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Sample records for leg extensor strength

  1. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (Pafter the HEP (PAfter the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  2. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

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    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  3. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  4. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    a moderate reduction was again apparent at 4 years post-APM (SMD: -0.56, (-1.20-0.08) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that middle-aged and older individuals undergoing APM have reduced knee extensor muscle strength in the operated leg compared to control data. As meniscus pathology...

  5. Knee extensor strength is associated with pressure pain thresholds in adults with fibromyalgia.

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    W Michael Hooten

    Full Text Available Individuals with fibromyalgia (FM have lower muscle strength and lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between muscle strength and PPT in adults with FM to test the hypothesis that greater measures of muscle strength would be associated with greater values of PPT. Secondary aims included determining the effects of pain severity and the peak uptake of oxygen (VO2 on the associations between muscle strength and PPT.Knee extensor and flexor strength (N = 69 was measured in the dominant leg using a dynamometer, and PPT was assessed using an electronic algometer. Pain severity was determined using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and peak VO2 uptake was quantified using an electronically braked cycle ergometer.Univariable linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between PPT (dependent variable and isometric knee extensor (P<.001, isokinetic (60°/s knee extensor (P = .002, and isokinetic (60°/s knee flexor strength (P = .043. In a multiple variable linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, body mass index and peak VO2 uptake, a significant association was found between PPT and isometric knee extensor strength (P = .008. In a similar multiple variable analysis, a significant association was found between PPT and isokinetic knee extensor strength (P = .044.Greater measures of isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were significantly associated with greater values of PPT in both univariable and multiple variable linear regression models.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01253395.

  6. Alterations in Leg Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Biomechanical Properties With Ageing and Mechanical Loading

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    Christopher McCrum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity. This review aimed to examine age-related differences in human leg extensor (triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties. Additionally, this review aimed to assess if, and to what extent mechanical loading interventions could counteract these changes in older adults. There appear to be consistent reductions in human triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle strength, accompanied by similar reductions in tendon stiffness and elastic modulus with ageing, whereas the effect on tendon cross sectional area is unclear. Therefore, the observed age-related changes in tendon stiffness are predominantly due to changes in tendon material rather than size with age. However, human tendons appear to retain their mechanosensitivity with age, as intervention studies report alterations in tendon biomechanical properties in older adults of similar magnitudes to younger adults over 12–14 weeks of training. Interventions should implement tendon strains corresponding to high mechanical loads (i.e., 80–90% MVC with repetitive loading for up to 3–4 months to successfully counteract age-related changes in leg extensor muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties.

  7. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

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    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  8. The extensor tibiae muscle of the stick insect: biomechanical properties of an insect walking leg muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschlbauer, Christoph; Scharstein, Hans; Büschges, Ansgar

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the properties of the extensor tibiae muscle of the stick insect (Carausius morosus) middle leg. Muscle geometry of the middle leg was compared to that of the front and hind legs and to the flexor tibiae, respectively. The mean length of the extensor tibiae fibres is 1.41+/-0.23 mm and flexor fibres are 2.11+/-0.30 mm long. The change of fibre length with joint angle was measured and closely follows a cosine function. Its amplitude gives effective moment arm lengths of 0.28+/-0.02 mm for the extensor and 0.56+/-0.04 mm for the flexor. Resting extensor tibiae muscle passive tonic force increased from 2 to 5 mN in the maximum femur-tibia (FT)-joint working range when stretched by ramps. Active muscle properties were measured with simultaneous activation (up to 200 pulses s(-1)) of all three motoneurons innervating the extensor tibiae, because this reflects most closely physiological muscle activation during leg swing. The force-length relationship corresponds closely to the typical characteristic according to the sliding filament hypothesis: it has a plateau at medium fibre lengths, declines nearly linearly in force at both longer and shorter fibre lengths, and the muscle's working range lies in the short to medium fibre length range. Maximum contraction velocity showed a similar relationship. The force-velocity relationship was the traditional Hill curve hyperbola, but deviated from the hyperbolic shape in the region of maximum contraction force close to the isometric contraction. Step-like changes in muscle length induced by loaded release experiments characterised the non-linear series elasticity as a quadratic spring.

  9. Circadian variation of flexor withdrawal and crossed extensor reflexes in patients with restless legs syndrome.

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    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; Mckinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha

    2017-11-22

    An evening state of spinal hyperexcitability has been proposed to be a possible cause of evening increases in restless legs syndrome symptoms. Thus, the objective of the current study was to assess the circadian variation in spinal excitability in patients with restless legs syndrome based on flexor withdrawal reflex and crossed extensor reflex responses. The reflexes were elicited on 12 participants with restless legs syndrome and 12 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Reflex response magnitudes were measured electromyographically and kinematically. Both the reflexes showed a circadian rhythm in participants with restless legs syndrome but not in control participants. Changes in ankle (median flexor withdrawal reflex PM: 16.0 ° versus AM: 2.8 °, P = 0.042; crossed extensor reflex PM: 0.8 ° versus AM: 0.2 °, P = 0.001) angle were significantly larger, and ankle angular velocity (median flexor withdrawal reflex PM: 38.8 ° s -1 versus AM: 13.9 ° s -1 , P = 0.049; crossed extensor reflex PM: 2.4 ° s -1 versus AM: 0.5 ° s -1 , P = 0.002) was significantly faster in the evening compared with the morning in participants with restless legs syndrome, for both reflexes. For participants with restless legs syndrome, evening change in hallux angle was significantly larger than morning responses (median PM: 5.0 ° versus AM: 1.3 °, P = 0.012). No significant differences for any of the electromyographic or kinematic variables were observed between participants with restless legs syndrome and controls. The flexor withdrawal reflex and the crossed extensor reflex show a circadian rhythm in participants with restless legs syndrome suggesting an evening increase in spinal excitability. We hypothesize the circadian variation in spinal excitability may be due to a possible nocturnal form of afferent circuitry central sensitization in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in patients with restless legs syndrome. © 2017

  10. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. OUTCOMES: and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the trajectory of patient reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength over time in young individuals undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: Six databases were searched up to October 13th, 2016...... compared to a healthy control group or the contra-lateral leg. Methodological quality was assessed using the SIGN 50 guidelines. RESULTS: No studies were found on patient reported pain and function. Six studies, including 137 patients were included in the analysis on knee extensor muscle strength. Knee...

  11. Volume estimation of extensor muscles of the lower leg based on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Hans; Christensen, Line; Savnik, Anette; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to measure the muscle volume of a given muscle or muscle group. The purpose of this study was to determine both the intra- and inter-observer variation of the manually outlined volume of the extensor muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus), to estimate the minimum number of slices needed for these calculations and to compare estimates of volume based on an assumed conic shape of the muscles with that of an assumed cylindrical shape, the calculation in both cases based on the Cavalieri principle. Eleven young and healthy subjects (4 women and 7 men, age range 24-40 years) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg was obtained on a 1.5-T MR system using a knee coil (receive only). A total of 50 consecutive slices were obtained beginning 10 cm below the caput fibula sin. and proceeding distally with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm without gap. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate the relative reliability (interval from 0 to 1.0). A high reliability for both intra- and inter-reliability was observed (ICC 0.98 and 1.0). The difference was only 0.004% between calculations based on measurement of all 50 slices with respect to 8 slices equally distributed along the muscle group. No difference was found between the two different volumetric assumptions in the Cavalieri principle. The manually outlining of extensor muscles volumes was reliable and only 8 slices of the calf were needed. No difference was seen between the two used mathematical calculations. (orig.)

  12. Volume estimation of extensor muscles of the lower leg based on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Hans; Christensen, Line; Savnik, Anette; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [The Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Jens [Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, 2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to measure the muscle volume of a given muscle or muscle group. The purpose of this study was to determine both the intra- and inter-observer variation of the manually outlined volume of the extensor muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus), to estimate the minimum number of slices needed for these calculations and to compare estimates of volume based on an assumed conic shape of the muscles with that of an assumed cylindrical shape, the calculation in both cases based on the Cavalieri principle. Eleven young and healthy subjects (4 women and 7 men, age range 24-40 years) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg was obtained on a 1.5-T MR system using a knee coil (receive only). A total of 50 consecutive slices were obtained beginning 10 cm below the caput fibula sin. and proceeding distally with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm without gap. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate the relative reliability (interval from 0 to 1.0). A high reliability for both intra- and inter-reliability was observed (ICC 0.98 and 1.0). The difference was only 0.004% between calculations based on measurement of all 50 slices with respect to 8 slices equally distributed along the muscle group. No difference was found between the two different volumetric assumptions in the Cavalieri principle. The manually outlining of extensor muscles volumes was reliable and only 8 slices of the calf were needed. No difference was seen between the two used mathematical calculations. (orig.)

  13. Short- and long-term reliability of leg extensor power measurement in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Christopher; Batterham, Alan M; Weston, Kathryn L; Weston, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    Muscular power is important for maintaining physical functioning with aging. Proper quantification of the reliability of muscular power tests is crucial to inform monitoring of individuals and sample size planning for interventional studies. This study evaluated short- and long-term reliability of leg extensor power measurement in 72 adults (age 62.7 ± 8.6 years). Participants completed four repeat trials on the Nottingham leg extensor power rig, with a further trial twelve weeks later. Mean change, typical error, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. For short-term reliability, mean change in power output was trivial after two trials (1.2-4.8%). Typical errors were small following four trials in the dominant leg of males (10.9-5.8%), three in the non-dominant leg of males (9.9-6.2%) and the dominant leg of females (10.0-9.6%) and two in the non-dominant leg in females (8.3%). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were very high (0.88-0.96). For long-term reliability, mean change remained trivial (1.0-2.5%), typical errors remained small (5.8-8.6%), and ICCs very high (0.94-0.96). The leg extensor power rig is a reliable method for assessing lower body muscular power, both short- and long-term, with only minimal habituation effects.

  14. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures.......Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month...... period was associated with an increase in back extensor strength of 50% (p = 0.01). The study demonstrated a 33% reduction in back pain and a 6.5-point improvement in physical functioning. The differences in pain and physical functioning were borderline significant.Conclusion:The women demonstrated...

  15. Validity and test-retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations ( r ). Test-retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry ( r  = 0.824, p  strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-0.990), p  strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were -6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density ( p  strength ( p  strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates initial convergent validity in a healthy population; and is associated with bone mass at a clinically important site.

  16. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (WOMAC-Pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC-Function: OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.00, 1.89; chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.03, 1.04), but not increased risk......OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We systematically identified and methodologically...... appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year follow-up) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic...

  17. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

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    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level. PMID:26043222

  18. Effects of strength training and detraining on knee extensor strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Radaelli, Régis; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Cunha, Giovani dos Santos; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Strength training seems to be an interesting approach to counteract decreases that affect knee extensor strength, muscle mass and muscle quality (force per unit of muscle mass) associated with ageing. However, there is no consensus regarding the changes in muscle mass and their contribution to strength during periods of training and detraining in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at verifying the behaviour of knee extensor muscle strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women in response to a 12-week strength training programme followed by a similar period of detraining. Statistical analysis showed no effect of time on muscle quality. However, strength and muscle volume increased from baseline to post-training (33 and 26 %, respectively). After detraining, the knee extensor strength remained 12 % superior to the baseline values, while the gains in muscle mass were almost completely lost. In conclusion, strength gains and losses due to strength training and detraining, respectively, could not be exclusively associated with muscle mass increases. Training-induced strength gains were partially maintained after 3 months of detraining in elderly subjects.

  19. Features interference EMG leg extensor muscles of skilled players in the context of the special exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenko P.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of improvement of physical training of skilled players. The main instrumental method of the research is electromyography. The aim of the research is determination of the optimal angle of the provisions of legs on her hips for the appearance of a maximum of bioelectric activity of the muscles of the front panel hips in exercise unbending legs sitting on the mechanical simulator. In the course of research we have worked for electromyography 10 players of FC Metalist at the age of 19 – 30 years during the five-second of the submaximum contraction of these muscles as: musculus rectus femoris, musculus vastus medialis, musculus vastus lateralis. The results of the analysis of segments of electromyography allowed to make a conclusion, that we investigated the provisions of the angle of 140 degrees has the lowest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength. We have obtained data testify to the fact that the angle of 90 degrees is the position of the greatest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength.

  20. Efficacy of pre-operative quadriceps strength training on knee-extensor strength before and shortly following total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Troelsen, Anders; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    with an elastic exercise band following an initial exercise instruction. Adherence is objectively quantified using a sensor attached to the exercise band. The primary outcome will be the change in knee-extensor strength. Following the 12-week exercise period, the need for TKA surgery is re...

  1. Hip extensor muscle strength in elite female field hockey players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  2. Isokinetic Evaluation of Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscle Strength in Behcet’s Patients

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    Bekir Durmus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet’s disease (BD is an idiopathic, multisystemic, progressive disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths of Behcet’s patients with that of healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-five (13 male and 12 female patients with BD and 25 (15 male and 10 female healthy individuals were included in the study. Velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec, and 150°/sec were used for the isokinetic muscle strength testing. Patients with active inflammatory knee arthritis were excluded. Peak torque (Nm and peak torque adjusted to body weight (% were taken into consideration for comparison between study groups. Results: Compared to healthy controls, there was a statistically significant decrease in both the bilateral knee extensor and flexor muscle isokinetic peak torques(Nm as well as the peak torques adjusted to body weight (% at velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec and 150°/sec in patients with BD (p < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio of the isokinetic peak torques of knee muscles between the two groups. Conclusion: In light of these findings, we have concluded that both knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths are lower in BD. We therefore recommend careful monitoring of patients with BD in terms of muscle strength.

  3. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Draganidis

    Full Text Available We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF and extensor (KE strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match. Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon and conventional (KFcon/KEcon ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05 at 12 h (both limbs and 36 h (dominant limb only, b eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05 in both limbs for 36 h at 60°/s and for 60 h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05 reduction than concentric peak torque, c strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05 at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players

  4. Pilates increases the isokinetic muscular strength of the knee extensors and flexors in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2017-10-01

    Pilates has been shown to be effective for increasing muscle strength in older adults, however, some variables have not yet been explored. Investigate the effects of Pilates on the isokinetic muscular strength of the knee extensors and flexors at 60°/s, in elderly women. Thirty-two women were randomized into two groups: control group (CG, n = 16, age = 64.2 ± 0.8 years; BMI = 25.0 ± 1.2 kg/m 2 ), and experimental group (EG, n = 16, age = 63.6 ± 1.0 years, BMI = 24.7 ± 1.3 kg/m 2 ). Isokinetic evaluation of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was performed at 60°/s, pre- and post-intervention, considering the peak torque (N.m) and total work (J) for the right and left lower limbs. The CG participated in static stretching and the EG in Pilates sessions, twice a week for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated that the EG presented a significant improvement (p muscular strength of the knee extensors and flexors in elderly women and can be considered for this purpose when prescribing physical exercise programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  6. The minimum sit-to-stand height test: reliability, responsiveness and relationship to leg muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine; Wallbank, Geraldine; Pamphlett, Patricia; Olivetti, Lynette

    2012-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the minimum sit-to-stand height test, its responsiveness and its relationship to leg muscle strength among rehabilitation unit inpatients and outpatients. Reliability study using two measurers and two test occasions. Secondary analysis of data from two clinical trials. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation services in three public hospitals. Eighteen hospital patients and five others participated in the reliability study. Seventy-two rehabilitation unit inpatients and 80 outpatients participated in the clinical trials. The minimum sit-to-stand height test was assessed using a standard procedure. For the reliability study, a second tester repeated the minimum sit-to-stand height test on the same day. In the inpatient clinical trial the measures were repeated two weeks later. In the outpatient trial the measures were repeated five weeks later. Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed in the clinical trials using a hand-held dynamometer. The reliability for the minimum sit-to-stand height test was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.96). The standard error of measurement was 34 mm. Responsiveness was moderate in the inpatient trial (effect size: 0.53) but small in the outpatient trial (effect size: 0.16). A small proportion (8-17%) of variability in minimum sit-to-stand height test was explained by knee extensor muscle strength. The minimum sit-to-stand height test has excellent reliability and moderate responsiveness in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Responsiveness in an outpatient rehabilitation setting requires further investigation. Performance is influenced by factors other than knee extensor muscle strength.

  7. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HIP STRENGTH AND HIP KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE LEG HOP IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES POST ACL RECONSTRUCTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY CONTROLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jeremiah; Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants' height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the involved ( r =.62) and uninvolved limb ( r =.65, p=.02). No significant associations were demonstrated between hip extensor or abductor strength and hip flexion and/or abduction/adduction angles in the healthy group. The

  8. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  9. Hand-held dynamometry fixated with a tripod is reliable for assessment of back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, G; Maribo, T

    2014-08-01

    An appropriate method to assess back extensor strength in clinical practice has not yet been described. Our results showed that a hand-held dynamometry fixated with a tripod is reliable for assessing back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis. Back strengthening exercises play an important role in the rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Evaluation of the effect of back strengthening exercises requires a method suitable for use in clinical practice to measure back extensor strength. A hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is quick and easy to handle in clinical practice. Currently, there is a lack of evidence whether a HHD is reliable for assessment of back extensor strength in people with osteoporosis. When using a HHD, it may be difficult for the tester to provide a counter pressure corresponding to the effort of the patient. In order to accommodate this, we have developed a tripod and a belt system, which was used to fixate the HHD. This study examined the intra-tester reliability of back extensor strength assessment in women with osteoporosis using a HHD. Back extensor strength of the participants was measured on two events with 7-day intervals. Test procedures were standardized, and all tests were performed by the same tester. Forty-eight women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures were included in the analysis. The coefficient of variation was 22% using a HHD fixated by the tester and 17% using a HHD fixated with the tripod. ICC was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63 and 0.88) when using a HHD with fixated by the tester and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84 and 0.95) when using a HHD fixated with the tripod. A HHD fixated with a tripod is reliable for the assessment of back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures.

  10. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  11. Infusion of ATP increases leg oxygen delivery but not oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Christensen, Peter Møller; Mortensen, Stefan Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether an increase in leg blood flow and oxygen delivery at the onset of intense exercise would speed the rate of rise in leg oxygen uptake. Nine healthy men (25 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) performed one-leg knee-extensor exercise (62 ± 3 W, 86 ± 3% of incremental test ...... release was lower after 60, 120 and 180 s of exercise with ATP infusion. These results suggest that O2 delivery is not limiting the rise in skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise....

