This study provides evidence that increased gynoid fat mass may be protective against the progression of NAFLD in female Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Fat Mass Is Positively Associated with Estimated Hip Bone Strength among Chinese Men Aged 50 Years and above with Low Levels of Lean Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyuan Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships of fat mass (FM and lean mass (LM with estimated hip bone strength in Chinese men aged 50–80 years (median value: 62.0 years. A cross-sectional study including 889 men was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Body composition and hip bone parameters were generated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The relationships of the LM index (LMI and the FM index (FMI with bone phenotypes were detected by generalised additive models and multiple linear regression. The associations between the FMI and the bone variables in LMI tertiles were further analysed. The FMI possessed a linear relationship with greater estimated hip bone strength after adjustment for the potential confounders (p < 0.05. Linear relationships were also observed for the LMI with most bone phenotypes, except for the cross-sectional area (p < 0.05. The contribution of the LMI (4.0%–12.8% was greater than that of the FMI (2.0%–5.7%. The associations between the FMI and bone phenotypes became weaker after controlling for LMI. Further analyses showed that estimated bone strength ascended with FMI in the lowest LMI tertile (p < 0.05, but not in the subgroups with a higher LMI. This study suggested that LM played a critical role in bone health in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, and that the maintenance of adequate FM could help to promote bone acquisition in relatively thin men.

  20. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  1. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated and retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) regulator-interacting protein-1 like polymorphisms with body mass index in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boyu; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jianhua; Ji, Jue; Shen, Jingyi; Xu, Yufeng; Zhao, Yingying; Liu, Danping; Shen, Yinhuan; Zhang, Weijie; Shen, Jiawei; Wang, Yonggang; Shi, Yongyong

    2018-04-14

    Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI. A quantitative traits study with 6,102 Chinese female samples, adjusted for age, was performed during our project. Among the twelve SNPs, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs7202296, rs56137030, rs9930506 and rs12149832 in the FTO gene were significantly associated with BMI after Bonferroni correction. Meanwhile, rs9934800 in the RPGRIP1L gene showed significance with BMI before Bonferroni correction, but this association was eliminated after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggested that genetic variants in the FTO gene were strongly associated with BMI in Chinese women, which may serve as targets of pharmaceutical research and development concerning BMI. Meanwhile, we didn't found the significant association between RPGRIP1L and BMI in Chinese women.

  2. A variant in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) do not influence dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in modulating habitual intake of total energy and macronutrients, glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary energy density, and energy from 20 food groups in adults...

  3. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults—Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta K. Stenman

    2016-11-01

    Discussion: This clinical trial demonstrates that a probiotic product with or without dietary fiber controls body fat mass. B420 and LU + B420 also reduced waist circumference and food intake, whereas LU alone had no effect on the measured outcomes.

  4. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  5. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of fat-free mass in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, Stine Skov; Tang Møllehave, Line; Kadkhoda, Zahra Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Changes in body composition in cancer patients during chemotherapy are associated with treatment related toxicities or mortalities. Thus, it is relevant to identify accessible, relatively inexpensive, portable and reliable tools for evaluation of body composition in cancer patients...... during the course of their treatments. Objective: To examine relationships between single cross-sectional thighs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skeletal muscle mass (SM) as reference and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) in patients with colorectal cancer...

  6. Wavelets analysis for differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Bino; Hwang, Darryl; Mohamed, Passant; Cen, Steven; Deng, Christopher; Chang, Michael; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate potential use of wavelets analysis in discriminating benign and malignant renal masses (RM) Materials and Methods: Regions of interest of the whole lesion were manually segmented and co-registered from multiphase CT acquisitions of 144 patients (98 malignant RM: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 46 benign RM: oncocytoma, lipid-poor angiomyolipoma). Here, the Haar wavelet was used to analyze the grayscale images of the largest segmented tumor in the axial direction. Six metrics (energy, entropy, homogeneity, contrast, standard deviation (SD) and variance) derived from 3-levels of image decomposition in 3 directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) respectively, were used to quantify tumor texture. Independent t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test depending on data normality were used as exploratory univariate analysis. Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis were used to select predictors and assess prediction accuracy, respectively. Results: Consistently, 5 out of 6 wavelet-based texture measures (except homogeneity) were higher for malignant tumors compared to benign, when accounting for individual texture direction. Homogeneity was consistently lower in malignant than benign tumors irrespective of direction. SD and variance measured in the diagonal direction on the corticomedullary phase showed significant (p<0.05) difference between benign versus malignant tumors. The multivariate model with variance (3 directions) and SD (vertical direction) extracted from the excretory and pre-contrast phase, respectively showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.78 (p < 0.05) in discriminating malignant from benign. Conclusion: Wavelet analysis is a valuable texture evaluation tool to add to a radiomics platforms geared at reliably characterizing and stratifying renal masses.

  7. The role of leptin and other hormones related to bone metabolism and appetite-regulation as determinants of gain in body fat and fat-free mass in 8-11 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2015-01-01

    -like growth factor I (IGF-1), osteocalcin and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were associated with body composition cross-sectionally and longitudinally in 633 8-11-year-olds. Design: Data on hormones and body composition by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from OPUS School Meal Study were used. We looked......Background: Regulation of body composition during childhood is complex. Numerous hormones are potentially involved. Leptin has been proposed to restrain weight gain, but results are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined if baseline fasting levels of ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, insulin...... at baseline hormones as predictors of baseline fat mass index (FMI) or fat-free mass index (FFMI), and also subsequent changes (three and six months) in FMI or FFMI using models with hormones individually or combined. Results: Cross-sectionally, baseline leptin was positively associated with FMI in girls (0...

  8. The role of muscle mass and body fat on disability among older adults: A cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Chatterji, Somnath; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with disability among older adults (≥65years old) in nine high-, middle- and low-income countries from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. Data were available for 53,289 people aged ≥18years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) survey conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain, and the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) survey conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa, between 2007 and 2012. Skeletal muscle mass, skeletal muscle mass index, and percent body fat were calculated with specific population formulas. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were defined by specific cut-offs used in previous studies. Disability was assessed with the WHODAS 2.0 score (range 0-100) with higher scores corresponding to higher levels of disability. Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted with disability as the outcome. The analytical sample consisted of 18,363 people (males; n=8116, females; n=10247) aged ≥65years with mean (SD) age 72.9 (11.1) years. In the fully-adjusted overall analysis, sarcopenic obesity was associated with greater levels of disability [b-coefficient 3.01 (95% CI 1.14-4.88)]. In terms of country-wise analyses, sarcopenia was associated with higher WHODAS 2.0 scores in China [b-coefficient 4.56 (95% CI: 3.25-5.87)], Poland [b-coefficient 6.66 (95% CI: 2.17-11.14)], Russia [b-coefficient 5.60 (95% CI: 2.03-9.16)], and South Africa [b-coefficient 7.75 (95% CI: 1.56-13.94)]. Prevention of muscle mass decline may contribute to reducing the global burden of disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...... the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive......The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role...

  10. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  11. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D₃ supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Amin; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Shidfar, Farzad; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Razaghi, Maryam; Dehghani, Sahar; Hoshiarrad, Anahita; Gohari, Mahmoodreza

    2012-09-22

    Vitamin D concentrations are linked to body composition indices, particularly body fat mass. Relationships between hypovitaminosis D and obesity, described by both BMI and waist circumference, have been mentioned. We have investigated the effect of a 12-week vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric indices in healthy overweight and obese women. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38 ± 8.1 years, BMI 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m²) were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 μg per day as cholecalciferol) and placebo (25 μg per day as lactose) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, waist, hip, fat mass, 25(OH) D, iPTH, and dietary intakes were measured before and after the intervention. Serum 25(OH)D significantly increased in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (38.2 ± 32.7 nmol/L vs. 4.6 ± 14.8 nmol/L; Psupplementation (-0.26 ± 0.57 pmol/L vs. 0.27 ± 0.56 pmol/L; PSupplementation with vitamin D3 caused a statistically significant decrease in body fat mass in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (-2.7 ± 2.1 kg vs. -0.47 ± 2.1 kg; Pbody weight and waist circumference did not change significantly in both groups. A significant reverse correlation between changes in serum 25(OH) D concentrations and body fat mass was observed (r = -0.319, P = 0.005). Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.

  12. Muscle mass, visceral fat, and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide in healthy individuals (from the J-SHIPP Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Taiji; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ochi, Masayuki; Nagai, Tokihisa; Okada, Yoko; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-08-15

    A paradoxical negative association between obesity and the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been firmly established. An individual's fat mass increases and muscle mass decreases with aging. Because aging is a potent determinant of plasma BNP levels, BNP may be related not only to fat mass but also to muscle mass. However, no studies have evaluated the associations between body composition and plasma levels of BNP. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate these associations in 1,431 apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. The abdominal visceral fat area and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were quantified by computed tomography. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were measured as possible confounding parameters. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured as an index of arterial stiffness, and the pulse pressure (PP) of the second peak of the radial systolic blood pressure waveform (PP2) was used as an estimate of the central PP. Plasma BNP levels were significantly and negatively associated with the visceral fat area (r = -0.13, p <0.0001) and thigh muscle CSA (r = -0.25, p <0.0001). Corrections with possible confounding parameters including age, gender, heart rate, mean blood pressure, body weight, body height, adiponectin, leptin, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and PP2 eliminated the association of BNP with visceral fat area but not with thigh muscle CSA (β = -0.27, p <0.0001). These findings indicate that along with adiposity, muscle mass is an independent determinant of plasma BNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory protein S100A12 (EN-RAGE) are associated with muscle and fat mass in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Kinoshita-Katahashi, Naoko; Yasuda, Hideo; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Furuya, Ryuichi

    2014-05-27

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent and contributes to mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Although the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) system also contributes to the morbidity and mortality of these patients, the role that the RAGE system plays in determining nutritional status is currently unknown. A cross-sectional study examining 79 HD patients was performed. The plasma concentrations of the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and S100A12 (also known as EN-RAGE) were studied to evaluate their association with nutritional status, which was assessed by measuring the mid-thigh muscle mass and subcutaneous fat mass with computed tomography. Plasma S100A12 concentrations were shown to be significantly and negatively correlated with muscle mass and with fat mass (r = -0.237, P muscle mass and fat mass (P muscle mass and fat mass in HD patients. Study number; UMIN000012341.

  14. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  15. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mancio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS. However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. Aims To determine the association of body mass index (BMI and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Results Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05. At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.9; p = 0.021 and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1–5.8; p = 0.031 compared with obese/low VAF patients. Conclusions In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  16. Stepwise algorithm using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of fat-poor angiomyolipoma in small renal masses: Development and external validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hajime; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Saito, Kazutaka; Uehara, Sho; Numao, Noboru; Yuasa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Shinya; Masuda, Hitoshi; Yonese, Junji; Kihara, Kazunori

    2017-07-01

    To develop a stepwise diagnostic algorithm for fat-poor angiomyolipoma in small renal masses. Two cohorts of small renal masses magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings were analyzed. Based on multivariate analysis, we developed two prediction models for fat-poor angiomyolipoma, the computed tomography model and the computed tomography + magnetic resonance imaging model, and a stepwise algorithm that proposes the sequential use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The computed tomography model, which was composed of female aged magnetic resonance imaging model. The computed tomography + magnetic resonance imaging model, consisting of the first three factors of the computed tomography model, low signal intensity and absence of pseudocapsule on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, re-stratified the tumors into low, intermediate and high angiomyolipoma-probability groups. The incidence of fat-poor angiomyolipoma in each group was 0%, 26% and 93%, respectively (area under the curve 0.981). External validation by two readers showed a high area under the curve (0.912 and 0.924) for each. The interobserver agreement was good (kappa score 0.77). The present algorithm differentiates fat-poor angiomyolipoma in small renal masses with high accuracy by adding magnetic resonance imaging to computed tomography in selected patients. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Adiponectin, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regional fat mass during 12-month randomized treatment with metformin and/or oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Richelsen, Bjørn; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, Marianne

    2014-08-01

    Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To evaluate if improved body composition during treatment with metformin (M) vs. oral contraceptive pills (OCP) was associated with changes in circulating adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with M (2 g/day), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 microgram ethinylestradiol) or OCP. Adiponectin, IL-6, MCP-1, whole body DXA scans, and clinical evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period in the 65 study completers. Changes in inflammatory markers and changes in total and regional fat mass estimates. Adiponectin, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were unchanged during the three types of medical intervention. Treatment with M and M + OCP was superior to OCP regarding decreased regional fat mass. Baseline adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with BMI, waist, and trunk fat mass. Changes in trunk fat were significantly associated with changes in IL-6 and MCP-1 during M + OCP. Long-term treatment with M alone or in combination with OCP was associated with improved body composition compared to OCP, whereas inflammatory markers were unchanged. OCP was not associated with increased inflammatory markers despite a small but significant weight gain.