  12. A Behavioral Mechanism of How Increases in Leg Strength Improve Old Adults' Gait Speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, Azusa; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Kadono, Norio; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Kaetsu, Takamasa; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We examined a behavioral mechanism of how increases in leg strength improve healthy old adults' gait speed. Leg press strength training improved maximal leg press load 40% (p = 0.001) and isometric strength in 5 group of leg muscles 32% (p = 0.001) in a randomly allocated intervention group of

  13. Association of spinal curve deformity and back extensor strength in elderly women with osteoporosis in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, M; Miyakoshi, N; Shimada, Y; Sinaki, M

    2012-03-01

    The difference in the shape of sagittal spinal curvature and distribution of vertebral fractures in women of comparable age with osteoporosis from Japan and the United States with different cultures and lifestyles was identified. Back extensor strength was significantly associated with lumbar lordosis in Akita group, indicating the potential importance of strengthening the back extensor. The purpose of the study was to assess the association of osteoporotic spinal deformities with back strength in elderly women in Japan and the United States. Subjects diagnosed with osteoporosis were selected to participate prospectively. In both groups, we measured the angles of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis with plain lateral radiographs and back extensor strength. The number of vertebral fractures and the ratio of lumbar fractures to thoracic fractures are also evaluated. The level of participants' daily activities was assessed with use of comparable tests in Akita (quality-of-life score) and Minnesota (physical activity score). A total of 102 Japanese women residing in Akita, Japan (Akita group), and 104 white women evaluated in Rochester, MN, USA (Minnesota group), participated in this study. The angle of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis was higher in the Minnesota group than in the Akita group. The ratio of lumbar fractures to thoracic fractures was higher in the Akita group than in the Minnesota group. In the Akita group, multiple regression analysis revealed that the angle of lumbar lordosis correlated significantly with back extensor strength. We identified the difference in the shape of sagittal spinal curvature and distribution of vertebral fractures in women of comparable age with osteoporosis from two geographic areas of the world with different cultures and lifestyles. Back extensor strength was significantly associated with lumbar lordosis in Akita group, indicating the potential importance of strengthening the back extensor for improving or maintaining

  14. Functional Strength Training Effects on Knee Flexors and Extensors Power Output in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Radjo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aim was to compare and reevaluate effects of additional strength training program in football players after eight week application. Program was design to increase power and strength of knee extensors and flexors using neuromuscular adaptation. In overall, 18 senior level football players completed intervention in preparation period executing program as part of warm up 2-3 times per week. Using t-test for dependent samples statistical significance of the possible change was evaluated in peak torque, total and average work changes measured using Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. All measuring procedures were done for both limbs. Results are suggesting that statistically significant change observed in both limbs for the peak power output and average work load in flexion and extension, respectively. Other research papers are suggesting that increase of power and strength of knee muscles can help in preventing of injurie occurrence. LCA injurie can be prevention when femoral biceps strength is increase. This training modality based on neuromuscular adaptation is noninvasive with good effects in performance increase. Using training loads with body weight intensity is a good way to establish prevention to possible knee injurie with simultaneous power increase, with minimum of chance to reach unwanted overtraining.

  15. Relationships between the mechanomyographic amplitude patterns of response and concentric isokinetic fatiguing tasks of the leg extensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible correlations between the b terms (slopes) form the log-transformed mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG RMS )–force relationships and the fatigue index calculated from 50 maximal concentric contractions. Forty healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 2 yr) performed isometric ramp contractions from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction followed by a 50-repetition concentric fatigue protocol of the leg extensors, fatigue index (%) was calculated from the 50-repetitions. MMG was recorded during the ramp contractions from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). The b terms (slopes) were calculated from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships. Correlations were performed comparing the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF with the fatigue index. Significant positive correlations were found among the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL (p = 0.007, r = 0.417) and RF (p = 0.014, r = 0.386) with the fatigue index. The b terms from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF may have reflected muscle fiber type composition and, thus, correlated with the fatigue index. This adds further support that the MMG RMS –force relationships may reflect muscle fiber type composition. (paper)

  16. Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: the incremental load power profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Cormack, Stuart; Taylor, Kristie-Lee; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the methodology of an iso-inertial force-velocity assessment utilizing a range of loads and a group of high-performance athletes. A total of 26 subjects (19.8 +/- 2.6 years, 196.3 +/- 9.6 cm, 88.6 +/- 8.9 kg) participated in this study. Interday reliability of various force-time measures obtained during the performance of countermovement jumps with a range of loads was examined, followed by a validity assessment of the various measures' ability to discriminate among performance levels, while the ability of the test protocol to detect training-induced changes was assessed by comparing results before and after an intensive 12-week training period. Force and velocity variables were observed to be reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.74-0.99). Large effect size statistic (ES > 0.50) differences among player groups were observed for peak power (1.36-2.25), relative peak power (1.57-2.42), and peak force (0.74-0.95). Significant (p 0.50) improvements were observed in the kinetic values after the intensive training period. The results of this study indicate that the incremental load power profile is an acceptably reliable, valid, and sensitive method of assessing force and power capabilities of the leg extensors in high-performance and elite volleyball players.

  17. Lower eccentric hamstring strength and single leg hop for distance predict hamstring injury in PETE students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, L; Witvrouw, E; Vanden Bossche, L; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring injuries have not been under research in physical education teacher education (PETE) students so far. Within the frame of the development of an injury prevention program, for this study we conducted an analysis of modifiable risk factors for hamstring injuries in PETE students. Hamstring injuries of 102 freshmen bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Eighty-one students completed maximum muscle strength tests of hip extensors, hamstrings, quadriceps (isometric) and hamstrings (eccentric) at the start of the academic year. Sixty-nine of the latter completed a single leg hop for distance (SLHD). Risk factors for hamstring injuries were statistically detected using logistic regression. Sixteen hamstring injuries (0.16 injuries/student/academic year; 0.46 injuries/1000 h) occurred to 10 participants. Eight cases were included in the risk factor analysis. Lower eccentric hamstring strength (odds ratio (ODD) = 0.977; p = 0.043), higher isometric/eccentric hamstring strength ratio (ODD = 970.500; p = 0.019) and lower score on the SLHD (ODD = 0.884; p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for hamstring injury. A combination of eccentric hamstring strength test and SLHD could give a good risk analysis of hamstring injuries in PETE students. This might offer great perspectives for easily applicable screening in a clinical setting.

  18. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isome......OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data...... on isometric knee extensor strength, weight, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, parental education and adult occupation from Swedish registries. We identified participants diagnosed with knee OA or knee injury from 1987 to 2010 through the National Patient Register. We estimated the HR of knee OA using...... multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression model. To assess the influence of adult knee injury and occupation, we performed a formal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The mean (SD) knee extensor strength was 234 (47) Nm, the mean (SD) weight was 66 (9.3) kg. During 24 years (median) of follow-up starting...

  19. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R L; Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key pointsGreater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes.Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes.Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit.

  20. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Karamanidis

    Full Text Available Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS and quadriceps femoris (QF muscle-tendon unit (MTU capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly.Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry.Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention.This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly

  1. Retest reliability of measuring hip extensor muscle strength in different testing positions in young people with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In young people with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy weakness of the hip extensor muscles are associated with limitations in activity. It is important that clinicians can reliably measure hip extensor muscle strength to monitor changes over time and the effects of any interventions. Previous research has demonstrated high reliability for measuring strength of all muscles of the lower limb, with the exception of the hip extensors. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine the retest reliability of measuring hip extensor strength in young people with cerebral palsy. Methods Using a test-retest reliability research design, 19 participants with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) (mean 19 y 2 mo [S D 2 y 5 mo]) attended two testing sessions held 12 weeks apart. Three trials with a hand-held dynamometer were taken at each testing session in supine, prone and standing. Retest reliability was calculated with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and with units of measurement (kilograms) converted to a percentage strength change. Results ICC values ranged from .74 to .78 in supine, .75 to .80 in prone, and .73 to .75 in standing. To be 95% confident that real change had occurred, an individual's strength would need to increase 55 to 60% in supine, 86 to 102% in prone, and 102 to 105% in standing. To be 95% confident that real change had occurred across groups, strength would need to increase 4 to 8% in supine, 22 to 31% in prone, and 32% to 34% in standing. Higher ICC values were observed when three trials were used for testing. Conclusions The supine testing position was more reliable than the prone or standing testing positions. It is possible to measure hip extensor strength with sufficient reliability to be able monitor change within groups using the supine position provided three trials are used during testing. However, there is insufficient reliability to monitor changes in hip

  2. Low resonance frequency vibration affects strength of paretic and non-paretic leg differently in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihanyi, J; Di Giminiani, R; Tihanyi, T; Gyulai, G; Trzaskoma, L; Horváth, M

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the chronic effect of low frequency whole body vibration (WBV) on isometric and eccentric strength of knee extensors with different force exertion capacity. It was hypothesized that (1) four-week WBV intervention with the low frequency domain would enhance muscle strength and (2) the improvement would be more pronounced in the weaker muscle. To test our hypothesis twenty patients with acute stroke were recruited. Ten patients were randomly assigned to vibration and the remaining ten patients served for control.The patients in the vibration group received WBV with 20 Hz frequency three times per week standing on a vibration platform in half squat position meanwhile flexing and extending the joints and placing the weight from one leg to the other. Knee extensor strength was determined under isometric and eccentric contraction before and after WBV intervention. Myoelectrical activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle was also measured.Significant improvement was revealed in the vibration group only. The maximum isometric torque and EMG activity increased significantly for both paretic and non-paretic leg, but the improvement was threefold greater in the vibration group. No significant alteration was found in rate of torque development. Maximum eccentric torque and EMG increased significantly for the paretic leg only. Mechanical work enhanced significantly in the paretic side only.The results of our study indicate that the selection of the effective vibration frequency depends upon the physical condition of neuromuscular system. Low vibration frequency intervention can increase the strength in weak muscles due to neuromuscular impairment and restricted physical activity.

  3. The Effect of Visual Impairment on the Strength of Children's Hip and Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L.; Ng, G. Y.

    1997-01-01

    A test of 32 children's hip and knee extensors found that children born blind or with low vision are at risk of developing weak lower-limb extensors, with congenitally blind children at greatest risk. After correcting for lean body weight, the differences between sighted children and those with low vision were insignificant. Results support the…

  4. Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of

  5. Cross-education of wrist extensor strength is not influenced by non-dominant training in right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Timothy A; Frazer, Ashlyn K; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2016-09-01

    Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT). Maximum voluntary wrist extensor strength in both the trained and untrained limb increased, irrespective of which limb was trained, with TMS revealing reduced corticospinal inhibition. Cross-education of strength was not limited by which limb was trained and reduced corticospinal inhibition was not just confined to the trained limb. Critically, from a behavioral perspective, the magnitude of cross-education was not limited by which limb was trained.

  6. An investigation of leg and trunk strength and reaction times of hard-style martial arts practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Oliver O; Cheung, Jeanette; Catley, Maria; McGregor, Alison H; Strutton, Paul H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (MT). Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05). During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT)] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT)]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts. Key PointsMartial artists undertaking hard-style martial arts have greater strength in their knee flexor and extensor muscles as tested under isokinetic testing. Under isometric testing conditions they have stronger knee extensors only.The trunk musculature is generally higher under both conditions of testing in the martial artists, although not significantly.The total reaction times of the martial artists to an auditory stimulus were significantly faster than the control participants. When analysed further it was revealed that the decrease in reaction time

  7. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

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    Josh L. Secomb, Sophia Nimphius, Oliver R.L. Farley, Lina E. Lundgren, Tai T. Tran, Jeremy M. Sheppard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ, and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23 and female (n = 7 surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP. In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73 were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL and lateral gastrocnemius (LG muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59 were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59 also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle.

  8. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

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    Pua Yong-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Self-report measure of physical function was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Knee extensor strength was measured by handheld dynamometry and knee extension ROM by goniometry. A bootstrapped cross product of coefficients approach was used to evaluate mediation effects. Results Mediation analyses, adjusted for clinicodemographic measures, revealed that the association between changes in knee extension ROM and SF-36 physical function was mediated by changes in knee extensor strength. Conclusions In patients with TKA, knee extensor strength mediated the influence of knee extension ROM on physical function. These results suggest that interventions to improve the range of knee extension may be useful in improving knee extensor performance.

  9. Effects of combined and classic training on different isometric rate of force development parameters of leg extensors in female volleyball players: Discriminative analysis approach

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    Rajić Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the effects of the combined and classic training of different isometric rates of force development (RFD parameters of legs. Materials and Methods: Three groups of female athletes was tested: Experimental group (N = 12, classically trained group (N = 11, and control group (N = 20 of athletes. The isometric "standing leg extension" and "Rise on Toes" tests were conducted to evaluate the maximal force, time necessary time to reach it and the RFD analyzed at 100 ms, 180 ms, 250 ms from the onset, and 50-100% of its maximal result. Results: The maximal RFD of legs and calves are dominant explosive parameters. Special training enhanced the RFD of calves of GROUP SPEC at 100 ms (P = 0.05, at 180 ms (P = 0.039, at 250 ms (P = 0.039, at 50% of the F max (P = 0.031 and the F max (P = 0.05. Domination of GROUP SPEC toward GROUP CLASS and GROUP CONTROL is in case of legs at 100 ms (P = 0.04; at 180 ms (P = 0.04; at 250 ms (P = 0.00; at 50% of the F max (P = 0.01 and at the F max (P = 0.00; in case of calves at 100 ms (P = 0.07; 180 ms (P = 0.001; at 250 ms (P = 0.00; at 50% of the F max (P = 0.00 and at F max (P = 0.000. Conclusion: Dominant explosive factors are maximal RFD of leg extensors and calves, and legs at 250ms. Specific training enhanced explosiveness of calves of GROUP SPEC general and partial domination of GROUP SPEC by 87% over GROUP CLASS , and 35% over GROUP CONTROL .

  10. Two Pilot Studies of the Effect of Bicycling on Balance and Leg Strength among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rissel, Chris; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Merom, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Methods. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited...

  11. THE EFFICACY OF ANGLE-MATCHED ISOKINETIC KNEE FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR STRENGTH PARAMETERS IN PREDICTING AGILITY TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Matt; Naylor, James

    2017-10-01

    Agility is a fundamental performance element in many sports, but poses a high risk of injury. Hierarchical modelling has shown that eccentric hamstring strength is the primary determinant of agility performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knee flexor and extensor strength parameters and a battery of agility tests. Controlled laboratory study. Nineteen recreational intermittent games players completed an agility battery and isokinetic testing of the eccentric knee flexors (eccH) and concentric knee extensors (conQ) at 60, 180 and 300°·s -1 . Peak torque and the angle at which peak torque occurred were calculated for eccH and conQ at each speed. Dynamic control ratios (eccH:conQ) and fast:slow ratios (300:60) were calculated using peak torque values, and again using angle-matched data, for eccH and conQ. The agility test battery differentiated linear vs directional changes and prescriptive vs reactive tasks. Linear regression showed that eccH parameters were generally a better predictor of agility performance than conQ parameters. Stepwise regression showed that only angle-matched strength ratios contributed to the prediction of each agility test. Trdaitionally calculated strength ratios using peak torque values failed to predict performance. Angle-matched strength parameters were able to account for 80% of the variation in T-test performance, 70% of deceleration distance, 55% of 10m sprint performance, and 44% of reactive change of direction speed. Traditionally calculated strength ratios failed to predict agility performance, whereas angle-matched strength ratios had better predictive ability and featured in a predictive stepwise model for each agility task. 2c.

  12. AN INVESTIGATION OF LEG AND TRUNK STRENGTH AND REACTION TIMES OF HARD-STYLE MARTIAL ARTS PRACTITIONERS

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    Oliver O'Donovan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT, choice reaction times (CRT and movement times (MT. Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05. During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts

  13. Improved knee extensor strength with resistance training associates with muscle specific miRNAs in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María L; Marsh, Anthony P; Leng, Iris; Nicklas, Barbara J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-02-01

    Regular exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is the only therapy known to consistently improve muscle strength and quality (force per unit of mass) in older persons, but there is considerable variability in responsiveness to training. Identifying sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of responsiveness to RT may inform the design of a more efficient exercise regimen to improve muscle strength in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We quantified six muscle specific miRNAs (miR-1, -133a, -133b, -206, -208b and -499) in both muscle tissue and blood plasma, and their relationship with knee extensor strength in seven older (age=70.5 ± 2.5 years) adults before and after 5 months of RT. MiRNAs differentially responded to RT; muscle miR-133b decreased, while all plasma miRNAs tended to increase. Percent changes in knee extensor strength with RT showed strong positive correlations with percent changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 and with percent changes in plasma and plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio. Baseline level of plasma or plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio further predicts muscle response to RT, while changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 may correlate with muscle TNNT1 gene alternative splicing in response to RT. Our results indicate that RT alters muscle specific miRNAs in muscle and plasma, and that these changes account for some of the variation in strength responses to RT in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Heavy-Resistance Strength and Balance Training on Unilateral and Bilateral Leg Strength Performance in Old Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p training (all p training (all p training (p training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults. PMID:25695770

  15. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, pplyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  16. Enhancing the examiner's resisting force improves the validity of manual muscle strength measurements: application to knee extensors and flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tung-Wu; Chien, Hui-Lien; Chang, Ling-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2012-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to test whether an examiner's strength may affect the validity of the knee muscle strength measurements using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and whether enhancing the forces applied by an examiner using a resistance-enhanced dynamometer (RED) would improve measurement validity. Twenty-five young male volunteers (mean [±SD] age: 22.5 ± 1.7 years) without a history of injury to the test limb and 6 male and 6 female experienced examiners participated in this study. Maximum resisting forces of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using RED, HHD, and a dynamometer (Kin-Com). For all testing conditions, poor to moderate associations were found between the HHD and Kin-Com, whereas there was a good to excellent relationship between RED and Kin-Com. The systematic variations between RED and Kin-Com were also smaller than those between HHD and Kin-Com. The force values measured by RED were very close to those measured by Kin-Com. An examiner's strength affects the validity of the measurements using HHD. Enhancing the forces applied by the examiner to the tested segment using RED appeared to improve the validity of muscle strength measurements.

  17. The correlation between isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in adolescent soccer players in an annual training cycle

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    Michal Lehnert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isokinetic testing is often used to provide coaches with important information about the physical status of athletes. Therefore, a number of studies focused on the assessment of the relationship between isokinetic and functional tests including soccer. The results of a limited number of studies indicate that the relationship changes in different training periods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in three different periods of the annual training cycle in adolescent soccer players. METHODS: A group of adolescent soccer players (n = 16; average age 16.7 ± 0.7 years was tested at the end of the competitive season, at the beginning of the off-season and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. The isokinetic concentric peak torque (PT, peak power (Pmax and time to peak torque (TPT of the dominant leg and non-dominant leg were measured at angular velocities of 60°•s–1, 180°•s–1, 360°•s–1. The explosive strength of the lower extremities was measured using the countermovement jump with free arms (CMJF method and countermovement jump with the arms crossed over the chest. Based on literary reviews, a logically significant value of the correlation was set at > 0.30. RESULTS: The correlations between the isokinetic strength characteristics and vertical jump performance irrespective of the training period were low to moderate; 56% of the correlations were > 0.30. In the different periods of the annual training cycle, the occurrence of correlations > 0.30 as well as their value varied – 67% at the end of the competitive season, 31% at the beginning of the off-season and 64% at the beginning of the competitive season. For both types of jumps, the correlations for Pmax and PT parameters were the lowest during the second measurement in most cases; no trend was observed for the TPT

  18. Reduction in corticospinal inhibition in the trained and untrained limb following unilateral leg strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Christopher; Kidgell, Dawson J; Pearce, Alan J

    2012-08-01

    This study used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure the corticospinal responses following 8 weeks of unilateral leg strength training. Eighteen healthy, non-strength trained participants (14 male, 4 female; 18-35 years of age) were matched for age, gender, and pre-training strength; and assigned to a training or control group. The trained group participated in unilateral horizontal leg press strength training, progressively overloaded and wave periodised, thrice per week for 8 weeks. Testing occurred prior to the intervention, at the end of 4 weeks and at the completion of training at 8 weeks. Participants were tested in both legs for one repetition maximum strength, muscle thickness, maximal electromyography (EMG) activity, and corticospinal excitability and inhibition. No changes were observed in muscle thickness in either leg. The trained leg showed an increase in strength of 21.2% (P = 0.001) and 29.0% (P = 0.007, compared to pre-testing) whilst the untrained contralateral leg showed 17.4% (P = 0.01) and 20.4% (P = 0.004, compared to pre-testing) increases in strength at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. EMG and corticospinal excitability did not change; however, corticospinal inhibition was significantly reduced by 17.7 ms (P = 0.003) and 17.3 ms (P = 0.001) at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, in the trained leg, and 25.1 ms (P = 0.001) and 20.8 ms (P = 0.001) at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, in the contralateral untrained leg. This data support the theory of corticospinal adaptations underpinning cross-education gains in the lower limbs following unilateral strength training.

  19. The relationship between knee joint angle and knee flexor and extensor muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Han, Dongwook

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between joint angle and muscular strength. In particular, this research investigated the differences in maximum muscular strength and average muscular strength at the knee-joint posture. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects comprised eight female students in their 20s attending S University in Busan. None of the subjects had functional disabilities or had experienced damage to the lower extremities in terms of measurement of muscular strength. A BIODEX system III model (Biodex medical system, USA) was used to measure joint angles and muscular strength. The axis of the dynamometer was consistent with the axis of motion, and measurements were made at 25° and 67° to examine differences in maximum muscular strength according to joint angle. [Results] The maximum muscular strength both knee-joint extension value, at 67° and flexion value, at 25° the value was larger. The average muscular strength both knee-joint extension value, at 67° and flexion value, at 25° the value was larger. [Conclusion] The results of this study reveal that muscular strength does not reach maximum at particular range angles, such as the knee-joint resting posture angle or the knee-joint middle range angle. Rather, a stretched muscle is stronger than a contracted muscle. Therefore, it is considered that it will be necessary to study the effects of the joint change ratio on muscular strength on the basis of the maximum stretched muscle.

  20. Relation of selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremity and extensor strength of the knee joint in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Takaki, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Nitta, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate differences in selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities by objective assessment and determine the relationship between selective voluntary motor control and knee extensor strength in children with spastic diplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Forty individuals who had spastic cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels ranging from I to III, were assessed using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity and by testing the maximum knee extensor strength. The unaffected side was defined as the lower limb with the higher score, and the affected side was defined as the lower limb with the lower score. [Results] The Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity score on the affected side had a lower average than that on the unaffected side. The scores showed a significant inverse correlation with the maximum knee extensor strength. [Conclusion] There was bilateral difference in the selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities in children with spastic diplegia, and the selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremity was related to maximum knee extensor strength.

  1. Non-Discriminant Relationships between Leg Muscle Strength, Mass and Gait Performance in Healthy Young and Old Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Granacher, Urs; Borde, Ron; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gait speed declines with increasing age, but it is unclear if gait speed preferentially correlates with leg muscle strength or mass.  Objective: We determined the relationship between gait speed and (1) leg muscle strength measured at 3 lower extremity joints and (2) leg lean tissue mass

  2. The effects of lumbar extensor strength on disability and mobility in patients with persistent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmhout, Pieter H; Witjes, Marloes; Nijhuis-VAN DER Sanden, Ria W; Bron, Carel; van Aalst, Michiel; Staal, J Bart

    2017-04-01

    It is assumed that low back pain patients who use pain-avoiding immobilizing strategies may benefit from specific back flexion and extension exercises aimed at reducing sagittal lumbar hypomobility. The aim of this study was to test this potential working mechanism in chronic low back pain patients undergoing lumbar extensor strengthening training. A single-group prospective cohort design was used in this study. Patients with persistent low back complaints for at least 2 years were recruited at a specialized physical therapy clinics center. They participated in a progressive 11-week lumbar extensor strength training program, once a week. At baseline, sagittal lumbar mobility in flexion and extension was measured with a computer-assisted inclinometer. Self-rated pain intensity was measured using a visual analogue scale, back-specific functional status was assessed with the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and the Patient Specific Complains questionnaire. Statistically significant improvements were found in pain (28% decrease) and functional disability (23% to 36% decrease). Most progress was seen in the first 5 treatment weeks. Lumbar mobility in flexion showed non-significant increases over time (+12%). Pre-post treatment changes in flexion and extension mobility did not contribute significantly to the models. The retained factors together explained 15% to 48% of the variation in outcome. Specific lumbar strengthening showed clinically relevant improvements in pain and disability in patients with persistent chronic low back pain. These improvements did not necessarily relate to improvements in lumbar mobility. Parameters representing other domains of adaptations to exercise may be needed to evaluate the effects of back pain management.

  3. Efeitos do Tai Chi Chuan na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos e no equilíbrio em idosas Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on knee extensor muscle strength and balance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Alguns estudos têm indicado que o Tai Chi Chuan (TCC é capaz de melhorar o condicionamento físico, a força muscular e o equilíbrio entre os praticantes idosos, prevenindo quedas, fraturas e dependência física. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do TCC no equilíbrio (EQ e na força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos (F em mulheres idosas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 77 mulheres saudáveis, não praticantes de atividade física orientada. No Grupo Experimental (G1 foram incluídas 38 voluntárias (68 ± 5 anos e no Grupo Controle (G2, 39 voluntárias (69 ± 7 anos. O G1 praticou o TCC estilo Yang de 24 movimentos durante 12 semanas, três vezes por semana, com duração de 50 minutos. O G2 não realizou atividades físicas orientadas. A força foi mensurada pelo teste de 1-RM na cadeira extensora e o equilíbrio foi avaliado utilizando o teste de apoio unipodal com os olhos fechados. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se teste de normalidade, split-plot análise de variância (ANOVA e correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O Grupo Experimental apresentou incrementos de 17,83% na F e 26,10% no EQ. O Grupo Controle não apresentou alteração significativa em nenhuma variável. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre estas duas variáveis no G1 (r= 0,09; p= 0,554 e no G2 (r= 0,07; p= 0,660. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que o TCC melhora F e EQ em mulheres idosas. Entretanto, a força dos músculos extensores dos joelhos não está necessariamente ligada ao equilíbrio nesta modalidade.BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that Tai Chi Chuan (TCC is capable of improving physical fitness, muscle strength and balance in elderly people. This improvement could prevent falls, fractures and physical dependence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TCC on balance and knee extensor muscle strength among elderly women. METHODS: Seventy-seven healthy women who were not engaged in any guided

  4. Impact of Running Exercise Duration on Leg Muscle Strength among the people Joining Indorunners Bandung Community

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    Agaprita Eunike Sirait

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indorunners Bandung is a community for runners that has a routine exercise schedule for running around the city of Bandung. Exercise, like running, if is conducted in an accurate duration may improve physical fitness. One of the aspects of physical fitness is leg muscles strength. Many people fail to fathom the importance of exercise duration, so, they fail to get the benefit. The aim of this study was to discover the impact of running exercise duration on leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to 41 people, 31 males and 10 females, of Indorunners Bandung community from September to November 2015. Each participant filled a questionnaire about his/her personal data, and then was grouped by his/her duration of exercise per week, which were 150 minutes/week, 150–299 minutes/week, and 300 minutes/week or more. The respondents were measured for their leg muscles strength. The data collected were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: There was significant difference of lower extremities muscle strength both in men (p<0.001 and women (p=0.029. These results showed that there was a difference in leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community with different exercise duration per week. Conclusions: There is a difference in leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community with different exercise duration per week.

  5. The effects of strengthening exercises for wrist flexors and extensors on muscle strength and counter-stroke performance in amateur table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanavirut, Raoyrin; Udompanich, Nontawit; Udom, Phraophimon; Yonglitthipagon, Ponlapat; Donpunha, Wanida; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Yamauchi, Juinichiro

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of strengthening exercises on wrist flexor and extensor strength, hand grip strength, and counter-stroke performance. Thirty amateur table tennis players were recruited and randomly allocated into two groups: the control and the training group (n = 15/group). Pre- and post-data were collected. The training group performed home exercises for six weeks using a bucket filled with water, while the controls were asked to keep their lifestyle as usual. The general characteristics were no significant differences. The training group showed significantly higher levels of wrist flexor and extensor strength than the control group (p < 0.05). However, the difference in hand grip strength was not statistically significant. Both groups showed significant improvement in counter-stroke performance (p < 0.05), however, there was no difference between the groups. In conclusion, specific strengthening exercises increase wrist flexor and extensor strength, but they have no effect on either hand grip strength or counter-stroke performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of isokinetic training of the knee extensors on isometric strength and peak power output during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, A F; Jakeman, P M; Willan, P L

    1992-01-01

    Isokinetic training of right and left quadriceps femoris was undertaken three times per week for 16 weeks. One group of subjects (n = 13) trained at an angular velocity of 4.19 rad.s-1 and a second group (n = 10) at 1.05 rad.s-1. A control group (n = 10) performed no training. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps, and peak pedal velocity nu p,peak) and peak power output (Wpeak) during all-out cycling (against loads equivalent to 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14% MVC) were assessed before and after training. The two training groups did not differ significantly from each other in their training response to any of the performance variables (P > 0.05). No significant difference in MVC was observed for any group after the 16-week period (P = 0.167). The post-training increases in average Wpeak (7%) and nu p,peak (6%) during the cycle tests were each significantly different from the control group response (P = 0.018 and P = 0.008, respectively). It is concluded that 16 weeks of isokinetic strength training of the knee extensors is able to significantly improve nu p, peak and Wpeak during spring cycling, an activity which demands considerable involvement of the trained muscle group but with its own distinct pattern of coordination.

  7. Modulation of frontal-plane knee kinematics by hip-extensor strength and gluteus maximus recruitment during a jump-landing task in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, John H; Hohl, Jeffrey M; Kraft, Jordan L; Strauss, Jeffrey D; Traver, Katie J

    2013-08-01

    Abnormal lower extremity kinematics during dynamic activities may be influenced by impaired gluteus maximus function. To examine whether hip-extensor strength and gluteus maximus recruitment are associated with dynamic frontal-plane knee motion during a jump-landing task. Exploratory study. Biomechanics laboratory. 40 healthy female volunteers. Isometric hip-extension strength was measured bilaterally with a handheld dynamometer. Three-dimensional hip and knee kinematics and gluteus maximus electromyography data were collected bilaterally during a jump-landing test. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear regression and partial correlation coefficients (α = .05). Hip motion in the transverse plane was highly correlated with knee motion in the frontal plane (partial r = .724). After controlling for hip motion, reduced magnitudes of isometric hip-extensor strength (partial r = .470) and peak gluteus maximus recruitment (partial r = .277) were correlated with increased magnitudes of knee valgus during the jump-landing task. Hip-extensor strength and gluteus maximus recruitment, which represents a measure of the muscle's neuromuscular control, are both associated with frontal-plane knee motions during a dynamic weight-bearing task.

  8. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS

  9. Two Pilot Studies of the Effect of Bicycling on Balance and Leg Strength among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Methods. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT test (decision time and response time, leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited into a 12-week cycling program. The same pre- and postmeasures as used in Study 1 were collected. Results. Study 1: participants who had cycled in the last month performed significantly better on measures of decision time and response time. Study 2: cycling at least one hour a week was associated with significant improvements in balance (decision time and response time and timed single leg standing. Conclusions. Cycling by healthy older adults appears promising for improving risk factors for falls.

  10. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  11. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key Points Strength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes. An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength. Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance. PMID:24570620

  12. Leg strength and lean mass symmetry influences kicking performance in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key PointsStrength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes.An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength.Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance.

  13. EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF MASSAGE ON LEG STRENGTH, SWELLING, AND PAIN FOLLOWING A HALF-MARATHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Tiidus

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Massage therapy is commonly used following endurance running races with the expectation that it will enhance post-run recovery of muscle function and reduce soreness. A limited number of studies have reported little or no influence of massage therapy on post-exercise muscle recovery. However, no studies have been conducted in a field setting to assess the potential for massage to influence muscle recovery following an actual endurance running race. To evaluate the potential for repeated massage therapy interventions to influence recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle soreness, recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and reduction of upper leg muscle swelling over a two week recovery period following an actual road running race. Twelve adult recreational runners (8 male, 4 female completed a half marathon (21.1 km road race. On days 1,4, 8, and 11 post-race, subjects received 30 minutes of standardized massage therapy performed by a registered massage therapist on a randomly assigned massage treatment leg, while the other (control leg received no massage treatment. Two days prior to the race (baseline and preceding the treatments on post-race days 1, 4, 8, and 11 the following measures were conducted on each of the massage and control legs: strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, leg swelling, and soreness perception. At day 1, post-race quadriceps peak torque was significantly reduced (p 0.05. All measures had returned to baseline at day 11. Massage did not affect the recovery of muscles in terms of physiological measures of strength, swelling, or soreness. However, questionnaires revealed that 7 of the 12 participants perceived that the massaged leg felt better upon recovery.

  14. Lower-limb extensor power and lifting characteristics in disabled elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancewicz, Teresa M; Krebs, David E; McGibbon, Chris A

    2003-01-01

    Few reports address lifting in disabled elders. Resistance training may facilitate function by improving coordination and muscular recruitment in common lifting tasks. Subjects were considered "functionally limited" if they reported a limitation in at least 1 of 9 possible functional areas listed on the Short-Form Health Survey physical function scale (SF-36), excluding the vigorous activity item. Eighty-nine functionally limited elders (60.3 to 89.8 years old) consented to participate in an intervention trial consisting of a 6-month in-home video-facilitated resistance exercise program using elastic bands. Biomechanical variables (leg extensor power, work, squared jerk), temporal outcomes (lift time and time to peak leg powers), and leg extensor strength were analyzed with the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the (1) experimental group versus control group and the (2) subgroup of the weakest third of subjects (pretest leg extensor strength as percent of body weight [BW]). The experimental group had significant improvements in strength in knee extension (16.7%) and hip extension (20.5%). Resistance-trained weak subjects significantly increased hip extension strength compared to controls. A trend toward improved performance in lifting--decreased total lift time--was noted in the resistance-trained subjects. Significant correlations were found between total leg extension power, total leg extension strength, total work, and lift time. Resistance-trained disabled elders demonstrated strength benefits and several trends consistent with improved coordination and more efficient lifting. Leg-muscle power was related to better functional performance in lifting.

  15. COMPARISON OF UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH BETWEEN THE DOMINANT AND NON-DOMINANT LEG IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McCurdy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare unilateral squat strength of the dominant and non-dominant leg in young adult men and women. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. To determine unilateral strength, the subjects completed a one repetition maximum (1RM modified unilateral squat (MUS on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The subjects completed the squat to a depth that attained a 90º angle at the knee. This exercise was executed by placing the top of the metatarsophalangeal area of the foot of the uninvolved leg on a support bar behind the subject to isolate the use of the lead leg. Paired samples t-test revealed no significant difference between the men's 1RM mean strength on the dominant (107.0 ± 21.4 kg and non-dominant (106.0 ± 21.4 kg leg with a mean side-to-side difference (comparing the stronger to the weaker leg of 2.8 %. Leg strength symmetry was also found between the women's 1RM mean strength on the dominant (45.3 ± 12.5 kg and non-dominant (45.0 ± 12.4 kg leg with a mean side-to-side difference of 5.0 %. The data indicate that unilateral squat strength, measured in a weight bearing stance, is similar in the dominant and non-dominant leg in apparently healthy young adult men and women

  16. Greater Hip Extension but Not Hip Abduction Explosive Strength Is Associated With Lesser Hip Adduction and Knee Valgus Motion During a Single-Leg Jump-Cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Baker; Johnson, Samuel T; Chang, Eunwook; Pollard, Christine D; Norcross, Marc F

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between hip abductor and extensor strength and frontal plane hip and knee motions that are associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk are equivocal. However, previous research on these relationships has evaluated relatively low-level movement tasks and peak torque rather than a time-critical strength measure such as the rate of torque development (RTD). Females with greater hip abduction and extension RTD would exhibit lesser frontal plane hip and knee motion during a single-leg jump-cutting task. Descriptive laboratory study. Forty recreationally active females performed maximal isometric contractions and single-leg jump-cuts. From recorded torque data, hip extension and abduction RTD was calculated from torque onset to 200 ms after onset. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to quantify frontal plane hip and knee kinematics during the movement task. For each RTD measure, jump-cut biomechanics were compared between participants in the highest (high) and lowest (low) RTD tertiles. No differences in frontal plane hip and knee kinematics were identified between high and low hip abduction RTD groups. However, those in the high hip extension RTD group exhibited lower hip adduction (high, 3.8° ± 3.0°; low, 6.5° ± 3.0°; P = .019) and knee valgus (high, -2.5° ± 2.3°; low, -4.4° ± 3.2°; P = .046) displacements during the jump-cut. In movements such as cutting that are performed with the hip in a relatively abducted and flexed position, the ability of the gluteus medius to control hip adduction may be compromised. However, the gluteus maximus, functioning as a hip abductor, may take on a pivotal role in controlling hip adduction and knee valgus motion during these types of tasks. Training with a specific emphasis on increasing explosive strength of the hip extensors may be a means through which to improve frontal plane hip and knee control during high-risk maneuvers such as cutting.

  17. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. RESULTS...

  18. Isokinetic assessment of knee flexor/extensor muscular strength in elderly women Avaliação isocinética do torque muscular flexor-extensor do joelho em mulheres com idade entre 75-83 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Amorim Aquino

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess knee flexor-extensor muscular strength in elderly women with no previous history of musculoskeletal disorders on the lower limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer, in order to obtain data that could be used as a comparative parameter in the evaluation of elderly women with knee disorders, thus facilitating a better rehabilitation of these patients. METHODS: Twenty-six volunteers aged 75 to 83 years were studied using a Cybex® 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. The chosen angular velocity was 60 º/s, and concentric exercise was used for either flexion or extension. The studied parameters were: peak torque, angle of peak torque, and flexor-extensor torque rate. RESULTS: There were no differences between dominant (D and nondominant (ND knee peak torque values. This was true for both flexor (D = 42.46 ± 9.09 Nm / ND = 40.65 ± 9.38 Nm and extensor (D = 76.92 ± 13.97 Nm / ND = 77.65 ± 15.21 Nm movements. The descriptive statistical analysis of the values obtained for the flexor-extensor peak torque rate and for the angle of occurrence of peak torque was the same for the dominant and nondominant sides. CONCLUSIONS: The values of peak torque for the contralateral side can be used as a reference during rehabilitation of elderly women with acute disease of the knee, and the angular velocity of 60 º/s is proper and safe for isokinetic assessment of elderly people.OBJETIVO: Avaliar, isocineticamente, o torque dos músculos flexores e extensores dos joelhos de mulheres idosas sem afecções do sistema músculo-esquelético em membros inferiores, obtendo dados que possam servir como parâmetro de comparação na avaliação de mulheres idosas portadoras de afecções nos joelhos, colaborando para uma melhor reabilitação dessas pacientes. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis voluntárias foram avaliadas. O estudo foi realizado através de um dinamômetro isocinético marca CYBEXâ modelo 6000 na velocidade angular de 60º/s. O tipo do

  19. Análise eletromiográfica e força do grupo muscular extensor do punho durante isquemia induzida Electromyographic analysis and strength of the wrist extensor muscle group during induced ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCA Bandeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da isquemia induzida sobre os parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico e a força do grupo muscular extensor do punho (GMEP em mulheres saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Participaram 13 voluntárias, destras, sedentárias, com idade de 23,38±2,32 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC de 20,68±1,87kg/m². Para determinar a força do GMEP, foram realizadas 3 contrações isométricas voluntárias máximas (CIVM, utilizando-se uma célula de carga por 15 segundos, com intervalos de 2 minutos entre cada contração, sendo todo procedimento repetido por 3 dias não consecutivos. A isquemia foi realizada por 5 minutos, utilizando um esfigmomanômetro posicionado no braço dominante e inflado até a ausência do fluxo sanguíneo, confirmada pelo ultrassom Doppler. Para coleta do sinal eletromiográfico do GMEP, utilizou-se o equipamento EMG1000 (Lynx® com eletrodo de superfície diferencial (Lynx®. Foram coletadas 3 CIVM por 15 segundos, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre elas, nas situações de pré-isquemia; isquemia; pós-isquemia imediata (pós-1 e pós-isquemia tardia (pós-2 - após 10 minutos do início da isquemia. Para análise dos parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico, root mean square (RMS, e frequência mediana do espectro de potência do sinal foi utilizado o software MATLAB 6.5.1. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Friedman e ANOVA two-way. RESULTADOS: A isquemia promoveu redução significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of induced ischemia on the parameters of electromyographic signals and the strength of the wrist extensor muscle group (WEMG in healthy women. METHODS: Thirteen right-handed sedentary subjects aged 23.38±2.32 years old, with body mass index (BMI of 20.68±1.87kg/m², took part. To determine WEMG strength, three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were performed using a load cell for 15 seconds, with 2 minutes intervals between contractions. The entire

  20. Knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics during a single-leg stop-jump task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; House, Anthony J; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the sensorimotor system in maintaining a stable knee joint has been recognized. As individual entities, knee-joint proprioception, landing kinematics, and knee muscles play important roles in functional joint stability. Preventing knee injuries during dynamic tasks requires accurate proprioceptive information and adequate muscular strength. Few investigators have evaluated the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. To examine the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Fifty physically active men (age = 26.4 ± 5.8 years, height = 176.5 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 79.8 ± 16.6 kg). Three tests were performed. Knee conscious proprioception was evaluated via threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM). Knee strength was evaluated with a dynamometer. A 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis of a single-legged stop-jump task was used to calculate initial contact (IC) knee-flexion angle and knee-flexion excursion. The TTDPM toward knee flexion and extension, peak knee flexion and extension torque, and IC knee-flexion angle and knee flexion excursion. Linear correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships of both proprioception and strength against landing kinematics. The α level was set a priori at .05. Enhanced TTDPM and greater knee strength were positively correlated with greater IC knee-flexion angle (r range = 0.281-0.479, P range = .001-.048). The regression analysis revealed that 27.4% of the variance in IC knee-flexion angle could be accounted for by knee-flexion peak torque and TTDPM toward flexion (P = .001). The current research highlighted the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Individuals with enhanced proprioception and muscular strength had better control of IC knee-flexion angle during a dynamic task.