  18. Elevated Circulating TNF-α in Fat-Free Mass Non-Responders Compared to Responders Following Exercise Training in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences in inflammatory cytokines exist between fat-free mass responders versus non-responders following a combined resistance/aerobic training program in older women. Fifty women over 60 years old, mean BMI 27 ± 4 (kg/m2 and physically untrained, participated in a combined training program for 16-weeks. Body composition, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory markers (TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6 were assessed at baseline and 16-weeks post-training. A significant time effect was observed for weight, %fat, fat mass, and all strength measures (p < 0.05. A group interaction was observed for TNF-α (p < 0.05, which revealed higher concentrations of circulating TNF-α at baseline (18% and post-exercise training (24% in non-responders compared to responders (p < 0.05. In conclusion, this study revealed a significantly greater concentration of circulating TNF-α in older women that do not increase fat-free mass following training.

  19. Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Julia; Stomby, Andreas; Waling, Maria; Isaksson, Andreas; Tellström, Anna; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Brage, Søren; Ryberg, Mats; Svensson, Michael; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: -6.6, -4.1; p Paleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Isaksson, Andreas; Tellström, Anna; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Brage, Søren; Ryberg, Mats; Svensson, Michael; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Background Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. Methods Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59±8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). Results For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: −6.6, −4.1; pPaleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. PMID:27235022

  1. Association between rs9930506 polymorphism of the fat mass & obesity-associated (FTO) gene & onset of obesity in Polish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Malgorzata; Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruczko, Lech; Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2016-03-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is known to be associated with obesity. However, no data are available on the relation between FTO rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity in Polish population. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association between rs9930506 variants of the FTO gene and obesity in Polish adults. The study group consisted of 442 adults, aged 33.9 ±12.7 yr, with mean BMI 27.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. The following variables were determined for each subject: fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Real-time PCR was used to detect the A/G alleles of the rs9939506 polymorphism in the FTO gene. An association between the rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity was determined using codominant, dominant, and recessive models. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the risk of obesity associated with this polymorphism. It was observed that the presence of FTO rs9939506 G allele was associated with increased risk for obesity and this association was found significant in both recessive (OR = 1.72, P = 0.014) and co-dominant (OR = 1.36, P = 0.031) models of inheritance. The FTO rs9939506 GG homozygotes had a significantly higher BMI than those with other genotypes. This study shows that FTO rs9939506 GG genotype is related to higher BMI and is associated with obesity in Polish adults.

  2. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  3. Increased BMR in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes may result from an increased fat-free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min-xian; Zhao, Shi; Mao, Hong; Wang, Zhong-jing; Zhang, Xu-yan; Yi, Lan

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the relationships between the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition of overweight and obese Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional clinical study enrolled 193 Chinese adults with type 2 DM who were overweight (24 kg/m(2)=BMI≤28 kg/m(2), n=99), or obese (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2), n=94). Ninety-seven adults with normal BMIs, including 50 DM patients and 47 healthy adults, were recruited as a control group. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry; predicted BMR was calculated according to the Schofield equation; and the relationships between BMR, body composition, and biochemical results were determined by the Pearson correlation. The results showed that obese DM patients had significantly higher BMRs than both overweight patients (PBMR was significantly lower than the predicted BMR (PBMR in both DM patients (r=0.874, P<0.01) and in healthy controls (r=0.902, P<0.01). It was concluded that overweight and obese Chinese adults with type 2 DM had increased BMRs compared with normal-weight controls, which may result from the difference in fat-free mass.

  4. The relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index in overweight and obese individuals in an urban african setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadas O. Akindele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI, should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2% in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9% had low BF% while 291 (18.5% had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3% were underweight while 271 (17.3% were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01. The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association.

  5. Assessment of fat-free mass from bioelectrical impedance analysis in obese women with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Grugni, Graziano; Tringali, Gabriella; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) is lower in obese subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) than in obese subjects without PWS. FFM prediction equations developed in non-PWS subjects may, thus, not work in PWS subjects. To test whether the estimation of FFM from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in PWS subjects requires population-specific equations. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, this study measured FFM in 27 PWS and 56 non-PWS obese women and evaluated its association with the impedance index at 50 kHz (ZI50), i.e. the ratio between squared height and whole-body impedance at 50 kHz. At the same level of ZI50, PWS women had a lower FFM than non-PWS women. However, when PWS-specific equations were used, FFM was accurately estimated at the population level. An equation employing a dummy variable coding for PWS status was able to explain 85% of the variance of FFM with a root mean squared error of 3.3 kg in the pooled sample (n = 83). Population-specific equations are needed to estimate FFM from BIA in obese PWS women.

  6. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  7. Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) in association with food preferences in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkwall, Louise; Ericson, Ulrika; Hellstrand, Sophie; Gullberg, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have indicated that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is not only associated with BMI and weight but also with appetite and dietary intake. Objectives We investigated if the FTO rs9939609 associates with food preferences in healthy adults with no cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Additionally, we challenged the question if the associations are modified by obesity status (BMI ≤25 or >25 kg/m2). Design The analyses are made with 22,799 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study, who were born between 1923 and 1945. To investigate food preference, 27 food groups conducted from a modified diet history method including a 7-day registration of cooked meals and cold beverages were used in the analyses. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing, resulting in a cut-off value for significance level of ppastry but lower consumption of soft drinks (P for trend <0.0001 for both) as compared to TT genotype carriers. In contrast to our hypothesis, the results did not significantly differ depending on obesity status except for consumption of juice, where only the overweight individuals with A-allele had a higher consumption as compared to TT carriers (P for interaction=0.04). Conclusion Our results indicate that the FTO A-allele may associate with certain food preference and in particular with certain energy-dense foods. PMID:23589710

  8. LINE-1 methylation is positively associated with healthier lifestyle but inversely related to body fat mass in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Mourão, Denise Machado; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-α and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-α methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-α levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-α methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-α methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers.

  9. Differences in body mass index according to fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype in Mexican patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana; Ocampo-Mendoza, Yolanda; Hernández-Lagunas, José Octavio; Díaz-Madrid, Federico Alejandro; Romo-Nava, Francisco; Juárez-García, Francisco; Ortega-Ortiz, Hiram; Díaz-Anzaldúa, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Mora, Doris; Becerra-Palars, Claudia; Berlanga-Cisneros, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased in many countries and it is particularly high in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). A region in the first intron of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, encompassing markers rs9939973, rs8050136, and rs9939609, has been consistently associated with obesity and body mass index (BMI) in different populations. We sought to determine whether FTO is associated with BMI and/or obesity in patients with BD. The sample included 129 Mexican Mestizo patients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. After obtaining informed consent, participants were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and weight, height, and body measurements were recorded. DNA was extracted from a 5-mL blood sample and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed. The results were analyzed with Haploview v4.2 and SPSS v21. Differences in mean BMI were explained by rs8050136 and rs9939609 genotypes, especially by comparing non-carriers and carriers of two copies of the risk allele (Tukey's p ≤ 0.019), with a mean difference in BMI as high as 7.81 kg/m(2) . Differences in BMI were also explained by the interaction of the genotype (rs8050136 and/or rs9939609), the use of second-generation antipsychotics, and the use of mood stabilizers (p ≤ 0.41). Obesity was also associated with these two markers when patients with and without obesity were compared. In patients with BD, differences in BMI may be affected by the presence of FTO risk alleles, especially in homozygous individuals for these variants. Besides evaluating the possible metabolic effects of certain antipsychotics or mood stabilizers, it is important to evaluate the role of other factors such as FTO risk alleles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Astrup, Arne; Skovgaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    threshold, BMIT, was used ([BMIT = C/(0.75)3/2] for men and [BMIT = C/(0.65)3/2] for women). We conclude that simple formulae allow evaluation of fatness of individual patients more accurately than BMI, with the use of one baseline DXA scan, and enable the establishment of patient-specific obesity treatment...... threshold could be calculated (BMIT), above which the patient would be obese by %FM criteria. Data were collected from individuals who had a DXA scan as part of a nutritional research study at the University of Copenhagen. BMI incorrectly classified 48/329 (14.6%) of men and 52/589 (8.8%) of women......Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI...

  11. Ileal Transposition Surgery Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic GK Rats: Possible Involvement of FGF21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemin Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ileal transposition (IT surgery has been reported to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a powerful metabolic regulator. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of IT surgery on metabolism and its possible relationship with the FGF21 signaling pathway in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.Methods: Ten-week-old male GK rats were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of a 10 cm ileal segment to the proximal jejunum (IT group or sham surgery without the ileum transposition (Sham-IT group. Rats in the no surgery group did not receive any surgical intervention. Six weeks later, body weight, fat mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin were measured. The expression of the FGF21 signaling pathway and white adipose tissue (WAT browning-related genes in the WAT and liver were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and western blot.Results: IT surgery significantly decreased the body weights and FBG levels and increased the insulin sensitivity of GK rats. The total WAT mass of the IT rats showed a 41.5% reduction compared with the Sham-IT rats, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin of the IT rats decreased by 26.3 and 61.7%, respectively (all P < 0.05. The mRNA levels of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and its co-receptor β klotho (KLB in the perirenal WAT (pWAT of the IT rats were 1.4- and 2.4-fold that of the Sham-IT rats, respectively, and the FGFR1 protein levels were 1.7-fold of the Sham-IT rats (all P < 0.05. In accordance with the pWAT, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the epididymal WAT (eWAT of the IT rats notably increased to 3.0- and 3.9-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. Furthermore, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 protein levels in the eWAT and pWAT of the IT rats also increased to 2.2- and 2.3-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. However, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the

  12. Effects of Fat Polymorphic Transformation and Nonfat Particle Size Distribution on the Surface Changes of Untempered Model Chocolate, Based on Solid Cocoa Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Young, Ashley K; James, Bryony J

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to understand the bloom process in untempered chocolate by investigating the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter and changes in chocolate surface. Cocoa mass with varying particle size distributions (PSD) were used to produce untempered model chocolate. Optical microscopy showed that during 25 d of storage, the chocolate surface gradually became honeycombed in appearance with dark spots surrounded by white sandy bloom areas. In conjunction with X-ray diffraction this indicates that the polymorphic transformation of form IV cocoa butter to more stable form V crystals caused the observed surface changes with the most significant changes occurring within 6 d. As bloom developed the surface whiteness increased, but the PSD of nonfat particles showed limited impact on the changes in whiteness. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy showed separated fat crystals on fat-rich dark spots and empty spaces between particles in bloom areas suggesting redistribution of fat in the chocolate matrix. The results reported in this work can facilitate the understanding of fat bloom formation in untempered chocolate with respect to the changes in microstructure and surface appearances. It also contributes to show the details of IV-to-V polymorphic transformation in the fat phase as time went by. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  14. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  15. Dlk1/FA1 is a novel endocrine regulator of bone and fat mass and its serum level is modulated by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M.; Ding, Ming; Jensen, Charlotte H.