  1. Normalized knee-extension strength or leg-press power after fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2013-01-01

    : Cross-sectional, exploratory study. SETTING: Laboratory at a regional hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-nine individuals with an average age of 65.5±10.3 yrs, who all had unilateral TKA 28 days prior. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The patients performed maximal isometric knee extensions......OBJECTIVE: (s): To investigate which of the two muscle-impairment measures for the operated leg, normalized knee extension strength or leg press power, is more closely associated to performance-based and self-reported measures of function shortly following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). DESIGN...... and dynamic leg presses to determine their body-mass normalized knee extension strength and leg press power, respectively. The 10-m fast speed walking and 30-s chair stand tests were used to determine performance-based function, while the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC...

  2. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  3. Back extensor and psoas muscle cross-sectional area, prior physical training, and trunk muscle strength--a longitudinal study in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, J E; Taimela, S; Erkintalo, M; Salminen, J J; Oksanen, A; Kujala, U M

    1998-01-01

    The association between physical training, low back extensor (erector spinae plus multifidus muscles) and psoas muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) and strength characteristics of trunk extension and flexion were studied in adolescent girls. A group of athletes (n = 49) (age range 13.7-16.3 years) consisting of gymnasts, figure skaters and ballet dancers was age-matched with non-athletes (n = 17) who acted as a sedentary control group. The CSA of psoas muscles and multifidus plus erector spinae muscles were measured from lumbar axial images by magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal trunk extension and flexion forces were measured in a standing position using a dynamometer and trunk musculature endurance was evaluated using static holding tests. When CSA were adjusted with body mass, the athletes showed significantly greater CSA in both muscles studied (psoas P psoas muscle CSA (P strength parameters, but the force per muscle CSA did not differ significantly between the athletes and the non-athletes. In addition, the athletes showed a better body mass adjusted muscle endurance in trunk flexion (P strength parameters.

  4. Correlation between the 8-repetition maximum test and isokinetic dynamometry in the measurement of muscle strength of the knee extensors: A concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J David; Fletcher, James P

    2013-05-01

    The 8-repetition maximum test has the potential to be a feasible, cost-effective method of measuring muscle strength for clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the 8-repetition maximum test in the measurement of muscle strength by comparing the 8-repetition maximum test to the gold standard of isokinetic dynamometry. Thirty participants (15 males and 15 females, mean age = 23.2 years [standard deviation = 1.0]) underwent 8-repetition maximum testing and isokinetic dynamometry testing of the knee extensors (at 60, 120, and 240 degrees per second) on two separate sessions with 2-3 days between each mode of testing. Linear regression was used to assess the validity by comparing the findings between 8-repetition maximum testing and isokinetic dynamometry testing. Significant correlations were found between the 8-repetition maximum and isokinetic dynamometry peak torque at each testing velocity (r  =  0.71-0.85). The highest correlations were between the 8-repetition maximum and isokinetic dynamometry peak torques at 60 (r  =  0.85) and 120 (r  =  0.85) degrees per second. The findings of this study provide supportive evidence for the use of 8-repetition maximum testing as a valid, alternative method for measuring muscle strength.

  5. Age-related changes in the effects of strength training on lower leg muscles in healthy individuals measured using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Psatha, Maria; Wu, Zhiqing; Gammie, Fiona; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Wackerhage, Henning; Redpath, Thomas W; Gilbert, Fiona J; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide a biomarker for muscle function. Methods Men and women were recruited in three age groups: 20?30, 50?65 and over 70 years. Their response to resis...

  6. DIFFERENCES IN EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH OF LEGS OF FOOTBALLERS OF CADET CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Nedeljkov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In structure football is very complicated and complex activity. Today's level of development of football game requires of players a high level and rhythm of the game, excellent physical condition, high technical standards in motion that depend on many motor skills. Various beginnings of movement, acceleration, stopping at high speed, changing direction, jumping, ball hitting are the most common movings in which explosive power of players is exhibited. Observing the activities of the game, players need most, the form of power, which is reflected in the shortest possible interval, ie. explosive strength. The study aims to determine the difference in explosive strength of legs of footballers of cadet category. The sample consisted of 60 players, divided into two groups of 30 subjects, aged 15 ± 1 years. One group was composed of Serbian national team and the other football players of FC ‘Vojvodina’ from Novi Sad. Sample tests consisted of six tests, as follows: running speed of 10 meters from a standing start, running speed 20 meters from a standing start, running speed 30 meters from a standing start, a jump up from the spot, standing long jump and triple jump. To examine whether statistically significant differences between groups of players we used t-test for two independent groups. Generally it can be concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups of respondents in favor of the representatives of Serbi

  7. Inter-tester Reliability of the Hand-held dynamometer and the Leg Extensor Power Rig applied on Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Mikkelsen, Søren Søndergaard

    Background: Rehabilitation has an increasing focus on intensive resistance training early after joint replacement. This increases the requests for measuring changes in the muscle strength and muscle power over time. Hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is a device used to measure isometric muscle strength...

  8. Can a wearable strain sensor based on a carbon nanotube network be an alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlikaya, Ruhan; Ege, Yavuz; Pündük, Zekine; Slobodian, Petr; Meriç, Gökhan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to find out whether a wearable strain sensor including thermoplastic polyurethane composite with a multi-walled carbon nanotube network could be a viable alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength. For the first time, the voltage-torque and angle-time relations of the sensor were determined to allow a comparison between the angle-dependent torque changes of the dynamometer and the sensor. This comparison suggested that the torque-angle relations of the dynamometer and the sensor did not have the same characteristics. In this regard, the sensor may be used in the torque measurements due to the moderate correlation between the torque values determined via the isokinetic dynamometer and the sensor and due to the significant difference between low and high torque values of the sensor. By the same token, the torque-angle graph of the sensor may be more informative than that of the dynamometer in evaluation of knee problems.

  9. Sex difference in age-related changes in knee extensor strength and power production during a 10-times-repeated sit-to-stand task in Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Naoko; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Kawanishi, Masashi; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2015-11-14

    For middle-aged and elderly women, age-related decline in an index representing power production during STS task (STS-PI), calculated by using an equation reported previously, has been shown to be greater than that in the force generation capability of lower extremity. Whether this is specific to women remains unclear. This study examined how the age-related changes in knee extensor strength and power production during STS differ between Japanese men and women aged 65 years or older. The time taken for a 10-times-repeated STS test (STS time) and force developed during maximal voluntary isometric knee extension (KE-F) were determined in Japanese younger-old (262 men and 285 women) aged 65-74 years and older-old (96 men and 89 women) aged 75-90 years. STS-PI was calculated using the following equation: STS-PI = (body height - 0.4) × body mass × 10/STS time. KE-F and STS-PI were significantly greater in the younger-old than in the older-old group (p movement such as STS in older women than in older men.

  10. Inter-tester Reliability of the Hand-held dynamometer and the Leg Extensor Power Rig applied on Patients after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation has an increasing focus on intensive resistance training early after joint replacement (1,2). This increases the requests for measuring changes in the muscle strength and muscle power over time. Hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is a device used to measure isometric muscle...

  11. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes' readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation ( r ). The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = -0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop test performance or isokinetic knee strength between graft types

  12. Isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors and flexors in Iranian healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mandana; Ebrahimi, Ismael; Vassaghi-Gharamaleki, Behnoush; Pirali, Milad; Mortaza, Niyousha; Malmir, Kazem; Ghasemi, Kobra; A Jamshidi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the gender-related bilateral differences of extensor and flexor torques of the knee joint at low and high angular velocities in Iranian healthy males and females. 70 healthy subjects (29 males (26.61±4.34 yrs and 41 females with average age of 23.07±3.70 yrs)) were participated in this study. Isokinetic peak torque values for knee extensors and flexors in concentric and eccentric contraction modes were measured and flexors and extensors strength ratios (HQR) computed among both dominant and non-dominant legs in lying position at 60 and 180°.s-1angular velocities. There was significant gender-velocity interactions detected for knee flexor to extensor strength ratios presenting that increasing velocity escaled this, ratios in females more than males (p0.05). Bilateral differences were found for eccentric flexor peak torques (p<0.05). By increasing velocity, peak torque values decreased and HQR was increased (p<0.05). Measurement procedures including test position is an important factor when interpreting genderrelated and bilateral differences of isokinetic knee strength ratios in healthy individuals.

  13. Greater Hip Extension but Not Hip Abduction Explosive Strength Is Associated With Lesser Hip Adduction and Knee Valgus Motion During a Single-Leg Jump-Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Baker; Johnson, Samuel T.; Chang, Eunwook; Pollard, Christine D.; Norcross, Marc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationships between hip abductor and extensor strength and frontal plane hip and knee motions that are associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk are equivocal. However, previous research on these relationships has evaluated relatively low-level movement tasks and peak torque rather than a time-critical strength measure such as the rate of torque development (RTD). Hypothesis: Females with greater hip abduction and extension RTD would exhibit lesser frontal plane...

  14. The effects of stair climbing on arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and leg strength in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Figueroa, Arturo; Son, Won-Mok; Chernykh, Oksana; Park, Song-Young

    2018-02-12

    Menopause is accompanied by a progressive arterial stiffening associated with increases in blood pressure (BP) and decline in muscular function. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of menopause on vascular and muscular function by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a stair climbing (SC) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), BP, and leg strength in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension. Using a parallel experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to either SC (n = 21) or nonexercising control group (n = 20) for 12 weeks. Participants in the SC group trained 4 d/wk, climbing 192 steps 2 to 5 times/d. Participants' brachial-to-ankle PWV (baPWV), BP, and leg strength were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of their assigned intervention. There was a significant group by time interaction (P hypertensive postmenopausal women. The decrease in arterial stiffness partially explained the improvements in SBP and leg strength. SC may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of menopause/aging-related vascular complications and muscle weakness.

  15. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to straighten one or more joints. Common Extensor Tendon Injuries Mallet Finger refers to a drooping end- ...

  16. Age-related changes in the effects of strength training on lower leg muscles in healthy individuals measured using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psatha, Maria; Wu, Zhiqing; Gammie, Fiona; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Wackerhage, Henning; Redpath, Thomas W; Gilbert, Fiona J; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide a biomarker for muscle function. Men and women were recruited in three age groups: 20-30, 50-65 and over 70 years. Their response to resistance training of the right lower leg twice a week for 8 weeks was monitored using a dynamometer and MRI of tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles at 2 weekly intervals to measure muscle size (anatomical cross-sectional area ( ACSA )) and quality ( T 2 relaxation). Forty-four volunteers completed the study. Baseline strength declined with age. Training had no effect in middle-aged females or in elderly men in dorsiflexion. Other groups significantly increased both plantarflexion and dorsiflexion strength at rates up to 5.5 N m week -1 in young females in plantarflexion and 1.25 N m week -1 in young males in dorsiflexion. No changes were observed in ACSA or T 2 in any age group in any muscle. Exercise training improves muscle strength in males at all ages except the elderly in dorsiflexion. Responses in females were less clear with variation across age and muscle groups. These results were not reflected in simple MRI measures that do not, therefore, provide a good biomarker for muscle atrophy or the efficacy of rehabilitation.

  17. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  18. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    . Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine which muscle strength parameter would serve as a stronger predictor of walking performance. RESULTS: Both RFD and maximal muscle strength correlated with functional capacity. Correlations were strongest for knee extensors and flexors of the weaker leg......, while no clear ranking of the influence of the knee extensors vs. flexors on walking was evident. Multiple linear regressions showed that maximal isokinetic strength of the weaker leg is a better predictor for T25FWT and 2MWT performance than RFD. CONCLUSIONS: Maximal muscle strength of the weaker leg......BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...

  19. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isome...

  20. Does change in isolated lumbar extensor muscle function correlate with good clinical outcome? A secondary analysis of data on change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Perrin, Craig; Conway, Rebecca; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave

    2018-01-12

    Secondary analysis of data from studies utilising isolated lumbar extension exercise interventions for correlations among changes in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Studies reporting isolated lumbar extension strength changes were examined for inclusion criteria including: (1) participants with chronic low back pain, (2) intervention ≥ four weeks including isolated lumbar extension exercise, (3) outcome measures including isolated lumbar extension strength, pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and disability (Oswestry Disability Index). Six studies encompassing 281 participants were included. Correlations among change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Participants were grouped as "met" or "not met" based on minimal clinically important changes and between groups comparisons conducted. Isolated lumbar extension strength and Visual Analogue Scale pooled analysis showed significant weak to moderate correlations (r = -0.391 to -0.539, all p Disability Index pooled analysis showed significant weak correlations (r = -0.349 to -0.470, all p disability, isolated lumbar extension strength changes were greater for those "met" compared with those "not met" (p disability. This study shows significant correlations between increases in isolated lumbar extension strength and reductions in pain and disability. Strengthening of the lumbar extensor musculature could be considered an important target for exercise interventions.

  1. The single-leg Roman chair hold is more effective than the Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance in Gaelic footballers with previous hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ben; O'Neill, John; Pollock, Noel; Van Hooren, Bas

    2018-03-06

    Poor hamstring strength-endurance is a risk factor for hamstring injuries. This study investigated the effectiveness of the single-leg Roman hold and Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance. Twelve Gaelic footballers (mean ± standard deviation age, height and mass were 25.17 ± 3.46 years, 179.25 ± 5.88 cm, 85.75 ± 4.75 kilo) with a history of hamstring injury were randomized into 2 groups that performed 6 weeks of either Nordic hamstring curl, or single-leg Roman chair hold training. The single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was measured pre- and post- intervention. The Roman chair group showed a very likely moderate magnitude improvement on SLHB performance for both legs (23.7% for the previously injured leg [90% confidence interval 9.6% to 39.6%] and 16.9% for the non-injured leg [6.2% to 28.8%]). The Nordic curl group showed a likely trivial change in SLHB performance for the non-injured leg (-2.1% [-6.7% to 2.6%]) and an unclear, but possibly trivial change for the previously injured leg (0.3% [-5.6% to 6.6%]). The Roman chair group improved very likely more with a moderate magnitude in both the non-injured (19.5% [8.0% to 32.2%]) and the previously injured leg (23.3% [8.5% to 40.0%]) compared to the Nordic curl group. This study demonstrated that 6-weeks single-leg Roman chair training substantially improved SLHB performance, suggesting that it may be an efficacious strategy to mitigate hamstring (re-) injury risk. Conversely, 6-weeks Nordic curl training did not substantially improve SLHB performance, suggesting this may not be the intervention of choice for modifying this risk factor.

  2. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to ...

  3. Behaviour of venous flow rates in intermittent sequential pneumatic compression of the legs using different compression strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassmann-Glaser, I.

    1984-01-01

    A study with 25 patients was performed in order to find out whether intermittent, sequential, pneumatic leg compression is of value in the preventive management of thrombosis due to its effect on the venous flow rates. For this purpose, xenon 133 was injected into one of the foot veins and the flow rate in each case determined for the distance between instep and inguen using different compression strengths, with pressure being exerted on the ankle, calf and thigh. Increased flow rates were already measured at an average pressure value of 34.5 mmHg, while the maximum effect was achieved by exerting a pressure of 92.5 mmHg, which increased the flow rate by 366% as compared to the baseline value. The results point to a significant improvement of the venous flow rates due to intermittent, sequential, pneumatic leg compression and thus provide evidence to prove the value of this method in the prevention of hemostasis and thrombosis. (TRV) [de

  4. A rare anomaly of the extensor digitorum longus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Eisuke; Kato, Hiroyuki; Honda, Nobuhiko; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2004-12-01

    We encountered the absence of the tendon to the fourth toe of the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the right leg in the body of a 73-year-old Japanese woman during the course of educational dissection at Nagoya City University Medical School. The tendon to the fourth toe of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was solely absent. To our knowledge, this anatomical variation has never been cited in the medical literature. We document the precise gross anatomical findings with some morphometric measurements. Moreover, we discuss the morphology of this anomaly in relation to previously described variations and anomalies of the extensor digitorum longus muscle.