    2007-01-01

    Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta-like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...... differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of circulating FA1 on fat and bone mass in vivo by generating mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (FA1 mice) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure. We found that increased serum FA1 levels led to a significant reduction in total body weight, fat...... mass, and bone mass in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced bone mass in FA1 mice was associated with the inhibition of mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates by 58 and 72%, respectively. Because FA1 is colocalized with GH in the pituitary gland, we explored the possible modulation of serum FA1...

  16. Dlk1/FA1 Is a Novel Endocrine Regulator of Bone and Fat Mass and Its Serum Level Is Modulated By Growth Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B.M.; Ding, M.; Jensen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    , fat mass and bone mass in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced bone mass in FA1-mice was associated with the inhibition of mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates by 58% and 72% respectively. Since FA1 is co-localized with growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary gland, we explored the possible......Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. FA1 (fetal antigen 1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We have previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...... differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of circulating FA1 on fat and bone mass in vivo by generating mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (FA1-mice) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure (HGTP). We found that increased serum FA1 levels led to a significant reduction in total body weight...

  17. Stablor® and reduction of visceral fat while maintaining lean mass: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Stablor® and decrease in visceral fat while preserving lean mass. The food Stablor®, a drink preparation with defined macro- and micronutrient composition and a specific proportion of amino acids (tryptophan to neutral amino...... acids ratio) which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy restricted diet is a beneficial physiological effect in overweight or obese subjects with abdominal fat...... of Stablor® on visceral fat mass in the context of an energy restricted diet. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Stablor® and reduction of visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy restricted diet....

  18. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (pdiet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (pdiet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (pdiet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The association of serum androgens and insulin resistance with fat distribution in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Aykan; Noyan, Volkan; Sagsoz, Nevin

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the body fat distribution of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with age and body mass index matched healthy controls and to investigate if androgens and insulin resistance associated with fat distribution. Thirty-three PCOS and 21 age and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy control women were evaluated in terms of body fat distribution with dual X-ray absorpsiometry (DEXA). Blood samples were obtained for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), free testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin and glucose levels. A 75 g 2 h glucose tolerance test was performed for each woman. Insulin resistance was estimated by fasting insulin level, fasting glucose/insulin ratio and 75 g 2 h glucose tolerance test. The Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare the groups. Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated for normally and nonnormally distributed variables, respectively. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated using age and BMI as covariates. Fat mass in trunk and arms were significantly higher in patients with PCOS (p fat mass in trunk to fat mass in legs were significantly higher in patients with PCOS (p testosterone was found to be positively correlated with fat mass in arms (r = 0.401, p testosterone and fat mass in arms (r = 0.5964, p testosterone level is positively correlated with the fat mass in arms in women with PCOS.

  20. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (pleg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (pleg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leg lengthening - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100127.htm Leg lengthening - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... with lengthening procedures are the bones of the leg, the tibia and the femur. Surgical treatment may ...

  2. Arterial bypass leg - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100155.htm Arterial bypass leg - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Overview The arteries which supply blood to the leg originate from the aorta and iliac vessels. Review ...

  3. Leg lengthening and shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002965.htm Leg lengthening and shortening To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to ...

  4. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  5. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Lotta K; Lehtinen, Markus J; Meland, Nils; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Yeung, Nicolas; Saarinen, Markku T; Courtney, Michael; Burcelin, Rémy; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Linros, Jüri; Apter, Dan; Scheinin, Mika; Kloster Smerud, Hilde; Rissanen, Aila; Lahtinen, Sampo

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters. 225 healthy volunteers (healthy, BMI 28-34.9) were randomized into four groups (1:1:1:1), using a computer-generated sequence, for 6months of double-blind, parallel treatment: 1) Placebo, microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 2) LU, 12g/d; 3) B420, 10 10 CFU/d in microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 4) LU+B420, 12g+10 10 CFU/d. Body composition was monitored with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the primary outcome was relative change in body fat mass, comparing treatment groups to Placebo. Other outcomes included anthropometric measurements, food intake and blood and fecal biomarkers. The study was registered in Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01978691). There were marked differences in the results of the Intention-To-Treat (ITT; n=209) and Per Protocol (PP; n=134) study populations. The PP analysis included only those participants who completed the intervention with >80% product compliance and no antibiotic use. In addition, three participants were excluded from DXA analyses for PP due to a long delay between the end of intervention and the last DXA measurement. There were no significant differences between groups in body fat mass in the ITT population. However, LU+B420 and B420 seemed to improve weight management in the PP population. For relative change in body fat mass, LU+B420 showed a-4.5% (-1.4kg, P=0.02, N=37) difference to the Placebo group, whereas LU (+0.3%, P=1.00, N=35) and B420 (-3.0%, P=0.28, N=24) alone had no effect (overall ANOVA P=0.095, Placebo N=35). A post-hoc factorial analysis was significant for B420 (-4.0%, P=0.002 vs. Placebo). Changes in fat mass were most pronounced in the abdominal region, and were reflected by similar

  6. Anthropometric midarm measurements can detect systemic fat-free mass depletion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Sanchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether anthropometric measurements of the midarm (MA could identify subjects with whole body fat-free mass (FFM depletion. Fifty-five patients (31% females; age: 64.6 ± 9.3 years with mild/very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 18 smokers without COPD (39% females; age: 49.0 ± 7.3 years and 23 never smoked controls (57% females; age: 48.2 ± 9.6 years were evaluated. Spirometry, muscle strength and MA circumference were measured. MA muscle area was estimated by anthropometry and MA cross-sectional area by computerized tomography (CT scan. Bioelectrical impedance was used as the reference method for FFM. MA circumference and MA muscle area correlated with FFM and biceps and triceps strength. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that MA circumference and MA muscle area cut-off points presented sensitivity and specificity >82% to discriminate FFM-depleted subjects. CT scan measurements did not provide improved sensitivity or specificity. For all groups, there was no significant statistical difference between MA muscle area [35.2 (29.3-45.0 cm²] and MA cross-sectional area values [36.4 (28.5-43.3 cm²] and the linear correlation coefficient between tests was r = 0.77 (P < 0.001. However, Bland-Altman plots revealed wide 95% limits of agreement (-14.7 to 15.0 cm² between anthropometric and CT scan measurements. Anthropometric MA measurements may provide useful information for identifying subjects with whole body FFM depletion. This is a low-cost technique and can be used in a wider patient population to identify those likely to benefit from a complete body composition evaluation.

  7. Estimating the Basal metabolic rate from fat free mass in individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S M; Kim, H-R; Shin, H I

    2017-09-01

    Cross-sectional study. This study aimed to validate the existing basal metabolic rate (BMR) predictive equations that include fat free mass (FFM) as an independent variable and, based on the FFM assessment, to develop a new SCI population-specific equation. Outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Our study group was formed of 50 individuals with chronic motor complete SCI: 27 patients with tetraplegia and 23 with paraplegia. Both BMR and FFM values were measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) and the whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. The BMR values measured by IC were compared with the values estimated from the Cunningham equation. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop a new FFM-based, BMR predictive equation. The mean value of BMR measured by IC was 1274.8 (s.d.=235.2) kcal day -1 . The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between values measured by IC and estimated from the Cunningham equation was 0.845 and the limits of agreement ranged from -30.6 to 241.3 kcal. SCI population specific BMR predictive equation was developed; BMR (kcal day -1 )=24.5 × FFM (kg)+244.4. The newly developed equation showed ICC of 0.866 with the limits of agreement from -229.0 to 233.1 kcal day -1 . A considerable bias from the BMR values measured by IC was still observed, which warrants clinical consideration when applying FFM-based BMR prediction equations to individuals with SCI.

  8. Four-Year Changes in Visceral Fat Mass and the Risk of Developing Proteinuria in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwa-Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated the close relationship between visceral obesity and the increased prevalence of proteinuria. But, little is known about the role of changes in visceral fat mass (∆VFM over several years in the development of proteinuria. In this longitudinal cohort study with the general population, the changes in ∆VFM as well as baseline VFM on proteinuria development were evaluated.Healthy individuals (n = 2393 who participated in two health screening exams were analyzed. Subjects were divided into three groups based on gender-specific tertiles of baseline VFM and ∆VFM. Each patient was tested for proteinuria using a dipstick, and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater.The mean age was 51.9±7.7 years, and the incidence of proteinuria was 3.9% (n = 93. During the 4 years, 52.5% of the subjects experienced a decline in ∆VFM. However, subjects who developed proteinuria exhibited a significant increase in ∆VFM. Even after adjustment for age, smoking, systolic and diastolic BP, serum creatinine, and hs-CRP levels, the highest tertiles for baseline VFM [men, odds ratio (OR 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.22-9.67; women, OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05-4.15] and ∆VFM (men, OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.22-6.99; women, OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.56-6.39 were independent predictors of proteinuria development. Following adjustment of both parameters, subjects in the highest baseline VFM and ∆VFM tertiles exhibited the greatest risk of proteinuria development, which suggested the additive harmful effects of the two factors.Baseline VFM and greater increase in ∆VFM were both important risk factors for developing proteinuria in the general population. Appropriate education and interventions to prevent accumulation of VFM should be the major focus of preemptive strategies.

  9. Neonatal serotonin reuptake inhibition reduces hypercaloric diet effects on fat mass and hypothalamic gene expression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Lígia Cristina Monteiro; Barros, Manuella da Luz Duarte; Pinheiro, Isabeli Lins; Santana, Ricardo Vinicius de Carvalho; de Matos, Rhowena Jane Barbosa; Leandro, Carol Góis; de Souza, Sandra Lopes; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2015-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in nervous system ontogenesis, and is important for neurotransmission and behavior modulation after the developmental stage. Alterations in 5-HT levels during the early period of life may signal to feeding behavior and hypothalamic genic expression changes in adulthood. Investigate the effects of hypercaloric diet in adult rats submitted to neonatal serotonin reuptake inhibition on food intake, fat pad mass, plasmatic triglycerides/cholesterol and gene expression of hypothalamic peptides (POMC, NPY) and serotonin receptors (5-HT1B, 5-HT2C). In each litter, 8 pups were divided into two groups: control (C) and fluoxetine (F). From the 1(st) to the 21(st) postnatal day, C pups received sterile saline while F pups received fluoxetine (10mg/kg). From 180 to 215 days, a group of rats from C and F groups were fed hypercaloric diet (CH and FH, 421.4Kcal/100 g) while the rest of animals from C and F groups fed chow diet (CC and FC). The use of hypercaloric diet was associated with lower accumulation of white adipose tissue in adult rats subjected to neonatal serotonin reuptake inhibition. Adult rats of group FC showed decreased 5-HT2C and neuropeptide Y mRNA expression compared with control chow diet group (CC). After chronic use of a hypercaloric diet, the expression of 5-HT2C was higher in the FH group than the FC group and neuropeptide Y expression decreased in FH related to FC. These findings suggest that neonatal serotonin reuptake inhibition is associated with better adaptation to hypercaloric diet in adult rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO in association with food preferences in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Brunkwall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have indicated that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is not only associated with BMI and weight but also with appetite and dietary intake. Objectives: We investigated if the FTO rs9939609 associates with food preferences in healthy adults with no cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Additionally, we challenged the question if the associations are modified by obesity status (BMI ≤25 or >25 kg/m2. Design: The analyses are made with 22,799 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study, who were born between 1923 and 1945. To investigate food preference, 27 food groups conducted from a modified diet history method including a 7-day registration of cooked meals and cold beverages were used in the analyses. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing, resulting in a cut-off value for significance level of p<0.002. Results: We observed that the obesity susceptible A-allele carriers reported a higher consumption of biscuits and pastry but lower consumption of soft drinks (P for trend <0.0001 for both as compared to TT genotype carriers. In contrast to our hypothesis, the results did not significantly differ depending on obesity status except for consumption of juice, where only the overweight individuals with A-allele had a higher consumption as compared to TT carriers (P for interaction=0.04. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FTO A-allele may associate with certain food preference and in particular with certain energy-dense foods.