  5. Effects of In-Season Explosive Strength Training on Maximal Leg Strength, Jumping, Sprinting, and Intermittent Aerobic Performance in Male Handball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-09-01

    Background  Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective  The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an in-season high-intensity strength training program on the physical performance of elite handball players. Materials and methods  Twenty-two handball players (a single national-level Tunisian team) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n = 10) or a training group (TG; n = 12). At the beginning of the pilot study, all subjects performed a battery of motor tests: one repetition maximum (1-RM) half-squat test, a repeated sprint test [6 × (2 × 15 m) shuttle sprints], squat jumps, counter movement jumps (CMJ), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1. The TG additionally performed a maximal leg strength program twice a week for 10 weeks immediately before engaging in regular handball training. Each strength training session included half-squat exercises to strengthen the lower limbs (80 - 95 % of 1-RM, 1 - 3 repetitions, 3 - 6 sets, 3 - 4 min rest between sets). The control group underwent no additional strength training. The motor test battery was repeated at the end of the study interventions. Results  In the TG, 3 parameters (maximal strength of lower limb: η² = 0.74; CMJ: η² = 0.70, and RSA best time: η² = 0.25) showed significant improvements, with large effect sizes (e. g. CMJ: d = 3.77). A reduction in performance for these same 3 parameters was observed in the CG (d = -0.24). Conclusions  The results support our hypothesis that additional strength training twice a week enhances the maximal strength of the lower limbs and jumping or repeated sprinting performance. There was no evidence of shuttle sprints ahead of regular

  6. Impacto do alongamento estático no ganho de força muscular dos extensores de joelho em idosas da comunidade após um programa de treinamento Impact of static stretching on the gain in knee-extensor strength of community-dwelling older women after a training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia P. Lustosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A diminuição da força muscular em idosos tem impacto na funcionalidade. Programas de reforço muscular são propostos, porém existem controvérsias quanto ao efeito de alongamentos prévios no ganho de força muscular. OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto do alongamento estático no ganho de força dos músculos extensores de joelho em idosas da comunidade após programa de treinamento. MÉTODOS:Trata-se de um estudo quase-experimental, em que se realizou um programa de exercícios de fortalecimento muscular dos extensores de joelho durante 10 semanas, com avaliação final de 12 idosas da comunidade divididas em dois grupos: AE - exercícios com carga e alongamentos prévios em todas as sessões, média de idade de 73,8 (±5,36 anos e E - mesmos exercícios com carga do grupo acima, sem a realização de alongamentos prévios, média de idade de 72,14 (±5,43 anos. Para avaliar o ganho de força muscular dos extensores de joelho, utilizou-se o dinamômetro isocinético Biodex System 3 Pro, no modo concêntrico, na velocidade de movimento angular de 60 e 180º/segundos (s e, para a análise, a diferença das médias da pré e da pós-intervenção da variável trabalho, normalizada pelo peso corporal. RESULTADOS: Os dados apresentaram-se normais pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk (p>0,266. Quando comparadas as médias da diferença da pré e da pós-intervenção pelo teste t para amostras independentes, não houve diferença significativa em nenhum dos membros e nas velocidades avaliadas (p>0,383. CONCLUSÃO: O alongamento estático prévio não interferiu no ganho de força muscular após um programa de fortalecimento de 10 semanas na população estudada. Artigo registrado no ISRCTN register sob o número ISRCTN62824599.BACKGROUND: The decrease in muscle strength in older adults has an impact on functionality. Muscle strengthening programs have been proposed, however there is some controversy surrounding the effects of stretching

  7. Gait, Balance, Leg Strength, and Sprint Speed After Bedrest with LBNP Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Watenbaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; William, J. M.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity and bedrest (BR) result in similar physiological decrements such as loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and balance. Previous studies analyzing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have found that gait is similar in LBNP on a vertical treadmill and overground exercise on a horizontal treadmill. Since treadmill exercise is known to increase muscular strength and endurance, we tested the hypothesis that LBNP exercise on a vertical treadmill would prevent or attenuate many of the physical decrements which occur during bedrest. Based on our positive results from diverse tests of post-BR function, we believe that exercise within LBNP is worth pursuing as a countermeasure for reducing the physical deterioration that occurs during bedrest and microgravity.

  8. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  9. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel; Stenager, Egon; Petersen, Thor; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2015-03-01

    Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee extensors and flexors. This has not been investigated for PwMS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between RFD and maximal muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors and measures of functional capacity in PwMS. 35 PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 2-4) underwent isokinetic dynamometry to determine RFD and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength for both legs. Furthermore all participants performed timed 25 foot walk tests (T25FWT), two minute walk tests (2MWT), stairclimb tests and 5-time sit-to-stand (5STS) tests to determine functional capacity. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine which muscle strength parameter would serve as a stronger predictor of walking performance. Both RFD and maximal muscle strength correlated with functional capacity. Correlations were strongest for knee extensors and flexors of the weaker leg, while no clear ranking of the influence of the knee extensors vs. flexors on walking was evident. Multiple linear regressions showed that maximal isokinetic strength of the weaker leg is a better predictor for T25FWT and 2MWT performance than RFD. Maximal muscle strength of the weaker leg is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Muscle strength can better differentiate between gradations of functional performance than muscle quality in healthy 50–70 y women

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Peter; McCormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is not known which laboratory indices of muscle mass, strength or quality can distinguish functional performance in healthy middle aged women. The aim of this study was to (a) examine the association between upper leg lean tissue mass, knee extensor strength, muscle quality (strength per unit lean tissue mass) and functional performance and (b) to determine the utility of tertiles of muscle strength and muscle quality to distinguish gradations of functional capacity in healthy 50...

  11. The effect of the training with the different combinations of frequency and peak-to-peak vibration displacement of whole-body vibration on the strength of knee flexors and extensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration training has become a popular method used in sports and physiotherapy. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different vibration frequency and peak-to-peak displacement combinations on men knee flexors and extensors strength in isokinetic conditions. The sample consisted of 49 male subjects randomly allocated to seven comparative groups, six of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The experimental groups were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The pre- and post- isokinetic strength tests, with the angular velocities of 240°/s and 30°/s, were recorded prior to and 2 days after the training. After 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training, a significant increase was noted regarding the mean values of peak torque, average peak torque and total work for knee flexors at high angular velocity in Groups I (60 Hz/ 4 mm and V (40 Hz/ 2 mm (p<0.05. The mean percentage values of post-training changes to study parameters suggest that the training had the most beneficial effect in Groups I (60 Hz/4 mm and IV (60 Hz/2 mm (p<0.05. Whole-body vibrations during static exercise beneficially affected knee flexor strength profile in young men at high angular velocity. The combinations of 60 Hz/4 mm seem to have the most advantageous effects on muscle strength parameters.

  12. A variation of the extensor hallucis longus muscle (accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Cicekcibasi, Aynur Emine

    2012-06-01

    An accessory muscle adjacent to the extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHL) was observed between the EHL and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the anterior side of both legs of the cadaver of a 72-year-old male, during educational dissection, and it was observed that the tendon of this muscle extended to the second toe. The tendon of this muscle united with the second toe tendon of the EDL. These common tendons appeared before reaching the toe media phalanxes and extended to the related media phalanxes of toe. However, an additional tendon separating from this accessory muscle tendon united with the EHL tendon at the left foot. This accessory muscle, unlike the variations identified to date, is considered to extend to the second toe, and the name "accessory extensor digiti secundus muscle" is offered.

  13. Traditional vs. Sport-Specific Vertical Jump Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Relationship With the Legs Strength and Sprint Performance in Adult and Teen Soccer and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Yáñez-García, Juan M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Mora-Custodio, R, Franco-Márquez, F, Yáñez-García, JM, González-Badillo, JJ. Traditional vs. sport-specific vertical jump tests: reliability, validity, and relationship with the legs strength and sprint performance in adult and teen soccer and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 196-206, 2017-The vertical jump is considered an essential motor skill in many team sports. Many protocols have been used to assess vertical jump ability. However, controversy regarding test selection still exists based on the reliability and specificity of the tests. The main aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of 2 standardized (countermovement jump [CMJ] and Abalakov jump [AJ]) and 2 sport-specific (run-up with 2 [2-LEGS] or 1 leg [1-LEG] take-off jump) vertical jump tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint and strength performance for soccer (n = 127) and basketball (n = 59) players in 3 different categories (Under-15, Under-18, and Adults). Three attempts for each of the 4 jump tests were recorded. Twenty-meter sprint time and estimated 1 repetition maximum in full squat were also evaluated. All jump tests showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.969-0.995) and low coefficients of variation (1.54-4.82%), although 1-LEG was the jump test with the lowest absolute and relative reliability. All selected jump tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.983). Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of one principal component, which explained 82.90-95.79% of the variance of all jump tests. The 1-LEG test showed the lowest associations with sprint and strength performance. The results of this study suggest that CMJ and AJ are the most reliable tests for the estimation of explosive force in soccer and basketball players in different age categories.

  14. The Effect of Intelligence, Leg Muscle Strength, and Balance Towards The Learning Outcomes of Pencak Silat with Empty-Handed Single Artistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aridhotul Haqiyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to Determine the effect of intelligence, leg muscle strength, as well as the balance towards the learning outcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic on the Physical Education students of Islamic University 45 Bekasi. The research method is a survey, and the analysis technique is path analysis. This research held in Islamic University 45 Bekasi with 122 people of population. The sampling technique used is random sampling, then a sample of this research is 60 people. The instruments used are a rubric 4 scale (very good, good, enough and less of the learning outcomes of pencak silat emptyhanded single artistic, intelligence test with IST (Intelligent Structure Test, leg muscle strength with instrument squat test, and test of balance by using the modified bass test of dynamic balance. Based the result of the data processing and analysis, the Conclusions are: : (1 Intelligence directly effect on the learningoutcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic with ρy1  = 0.359, (2 Leg muscles strength directlyeffect on the learning outcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic with ρy2 = 0.228, (3 Balance directly effect on the learning outcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic with ρy3 = 0.356, (4 Intelligence directly effects on the balance with ρ31 = 0.662, and (5 Leg muscle strength directly effectson the balance with ρ32 = 0.298.

  15. Unilateral Variation in Extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerje, A; Singh, S; Raza, K; Rani, N; Kaler, S

    2016-01-01

    During a routine dissection of an adult embalmed male cadaver for educational purpose in the department of anatomy at AIIMS, New Delhi, India, a rare unilateral variation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was found which is a muscle of anterior compartment of the leg. There was a split tendon of EDL muscle in the anterior compartment of left leg which became a common tendon in front of the ankle joint. This common tendon of EDL muscle again divided into four slips and were inserted in to the lateral four toes. In the upper part of the leg, the anterior tibial vessel and deep fibular nerve lie between the EDL and tibialis anterior. Knowledge of this type of anomaly is useful in diagnosis and treatment of compartmental syndrome. One of the tendon from the split tendon of EDL muscle can be used as a graft in tendon replacement surgeries. The split tendon may also be capable for some precise movements of the toes.

  16. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  17. Leg and Trunk Impairments Predict Participation in Life Roles in Older Adults: Results From Boston RISE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Latham, Nancy K; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne G; Bean, Jonathan F

    2016-05-01

    The physical impairments that affect participation in life roles among older adults have not been identified. Using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health as a conceptual framework, we aimed to determine the leg and trunk impairments that predict participation over 2 years, both directly and indirectly through mediation by changes in activities. We analyzed 2 years of data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients with self-reported mobility limitation (mean age 77 years; 68% female; average of four chronic conditions). Frequency of and limitations in participation were examined using the Late-Life Disability Instrument. Baseline physical impairments included: leg strength, leg speed of movement, knee range of motion (ROM), ankle ROM, leg strength asymmetry, kyphosis, and trunk extensor endurance. Structural equation modeling with latent growth curve analysis was used to identify the impairments that predicted participation at year 2, mediated by changes in activities. Models were adjusted for baseline participation, age, and gender. Leg speed and ankle ROM directly influenced participation in life roles during follow-up (βdirect = 1.39-4.53 and 4.70, respectively). Additionally, ankle ROM and trunk extensor endurance contributed indirectly to participation score at follow-up via effects on changes in activities (βindirect = -1.06 to -4.24 and 1.01 to 4.18, respectively). Leg speed, ankle ROM, and trunk extensor endurance are key physical impairments predicting participation in life roles in older adults. These results have implications for the development of exercise interventions to enhance participation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Decrements in knee extensor and flexor strength are associated with performance fatigue during simulated basketball game-play in adolescent, male players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Delextrat, Anne; Spiteri, Tania; Dalbo, Vincent J; Stanton, Robert; Kean, Crystal O

    2018-04-01

    This study quantified lower-limb strength decrements and assessed the relationships between strength decrements and performance fatigue during simulated basketball. Ten adolescent, male basketball players completed a circuit-based, basketball simulation. Sprint and jump performance were assessed during each circuit, with knee flexion and extension peak concentric torques measured at baseline, half-time, and full-time. Decrement scores were calculated for all measures. Mean knee flexor strength decrement was significantly (P jump fatigue during the entire game. Lower-limb strength decrements may exert an important influence on performance fatigue during basketball activity in adolescent, male players. Consequently, training plans should aim to mitigate lower-limb fatigue to optimise sprint and jump performance during game-play.

  19. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1 plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, (2 functional capacity and (3 knee extensor muscle strength. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004. All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity kits (Quantikine®HS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.. Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180°/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks. After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will

  20. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, J; Steultjens, M P M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; van der Esch, M; Thorstensson, C A; Twisk, J W R; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van der Leeden, M; Dekker, J

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception) underlie the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 38 weeks. Rehabilitation centre. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with knee OA. Exercise therapy. Changes in pain [numeric rating scale (NRS)] and activity limitations [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and get-up-and-go test] during the study period. Independent variables were changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee joint proprioception (i.e. motion sense) during the study period. Longitudinal regression analyses (generalised estimating equation) were performed to analyse associations between changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception with changes in pain and activity limitations. Improved muscle strength was significantly associated with reductions in NRS pain {B coefficient -2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) -3.7 to -1.4], meaning that every change of 1 unit of strength was linked to a change of -2.5 units of pain}, WOMAC physical function (-8.8, 95% CI -13.4 to -4.2) and get-up-and-go test (-1.7, 95% CI -2.4 to -1.0). Improved proprioception was not significantly associated with better outcomes of exercise therapy (P>0.05). Upper leg muscle strengthening is one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Venogram - leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebogram - leg; Venography - leg; Angiogram - leg ... into a vein in the foot of the leg being looked at. An intravenous (IV) line is ... vein. A tourniquet may be placed on your leg so the dye flows into the deeper veins. ...

  2. Checkrein deformity due to extensor hallucis longus hypotrophy treated with extensor digitorum longus tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Toshinori; Kawabata, Kensuke; Suzuki, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Checkrein deformity is a relatively rare condition caused by hypotrophy or adhesion of a tendon after a lower leg injury. The occurrence of this condition due to the dysfunction of the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) is extremely rare. Only a few related case reports have been published, and Z-lengthening of the EHL tendon was performed for almost all patients. We report a case of checkrein deformity due to EHL hypotrophy. The patient was involved in a traffic accident 7 years ago. He sustained left tibial and fibular closed diaphyseal fractures and underwent minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis. He continued to have left great toe symptoms characterized by dorsiflexion of the great toe during ankle plantarflexion. The EHL had become an insufficient power source because of considerable hypotrophy. Therefore, a tendon transfer using the extensor digitorum longus to the second toe was performed as a primary treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Twelve weeks' progressive resistance training combined with protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes increases upper leg lean tissue mass, muscle strength and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Mc Cormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Norton, Catherine; Saunders, Jean; Kerin, Emmet; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks. Of the 57 women, 29 also engaged in a PRT intervention (PRO + PRT). In comparison to the PRO group (n = 28), those in the PRO + PRT group had an increase in upper leg LTM [0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01) kg vs. 0.13 (95% CI 0.08-0.18) kg, P = 0.027], as measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; an increase in knee extensor (KE) torque [-1.6 (95% CI -7.3 to 4.4 N m) vs. 10.2 (95% CI 4.3-15.8 N m), P = 0.007], as measured from a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG); and an increase in extended gait speed [-0.01 (95% CI -0.52-0.04) m s -1 vs. 0.10 (95% CI 0.05-0.22) m s -1 , P = 0.001] as measured from a maximal 900 m effort. There was no difference between groups in the time taken to complete 5 chair rises or the number of chair rises performed in 30 s (P > 0.05). PRT in healthy older women ingesting a dietary protein supplement is an effective strategy to improve upper leg LTM, KE torque and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

  4. Metric Tensor Vs. Metric Extensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, V. V.; Moya, A. M.; Rodrigues Jr, Waldyr A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we give a comparison between the formulation of the concept of metric for a real vector space of finite dimension in terms of \\emph{tensors} and \\emph{extensors}. A nice property of metric extensors is that they have inverses which are also themselves metric extensors. This property is not shared by metric tensors because tensors do \\emph{not} have inverses. We relate the definition of determinant of a metric extensor with the classical determinant of the corresponding matrix as...

  5. Isokinetic Evaluation of Quadriceps Strength in Open and Closed Kinetic Chains in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ashraf-Jamshidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strength of knee extension and squat were compared between anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR patients and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Twenty ACLR and twenty control subjects were participated in this non-exprimental study. Isokinetic peak strength of knee extension and squat in involved and uninvolved side of the ACLR patient and control group were measured. Results: Concentric and eccentric knee extension strength of the involved leg was decreased but squat strength showed no difference. Conclusion: In spite of return to sport activity and normal squat strength weakness of knee extensor muscles in the involved side of the ACLR patient was existed.

  6. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postural Balance and Muscle Strength in Children Aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Prasetiowati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood overweight and obesity, which are considered as global epidemic, can be assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI. BMI difference can lead to anatomic changes due to an increased body load. This increase might also affect motor performance, including changes in postural balance and muscle strength. Aims and Objectives: to explain the influence of BMI on postural balance and lower limb muscle strength and to assess the correlation between those two variables in children aged 8-10 years. Material and methods:The sample consisted of 63 children aged 8-10 years, which were divided in 3 groups: BMI-normal, BMI-overweight, and BMI-obese. The postural balance was assessed using single leg balance test on MatScan and the Center Of Pressure (COP area was recorded. Isometric muscle strength of hip extensor and knee extensor were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Results: Obese children had significantly largerCOP area than overweight (p = 0.004 and normal weight children (p = 0.000.There were no significant differences in hip extensor muscle strength between obese children with overweight and normal weight children (p=0.527. The absolute knee extensor muscle strength in obese group was significantly higher than the overweight and normal group (p = 0.003. However the relative muscle strength of lower limb for obese children was significantly lower than for normal weight. There was no significant correlation between absolute hip extensor and knee extensor muscles strength with COP area. Conclusion: Obese children have decreased postural balance and increased absolute knee extensormuscle strength significantly when compared to overweight and normal children. There is no significant correlation between postural balance and muscle strength.

  7. Ischemic Conditioning Increases Strength and Volitional Activation of Paretic Muscle in Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyngstrom, Allison S; Murphy, Spencer A; Nguyen, Jennifer; Schmit, Brian D; Negro, Francesco; Gutterman, David D; Durand, Matthew J

    2018-02-08

    Ischemic conditioning (IC) on the arm or leg has emerged as an intervention to improve strength and performance in healthy populations, but the effects on neurologic populations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a single session of IC on knee extensor strength and muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. Maximal knee extensor torque measurements and surface EMG were quantified in 10 chronic stroke survivors (>1 year post-stroke) with hemiparesis before and after a single session of IC or Sham on the paretic leg. IC consisted of five minutes of compression with a proximal thigh cuff (inflation pressure = 225 mmHg for IC or 25 mmHg for Sham) followed by five minutes of rest. This was repeated five times. Maximal knee extensor strength, EMG magnitude, and motor unit firing behavior were measured before and immediately after IC or Sham. IC increased paretic leg strength by 10.6{plus minus}8.5 Nm while no difference was observed in the Sham group (change in Sham = 1.3{plus minus}2.9 Nm; p = 0.001 IC vs. Sham). IC-induced increases in strength were accompanied by a 31{plus minus}15% increase in the magnitude of muscle EMG during maximal contractions and a 5% decrease in motor unit recruitment thresholds during sub-maximal contractions. Individuals who had the most asymmetry in strength between their paretic and non-paretic legs had the largest increases in strength (r 2 = 0.54). This study provides evidence that a single session of IC can increase strength through improved muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors.