  11. Catch-up growth following fetal growth restriction promotes rapid restoration of fat mass but without metabolic consequences at one year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beltrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR followed by rapid weight gain during early life has been suggested to be the initial sequence promoting central adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the link between fetal and early postnatal growth and the associated anthropometric and metabolic changes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the first year of post-natal life, changes in body mass index, skinfold thickness and hormonal concentrations were prospectively monitored in 94 infants in whom the fetal growth velocity had previously been measured using a repeated standardized procedure of ultrasound fetal measurements. 45 infants, thinner at birth, had experienced previous FGR (FGR+ regardless of birth weight. Growth pattern in the first four months of life was characterized by greater change in BMI z-score in FGR+ (+1.26+/-1.2 vs +0.58 +/-1.17 SD in FGR- resulting in the restoration of BMI and of fat mass to values similar to FGR-, independently of caloric intakes. Growth velocity after 4 months was similar and BMI z-score and fat mass remained similar at 12 months of age. At both time-points, fetal growth velocity was an independent predictor of fat mass in FGR+. At one year, fasting insulin levels were not different but leptin was significantly higher in the FGR+ (4.43+/-1.41 vs 2.63+/-1 ng/ml in FGR-. CONCLUSION: Early catch-up growth is related to the fetal growth pattern itself, irrespective of birth weight, and is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower leptin levels after birth. Catch-up growth promotes the restoration of body size and fat stores without detrimental consequences at one year of age on body composition or metabolic profile. The higher leptin concentration at one year may reflect a positive energy balance in children who previously faced fetal growth restriction.

  12. Prospective associations between objective measures of physical activity and fat mass in 12-14 year old children: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddoch, Chris J; Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Blair, Steven N; Deere, Kevin; Mattocks, Calum; Griffiths, Alex; Davey Smith, George; Tilling, Kate

    2009-11-26

    To investigate associations between physical activity at age 12 and subsequent adiposity at age 14. Prospective birth cohort study with data collected between 2003 and 2007. Original recruitment in 1991-2 of 14,541 pregnant women living in the former County of Avon (United Kingdom). At age 12, 11,952 children were invited to attend the research clinic. Of these, 7159 attended, and 4150 (1964 boys, 2186 girls) provided sufficient data on exposure, outcome, and confounding variables. Fat mass at age 14, measured by dual emission x ray absorptiometry, associated with physical activity at age 12, measured by accelerometry. Prospective associations of fat mass at age 14 (outcome) with physical activity at age 12 (exposure) were strong for both total activity (accelerometer counts/min) and for daily amount of moderate-vigorous physical activity (min/day). An extra 15 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity per day at age 12 was associated with lower fat mass at age 14 in boys (by 11.9% (95% confidence interval 9.5% to 14.3%)) and girls (by 9.8% (6.7% to 12.8%)). The proportion of physical activity due to moderate-vigorous physical activity was between 20% and 30% in boys and girls at the two ages. Higher levels of physical activity, in particular activity of moderate to higher intensities, are prospectively associated with lower levels of fat mass in early adolescence. Interventions to raise levels of physical activity in children are likely to be important in the fight against obesity.

  13. Android Fat Distribution Affects Some Hemostatic Parameters In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Compared With Healthy Control Subjects Matched For Age And Body Mass Index.

    OpenAIRE

    de Mendonça-Louzeiro, Maria Raquel Marques Furtado; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To correlate hemostatic parameters with clinical markers of fat distribution and laboratory variables in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with healthy control subjects. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tertiary teaching hospital. Patient(s): Forty-five women with PCOS and 45 control women matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Intervention(s): Clinical evaluation and venipuncture. Main Outcome Measure(s): Age, BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circum...

  14. Fat-free mass in chronic illness: comparison of bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 480 chronically ill and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichard, C; Kyle, U G; Slosman, D O

    1999-09-01

    Assessment of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass in ambulatory and hospitalized patients permits optimal adaptation of nutrition support. Recent methods for the determination of FFM are dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The purpose of this study was to determine if the BIA-determined FFM as estimated by the formula by Kotler et al. and the Geneva formula could be validated when compared to DXA-determined FFM in subjects with various diagnoses. Body composition was measured by BIA and DXA in 480 subjects including healthy young men and women, elite female runners, and patients with various pathologies (including chronic obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disease patients; cystic fibrosis patients; lung, heart, and liver transplantation patients [both pre- and post-], and hemiplegic and AIDS patients). The present results suggest that BIA is relevant in the clinical assessment of body composition, but BIA formulas appropriate to the subject pool must be used for evaluation of FFM and fat mass. The BIA formula by Kotler et al. is appropriate for healthy subjects and patients with AIDS, cystic fibrosis, and pre- or postliver transplantation. The Geneva formula is more appropriate in pulmonary diseases and hemiplegic subjects with normal weight.

  15. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  16. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  17. Fat-free muscle mass in magnetic resonance imaging predicts acute-on-chronic liver failure and survival in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praktiknjo, Michael; Book, Marius; Luetkens, Julian

    2018-01-01

    in the sarcopenia group but resolved in the non-sarcopenia group. Sarcopenic patients showed no clinical improvement after TIPS as well as higher mortality, mainly due to development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). FFMA was an independent predictor of survival in these patients. CONCLUSION: This study......BACKGROUND: Muscle mass seems to be a prognostic marker in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, reported methods to quantify muscle mass are heterogeneous, consented cut-off values are missing and most studies used computed tomography (CT). This study evaluated fat-free muscle area as a marker...

  18. High protein intake along with paternal part-time employment is associated with higher body fat mass among girls from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhe; Xue, Hong-Mei; Pan, Jay; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Yang, Min; Quan, Liming; Cheng, Guo

    2017-05-23

    Protein intake has been suggested to be associated with body composition among western children. Our aim was to determine whether protein intake is associated with body composition among Chinese children and to investigate whether parental socioeconomic status modifies these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from the baseline survey of an ongoing population-based prospective open cohort study conducted in 2013. In this survey, 2039 children in South China were recruited using cluster random sampling. Information of 1704 children (47% girls), aged 7-12 years from three primary schools (42 classes), on diet and anthropometry was included finally. Their daily protein intake was obtained by 3-day 24-h dietary recalls. Skinfold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, protein intake was positively associated with %BF and FMI [estimate (SE) for %BF: 0.007 (0.003), p = 0.04; for FMI: 0.092 (0.002), p = 0.03], adjusted for pubertal stage, breast-feeding, maternal overweight, carbohydrate intake, energy intake, and physical activity level. Furthermore, there was interaction between paternal occupation and the relations of dietary protein with %BF and FMI (p for interaction  ≤ 0.04). None of the associations between protein intake and %BF, FMI, or FFMI was found among boys. Our data indicate that school-aged girls, but not boys, living in South China with higher dietary protein intake might have higher body fat mass, which could be modified by paternal occupation.

  19. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  20. Mio/dChREBP coordinately increases fat mass by regulating lipid synthesis and feeding behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassu, Eric D.; McDermott, Jacqueline E.; Keys, Brendan J.; Esmaeili, Melody; Keene, Alex C.; Birnbaum, Morris J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.

    2012-01-01

    During nutrient excess, triglycerides are synthesized and stored to provide energy during times of famine. The presence of high glucose leads to the activation of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a transcription factor that induces the expression of a number of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes. ChREBP is expressed in major metabolic tissues and while we have a basic understanding of ChREBP function in liver, in vivo genetic systems to study the function of ChREBP in other tissues are lacking. In this study, we characterized the role of the Drosophila homolog of ChREBP, Mlx interactor (Mio), in controlling fat accumulation in larvae and adult flies. In Mio mutants, high sugar-induced lipogenic enzyme mRNA expression is blunted and lowering Mio levels specifically in the fat body using RNA interference leads to a lean phenotype. A lean phenotype is also observed when the gene bigmax, the fly homolog of ChREBP’s binding partner Mlx, is decreased in the larval fat body. Interestingly, depleting Mio in the fat body results in decreased feeding providing a potential cause of the lowered triglycerides observed in these animals. However, Mio does not seem to function as a general regulator of hunger-induced behaviors as decreasing fat body Mio levels has no effect on sleep under fed or starved conditions. Together, these data implicate a role for Mio in controlling fat accumulation in Drosophila and suggests that it may act as a nutrient sensor in the fat body to coordinate feeding behavior with nutrient availability. PMID:22910416

  1. Prolactin levels are associated with a pro-inflammatory body mass distribution among women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elera-Fitzcarrald, C; Ugarte-Gil, M F; Gamboa-Cárdenas, R V; Zevallos, F; Medina, M; Cucho-Venegas, J M; Perich-Campos, R A; Alfaro-Lozano, J L; Rodriguez-Bellido, Z; Alarcón, G S; Pastor-Asurza, C A

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine whether prolactin levels are associated with a pro-inflammatory body mass distribution in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in consecutive female SLE patients seen in our rheumatology department from January 2012 to July 2015. Prolactin was measured in ng/ml. Body mass distribution was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and it was divided into subtotal (whole body excluding the head), subtotal bone mineral content, lean mass index (appendicular lean mass/height 2 ), subtotal trunk and leg fat percentages and trunk-to-leg fat ratio. The association between prolactin levels and body mass distribution components was evaluated by univariable and multivariable linear regression models adjusting for possible confounders. Results One hundred and eighty-five patients were evaluated; their mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 34.8 (13.8) years; nearly all patients were Mestizo. Patients included in this study were comparable to the rest of the cohort in terms of age, disease duration, SLEDAI, SDI and body mass index. Disease duration was 7.3 (6.6) years. The SLEDAI was 5.2 (4.3) and the SDI 0.9 (1.3). Prolactin levels were 18.9 (16.7) ng/ml. In univariable analyses, prolactin was negatively associated with bone mineral density, bone mineral content, leg fat percentage and lean mass index, and positively associated with trunk-to-leg fat ratio. In the multivariable analyses, prolactin was negatively associated with bone mineral content and positively associated with trunk-to-leg fat ratio. Conclusions Higher prolactin levels are associated with a pro-inflammatory body mass distribution in SLE patients.