  8. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m 2 ) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm 2 ). Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3.13 cm 2 ) were of no importance regarding the

  9. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes...... acid production was also 10-fold higher during exercise compared with that at rest (difference not significant). The net production rates of threonine, glycine and tyrosine and of the sum of the non-metabolized amino acids were about 1.5-2.5-fold higher during exercise with the leg with a low glycogen...... in the concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  10. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  11. Isometric muscle function of knee extensors and the relation with functional performance in patients with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, K.H.L.; Beltman, M.J.; Koppe, P.A.; Konijnenbelt, H.; Elich, P.D.; de Haan, A.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gerrits KH, Beltman MJ, Koppe PA, Konijnenbelt H, Elich PD, de Haan A, Janssen TW. Isometric muscle function of knee extensors and the relation with functional performance in patients with stroke. Objective: (1) To examine the isometric strength, speed, and fatigue resistance of the knee extensors

  12. An anatomic and biomechanic study of the wrist extensor retinaculum septa and tendon compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Morris, Randal P; Andersen, Clark; Patterson, Rita M; Viegas, Steven F

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the extensor retinaculum of the wrist has been described previously; the purpose of this study was to describe the specific anatomy of the septal attachments on the radius and to investigate the mechanical strength of each septal attachment on the radius and each of the 6 compartments of the extensor retinaculum. Thirty-four wrists from 24 fresh-frozen and 10 embalmed cadavers were used. First, anatomic measurements of the individual extensor retinaculum septums were performed with calipers and a 3-dimensional digitizer. Next each extensor retinaculum septum was excised as a bone-retinaculum-bone autograft and was tested in tension to failure with a materials testing machine. Finally the 6 extensor retinaculum compartments were tested to failure. Septum 1/2 had the largest radial surface area and septum 3/4 had the smallest. Septum 1/2 also was found to have the highest failure strength at 51.3 +/- 15.3 N. In compartment testing, compartments 1 and 2 had the highest overall resistance to failure and compartment 5 had the lowest. Compartment 6, which was thought to be the weakest because of clinically observed subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, had stronger failure data than expected. This study offers detailed analysis of the extensor retinaculum compartments and 3-dimensional anatomy of the septal attachments. Clinically this study lends insight to the strength of bone-retinaculum-bone autografts and the etiology of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation.

  13. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (Pvertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, Pvertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  14. Effects of leg contrast strength training on sprint, agility and repeated change of direction performance in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2017-11-01

    Contrast training is a popular technique among individuals who are involved in dynamic sports, having as its goal an increase in dynamic muscular performance. It is characterized by the use of high and low loads in the same strength training session. The present investigation aimed to determine the effects of adding 8 weeks of contrast strength training (CSTP) to regular soccer practice in U-17 male soccer players during the competitive season. We hypothesized that CSTP would enhance their performance. Subjects were divided randomly between a control group (CG, N.=12) and a contrast strength group (CSG, N.=19). The 2 groups trained together; controls followed the regular soccer program, which was replaced by a contrast strength training program for the experimental group. Performance was assessed before and after training, using 10 measures: 5-10-, 20- 30-, and 40-m sprints, a 4x5 m sprint (S4x5), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with 180° turns (S180), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running (SBF), a Repeated-Shuttle-Sprint Ability Test (RSSA), and a Repeated Change of Direction Test (RCOD). CSG showed gains relative to controls in 5-m (Pstrength training can be commended to U-17 male soccer players as a means of improving many important components of athletic performance relative to standard in-season training.

  15. Efeitos da crioterapia e facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva sobre a força muscular nas musculaturas flexora e extensora de joelho Effects of cryotherapy and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscle strength at the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Moreira Mortari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As musculaturas flexora e extensora do joelho são freqüentemente lesionadas devido a um desequilíbrio entre esses grupos. Recursos térmicos, como a crioterapia, e técnicas de alongamento, como a técnica mantém-relaxa da facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP, influenciam a flexibilidade e força muscular, proporcionando maior homogeneidade entre essas musculaturas e diminuindo a incidência de lesões. Este estudo objetivou verificar os efeitos da crioterapia e da FNP sobre a força das musculaturas flexora e extensora de joelho. A amostra foi composta por 18 mulheres com idade entre 18 e 24 anos, não-praticantes de atividade física regular, divididas em dois grupos: um submetido a crioterapia e o outro à técnica mantém-relaxa da FNP. Antes e após uma sessão de aplicação das técnicas foi feita avaliação isocinética. A aplicação da técnica mantém-relaxa provocou aumento da força em ambas as musculaturas em ambos os membros, atingindo nível de significância nos flexores do membro inferior direito (p=0,04. A crioterapia diminuiu a força dos extensores e exerceu efeito contrário sobre os flexores, tendo gerado aumento significativo nos flexores do membro inferior direito (p=0,035. Quando comparadas as técnicas, a técnica mantém-relaxa gerou maiores valores de pico de torque, principalmente nos extensores do membro inferior esquerdo (p=0,042. Conclui-se que a técnica mantém-relaxa da FNP gerou maiores valores no pico de torque em relação à crioterapia.Knee extensor and flexor muscles are often injured due to an imbalance between these groups, which may lead to a deficit in muscle performance. Thermal resources, such as cryotherapy, and stretching techniques, such as the "hold-relax" of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF, influence flexibility and muscle strength and may reduce the chances of muscle tendon injuries. The aim of the study was to verify the effects of cryotherapy and of the PNF

  16. The effects of imagery on fast isometric knee extensor torque development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Hutter, R.I.; Icke, C; Groen, B; Gemmink, A; Smilde, H; de Haan, A.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that imagery training would improve fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training,

  17. Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on physical fitness and symptoms in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkeinen, Heli; Alén, Markku; Häkkinen, Arja; Hannonen, Pekka; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2008-09-01

    To examine the effectiveness of concurrent strength and endurance training on muscle strength, aerobic and functional performance, and symptoms in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia (FM). Randomized controlled trial. Local gym and university research laboratory. Twenty-six women with FM. Progressive and supervised 21-week concurrent strength and endurance training. Muscle strength of leg extensors, upper extremities, and trunk; peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2)peak), maximal workload (Wmax), and work time; 10-m walking and 10-step stair-climbing time and self-reported functional capacity (Health Assessment Questionnaire); and symptoms of FM. After concurrent strength and endurance training, the groups differed significantly in Wmax (P=.001), work time (P=.001), concentric leg extension force (P=.043), walking (P=.001) and stair-climbing (P<.001) time, and fatigue (P=.038). The training led to an increase of 10% (P=.004) in Wmax and 13% (P=.004) in work time on the bicycle but no change in Vo(2)peak. Concurrent strength and endurance training in low to moderate volume improves the muscle strength of leg extensors, Wmax, work time, and functional performance as well as perceived symptoms, fatigue in particular. Concurrent strength and endurance training is beneficial to postmenopausal women with FM without adversities, but more extensive studies are needed to confirm the results.

  18. One session of strength exercise does not promote negative changes in the structure venous leg and thigh in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson de Araújo Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the venous diameter is associated with the incompetence of the venous system of lower limb. In order to analyze the acute effects of one session of strength exercise (SE on superficial venous diameter (VD of the lower limbs (LL. Twenty-two men (22 ± 2 years old, 81.2 ± 13.4kg weight, 173.0 ± 4.0 cm height and 18.6 ± 3.3% estimated body fat performed a circuit of  three SE, with 3 sets of 6 repetitions, controlled by metronome, with a load of 85% (1-RM and 3 minutes rest. The VDs of the internal saphenous vein (ISV, in right and left LL, were measured at baseline and immediately after each set with color eco-Doppler. Data were analyzed by means of a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. There was a significant effect of time for the right and left VSI (p= 0.001, the VDs at baseline were higher than in series for both. Furthermore, between sets, there was a significant decrease between the first and second (p= 0.009 and an increase between the second and third series (p= 0.027 for the right ISV. For the left ISV, only measured after the first and second are different (p= 0.001. There was a trend toward reduction in VD after the acute bout of strength exercise, indicating that their practice is efficient for the performance of this structure.

  19. The Effects of Resistance Training on Lower and Upper Body Strength Gains in Young Women

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    Paulo Gentil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that hypertrophy gains is greater in upper body compared to lower body, however, there is no consensus that muscular strength gains are greater in upper body than in lower body. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the strength gains between knee extensors and elbow flexors in response to similar resistance training regimens. Fifty five untrained young women (age: 21.6 ± 2.9 years, weight: 58.3 ± 9.0 kg and height: 163.6 ± 7.5 cm (Mean±SD participated in the study as volunteers. Resistance training was performed twice a week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions for leg press, knee flexion, lat pull down and bench press exercises. Unilateral knee extensors and elbow flexors peak torque (PT were measured before and after the training period by performing two sets of four repetitions at 60°s-1, on an isokinetic dynamometer. There were significant increases in PT for both elbow flexors (11.74% [8.0, 17.7], p 0.05. However, there was no correlation between gains in knee extensors and elbow flexors PT. The analysis of knee extensors PT lead to the formation of two clusters groups: 1 High responders (n=10: 28.29 ± 8.74% and 2 Low-responders (n=37: 7.94 ± 5.95%. Both groups had significant increases in knee extensors PT, however, increases in the high responders were higher than in low responders (p< 0.05.These results suggest that upper- and lower body muscles present similar strength gains after similar resistance training regimens in untrained young women, although individual muscle response may vary in upper and lower body muscles. Keywords: Knee extensors, Elbow flexors, Peak torque

  20. Pain severity is associated with muscle strength and peak oxygen uptake in adults with fibromyalgia

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    Hooten WM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available W Michael Hooten,1,2 Jolene M Smith,3 Jason S Eldrige,1 David A Olsen,3 W David Mauck,1 Susan M Moeschler11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 3Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, MN, USABackground: The associations between pain, lower extremity strength, and aerobic conditioning have not been widely investigated in adults with fibromyalgia (FM. The principle objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain severity and knee strength in patients seeking treatment for FM. A secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between pain scores and aerobic conditioning.Methods: Three measures of knee strength (isokinetic extensor, isokinetic flexor, isometric extensor were quantified in the dominant leg of 69 adults with FM using a dynamometer at speeds of 60 degrees per second (60°/s and 180°/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 was assessed using a cycle ergometer, and pain was assessed using the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory.Results: In univariable linear regression analyses using pain severity as the dependent variable, lesser values of isokinetic knee extensor strength at 60°/s (P=0.041 and 180°/s (P=0.010, isokinetic knee flexor strength at 60°/s (P=0.028 and 180°/s (P=0.003, and peak VO2 uptake (P=0.031 were predictive of greater pain severity scores. In multiple variable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and opioid use, the following associations retained statistical significance; isokinetic knee extensor strength at 60°/s (P=0.020 and 180°/s (P=0.003, isokinetic knee flexor strength at 60°/s (P=0.015 and 180°/s (P=0.001, and peak VO2 uptake (P=0.014. However, no significant associations were found between pain severity and isometric knee extensor strength.Conclusion: The main findings from this study were that lesser values of isokinetic knee strength and peak VO

  1. Preoperative Strength Training for Elderly Patients Awaiting Total Knee Arthroplasty

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    D. M. van Leeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the feasibility and effects of additional preoperative high intensity strength training for patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Design. Clinical controlled trial. Patients. Twenty-two patients awaiting TKA. Methods. Patients were allocated to a standard training group or a group receiving standard training with additional progressive strength training for 6 weeks. Isometric knee extensor strength, voluntary activation, chair stand, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, and stair climbing were assessed before and after 6 weeks of training and 6 and 12 weeks after TKA. Results. For 3 of the 11 patients in the intensive strength group, training load had to be adjusted because of pain. For both groups combined, improvements in chair stand and 6MWT were observed before surgery, but intensive strength training was not more effective than standard training. Voluntary activation did not change before and after surgery, and postoperative recovery was not different between groups (P>0.05. Knee extensor strength of the affected leg before surgery was significantly associated with 6-minute walk (r=0.50 and the stair climb (r−=0.58, P<0.05. Conclusion. Intensive strength training was feasible for the majority of patients, but there were no indications that it is more effective than standard training to increase preoperative physical performance. This trial was registered with NTR2278.

  2. Is chair rise performance a useful measure of leg power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Shah, Imran; Harridge, Stephen; Guralnik, Jack; Kuh, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Chair rise performance, which is simple to assess in a home or clinic setting, has been used as a method of predicting leg power deficit in older adults. More recently, chair rise performance has been assessed in younger populations as a baseline for assessment of subsequent age-related declines in function and power. However, as rising from a chair repeatedly not only requires lower limb strength and power but also good balance and coordination, it may not be purely a measure of leg power especially among these younger, well functioning groups who are yet to experience agerelated declines and deficits in function. The aim of this study was to assess whether chair rise performance can be considered as a predictor of leg power, and hence of deficits in this, in men and women in mid-life. We assessed the relationship of chair rise performance with leg extensor power (LEP), measured using the Nottingham Power Rig (NPR), and with standing balance performance. LEP was measured in a clinic setting in a sub-sample of 81 men and 93 women from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative cohort born in Britain in 1946. The time taken to rise from a chair 10 times and standing balance time were assessed during home visits at the same age. Increasing LEP was associated with better chair rise performance among those who completed 10 chair rises in ≥15 seconds, after adjustment for body size (p=0.008). Better standing balance performance was associated with better chair rise performance in men, but not women. That LEP and standing balance are both related to chair rise time in men suggests that chair rise time should not be thought of purely as a proxy measure of leg power in middle-aged populations. This has implications for longitudinal studies which want to study age-related decline in chair rise performance.

  3. Intrinsic muscle strength and voluntary activation of both lower limbs and functional performance after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M; Beltman, Marijke J; Gerrits, Karin H; Koppe, Peter; Janssen, Thomas W; Elich, Peter; de Haan, Arnold

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nature of muscle weakness in both legs after stroke compared with able-bodied control individuals and to examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of muscle weakness and coactivation of knee extensors and flexors as well as voluntary activation capacity of knee extensors of both paretic and non-paretic legs and indices of functional performance. Maximal voluntary isometric torques of knee extensors (MVCe) and flexors (MVCf) were determined in 14 patients (bilaterally) and 12 able-bodied controls. Simultaneous measurements were made of torque and surface EMG from agonist and antagonist muscles. Coactivation was calculated. Supramaximal triplets were evoked with electrical stimulation to estimate maximal torque capacity and degree of voluntary activation of knee extensors. MVCs, activation and coactivation parameters were correlated to scores of seven functional performance tests. MVCe, MVCf and voluntary activation were lower in paretic lower limb (PL) compared with both non-paretic lower limb (NL) and control. Besides, all these parameters of NL were also lower than control. Electrically evoked torque capacity of knee extensors of PL was about 60% of both NL and control, which were not significantly different from each other. Strong significant correlations between strength, as well as voluntary activation, and functional performance were found. Coactivation did not correlate well with functional performance. Thus, whereas for NL activation failure can explain weakness, for PL both activation failure and reduced intrinsic torque capacity are responsible for the severe weakness. Activation capacity and muscle strength correlated strongly to functional performance, while coactivation did not.

  4. Efeito de um programa de resistência muscular na capacidade funcional e na força muscular dos extensores do joelho em idosas pré-frágeis da comunidade: ensaio clínico aleatorizado do tipo crossover Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia P. Lustosa

    2011-08-01

    vulnerability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. METHODS: Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM, lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG, 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0/s. The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests RESULTS: After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0/s (F=12.71, p=0.02, on the power at 180(0/s (F=15.40, p=0.02 and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01. There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01. CONCLUSION: The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  5. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  6. Knee extensors kinetic chain training in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark C; Morrissey, Matthew C; Morrissey, Dylan; Knight, Philippa R; McAuliffe, Thomas B; King, John B

    2005-11-01

    Open kinetic chain (OKC) knee extensor resistance training has lost favour in rehabilitation of patients with knee ACLD due to concerns that this exercise is harmful to the remaining portion of the ACL and its secondary stabilizers, and will be less effective in improving function. In this randomized, single-blind clinical trial, closed and OKC knee extensor training were compared for their effects on knee laxity and function in patients with ACLD knees. Sixty-four patients with a diagnosis of knee ACLD (49 M, 15 F; mean age=30 years) were measured for knee laxity, using a ligament arthrometer, and function with the Hughston Clinic knee self-assessment questionnaire and maximal effort single leg jump testing. Between the above tests and identical tests carried out 6 weeks later, subjects trained using either open or closed kinetic chain resistance of their knee and hip extensors as part of formal physical therapy sessions three times per week for 6 weeks. The groups exhibited no statistically significant differences (pACL deficiency, and shows no superiority to CKC training.

  7. The effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on the height of a squat jump: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Nagano, Akinori; Hay, Dean C; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on maximal height of the squat jump. A computer simulation technique was used to develop two kinds of 3D human lower limb musculoskeletal model (model-symmetry and model-asymmetry). The total muscle strength of the two models was set to be identical. Bilateral muscle strength was equal in the model-symmetry simulation, while the model-asymmetry simulation was performed with a 10% bilateral strength asymmetry. A forward dynamics approach was used to simulate squat jumps. The squat jumps were successfully generated, producing jump heights of 0.389 m for model-symmetry and 0.387 m for model-asymmetry. The small difference in height (0.5%) indicated that the effect of the 10% bilateral asymmetry of muscle strength on jump height is negligible. With model-asymmetry, the strong leg compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg. Importantly, the mono-articular and large extensor muscles of the hip and knee joint of the strong leg, including the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and vasti, compensated for the muscle strength deficit of the weak leg.

  8. Direct repair of the sagittal band for extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In Tae; Oh, Chi Hoon; Sim, Young Suk; Han, Soo Hong

    2017-09-01

    For patients with metacarpophalangeal (MCP) extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury, we performed an extensor tendon realignment and direct repair technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after direct repair of the sagittal band in patients with MCP extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury and to introduce the repair technique. A total of 26 patients with a mean age of 39.9 years were included in the study. The mean time from injury to surgery was 51.3 days. The ruptured sagittal band was reattached to the lateral side of the extensor tendon using a continuous interlocking suture. Patients were evaluated for pain using a visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion, long fingertip pinch strength, disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, and the recurrence of extensor tendon subluxation or dislocation. All patients had full range of motion compared to the uninjured contralateral digit. Long fingertip pinch strength was also comparable to that of the contralateral digit in all patients. The DASH score was also improved from a preoperative average of 28.8 to a postoperative average of 1.0. Realignment of the extensor tendon and direct repair of the superficial layer of the sagittal band to the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon is recommended as a treatment option in patients with chronic MCP extensor tendon subluxation, as well as for acute MCP extensor tendon subluxation in patients that have failed or could not maintain conservative treatment approaches.

  9. Transfer of either index finger extensor tendon to the extensor pollicis longus tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, Bryce M; Bogoch, Earl R

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon ruptures have been treated succesfully with the transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) tendon. Situations exist in which, due to intraoperative observations, another tendon transfer may be considered preferable to the standard EIP transfer method. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether transfer of the extensor digitorum communis II (EDC II) tendon from the index finger to the EPL tendon, leaving the EIP tendon to the index finger intact, would serve as an equally efficient transfer and not adversely affect the function of the hand. METHODS: Two patients who had the EDC II tendon transferred to the ruptured EPL tendon, and two patients who had the EIP tendon transferred, were retrospectively reviewed. In each transfer type, one patient had suffered an EPL tendon rupture after a Colles’ fracture, and the other had rheumatoid arthritis. The rupture occurred on the non-dominant side in one patient in each transfer type. Each patient was examined and subjected to range of motion and power testing at least one year following surgery. RESULTS: All four patients showed a minimal extension lag with the lift off test, but there was no noticeable difference in range of motion, pinch grip and hand grip strength between the transfer types. Both EDC II transfer patients demonstrated an 8° to 15° loss of thumb interphalangeal joint flexion compared with the unoperated side; EIP transfer patients demonstrated less than a 5° loss. Three patients demonstrated a minor extension lag in the index finger and middle finger. Extension power of the thumb and index finger in all patients varied with wrist flexion and extension and ranged from 50% to 150% of the unoperated side. CONCLUSIONS: These case reports suggest that either index finger tendon may be successfully transferred in EPL tendon ruptures. PMID:24115870

  10. Evidence of homologous and heterologous effects after unilateral leg training in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Aymen; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of unilateral training on contralateral muscles (cross education) has been demonstrated with adults for over a century. There is limited evidence for cross education of heterologous muscles. Cross education has not been demonstrated with children. It was the objective of this study to investigate cross-education training in children examining ipsilateral and contralateral homologous and heterologous muscles. Forty-eight male children (aged 10-13 years) were assessed for unilateral, ipsilateral and contralateral lower limb strength, power and endurance (1-repetition maximum (RM) leg press, knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), countermovement jump, muscle endurance test (leg press repetitions with 60% 1RM)), and upper body unilateral MVIC elbow flexors (EF) and handgrip strength. An 8-week training program involved 2 unilateral leg press resistance-training groups (high load/low repetitions: 4-8 sets of 5RM, and low load/high repetitions: 1-2 sets of 20RM) and control (untrained) group. All muscles exhibited improvements of 6.1% to 89.1%. The trained limb exhibited greater adaptations than the untrained limb for leg press 1RM (40.3% vs. 25.2%; p = 0.005), and 60% 1RM leg press (104.1% vs. 73.4%; p = 0.0001). The high load/low repetition training induced (p cross-education effects with children and that the effects of unilateral training involve both contralateral homologous and heterologous muscles with the greatest strength-training responses from high-load/low-repetition training.