  2. Associations of Body Mass Index and Body Fat With Markers of Inflammation and Nutrition Among Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cynthia; Chertow, Glenn M; Kaysen, George A; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Kornak, John; Grimes, Barbara; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the extent to which visceral and subcutaneous body fat are associated with markers of nutrition and inflammation in patients on dialysis therapy could shed light on the obesity paradox and the biology of subcutaneous fat. Cross-sectional. 609 adults receiving hemodialysis who participated in the ACTIVE/ADIPOSE Study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy-derived estimates of percent body fat. C-Reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), prealbumin, albumin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. We performed linear regression analyses to examine the extent to which proxies of visceral and subcutaneous fat were associated with inflammation, nutrition, and adiposity-related hormones. BMI was directly associated with markers of inflammation (standardized estimate for ln[CRP in mg/L]: 0.30 [95% CI, 0.22-0.38] per 10kg/m 2 ; for ln[IL-6 in pg/mL]: 0.10 [95% CI, 0.02-0.18] per 10kg/m 2 ), but was not associated with markers of nutrition. BMI was also inversely associated with adiponectin and directly associated with leptin. With waist circumference and percent body fat (as a proxy of visceral and subcutaneous fat, respectively) modeled together, waist circumference was associated with markers of inflammation (standardized estimate for ln[CRP in mg/L]: 0.21 [95% CI, 0.09-0.34] per 10cm; for ln[IL-6 in pg/mL]: 0.18 [95% CI, 0.07-0.29] per 10cm), whereas percent body fat was not associated with CRP (standardized estimate for ln[CRP in mg/L]: 0.03 [95% CI, -0.10 to 0.15] per 1%) and was inversely associated with IL-6 (standardized estimate for ln[IL-6 in pg/mL]: -0.15 [95% CI, -0.27 to -0.02] per 1%). In addition, waist circumference was inversely associated with prealbumin and albumin (standardized estimates of -0.12 [95% CI, -0.23 to -0.02] mg/dL per 10cm and -0.17 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.06] g/dL per 10cm, respectively), and percent body fat was directly associated with prealbumin and albumin (0

  3. Accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Estimated Longitudinal Fat-Free Mass Changes in Male Army Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Raquel D; Matias, Catarina N; Borges, Juliano H; Cirolini, Vagner X; Páscoa, Mauro A; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M

    2018-03-26

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a practical and rapid method for making a longitudinal analysis of changes in body composition. However, most BIA validation studies have been performed in a clinical population and only at one moment, or point in time (cross-sectional study). The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of predictive equations based on BIA with regard to the changes in fat-free mass (FFM) in Brazilian male army cadets after 7 mo of military training. The values used were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. The study included 310 male Brazilian Army cadets (aged 17-24 yr). FFM was measured using eight general predictive BIA equations, with one equation specifically applied to this population sample, and the values were compared with results obtained using DXA. The student's t-test, adjusted coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of estimation (SEE), Lin's approach, and the Bland-Altman test were used to determine the accuracy of the predictive BIA equations used to estimate FFM in this population and between the two moments (pre- and post-moment). The FFM measured using the nine predictive BIA equations, and determined using DXA at the post-moment, showed a significant increase when compared with the pre-moment (p army cadets between the two moments in a very similar way to the reference method (DXA). However, only the one BIA equation specific to this population showed no significant differences in the FFM estimation between DXA at pre- and post-moment of military routine. All predictive BIA equations showed large limits of agreement using the Bland-Altman approach. The eight general predictive BIA equations used in this study were not found to be valid for analyzing the FFM changes in the Brazilian male army cadets, after a period of approximately 7 mo of military training. Although the BIA equation specific to this population is dependent on the amount of FFM, it appears to be

  4. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Kuan Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA fat free mass (FFM estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women participated. FFM (FFMDXA reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE = 2.164 kg, n = 269. The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201; the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM.

  5. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Chiang, Li-Ming; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hao; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. PMID:27775642

  6. A comparison of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and two bioelectrical impedance analyzers to measure body fat percentage and fat-free mass index in a group of Mexican young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Del Consuelo; Irigoyen-Camacho, Maria Esther; Huerta-Huerta, Raquel; Delgadillo-Velazquez, Jaime

    2014-05-01

    Studies of obesity require the estimation of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM); therefore it is important to validate methods that evaluate these measurements. We sought to compare two different bioelectrical impedance analysis systems (BIAs) to estimate FM and FFM using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference. We used a cross-sectional design. We evaluated FM and FFM using DXA and two types of BIA equipment: a foot-foot system (FFS) and a hand-foot system (HFS). We conducted paired analysis (paired ttest). We used Bland-Altman plots to assess the relationships between FM and FFMI, limits of agreement were constructed (CL). A total of 175 female students (22.9 ± 2.2 years old) participated in the study. The paired analysis showed significant differences between the mean value of body fat percentage (BF%) estimated by BIA equipment compared to DXA (FFS = 28.7%, HFS= 34.4% and DXA= 35.3%). The mean difference between the HFS and DXA of BF% was -0.96, ((CL -5.29, 7.20). For the FFS, the mean difference was -6.69, (CL -0.29, -13.09). The paired analysis revealed significant differences between the estimates of FFMI by BIA compared to DXA (FFS =16.29, HFS =14.95, DXA =14.18). The mean difference between HFS and DXA was 0.78, and (CL -2.27, 0.72) whereas the FFS mean difference was -2.11 (CL -3.73 -0.49). A different magnitude of bias was observed between the BIA equipment arrays. The HFS appears to be more reliable than the FFS used, particularly in obtaining FFMI in young women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Autophagy protects pancreatic beta cell mass and function in the setting of a high-fat and high-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qingfeng; Xiao, Xiangwei; Prasadan, Krishna; Chen, Congde; Ming, Yungching; Fusco, Joseph; Gangopadhyay, Nupur N; Ricks, David; Gittes, George K

    2017-11-27

    Autophagy is a major regulator of pancreatic beta cell homeostasis. Altered autophagic activity has been implicated in the beta cells of patients with type 2 diabetes, and in the beta cells of obese diabetic rodents. Here, we show that autophagy was induced in beta cells by either a high-fat diet or a combined high-fat and high-glucose diet, but not by high-glucose alone. However, a high-glucose intake alone did increase beta cell mass and insulin secretion moderately. Depletion of Atg7, a necessary component of the autophagy pathway, in beta cells by pancreatic intra-ductal AAV8-shAtg7 infusion in C57BL/6 mice, resulted in decreased beta cell mass, impaired glucose tolerance, defective insulin secretion, and increased apoptosis when a combined high-fat and high-glucose diet was given, seemingly due to suppression of autophagy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the autophagy pathway may act as a protective mechanism in pancreatic beta cells during a high-calorie diet.

  8. Predicting appendicular lean and fat mass with bioelectrical impedance analysis in older adults with physical function decline - The PROVIDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Bauer, Jürgen M; Verlaan, Sjors; Van Malderen, Lien; Vantieghem, Stijn; Cederholm, Tommy; Sieber, Cornel C; Mets, Tony; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    No generalizable formulas exist that are derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for predicting appendicular lean mass (ALM) and fat mass (AFM) in sarcopenic older adults. Since precision of regional body composition (BC) data in multicentre trials is essential, this study aimed to: 1) develop and cross-validate soft tissue BIA equations with GE Lunar and Hologic DXA systems as their reference 2) to compare our new ALM equation to two previously published models and 3) to assess the agreement between BIA- and DXA-derived soft tissue ratios as indicators of limb tissue quality. Two-hundred and ninety-one participants with functional limitations (SPPB-score 4-9; sarcopenia class I or II, measured by BIA) were recruited from 18 study centres in six European countries. BIA equations, using DXA-derived ALM and AFM as the dependent variable, and age, gender, weight, impedance index and reactance as independent variables, were developed using a stepwise multiple linear regression approach. Cross-validation gave rise to 4 equations using the whole sample: ALM LUNAR (kg) = 1.821 + (0.168*height 2 /resistance) + (0.132*weight) + (0.017*reactance) - (1.931*sex) [R 2  = 0.86 and SEE = 1.37 kg] AFM LUNAR (kg) = -6.553 - (0.093* height 2 /resistance) + (0.272*weight) + (4.295*sex) [R 2  = 0.70 and SEE = 1.53 kg] ALM HOLOGIC (kg) = 4.957 + (0.196* height 2 /resistance) + (0.060*weight) - (2.554*sex) [R 2  = 0.90 and SEE = 1.28 kg] AFM HOLOGIC (kg) = -4.716 - (0.142* height 2 /resistance) + (0.316*weight) + (4.453*sex) - (0.040*reactance) [R 2  = 0.73 and SEE = 1.54 kg] Both previously published models significantly overestimated ALM in our sample with biases of -0.36 kg to -1.05 kg. For the ratio of ALM to AFM, a strong correlation (r = 0.82, P Hologic and Lunar reference values for BC. Previously published BIA-based models tend to overestimate ALM in sarcopenic older adults. Users of both GE Lunar and

  9. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Harbron, Janetta; Merwe, Lize van der; Zaahl, Monique; Kotze, Maritha; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed ...

  10. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  11. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose in a Sample of Moroccan Adolescents Aged 11–17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdad, Slimane; Hamrani, Abdeslam; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Barakat, Amina; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Najat; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The study aimed to assess the relationship between body fat and each of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to test the effectiveness of fat mass (FM), percent of body fat (PBF), BMI, and WC in predicting high levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Methods. A total of 167 adolescents aged 11–17 years were recruited from Rabat region. BMI and WC were determined using standard equipments. FM and PBF were derived from isotope dilution technique. FBG was determined by the hexokinase method. Results. Regardless of the weight status, BMI showed a strong positive correlation with FM and PBF in both genders. WC was significantly correlated with FM in boys and girls, and with PBF in different groups of girls and boys of the study sample. However, there was no significant relationship between WC and PBF in normal weight and overweight-obese groups of boys. FBG was highly correlated with FM and PBF in girls of the study sample and in overweight-obese girls. Similar significant relationship between FBG and both BMI and WC was observed in overweight-obese girls, while there was no significant association between FBG and other variables in boys and normal-weight girls. Conclusion. BMI and WC were closely associated with FM and PBF, respectively. However, the degree of these associations depends on gender and weight status. BMI may provide a better proxy estimate of overall adiposity than WC; nevertheless, both of them would appear to be a reasonable surrogate for FM and PBF as screening tools to identify adolescents at risk of developing excess body fat and high level of FBG. PMID:22175010

  13. Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman-Ornelas MO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milton-Omar Guzman-Ornelas,1 Efrain Chavarria-Avila,1 Jose-Francisco Munoz-Valle,1,2 Laura-Elizabeth Armas-Ramos,3 Jorge Castro-Albarran,3,4 Maria Elena Aguilar Aldrete,1,5 Edith Oregon-Romero,2 Monica Vazquez-Del Mercado,2 Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernandez1–31Biomedical Sciences Doctorate Program, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, 3Master of Human Nutrition Program, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4HMIELM, Secretaria de Salud Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 5Department of Public Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, MéxicoPurpose: Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766 with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin, distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers.Subjects and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI, were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold.Results: sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001 and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046 GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL, TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL, and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL, but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T.G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05 with inflammation markers and

  14. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... in those consuming the carbohydrate-rich diet (0.93 +/- 0.02). The leg fatty acid (FA) uptake (183 +/- 37 vs. 105 +/- 28 micromol min(-1)) and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TG) uptake (132 +/- 26 vs. 16 +/- 21 micromol min(-1)) were both higher (each P ... the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1); P

  15. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  16. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea; Adderley, Una

    2016-01-15

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0 in 1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20 in 1000 people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 116 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 63 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 43 studies and the further review of 20 full publications. Of the 20 full articles evaluated, four systematic reviews were updated and four RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 23 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 13 interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, compression stockings for prevention of recurrence, compression bandages and stockings to treat venous leg ulcers, laser treatment (low level), leg ulcer clinics, pentoxifylline, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery for prevention of recurrence, superficial vein surgery to treat venous leg ulcers, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical negative pressure.

  17. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  18. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (−9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23883680

  19. The role of leptin and other hormones related to bone metabolism and appetite regulation as determinants of gain in body fat and fat-free mass in 8-11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Sørensen, Louise B; Ong, Ken K; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-03-01

    Regulation of body composition during childhood is complex. Numerous hormones are potentially involved. Leptin has been proposed to restrain weight gain, but results are inconsistent. We examined whether baseline fasting levels of ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin, IGF-I, osteocalcin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were associated with body composition cross sectionally and longitudinally in 633 8-11-year-olds. Data on hormones and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry from the OPUS School Meal Study were used. We looked at baseline hormones as predictors of baseline fat mass index (FMI) or fat-free mass index (FFMI), and also subsequent changes (3 and 6 months) in FMI or FFMI using models with hormones individually or combined. Cross-sectionally, baseline leptin was positively associated with FMI in girls (0.211 kg/m(2) pr. μg/mL; 97.5% confidence interval [CI],0.186-0.236; P < .001) and boys (0.231 kg/m(2) pr. μg/mL; 97.5% CI, 0.200-0.261; P < .001). IGF-I in both sexes and iPTH in boys were positively associated with FMI. An inverse association between adiponectin and FFMI in boys and a positive association between IGF-I and FFMI were found in girls. In longitudinal models, baseline leptin was inversely associated with subsequent changes in FMI (-0.018 kg/m(2) pr. μg/mL; 97.5% CI, -0.034 - -0.002; P = .028) and FFMI (-0.014 kg/m(2) pr. μg/mL; 97.5% CI, -0.024 - -0.003; P = .006) in girls. Cross-sectional findings support that leptin is produced in proportion to body fat mass, but the longitudinal observations support that leptin inhibits gains in FMI and FFMI in girls, a finding that may reflect preserved leptin sensitivity in this predominantly normal weight population.

  20. Fat-free Mass and Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption in the 40 Minutes after Short-duration Exhaustive Exercise in Young Male Japanese Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakao, Rieko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has not been well researched because of the relatively small number of subjects studied. This study investigated the effects of FFM on EPOC and EPOC/maximum oxygen consumption. 250 Japanese male athletes between 16 and 21 years old from Nagasaki prefecture had their EPOC measured up to 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise. The value was named as EPOC_. The proportions of EPOC up to 1...

  1. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower musc...... that cytokines are partly derived from this adipose tissue bed. Furthermore, TNF-alpha was related to lower ASM and BCM, suggesting that TNF-alpha contributes to sarcopenia in ageing....

  2. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2-diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M; Bruunsgaard, H; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower musc...... that cytokines are partly derived from this adipose tissue bed. Furthermore, TNF-alpha was related to lower ASM and BCM, suggesting that TNF-alpha contributes to sarcopenia in ageing....

  3. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    balanced itself in 31) using a tabular ctontrol sclwnme. With only thUiee actuated degrees it used a shuffling gait to balance that reminds one of Charlie ... Chaplin . * The present study explores the control of a physical one-legged hopping machine. The objective of using a machine with only one leg was to

  4. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  5. Leg Rejuvenation: A Combination Approach: A Review and Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Mahoney, Anne M; Gold, Michael; Lawrence, Naomi

    2016-05-01

    Patients increasingly seek to enhance the appearance of their legs. Elimination of unwanted leg veins, reduction of epidermal photo-aging changes such as solar lentigines and keratoses, tightening of skin laxity and reduction of adipose tissue are among the most commonly requested goals. Many patients require a combination approach to address their concerns. It is important for dermatologists to be aware of the multitude of procedures that can be performed, often in combination, to rejuvenate the leg. The purpose of this review article was to discuss procedures for improving the appearance of the leg and to share the authors experience, especially in the combination approach to leg rejuvenation. A literature search was performed to investigate cosmetic procedures being performed on the leg, with an emphasis on controlled or randomized studies. In addition, the authors contributed their personal experience. Our discussion of the literature review highlights the treatments for leg veins, unwanted fat, cellulite, and photodamage of the legs that are most supported in peer-reviewed publications. A synergistic, combination approach to leg rejuvenation works best. This includes the use of injectable agents, energy-based devices, and more invasive surgical procedures.

  6. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739-0.886; Pprofile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women.

  7. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  8. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Young, Andrew J; Karl, J Philip; Kenefick, Robert W; Margolis, Lee M; Cole, Renee E; Carbone, John W; Lieberman, Harris R; Kim, Il-Young; Ferrando, Arny A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-02-01

    In this 2-phase randomized controlled study, we examined whether consuming a higher-protein (HP) diet would attenuate fat-free mass (FFM) loss during energy deficit (ED) at high altitude (HA) in 17 healthy males (mean ± sd: 23 ± 6 yr; 82 ± 14 kg). During phase 1 at sea level (SL, 55 m), participants consumed a eucaloric diet providing standard protein (SP; 1.0 g protein/kg,) for 21 d. During phase 2, participants resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 d and were randomly assigned to either an SP or HP (2.0 g protein/kg) diet designed to elicit a 40% ED. Body composition, substrate oxidation, and postabsorptive whole-body protein kinetics were measured. Participants were weight stable during SL and lost 7.9 ± 1.9 kg ( P Berryman, C. E., Young, A. J., Karl, J. P., Kenefick, R. W., Margolis, L. M., Cole, R. E., Carbone, J. W., Lieberman, H. R., Kim, I.-Y., Ferrando, A. A., Pasiakos, S. M. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

  9. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  10. Fat-Free Mass and Fasting Glucose Values in Patients with and without Statin Therapy Assigned to Age Groups between 75 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dzien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aging-associated changes in body composition result in an increased cardiometabolic risk. A tremendous reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality can be obtained by statin therapy. Statins are well tolerated, with myopathy as the most serious negative side effect. Some recently published studies indicate that the incidence of type 2 diabetes might be increased during intensified statin therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate whether statin therapy has an influence on the aging-associated changes in fat-free mass (FFM. Methods: A total of 3,280 persons attending a medical outdoor center between January 2005 and July 2011 were assigned to 3 age groups from 75 years. Clinical data, body mass index (BMI, and body composition were evaluated in the different age groups in patients with and without statin therapy. To analyze the impact of statin use on FFM, we regressed a patient's FFM on an interaction term between statin use and age and other control variables. Results: Aging was associated with a decrease in BMI and FFM, while fat mass continuously increased up to the age of >75 years. This was paralleled by a continuous increase in fasting glucose levels in patients with and without statin therapy. The loss of FFM between the age group 75 years was more pronounced in statin-treated patients (10.88% than in non-statin users (8.47%. Creatine phosphokinase values revealed a decrease of 7.77 U/l between the age groups 75 years in non-statin users and of 14.75 U/l in statin users. Statistical analysis indicated that the effect of statin therapy on FFM is more pronounced in younger than in older patients. Conclusions: Patients under statin therapy seem to be more vulnerable to the aging-associated lowering of FFM. Diagnostic procedures and interventions to prevent a loss of muscle mass might be of particular advantage in elderly patients under statin therapy.

  11. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: We included 100

  12. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  13. Plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory protein S100A12 (EN-RAGE) are associated with muscle and fat mass in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is highly prevalent and contributes to mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Although the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) system also contributes to the morbidity and mortality of these patients, the role that the RAGE system plays in determining nutritional status is currently unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study examining 79 HD patients was performed. The plasma concentrations of the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and S100A12 (also known as EN-RAGE) were studied to evaluate their association with nutritional status, which was assessed by measuring the mid-thigh muscle mass and subcutaneous fat mass with computed tomography. Results Plasma S100A12 concentrations were shown to be significantly and negatively correlated with muscle mass and with fat mass (r = −0.237, P < 0.05 and r = −0.261, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, sRAGE was not shown to significantly correlate with either of these factors. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that S100A12 is a significant independent predictor of both muscle mass and fat mass (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that plasma S100A12 levels could play an important role in determining muscle mass and fat mass in HD patients. Trial registration Study number; UMIN000012341. PMID:24884769

  14. Leg stiffness and sprint ability in amputee sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Shuichi; Umezawa, Shingo; Iwashita, Koudai; Okino, Atsuo; Saito, Taku; Usui, Fumio; Ogata, Toru

    2012-09-01

    Understanding leg stiffness (K (leg)) in amputee sprinters is important for the evaluation of their sprint ability and development of running-specific prostheses (RSP). To investigate K (leg) during hopping in amputee sprinters. Cross-sectional study. Seven transtibial (TT) and seven transfemoral (TF) amputee sprinters, as well as seven non-active able-bodied subjects, performed one-legged hopping matching metronome beats at 2.2 Hz. Amputees hopped on their sound limb whereas able-bodied (AB) subjects hopped on their dominant limb. Using a spring-mass model, K (leg) was calculated from the subjects' body mass, ground contact and flight times. Both TT and TF sprinters demonstrated significantly higher K (leg) than AB subjects. K (leg) during hopping on the sound leg significantly correlated with personal records attained in a 100-m sprint in both TT (r = -0.757) and TF sprinters (r = -0.855). The results of the present study suggest that amputee sprinters have a greater K (leg) during hopping than inactive non-amputees, and that their sprint ability can be predicted from the K (leg) during hopping at 2.2 Hz on the sound limb.

  15. Supplementing an energy adequate, higher protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, C E; Sepowitz, J J; McClung, H L; Lieberman, H R; Farina, E K; McClung, J P; Ferrando, A A; Pasiakos, S M

    2017-06-01

    Negative energy balance during military operations can be severe and result in significant reductions in fat-free mass (FFM). Consuming supplemental high-quality protein following such military operations may accelerate restoration of FFM. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and whole body protein turnover (single-pool [ 15 N]alanine method) were determined before (PRE) and after 7 days (POST) of severe negative energy balance during military training in 63 male US Marines (means ± SD, 25 ± 3 yr, 84 ± 9 kg). After POST measures were collected, volunteers were randomized to receive higher protein (HIGH: 1,103 kcal/day, 133 g protein/day), moderate protein (MOD: 974 kcal/day, 84 g protein/day), or carbohydrate-based low protein control (CON: 1,042 kcal/day, 7 g protein/day) supplements, in addition to a self-selected, ad libitum diet, for the 27-day intervention (REFED). Measurements were repeated POST-REFED. POST total body mass (TBM; -5.8 ± 1.0 kg, -7.0%), FFM (-3.1 ± 1.6 kg, -4.7%), and net protein balance (-1.7 ± 1.1 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) were lower and proteolysis (1.1 ± 1.9 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) was higher compared with PRE ( P energy (4,498 ± 725 kcal/day). All volunteers, independent of group assignment, achieved positive net protein balance (0.4 ± 1.0 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) and gained TBM (5.9 ± 1.7 kg, 7.8%) and FFM (3.6 ± 1.8 kg, 5.7%) POST-REFED compared with POST ( P energy-adequate, higher protein diets with additional protein may not be necessary to restore FFM after short-term severe negative energy balance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article demonstrates 1 ) the majority of physiological decrements incurred during military training (e.g., total and fat-free mass loss), with the exception of net protein balance, resolve and return to pretraining values after 27 days and 2 ) protein supplementation, in addition to an ad libitum, higher protein (~2.0 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ), energy adequate diet, is not necessary to

  16. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-08-01

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  18. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Ioachimescu, Octavian C

    2015-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an urge to move, and associated with uncomfortable sensations in the legs (limbs). Restless legs syndrome can lead to sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia, and occasionally excessive daytime sleepiness, all leading to significant morbidity. Brain iron deficiency and dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disorder, along with other nondopaminergic systems, although the exact mechanisms are still. Intensive care unit patients are especially vulnerable to have unmasking or exacerbation of restless legs syndrome because of sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disturbance, immobilization, iron deficiency, and use of multiple medications that can antagonize dopamine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Birth weight and growth from infancy to late adolescence in relation to fat and lean mass in early old age: findings from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, D; Wills, A; Cooper, R; Hardy, R; Aihie Sayer, A; Adams, J; Kuh, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: High birth weight and greater weight gain in infancy have been associated with increased risk of obesity as assessed using body mass index, but few studies have examined associations with direct measures of fat and lean mass. This study examined associations of birth weight and weight and height gain in infancy, childhood and adolescence with fat and lean mass in early old age. Subjects: A total of 746 men and 812 women in England, Scotland and Wales from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development whose heights and weights had been prospectively ascertained across childhood and adolescence and who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures at age 60–64 years. Methods: Associations of birth weight and standardised weight and height (0–2 (weight only), 2–4, 4–7, 7–11, 11–15, 15–20 years) gain velocities with outcome measures were examined. Results: Higher birth weight was associated with higher lean mass and lower android/gynoid ratio at age 60–64 years. For example, the mean difference in lean mass per 1 standard deviation increase in birth weight was 1.54 kg in males (95% confidence interval=1.04, 2.03) and 0.78 kg in females (0.41, 1.14). Greater weight gain in infancy was associated with higher lean mass, whereas greater gains in weight in later childhood and adolescence were associated with higher fat and lean mass, and fat/lean and android/gynoid ratios. Across growth intervals greater height gain was associated with higher lean but not fat mass, and with lower fat/lean and android/gynoid ratios. Conclusion: Findings suggest that growth in early life may have lasting effects on fat and lean mass. Greater weight gain before birth and in infancy may be beneficial by leading to higher lean mass, whereas greater weight gain in later childhood and adolescence may be detrimental by leading to higher fat/lean and android/gynoid ratios. PMID:23779050