  11. Vascularization and anatomical model of the mesotendons of the extensor digitorum and extensor indicis muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Zbrodowski, A; Gajisin, S; Grodecki, J

    1980-01-01

    In ten human hands the mesotendons of m. extensor digitorum longus and m. extensor indicis have been examined and described in detail. The various sources of their blood supplies have also been demonstrated and described.

  12. Leg Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 31, ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/leg-swelling/basics/definition/SYM-20050910 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Assessment of Hypertrophic and Pseudo-Hypertrophic Changes in Lower Leg Muscles of Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Their Relationship to Functional Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Ravneet S; Lott, Donovan; Mathur, Sunita; Senesac, Claudia; Deol, Jasjit; Germain, Sean; Bendixen, Roxanna; Forbes, Sean C; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate contractile and non-contractile content of lower leg muscles of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and determine the relationships between non-contractile content and functional abilities. Lower leg muscles of thirty-two boys with DMD and sixteen age matched unaffected controls were imaged. Non-contractile content, contractile cross sectional area and non-contractile cross sectional area of lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, peroneal, medial gastrocnemius and soleus) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Muscle strength, timed functional tests and the Brooke lower extremity score were also assessed. Non-contractile content of lower leg muscles (peroneal, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus) was significantly greater than control group (p<0.05). Non-contractile content of lower leg muscles correlated with Brooke score (rs = 0.64-0.84) and 30 feet walk (rs = 0.66-0.80). Dorsiflexor (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) specific torque was significantly different between the groups. Overall, non-contractile content of the lower leg muscles was greater in DMD than controls. Furthermore, there was an age dependent increase in contractile content in the medial gastrocnemius of boys with DMD. The findings of this study suggest that T1 weighted MR images can be used to monitor disease progression and provide a quantitative estimate of contractile and non-contractile content of tissue in children with DMD.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Assessment of Hypertrophic and Pseudo-Hypertrophic Changes in Lower Leg Muscles of Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Their Relationship to Functional Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet S Vohra

    Full Text Available The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate contractile and non-contractile content of lower leg muscles of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and determine the relationships between non-contractile content and functional abilities.Lower leg muscles of thirty-two boys with DMD and sixteen age matched unaffected controls were imaged. Non-contractile content, contractile cross sectional area and non-contractile cross sectional area of lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, peroneal, medial gastrocnemius and soleus were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Muscle strength, timed functional tests and the Brooke lower extremity score were also assessed.Non-contractile content of lower leg muscles (peroneal, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus was significantly greater than control group (p<0.05. Non-contractile content of lower leg muscles correlated with Brooke score (rs = 0.64-0.84 and 30 feet walk (rs = 0.66-0.80. Dorsiflexor (DF and plantarflexor (PF specific torque was significantly different between the groups.Overall, non-contractile content of the lower leg muscles was greater in DMD than controls. Furthermore, there was an age dependent increase in contractile content in the medial gastrocnemius of boys with DMD. The findings of this study suggest that T1 weighted MR images can be used to monitor disease progression and provide a quantitative estimate of contractile and non-contractile content of tissue in children with DMD.

  15. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  16. Diffusion Properties and 3D Architecture of Human Lower Leg Muscles Assessed with Ultra-High-Field-Strength Diffusion-Tensor MR Imaging and Tractography: Reproducibility and Sensitivity to Sex Difference and Intramuscular Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Ogier, Augustin C; Le Troter, Arnaud; Vilmen, Christophe; Feiweier, Thorsten; Guye, Maxime; Gondin, Julien; Besson, Pierre; Bendahan, David

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the reproducibility of the diffusion properties and three-dimensional structural organization measurements of the lower leg muscles by using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) assessed with ultra-high-field-strength (7.0-T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and tractography of skeletal muscle fibers. On the basis of robust statistical mapping analyses, this study also aimed at determining the sensitivity of the measurements to sex difference and intramuscular variability. Materials and Methods All examinations were performed with ethical review board approval; written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Reproducibility of diffusion tensor indexes assessment including eigenvalues, mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy (FA) as well as muscle volume and architecture (ie, fiber length and pennation angle) were characterized in lower leg muscles (n = 8). Intramuscular variability and sex differences were characterized in young healthy men and women (n = 10 in each group). Student t test, statistical parametric mapping, correlation coefficients (Spearman rho and Pearson product-moment) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used for statistical data analysis. Results High reproducibility of measurements (mean CV ± standard deviation, 4.6% ± 3.8) was determined in diffusion properties and architectural parameters. Significant sex differences were detected in FA (4.2% in women for the entire lower leg; P = .001) and muscle volume (21.7% in men for the entire lower leg; P = .008), whereas architecture parameters were almost identical across sex. Additional differences were found independently of sex in diffusion properties and architecture along several muscles of the lower leg. Conclusion The high-spatial-resolution DTI assessed with 7.0-T MR imaging allows a reproducible assessment of structural organization of superficial and deep muscles, giving indirect information on muscle function. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is

  17. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  18. The effects of high-load strength training with protein- or nonprotein-containing nutritional supplementation in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load strength training and protein intake in patients undergoing dialysis with a focus on muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle morphology. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled study conducted in three dialysis...... centers. SUBJECTS: Subjects for the study included 29 patients undergoing dialysis. INTERVENTION: The participants went through a control period of 16 weeks before completing 16 weeks of strength training. Before the training period, the participants were randomly assigned to receive a protein...... or a nonprotein drink after every training session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Muscle strength and power were tested using the good strength equipment and the leg extensor power rig. Physical performance and function were assessed using a chair stand test and the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Muscle fiber type size...

  19. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  20. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  1. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...... chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... to sensitively predict self-perceived physical function in sIBM patients. Notably, between-limb asymmetry in lower limb muscle strength had a substantial negative impact on motor tasks involving gait function. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  2. Muscle strength can better differentiate between gradations of functional performance than muscle quality in healthy 50-70y women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; McCormack, William; Toomey, Clodagh; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    It is not known which laboratory indices of muscle mass, strength or quality can distinguish functional performance in healthy middle aged women. The aim of this study was to (a) examine the association between upper leg lean tissue mass, knee extensor strength, muscle quality (strength per unit lean tissue mass) and functional performance and (b) to determine the utility of tertiles of muscle strength and muscle quality to distinguish gradations of functional capacity in healthy 50-70y women. Using a cross-sectional study design, one hundred and twenty-eight healthy 50-70y women (mean age: 60.4, SD=5.1y) underwent body composition assessment (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (Con-Trex Dynamometer). Functional performance was assessed using a 5 repetition and 30s chair rise test and 900m gait speed test. Ordered by muscle strength or muscle quality, those in the highest tertile (T1) demonstrated greater functional performance than those in lowest tertile (T3). There was no association between upper leg lean tissue mass and functional performance (r=≤0.06). Muscle strength explained a greater proportion of the variance in all functional performance measures relative to muscle quality (R 2 =0.13-0.36 vs. R 2 =0.11-0.16). Upper leg lean tissue mass is not associated with physical performance in healthy 50-70y women. These results suggest strength relative to the body mass being accelerated distinguishes gradations in functional performance better than muscle quality healthy 50-70y women. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Strength Asymmetry Increases Gait Asymmetry and Variability in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P.; Cook, Summer B.; Mackala, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the research was to determine how knee extensor strength asymmetry influences gait asymmetry and variability since these gait parameters have been related to mobility and falls in older adults. Methods Strength of the knee extensors was measured in 24 older women (65 – 80 yr). Subjects were separated into symmetrical strength (SS, n = 13) and asymmetrical strength (SA, n = 11) groups using an asymmetry cutoff of 20%. Subjects walked at a standard speed of 0.8 m s−1 and at maximal speed on an instrumented treadmill while kinetic and spatiotemporal gait variables were measured. Gait and strength asymmetry were calculated as the percent difference between legs and gait variability as the coefficient of variation over twenty sequential steps. Results SA had greater strength asymmetry (27.4 ± 5.5%) than SS (11.7 ± 5.4%, P speeds, SA had greater single (7.1% vs. 2.5%) and double-limb support time asymmetry (7.0 vs. 4.3%) than SS and greater single-limb support time variability (9.7% vs. 6.6%, all P speed interactions occurred for weight acceptance force variability (P = 0.02) and weight acceptance force asymmetry (P = 0.017) with greater variability at the maximal speed in SA (5.0 ± 2.4% vs. 3.7 ± 1.2%) and greater asymmetry at the maximal speed in SA (6.4 ± 5.3% vs. 2.5 ± 2.3%). Conclusion Gait variability and asymmetry are greater in older women with strength asymmetry and increase when they walk near their maximal capacities. The maintenance of strength symmetry, or development of symmetry through unilateral exercise, may be beneficial in reducing gait asymmetry, gait variability, and fall risk in older adults. PMID:22617401

  4. Reduced Lower-Limb Muscle Strength and Volume in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Relation to Neuropathy, Intramuscular Fat, and Vitamin D Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almurdhi, Monirah M; Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L; Boulton, Andrew J M; Jeziorska, Maria; Malik, Rayaz A

    2016-03-01

    Muscle weakness and atrophy of the lower limbs may develop in patients with diabetes, increasing their risk of falls. The underlying basis of these abnormalities has not been fully explained. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify muscle strength and size in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in relation to the severity of neuropathy, intramuscular noncontractile tissue (IMNCT), and vitamin D deficiency. Twenty patients with T2DM and 20 healthy control subjects were matched by age, sex, and BMI. Strength and size of knee extensor, flexor, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexor muscles were assessed in relation to the severity of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), amount of IMNCT, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Compared with control subjects, patients with T2DM had significantly reduced knee extensor strength (P = 0.003) and reduced muscle volume of both knee extensors (P = 0.045) and flexors (P = 0.019). Ankle plantar flexor strength was also significantly reduced (P = 0.001) but without a reduction in ankle plantar flexor (P = 0.23) and dorsiflexor (P = 0.45) muscle volumes. IMNCT was significantly increased in the ankle plantar (P = 0.006) and dorsiflexors (P = 0.005). Patients with DSPN had significantly less knee extensor strength than those without (P = 0.02) but showed no difference in knee extensor volume (P = 0.38) and ankle plantar flexor strength (P = 0.21) or volume (P = 0.96). In patients with 25 nmol/L 25OHD, no significant differences were found for knee extensor strength and volume (P = 0.32 vs. 0.18) and ankle plantar flexors (P = 0.58 vs. 0.12). Patients with T2DM have a significant reduction in proximal and distal leg muscle strength and a proximal but not distal reduction in muscle volume possibly due to greater intramuscular fat accumulation in distal muscles. Proximal but not distal muscle strength is related to the severity of peripheral neuropathy but not IMNCT or 25OHD level. © 2016 by the American

  5. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Night Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night leg cramps By Mayo Clinic Staff Night leg cramps, also called nocturnal leg cramps, are painful, involuntary contractions or spasms of muscles in your legs, usually occurring when you're in bed. Night ...

  7. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  8. The effects of imagery training on fast isometric knee extensor torque development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J.; Hutter, Vana; Icke, Chris; Groen, Bart; Gemmink, Anne; Smilde, Hiltsje; de Haan, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that imagery training would improve the fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants, not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training,

  9. Effect of trunk inclination on isometric extensor and flexor torque of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Cybex 6000, dynamometer Trunk extension / flexion unit was used to measure maximal voluntary isometric strength of the lumbar flexor and extensor muscles at 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 degrees of trunk flexion. ANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. Alpha was set at p < 0.05. Significant ...

  10. Force-velocity characteristics of the knee extensors: an indication of the risk for physical frailty in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Verschueren, Sabine M; Boonen, Steven; Bogaerts, An; Kennis, Eva; Coudyzer, Walter; Delecluse, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    To examine the relationship between muscle strength, speed of movement, muscle mass (MM), and functional performance in elderly women and to determine optimal threshold values below which physical frailty occurs. Survey. University-based laboratory. Institutionalized women (N=123; mean age, 79.67 ± 5.2y). Not applicable. Force-velocity characteristics of the knee extensors were evaluated by using isometric, isokinetic, and ballistic tests on a motor-driven dynamometer. Isometric (ISOM) strength, dynamic strength, maximal speed of movement (SoM, unloaded), and speed of movement with standardized resistance of 20% (S(20)), 40% (S(40)), and 60% (S(60)) of the isometric maximum were recorded. MM of the upper leg was determined by using computed tomography. The modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT) was used to assess functional performance. Force-velocity characteristics (r varied from .31-.68) and MM (r=.41) correlated significantly with functional performance (PmPPT score (R(2)=.49), with SoM accounting for most of the variance. The threshold value that optimally differentiates between women with mild (mPPT score, 25-31) or without (mPPT score ≥32) physical frailty was 350°/s for SoM and 1.46N m/kg for ISOM strength. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 74% to 77% and 71% to 77%, respectively. SoM is a key component in the onset of functional difficulties in elderly women. Exercise interventions specifically targeting muscle power (by including exercises at high velocities) thus might be crucial to prevent functional decline. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Twelve weeks’ progressive resistance training combined with protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes increases upper leg lean tissue mass, muscle strength and extended gait speed in healthy older women.

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, P

    2016-01-01

    The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50 – 70y women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 ...

  12. Changes in Muscle Strength in U19 Soccer Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors, and conventional (H/QCONV and functional (H/QFUNC hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in highly trained adolescent soccer players. The players (n=11; age 17.8±0.3 were measured at the end of the competitive season (autumn, at the beginning and the end of pre-season (winter and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. Isokinetic peak torque (concentric and eccentric was measured at 60°•s-1 in a sitting position with the hip flexed at 100°. The testing range of motion was set from 10 - 90° of knee flexion. The players performed a set of five maximum repetitions for both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 between the four seasonal measurements were noted for peak torque of the dominant leg knee flexors in concentric muscle action only. A post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in peak torque from the 1st to the 4th measurement (p<0.001; d=0.692 and from the 2nd to the 4th (p<0.01; d=0.564. The differences in the changes of peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors depending on type of muscle action and tendencies found in the H/Q ratios throughout the annual training cycle indicate that strength assessment of the knee flexors and extensors and their balance throughout the annual training cycle could be beneficial for elite male adolescent soccer players both in terms of performance and risk of injury.

  13. Strength, power, speed, and agility of women basketball players according to playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of playing position on strength, power, speed, and agility performances of women basketball players. Thirty subjects playing at national level participated in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to playing position: guards (positions 1 and 2), forwards (positions 3 and 4), and centers (position 5). Each subject performed 8 tests presented in a random order: The 30-second Wingate Anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, 2 types of jump tests, a 20-m sprint, the agility T-test, a suicide run, and a basketball chest pass. Statistical differences between playing positions were assessed using a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc analyses. Results showed that guards performed significantly better than centers for the relative peak and mean power achieved during the WAnT (+13% and +16.9%, respectively), relative peak torque of knee extensors (+19.5%), single-leg jump (+21.8), suicide run (+7.5%), and agility T-test (+6.4%, p training must be undertaken according to playing position. The ability to perform the suicide run, the single-leg jump, and the different movements involved in the agility T-test must be developed in guards. In contrast, speed over short distances and strength development of lower body and upper body should be performed by all playing positions.

  14. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD and areal (ΔaBMD BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8% and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%, respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes.

  15. The effects of growth rate on leg morphology and tibia breaking strength, mineral density, mineral content, and bone ash in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Karnuah, A B; Mitchell, A D; Anthony, N B; Pesti, G M; Aggrey, S E

    2012-08-01

    Fast-growing broilers are especially susceptible to bone abnormalities, causing major problems for broiler producers. The cortical bones of fast-growing broilers are highly porous, which may lead to leg deformities. Leg problems were investigated in 6-wk-old Arkansas randombred broilers. Body weight was measured at hatch and at 6 wk. There were 8 different settings of approximately 450 eggs each. Two subpopulations, slow-growing (SG; bottom quarter, n=511) and fast-growing (FG; top quarter, n=545), were created from a randombred population based on their growth rate from hatch until 6 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, the broilers were processed and chilled at 4°C overnight before deboning. Shank (78.27±8.06 g), drum stick (190.92±16.91 g), and thigh weights (233.88±22.66 g) of FG broilers were higher than those of SG broilers (54.39±6.86, 135.39±15.45, and 168.50±21.13 g, respectivly; Ppercentage of ash content (39.76±2.81) of FG broilers was lower than that of SG broilers (39.99±2.67; P=0.173). Fast-growing broiler bones were longer, wider, heavier, stronger, more dense, and contained more ash than SG ones. After all parameters were calculated per unit of final BW at 6 wk, tibia density and bone ash percentage of FG broilers were lower than those of SG broilers.

  16. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only.

  17. Core stability, knee muscle strength, and anterior translation are correlated with postural stability in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar-Medeni, Ozge; Baltaci, Gul; Bayramlar, Kezban; Yanmis, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of postural stability and lower extremity performance with core stability, knee laxity, and muscle strength in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Twenty-eight anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed subjects were included in the study. Anterior knee laxity tests, isokinetic knee muscle strength tests, and core stability tests were performed. Single-limb postural stability was assessed in both eyes-open and eyes-closed positions on a static surface and an eyes-open condition on a foam surface. A single-legged hop test was performed to assess lower extremity performance. To detect differences between the operated and healthy leg, a Mann-Whitney U test was performed, and a correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Knee muscle strength and laxity were different between the operated and healthy legs (P stability scores correlated with core stability tests (P core stability, decreased knee muscle strength, and increased knee laxity correlated with single-limb postural stability. Better hop performance was demonstrated with better knee flexor and extensor muscle strength and was independent from core stability.