  20. Effects of Whey Protein Alone or as Part of a Multi-ingredient Formulation on Strength, Fat-Free Mass, or Lean Body Mass in Resistance-Trained Individuals: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2016-01-01

    Even though the positive effects of whey protein-containing supplements for optimizing the anabolic responses and adaptations process in resistance-trained individuals have been supported by several investigations, their use continues to be controversial. Additionally, the administration of different multi-ingredient formulations where whey proteins are combined with carbohydrates, other protein sources, creatine, and amino acids or derivatives, has been extensively proposed as an effective strategy to maximize strength and muscle mass gains in athletes. We aimed to systematically summarize and quantify whether whey protein-containing supplements, administered alone or as a part of a multi-ingredient, could improve the effects of resistance training on fat-free mass or lean body mass, and strength in resistance-trained individuals when compared with other iso-energetic supplements containing carbohydrates or other sources of proteins. A structured literature search was conducted on PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, US National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases. Main inclusion criteria comprised randomized controlled trial study design, adults (aged 18 years and over), resistance-trained individuals, interventions (a resistance training program for a period of 6 weeks or longer, combined with whey protein supplementation administered alone or as a part of a multi-ingredient), and a calorie equivalent contrast supplement from carbohydrates or other non-whey protein sources. Continuous data on fat-free mass and lean body mass, and maximal strength were pooled using a random-effects model. Data from nine randomized controlled trials were included, involving 11 treatments and 192 participants. Overall, with respect to the ingestion of contrast supplements, whey protein supplementation, administered alone or as part of a multi-ingredient, in combination with resistance training, was associated

  1. Effect of dietary fat on the distribution of mucosal mass and cell proliferation along the small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, A P; Thompson, R P

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated how substitution of long chain triglycerides for glucose in a mixed diet affects the overall small intestinal mucosal mass and the distribution of mucosal mass and cell proliferation along the small intestine. Four groups of eight female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were isocalorically fed mixed diets containing the essential fatty acid rich oil Efamol substituted for glucose at concentrations of 1.2%, 10%, 25%, and 50% total calories for 20 to 23 days. The small intestine ...

  2. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  3. Improved Analytical Method for Determination of Cholesterol-Oxidation Products in Meat and Animal Fat by QuEChERS Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Che-Wei; Kao, Tsai-Hua; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-04-04

    Cholesterol is widely present in animal fats and meat products and can undergo oxidation to form cholesterol-oxidation products (COPs) during heating. The objective of this study was to develop a QuEChERS method for the determination of COPs in edible animal fats and meat products via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in which the required solvent volume and extraction time were reduced. By employing a DB-5MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film thickness) and a temperature-programming method, seven COPs, cholesterol, and the internal standard 5α-cholestane could be separated within 19 min. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation based on the COP standards ranged from 0.16 to 180 ng/mL and from 0.32 to 400 ng/mL, respectively, and the recoveries ranged from 89.1 to 107.6% for boiled pork and from 80.5 to 105.6% for lard. The intraday variabilities for boiled pork and lard ranged from 2.27 to 6.87% and from 1.52 to 9.78%, respectively, whereas the interday variabilities ranged from 1.81 to 7.89% and from 3.57 to 9.26%, respectively. Among the various meat samples, fish showed the highest level of COPs (31.84 μg/g). For the edible fats, the COP contents in tallow (22.79-60.15 μg/g) were much higher than those in lard (0.152-2.55 μg/g) and butter (0.526-1.36 μg/g). Collectively, this method can be applied to determine COPs in cholesterol-containing foodstuffs.

  4. Android fat distribution affects some hemostatic parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with healthy control subjects matched for age and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça-Louzeiro, Maria Raquel Marques Furtado; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna

    2015-08-01

    To correlate hemostatic parameters with clinical markers of fat distribution and laboratory variables in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with healthy control subjects. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary teaching hospital. Forty-five women with PCOS and 45 control women matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluation and venipuncture. Age, BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), Ferriman-Gallwey index, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, total testosterone, free testosterone (FT), thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) 1, and the parameters of thrombin generation test (TGT), including the lag time (Tlag), time to peak thrombin generation (Tmax), peak concentration (Cmax), and the area under the thrombin generation curve (TAUC). In the PCOS group, BMI and WC correlated positively with TAFI, D-dimer, PAI-1, Cmax, and TAUC; HC with D-dimer and PAI-1; WHR with TAFI, D-dimer, and PAI-1; glucose with TAFI; insulin and homeostasis-model assessment of insulin resistance with PAI-1; and FT with Cmax and TAUC. Age correlated positively with D-dimer and PAI-1, and negatively with Tlag and Tmax. In the control group, there were no correlations between clinical markers of fat distribution and hemostatic parameters, but age and fasting glucose correlated positively with PAI-1, and FT with Tmax and TAUC. In PCOS, android body fat distribution may directly affect hemostatic parameters, particularly in young and overweight women. Further studies are needed to establish a correlation between these results and an increase in thromboembolic risk. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root from trans-Himalaya with rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-07-30

    A rapid method was developed to determine both types of vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root for the accurate quantification of free vitamin forms. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was optimized for the sequential analysis of nine water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, two B3 vitamins, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) and six fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D2, D3, K1, and K2). Both types of vitamins were separated by ion-suppression reversed-phase liquid chromatography with gradient elution within 30 min and detected in positive ion mode. Deviations in the intra- and inter-day precision were always below 0.6% and 0.3% for recoveries and retention time. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention time for water- and fat-soluble vitamin were ranged between 0.02-0.20% and 0.01-0.15%, respectively. The mean recoveries were ranged between 88.95 and 107.07%. Sensitivity and specificity of this method allowed the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the analytes at ppb levels. The linear range was achieved for fat- and water-soluble vitamins at 100-1000 ppb and 10-100 ppb. Vitamin B-complex and vitamin E were detected as the principle vitamins in the root of this adaptogen which would be of great interest to develop novel foods from the Indian trans-Himalaya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reductions in body weight and percent fat mass increase the vitamin D status of obese subjects: a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Poonam K; Zhao, Yun; Soares, Mario J

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to confirm a volumetric dilution of vitamin D in obesity. It was based on the hypothesis that weight loss, particularly fat loss, would increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the obese. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 21 years and included human trials that reported changes in 25OHD, weight, or body composition after weight loss. Study arms were excluded if vitamin D was supplemented, dietary intake exceeded 800 IU/d, or extreme sun exposure was reported. Eighteen of 23 trials that met our criteria documented an increase in vitamin D status with weight loss. Metaregression analyses indicated a marginally significant effect of weight loss on unadjusted weighted mean difference of 25OHD (β = -0.60 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.24 to +0.04] nmol/L; P = .06) and after adjustment for study quality (Jadad score ≥3) (β = -0.64 [95% CI, -1.28 to +0.01] nmol/L; P = .05). The effect of percent fat mass on weighted mean difference of 25OHD was also marginally significant before (β = -0.91 [95% CI, -1.96 to +0.15] nmol/L; P = .08) and after adjustment of study quality (β = -1.05 [95% CI, -2.18 to +0.08] nmol/L; P = .06). Collectively, these outcomes support a volumetric dilution of vitamin D. The slopes of the respective regression lines, however, indicate a smaller increase in 25OHD than would be expected from a direct mobilization of stores into the circulation. Hence, sequestration of 25OHD and its conversion to inactive metabolites would also play a role. Future studies could relate changes in body fat compartments to the enzymatic regulation of 25OHD in response to weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronologically scheduled snacking with high-protein products within the habitual diet in type-2 diabetes patients leads to a fat mass loss: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon. Methods The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention. Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. Results A modest but significant (p = 0.002 reduction on body weight (1 kg was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02. This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in

  8. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Astrup, Arne; Skovgaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    threshold could be calculated (BMIT), above which the patient would be obese by %FM criteria. Data were collected from individuals who had a DXA scan as part of a nutritional research study at the University of Copenhagen. BMI incorrectly classified 48/329 (14.6%) of men and 52/589 (8.8%) of women....... The majority of men with BMI 25–27 kg m-2 and women with BMI 24–26 kg m-2 were misclassified. Using multiple scan data (189 men, 311 women) and calculating the patient-specific constant C = (1 - %FM/100)3/2 ¥ BMI from baseline BMI and %FM, misclassification rates were halved for both genders when a personal......Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI...

  9. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  10. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  11. Prediction of fat-free mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis in older adults from developing countries: a cross-validation study using the deuterium dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, H. Aleman; Romero, J. Esparza; Valencia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Several limitations of published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations have been reported. The aims were to develop in a multiethnic, elderly population a new prediction equation and cross- validate it along with some published BIA equations for estimating fat-free mass using deuterium oxide dilution as the reference method. Design and setting: Cross-sectional study of elderly from five developing countries. Methods: Total body water (TBW) measured by deuterium dilution was used to determine fat-free mass (FFM) in 383 subjects. Anthropometric and BIA variables were also measured. Only 377 subjects were included for the analysis, randomly divided into development and cross-validation groups after stratified by gender. Stepwise model selection was used to generate the model and Bland Altman analysis was used to test agreement. Results: FFM = 2.95 - 3.89 (Gender) + 0.514 (Ht2/Z) + 0.090 (Waist) + 0.156 (Body weight). The model fit parameters were an R2, total F-Ratio, and the SEE of 0.88, 314.3, and 3.3, respectively. None of the published BIA equations met the criteria for agreement. The new BIA equation underestimated FFM by just 0.3 kg in the cross-validation sample. The mean of the difference between FFM by TBW and the new BIA equation were not significantly different; 95% of the differences were between the limits of agreement of -6.3 to 6.9 kg of FFM. There was no significant association between the mean of the differences and their averages (r= 0.008 and p= 0.2). Conclusions:This new BIA equation offers a valid option compared with some of the current published BIA equations to estimate FFM in elderly subjects from five developing countries. (Authors)

  12. Longitudinal associations of the endocrine environment on fat partitioning in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Darnell, Betty E; Brown, Marian A; Oster, Robert A; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Among postmenopausal women, declining estrogen may facilitate fat partitioning from the periphery to the intra-abdominal space. Furthermore, it has been suggested that excess androgens contribute to a central fat distribution pattern in women. The objective of this longitudinal study was to identify independent associations of the hormone milieu with fat distribution in postmenopausal women. Fifty-three healthy postmenopausal women, either using or not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were evaluated at baseline and 2 years. The main outcomes were intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and total thigh fat analyzed by computed tomography scanning and leg fat and total body fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and cortisol were assessed. On average, in all women combined, IAAT increased by 10% (10.5 cm(2)) over 2 years (P testosterone was inversely associated with, and SHBG was positively associated with, 2-year gain in IAAT. These results suggest that in postmenopausal women using HRT, greater circulating estradiol may play an integral role in limiting lipid deposition to the intra-abdominal cavity, a depot associated with metabolically detrimental attributes. However, a high proportion of weak estrogens may promote fat partitioning to the intra-abdominal cavity over time. Furthermore, among postmenopausal women not using HRT, greater circulating free testosterone may limit IAAT accrual.

  13. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  14. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gonzalez-de-Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  15. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  16. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  17. Expression and significance of fat mass and obesity associated gene and forkhead transcription factor O1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jielei; Li, Shan; Li, Jingyi; Han, Chao; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Chong; Wang, Xiaoman; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wen, Jianguo; Zheng, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex disorder and has been closely linked to obesity. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is a newly discovered gene related to obesity, which enhances oxidative stress and lipogenesis in NAFLD. The forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) is another important gene involved in NAFLD, which causes lipid disorders when insulin resistance appears in the liver. However, the interactions between FTO and FoxO1 during the pathogenesis of NAFLD have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to identify the relationship between these two factors that are involved in the development of NAFLD. This study includes two parts referred to as animal and cell experiments. Twelve female SPF C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to serve as an NAFLD animal model. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect the expression and histological localization of FTO, FoxO1, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The L02 cells were exposed to high fat for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Oil red O staining was used to detect intracellular lipid droplets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for analyzing the levels of FTO and FoxO1 mRNA. At the end of 10 weeks, ALP, ALT, AST, and LDL were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while TC and TG were also significantly higher (P < 0.05). In addition, HDL was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The FTO and FoxO1 proteins were weakly expressed in the control group, but both FTO and FoxO1 were expressed significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the experimental group, and the expression of the two factors was significantly correlated. AMPK in the high-fat group showed a low level of correlation with FTO, but not with FoxO1. Oil Red

  18. Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess fat-free mass in head and neck cancer patients: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan L.N. Roodenburg; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Jan Pruim; Carrie P. Earthman; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Bernard F.A. M. van der Laan; Johannes A. Langendijk; W.P. Krijnen

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) may be used to assess fet free mass (FFM) with reasonable validity based on mean-level comparisons, but differences between BIA and DXA may vary by about 4 kg in an individual patient. These results require confirmation in a larger sample of HNC patients. (Head

  19. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Barbara; Müller, Manfred James; Simic-Schleicher, Gunter; Kiess, Wieland; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Oelert, Monika; Tuschy, Sabine; Berghem, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body fat (BF) percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA)-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile) were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p correlation with BMI was stronger (r = 0.22) compared to BF (r = 0.13). There were no differences between BMI and BF regarding their correlation with other cardiovascular risk factors. BF significantly predicted hypertension (AUC = 0.61), decreased HDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.58), elevated LDL-cholesterol (AUC = 0.59), elevated liver enzymes (AUC = 0.61) (all p < 0.0001), and elevated triglycerides (AUC = 0.57, p < 0.05), but not abnormal carbohydrate metabolism (AUC = 0.54, p = 0.15). For the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors, no significant differences between BMI and BF were observed. Conclusion BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents. PMID:26087841

  20. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  1. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  2. Association between serum hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Chenini, Sofiene; Vialaret, Jérôme; Delaby, Constance; Guiraud, Lily; Gabelle, Audrey; Lopez, Regis; Hirtz, Christophe; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2018-02-08

    To better understand the role of iron homeostasis dysregulation in restless legs syndrome, we compared serum hepcidin and ferritin levels in drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome and healthy controls and studied the relationship between hepcidin level and restless legs syndrome severity. One hundred and eight drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome (65 women; median age, 61.5 years) and 45 controls (28 women; median age, 53.9 years) were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: normal ferritin level (>50 ng/mL) and absence of iron disorders, chronic renal or liver failure, and inflammatory or neurological diseases. Each subject underwent a thorough clinical examination and a polysomnography assessment. Serum hepcidin-25 was quantified using a validated mass spectrometry method. Restless legs syndrome severity was evaluated according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Despite no group difference between normal ferritin levels and demographic features, serum hepcidin level and hepcidin/ferritin ratio were higher in patients than in controls. Hepcidin level and hepcidin/ferritin ratio, but not ferritin level, were positively correlated with periodic leg movements during sleep and wakefulness in the whole sample. Hepcidin level seem to be associated with restless legs syndrome severity in a complex U-shaped relationship, without relationship with age at restless legs syndrome onset, positive family history, sleep and depressive symptoms, genetic background, and polysomnographic measurements. No relationship was found between ferritin level and restless legs syndrome severity. In drug-free patients with primary restless legs syndrome, hepcidin level is higher than in controls and may be associated with restless legs syndrome clinical severity. This result emphasizes the complex peripheral iron metabolism deregulation in restless legs syndrome, opening potential perspectives for a personalized approach with a hepcidin

  3. Depression With Atypical Features and Increase in Obesity, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Fat Mass A Prospective, Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre Aurelie M.; Glaus Jennifer; Vandeleur Caroline L.; Marques-Vidal Pedro; Vaucher Julien; Bastardot Francois; Waeber Gerard; Vollenweider Peter; Preisig Martin

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Depression and obesity are 2 prevalent disorders that have been repeatedly shown to be associated. However, the mechanisms and temporal sequence underlying this association are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD; melancholic, atypical, combined, or unspecified) are predictive of adiposity in terms of the incidence of obesity and changes in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meter...

  4. Association between variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and pancreatic cancer risk: a case–control study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Ueda, Junko; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ueno, Makoto; Egawa, Naoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that genetic variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene affect body mass index and the risk of obesity. Given the mounting evidence showing a positive association between obesity and pancreatic cancer, this study aimed to investigate the relation between variants in the FTO gene, obesity and pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case–control study in Japan to investigate whether genetic variations in the FTO gene were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. We genotyped rs9939609 in the FTO gene of 360 cases and 400 control subjects. An unconditional logistic model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between rs9939609 and pancreatic cancer risk. The minor allele frequency of rs9939609 was 0.18 among control subjects. BMI was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Compared with individuals with the common homozygous TT genotype, those with the heterozygous TA genotype and the minor homozygous AA genotype had a 48% (OR=1.48; 95%CI: 1.07–2.04), and 66% increased risk (OR=1.66; 95%CI: 0.70–3.90), respectively, of pancreatic cancer after adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, cigarette smoking and history of diabetes. The per-allele OR was 1.41 (95%CI: 1.07–1.85). There were no significant interactions between TA/AA genotypes and body mass index. Our findings indicate that rs9939609 in the FTO gene is associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects, possibly through a mechanism that is independent of obesity. Further investigation and replication of our results is required in other independent samples

  5. Birth weight is associated with placental fat mass- and obesity-associated gene expression and promoter methylation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Tai; Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Wu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between birth weight and fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene expression and promoter methylation status in the Chinese population. Seventy-five neonates and their mothers were recruited from Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Subjects were divided into three groups by birth weight: low (weight groups compared to the low-weight group (p = 0.023). Methylation rates of CpG11 sites were significantly decreased in high-birth weight newborns (p = 0.018). Multiple linear regressions showed placental FTO mRNA, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and CpG11 methylation rate were independently associated with increased fetal birth weight. Additionally, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated with CpG6.7.8.9 methylation in mothers that underwent C-section. High placental FTO expression is associated with increased birth weight in Chinese neonates, and FTO promoter methylation level at a specific CpG site is negatively associated with birth weight. Further work is needed to determine the functionality of this CpG site in placentas.

  6. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure during suckling on food intake, fat mass, hormones, and biochemical profile of young and adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Peixoto, Thamara Cherem; Carvalho, Janaine Cavalcanti; Calvino, Camila; Rodrigues, Vanessa Silva Tavares; Bernardino, Dayse Nascimento; Younes-Rapozo, Viviane; Manhães, Alex Christian; de Oliveira, Elaine; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2017-07-01

    Children from smoking mothers have a higher risk of developing obesity and associated comorbidities later in life. Different experimental models have been used to assess the mechanisms involved with this increased risk. Using a rat model of neonatal nicotine exposure via implantation of osmotic minipumps in lactating dams, we have previously shown marked sexual dimorphisms regarding metabolic and endocrine outcomes in the adult progeny. Considering that more than four thousand substances are found in tobacco smoke besides nicotine, we then studied a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure: adult male offspring had hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, secondary hyperthyroidism and lower adrenal hormones. Since litters were culled to include only males and since sexual dimorphisms had already been identified in the nicotine exposure model, here we also evaluated the effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on females. Wistar rat dams and their pups were separated into two groups of 8 litters each: SMOKE (4 cigarettes per day, from postnatal day 3 to 21) and CONTROL (filtered air). Offspring of both sexes were euthanized at PN21 and PN180. Changes in male offspring corroborated previous data. At weaning, females showed lower body mass gain and serum triglycerides, but no alterations in visceral fat and hormones. At adulthood, females had higher body mass, hyperphagia, central obesity, hyperleptinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypercorticosteronemia, but no change in serum TSH and T3, and adrenal catecholamine CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dimorphisms were observed in several parameters, thus indicating that metabolic and hormonal changes due to smoke exposure during development are sex-dependent.

  7. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms are associated with physical activity, food intake, eating behaviors, psychological health, and modeled change in body mass index in overweight/obese Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G; Kotze, Maritha J; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-08-06

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085-rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  8. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetta Harbron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire, psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire. The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores, a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  9. Comparison of body fat-free masses calculated from hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot resistances with DXA measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel Y; Dongmo, Edwige

    2011-11-01

    This article compares the determination of body fat-free-mass (FFM) by impedance, using either hand-to-foot resistance (R₁₃) or foot-to-foot one (R₃₄) from comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements in a normal population. The first goal was to see if the foot-to-foot resistance used in body fat analysers provides less accurate information for body FFM than the hand-to-foot one used by medical impedance-meters. Another goal was to compare the prediction accuracy of six different regression equations of FFM for each sex and for each resistance relatively to DXA. The impedancemeter used in this study was a Tefal prototype with 4 plantar electrodes and 4 additional electrodes for the hands and providing hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot resistances. Coefficients of these correlations were determined by comparison with FFM measured by DXA in a 1st cohort of 170 healthy adults. For an independent validation, these equations were tested in a 2nd cohort of 86 adults who underwent the same impedance and DXA protocols, using Student's paired t-tests. The accuracy of FFM prediction increased generally with the number of physiologic parameters included in the regression, but none of our equations gave FFM predictions significantly different from DXA. FFM calculated from the foot-to-foot resistance were closer to DXA values than those calculated from hand-to-foot resistance, as their average P-value of comparison with DXA was higher at 0.695 against 0.387 for R₁₃.

  10. Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Gamage, Prasanna; Katulanda, Prasad; Andraweera, Nalinda; Thilakarathne, Sithira; Tharanga, Praveen

    2013-09-03

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI-BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its' linearity or curvilinearity. A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18-83 years were grouped into young (18-39 years) middle aged (40-59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons' correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its' linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p bioelectrical impedance, in this sub population of South Asian adults. This relationship was curvilinear in nature and was significantly influenced by age and gender. Our findings support the importance of taking age and gender in to consideration when using BMI to predict body fat percentage/obesity, in a population.

  11. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked...... to subsequent metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2...... mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). CONCLUSION: In obese women, even those without gestational diabetes but with impaired glucose tolerance, a lower carbohydrate...

  13. Peak growth velocity of height, body mass and subcutaneous fat in 10 to 14-year-old boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Carriconde Marques

    2007-12-01

    subcutaneous fat velocity (PSFV of a group of boys and girls followed from 10 to 14 years of age, b to compare these variables between sexes, and c to relate the time and magnitude of the three peaks with each other. The study sample was made up of 70 schoolchildren (35 boys and 35 girls who were followed from age 10 to age 14. The results demonstrated that the peak growth velocity of the three variables occurred at 12 to 13 years old among the boys, and two years earlier among the girls. Only the magnitude of PSFV exhibited signifi cant difference, with the girls having higher values. The periods during which PHV, PWV, and PSFV occurred, did not present any significant correlations with each other. Nevertheless, the individual analyses indicated that, in a large proportion of the subjects, peak velocities occurred at the same time, or PSFV occurred one year later than PHV. Based on these results, we conclude that PHV, PWV, and PSFV occur about two years earlier among girls, with a significant difference between the sexes in terms of the magnitude of peak velocity only existing for PSFV. Moreover, we conclude that there is great individual variability at the period that PHV, PWV and PSFV occur during adolescence, but that the greater part of the sample exhibited PHV and PSFV very close together.

  14. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  15. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funghetto SS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,2 Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa,3 Marina Morato Stival,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,4 Leonardo Costa Pereira,1 Marja Letícia Chaves Antunes,1 Luciano Ramos de Lima,1 Jonato Prestes,4 Ricardo Jacó Oliveira,1 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,2 Vinícius Carolino Souza,1,4 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski1 1University of Brasília (UnB, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia (UNICEUB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty Estácio de Sá of Vitória, ES, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Objective: To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI and percentage body fat (PBF for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women.Method: Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein.Results: Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05 and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL than did the overweight group (P≤0.05. According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005 proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. W