  18. The Effects of Forward Head Posture on Neck Extensor Muscle Thickness: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fereshte; Rahnama, Leila; Karimi, Noureddin; Baghi, Raziyeh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare neck extensor muscle thickness, thickness changes, and strength between participants with forward head posture (FHP) and controls with normal head posture (NHP). Twenty college students with FHP (mean age 21.30 ± 2.36 years) and 20 students with NHP (mean age 21.85 ± 2.78 years) participated in this case-control study. The thickness of neck extensor muscles was measured at rest and at maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). In addition, the craniovertebral angle (CVA) was calculated. To compare thickness changes between the 2 groups and among 5 muscles, a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was applied. In addition, Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between neck extensor MVIC and CVA. The FHP group demonstrated lower MVIC compared with the NHP group (P = .03). Semispinalis capitis showed the smallest thickness changes during neck extensor MVIC in FHP compared with the controls (P < .001). However, no significant difference in terms of muscle thickness was observed between the 2 groups at the state of rest (P = .16-.99). A positive association was also found between the MVIC and CVA (P = .02). Semispinalis capitis had less thickness changes during MVIC of neck extensors in individuals with FHP compared with those with NHP. This indirectly implies lower activity of this muscle in FHP condition. This study finding may help researchers develop therapeutic exercise protocols to manage FHP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Back strength predicts walking improvement in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Vincent, Kevin R; Seay, Amanda N; Conrad, Bryan P; Hurley, Robert W; George, Steven Z

    2014-05-01

    To compare the effects of 4 months of isolated lumbar resistance exercise and total body resistance exercise on walking performance in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain. A secondary analysis examined whether responsiveness to training modulated walking improvement. Randomized, controlled trial. Research laboratory affiliated with tertiary care facility. Participants (N = 49; 60-85 years) were randomized into a 4-month resistance exercise intervention (TOTRX), lumbar extensor exercise intervention (LEXT), or a control group (CON). Walking performance, maximal low back strength and leg strength, and average resting and low back pain severity score (from an 11-point numerical pain rating scale; NRSpain) were collected at baseline and month 4. The TOTRX and LEXT improved lumbar extensor strength relative to CON, and the TOTRX (P vs 3.7 ± 2.6 points and 4.6 ± 2.4 points; P strength gains that achieved ≥20% greater than baseline values. Although the TOTRX demonstrated the greatest improvement in walking endurance among the intervention groups, this did not reach significance (10.1 ± 12.2% improvement in TOTRX vs 7.4 ± 30.0% LEXT and -1.7 ± 17.4% CON; P = .11). Gait speed increased most in the TOTRX (9.0 ± 13.5%) compared with the LEXT and CON groups (P strength explained 10.6% of the variance of the regression model for the change in walking endurance (P = .024). The use of LEXT and TOTRX produced similar modest improvements in patients' walking endurance. Lumbar extensor strength gain compared with leg strength gain is a moderate but important contributor to walking endurance in obese older adults with chronic low back pain. Responders to resistance exercise programs (event those with only lumbar extension exercise) who make at least a 20% improvement in strength can expect better improvement in walking endurance than those who do not achieve this strength improvement. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  20. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  1. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  2. The effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimaras, Vasilios K; Samara, Christina A; Kotzamanidou, Marianna C; Bassa, Eleni I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation (MR). Twenty-four adults with and without MR were separated into 3 groups. Eight adults (mean age 25.4 years) with normal IQ constituted the control group (NIQ). Eight adults (mean age 26.5 years) with MR and all participating in a 4-year systematic basketball exercise program constituted the trained group (MR-T), and 8 adults (mean age 25.3 years) with MR exercised occasionally for recreational reasons formed the MR-R group. Parameters measured were isometric and isokinetic concentric and eccentric muscle strength. All subjects performed a leg strength test on a Cybex Norm isokinetic dynamometer. Analysis of variance was used to examine mean differences between the values of the 3 groups. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. The NIQ group showed a statistically significant difference in all measured values compared to the MR groups. The MR-T group presented higher absolute and relative torque scores for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-R group, whereas the MR-R group presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-T group. In addition, both MR groups presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors compared to the NIQ group. Data support participation on a systematic and well-designed basketball training program to improve muscle strength levels of adults with MR. Participation in basketball without necessarily focusing on developing specific fitness components may be an effective training strategy for the promotion of strength of adults with MR.

  3. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  4. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  5. Repair and rehabilitation of extensor hallucis longus and brevis tendon lacerations in a professional dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Rose, Donald

    2008-06-01

    Case report. Tendon lacerations of the hallux are potentially devastating to a dancer. Strength of the hallux musculature is necessary to attain and maintain balance, push-off in multiple turns, and decelerate in jumps and hops. The purpose of this paper is to report on the repair and rehabilitation of extensor hallucis longus and extensor hallucis brevis tendon lacerations in a professional dancer. A 30-year-old dancer sustained complete laceration of her extensor hallucis longus and extensor hallucis brevis tendons, and partial laceration of the dorsal aspect of the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint capsule. Following primary repair, at 9 weeks postsurgery, hallux MTP joint active dorsiflexion was limited to 5 degrees and passive dorsiflexion to 70 degrees . First toe dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strength was 4/5 at the MTP and 3+/5 at the interphalangeal joint. Rehabilitation included functional electrical stimulation to address considerable calf atrophy, strengthening exercises, functional retraining, and progressive return to dance. The dancer returned to her previous level of dancing in 18 weeks, with 73 degrees and 85 degrees of hallux MTP joint active and passive dorsiflexion, and 30 degrees and 35 degrees of active and passive plantar flexion, respectively. Hallux MTP and interphalangeal joint muscle strength were 5/5 and 4+/5, respectively. Improvement, manifested in her SF-36 and Dance Functional Outcome System scores, accompanied her full functional recovery. Hallux stability provided by coactivation of the great toe extensors and flexors is crucial to accomplish the demands of bipedal and unipedal balances and activities in dance. This report demonstrates the success of primary surgical repair and rehabilitation in a dancer/athlete experiencing this injury.

  6. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent claudication; Vaso-occlusive disease of the legs; Arterial insufficiency of ...

  7. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. REHABILITATATION FOR EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS AND EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS TENDINOPATHY – AN EXERCISE PACKAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar, Sten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create an exercise package containing research proven evidence based exercises for Extensor Hallucis Longus and Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles for strengthening purposes. The exercise package consists of eccen-tric exercises that have been proven to be beneficial in treating tendon problems. The exercise package will be provided to be implemented by the players and coaches of the co-operating bandy team. The thesis was done in collaboration with Pori N...

  9. High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs compromise muscle strength and hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, M; Mandić, M; Apró, W; Melin, M; Olsson, K; Rosenborg, S; Gustafsson, T; Lundberg, T R

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high doses of anti-inflammatory drugs would attenuate the adaptive response to resistance training compared with low doses. Healthy men and women (aged 18-35 years) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of ibuprofen (IBU; 1200 mg; n = 15) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 75 mg; n = 16) for 8 weeks. During this period, subjects completed supervised knee-extensor resistance training where one leg was subjected to training with maximal volitional effort in each repetition using a flywheel ergometer (FW), while the other leg performed conventional (work-matched across groups) weight-stack training (WS). Before and after training, muscle volume (MRI) and strength were assessed, and muscle biopsies were analysed for gene and protein expression of muscle growth regulators. The increase in m. quadriceps volume was similar between FW and WS, yet was (averaged across legs) greater in ASA (7.5%) compared with IBU (3.7%, group difference 34 cm 3 ; P = 0.029). In the WS leg, muscle strength improved similarly (11-20%) across groups. In the FW leg, increases (10-23%) in muscle strength were evident in both groups yet they were generally greater (interaction effects P training effects, the only group interaction (P strength and muscle hypertrophic adaptations to 8 weeks of resistance training in young adults. Thus, young individuals using resistance training to maximize muscle growth or strength should avoid excessive intake of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of a Modified Ballet Class on Strength and Jumping Ability in College Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanaka, Aikaterini; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiros

    2017-09-15

    The ability to jump high with precision is an important component of the ballet dancer's technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a modified ballet class on strength and jumping ability in high level female dancers. Seventeen female ballet students were divided into two groups, experimental and control, and tested before and after an 8-week, 2 times/week intervention for peak torque of knee extensors and flexors at 60°and 180°, and jumping ability (squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement with arm swing jump, sauté in first position, and sauté in first position with port de bras). Statistical analysis was performed using Analysis of Variance (Anova 2x2) with repeated measure of factor time (pre and post). T-test with Bonferroni adjustment was used to assess any differences between groups. The experimental group showed improvement in height (7.7%), takeoff velocity (4.0%), and power (5.1%) of the squat jump. In addition, increases were revealed in peak (60°, 11.9%; 180°, 7.8%) and relative peak torque (60°, 13.2%; 180°, 9.2%) of the right knee flexors. Moreover, enhancements of the knee flexor-extensor strength ratio in both angular velocities were found (60°, 10.4%; 180°, 9.7%). These outcomes suggest that the proposed program could help ballet dancers improve the height of their vertical jumps and leg strength.

  11. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane J. Hayter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI and cold air therapy (CAT on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10 and female (n = 10 participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24, 48 (T48 and 72 (T72 h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05. However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90, T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64 and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76. The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone.

  12. A reappraisal of the deconditioning hypothesis in low back pain: review of evidence from a triumvirate of research methods on specific lumbar extensor deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave

    2014-05-01

    'Disuse' and 'Deconditioning' in relation to low back pain (LBP) are terms often used interchangeably. Discussions of 'disuse' refer to general physical inactivity, which evidence suggests does not differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. 'Deconditioning' refers to a decrease in function, commonly both cardiovascular/aerobic fitness and muscular strength/endurance, again noting little difference. However, examination of decreased function relating specifically to lumbar extensor musculature deconditioning has yet to be examined, corroborating all possible methods. Thus, this review attempts to reappraise the deconditioning hypothesis in LBP, specifically considering lumbar extensor deconditioning. A literature review was conducted examining both cross-sectional and prospective data on specific lumbar extensor deconditioning and LBP. A narrative approach and 'snowballing' style literature search was used involving initial use of PubMed and Google Scholar databases searching up to December 2012. Included were studies utilizing the following three research methods, allowing specific induction of the role of such deconditioning; (1) strength/endurance testing of the isolated lumbar extensor musculature, (2) imaging and histochemical examination of the lumbar extensor musculature, and (3) fatigue testing of the lumbar extensor musculature using electromyography. Despite issues interpreting individual studies due to methods, the majority of evidence suggests LBP is associated with decreased strength/endurance, atrophy, and excessive fatigability of the lumbar extensors. Prospective studies also suggest lumbar extensor deconditioning may be a common risk factor predicting acute low back injury and LBP. The hypothesis of specific lumbar extensor deconditioning as being a causal factor in LBP is presently well supported. It is by no means the only causative factor and further research should more rigorously test this hypothesis addressing the methodological

  13. Specific Changes in Young Soccer Player's Fitness After Traditional Bilateral vs. Unilateral Combined Strength and Plyometric Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Alejandro; Carretero, Manuel; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years) vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17.6 ± 0.5 years). One repetition maximum bilateral strength of knee muscle extensors (1RM_KE) and flexors (1RM_KF), change of direction ability (COD), horizontal and vertical jump ability with one (unilateral) and two (bilateral) legs, and limb symmetry index were measured before and after an 8-week in-season intervention period. Some regular soccer drills were replaced by combination of plyometric and strength training drills. Magnitude-based inference statistics were used for between-group and within-group comparisons. Beneficial effects ( p plyometric training should be complemented with unilateral drills, in order to maximize adaptations.

  14. Rerouting extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni Woodside, Julie; Bindra, Randip R

    2015-04-01

    Following radial nerve palsy, loss of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons results in loss of thumb extension and radial abduction. Multiple tendon transfers are described to address the loss of thumb extension following radial palsy utilizing the palmaris longus or flexor digitorum sublimis transferred to the EPL tendon. Owing to its ulnar vector of pull, the EPL tendon is a secondary adductor of the thumb, and in order to mitigate the tendency for thumb adduction, the EPL tendon is divided at the wrist and brought subcutaneously to the radial side of the wrist for repair to the donor tendon to improve the line of pull for the donor tendon. We describe the use of a technique to reroute the EPL tendon through the first compartment in a retrograde fashion prior to repair with the donor tendon on the radial side of the wrist. The use of the first dorsal compartment provides a pulley to maintain the position of the transfer and to prevent potential bowstringing of the tendon as wrist flexion and thumb extension are attempted. because the repair is performed proximal to the extensor retinaculum, the donor tendon length is not compromised. Because the tendon is redirected through the first dorsal compartment and inserts into the distal phalanx, a single transfer attempts to restores both thumb extension and radial abduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Leg dominancy in relation to fast isometric torque production and squat jump height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; de Korte, A.; Schreven, S.; de Haan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that maximal unilateral isometric knee extensor torque, the rate of torque development during maximally fast isometric contractions and unilateral squat jump performance would be better with the dominant than non-dominant leg. Limb dominancy was established using the step up, balance

  16. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  18. Muscle strength and hypertrophy occur independently of protein supplementation during short-term resistance training in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Carleigh H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-08-01

    Short-term resistance training has consistently demonstrated gains in muscular strength, but not hypertrophy. Post-resistance training protein ingestion is posited to augment the acute anabolic stimulus, thus potentially accelerating changes in muscle size and strength. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of resistance training with protein supplementation on strength and muscle morphology changes in untrained men. Participants (mean ± SD; N = 18; age, 22.0 ± 2.5 years; body mass index, 25.1 ± 5.4 kg · m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a resistance training + protein group (n = 9; whey (17 g) + colostrum (3 g) + leucine (2 g)) or a resistance training + placebo group (n = 9). One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in the leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) exercises, maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVIC), and muscle morphology (thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle) of the dominant rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) was assessed before and after training. Participants performed LP and LE exercises (3 × 8-10; at 80% 1RM) 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Four weeks of resistance training resulted in significant increases in LP (p supplementation.

  19. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p strength relative to body weight declined with age (p strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  1. Neuromuscular adaptation during prolonged strength training, detraining and re-strength-training in middle-aged and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, K; Alen, M; Kallinen, M; Newton, R U; Kraemer, W J

    2000-09-01

    Effects of a 24-week strength training performed twice weekly (24 ST) (combined with explosive exercises) followed by either a 3-week detraining (3 DT) and a 21-week re-strength-training (21 RST) (experiment A) or by a 24-week detraining (24 DT) (experiment B) on neural activation of the agonist and antagonist leg extensors, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris, maximal isometric and one repetition maximum (1-RM) strength and jumping (J) and walking (W) performances were examined. A group of middle-aged (M, 37-44 years, n = 12) and elderly (E, 62-77, n = 10) and another group of M (35-45, n = 7) and E (63-78, n = 7) served as subjects. In experiment A, the 1-RM increased substantially during 24 ST in M (27%, Pelderly during the initial training phases. Neural adaptation seemed to play a greater role than muscle hypertrophy. Short-term detraining led to only minor changes, while prolonged detraining resulted in muscle atrophy and decreased voluntary strength, but explosive jumping and walking actions in both age groups appeared to remain elevated for quite a long time by compensatory types of physical activities when performed on a regular basis.

  2. Hand-held dynamometry: tester strength is paramount, even in frail populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carol A; Nolan, Bríd; Lawlor, Peter G; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2011-09-01

    To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability of hand-held dynamometry when used to measure knee--extensor strength in patients with advanced cancer. Adults with metastatic or locally advanced cancer recruited from palliative care services to a study of the risk factors for falls. Consecutive recruits (n = 30) underwent repeat testing after an interval of 1 h, by the same researcher, to assess test-retest reliability. The subsequent 15 patients underwent retesting by a second researcher. The intra-class correlation coefficient and limits of agreement were calculated. The test-retest reliability difference between measurements increased with the magnitude of measurement, mean leg strength = 113 N (standard deviation 43.1), 95% ratio limits of agreement 0.81-1.5, intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.9. The inter-rater testing mean leg strength = 128.5 N (standard deviation 35.1), 95% limits of agreement = -57.24 to 36.06 N. Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.83. Test-retesting and inter-rater testing yielded high intra-class correlation coefficients, but the limits of agreement were wide. In test-retesting, the difference between tests increased as the magnitude of measurement increased. It has been widely reported that hand-held dynamometry is reliable when used to measure knee-extensor strength in frail or elderly persons. However, our results show that, even in these populations, reliability may be compromised by inadequate tester strength.

  3. Tendon variations of extensor digitorum and abductor pollicis longus muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocabiyik N; Tatar I; Yalcin B; Yazar F; Ozan H

    2009-01-01

    Tendon variations of extensor digitorum and abductor pollicis longus muscles were observed in a 65-year-old male formalin fixed cadaver, during the dissections for second year medical students at the Gulhane Military Medical Academy Anatomy Dissection Laboratory. In the right forearm, the extensor digitorum muscle had a tripled tendon for the 3rd finger and a doubled tendon for the ring finger. The extensor digiti minimi muscle also had a doubled tendon. There was also a communicating tendon ...

  4. A Simulation Model for Extensor Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aronstam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation model is designed for use by emergency medicine residents. Although we have instituted this at the PGY-2 level of our residency curriculum, it is appropriate for any level of emergency medicine residency training. It might also be adapted for use for a variety of other learners, such as practicing emergency physicians, orthopedic surgery residents, or hand surgery trainees. Introduction: Tendon injuries commonly present to the emergency department, so it is essential that emergency physicians be competent in evaluating such injuries. Indeed, extensor tendon repair is included as an ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone (Milestone 13, Wound Management, Level 5 – “Performs advanced wound repairs, such as tendon repairs…”.1 However, emergency medicine residents may have limited opportunity to develop these skills due to a lack of patients, competition from other trainees, or preexisting referral patterns. Simulation may provide an alternative means to effectively teach these skills in such settings. Previously described tendon repair simulation models that were designed for surgical trainees have used rubber worms4, licorice5, feeding tubes, catheters6,7, drinking straws8, microfoam tape9, sheep forelimbs10 and cadavers.11 These models all suffer a variety of limitations, including high cost, lack of ready availability, or lack of realism. Objectives: We sought to develop an extensor tendon repair simulation model for emergency medicine residents, designed to meet ACGME Emergency Medicine Milestone 13, Level 5. We wished this model to be simple, inexpensive, and realistic. Methods: The learner responsible content/educational handout component of our innovation teaches residents about emergency department extensor tendon repair, and includes: 1 relevant anatomy 2 indications and contraindications for emergency department extensor tendon repair 3 physical exam findings 4 tendon suture techniques and 5 aftercare. During

  5. Leg lengthening - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100127.htm Leg lengthening - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... with lengthening procedures are the bones of the leg, the tibia and the femur. Surgical treatment may ...

  6. Arterial bypass leg - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100155.htm Arterial bypass leg - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Overview The arteries which supply blood to the leg originate from the aorta and iliac vessels. Review ...

  7. Leg lengthening and shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002965.htm Leg lengthening and shortening To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to ...

  8. Effects Of Combined Strength And Endurance Training On Physical Performance And Biomarkers Of Healthy Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KyrÖlÄinen, Heikki; Hackney, Anthony C; Salminen, Riikka; Repola, Johanna; HÄkkinen, Keijo; Haimi, Jari

    2017-10-20

    Cardiovascular fitness has decreased and obesity has increased in youth-adults world-wide during the last ten years. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find out optimal exercise training programs for improving physical performance and health outcomes, especially, among sedentary women. Subjects were 25-30-year-old females with very low physical activity, and 65 % of them were overweight (BMI >25). They performed endurance and strength training three times a week for nine weeks. Independent strength training and instructed endurance training by indoor cycling were prescribed. Measurements were performed before, in the middle and after the training period. No nutritional guidelines were given to the subjects. The 9-week training period led to 8.5 % increase in estimated maximal oxygen uptake. Maximal isometric strength of the leg and arm extensors as well as trunk flexors and extensors increased by 28.9 %, 7.8 %, 27.2% and 16.1%, respectively. Total cholesterol values lowered by 7.6 %, and high density lipoprotein increased by 8.8 %, while low density lipoprotein, haemoglobin, serum glucose and triglyceride remained unchanged. Serum cortisol increased by 22.7 % but no changes in plasma testosterone, estradiol or sex hormone binding globulin were observed. The skeletal muscle mass increased by 0.8 % without other changes in body composition. Our results indicated that only 27 combined endurance and strength training sessions in 9 weeks improved maximal endurance and strength capacity as well as some health outcomes. Thus, combined strength and endurance training itself can induce significant health benefits without the necessity of changes in dietary habits.

  9. Enhancing foot velocity in football kicking: the role of strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B; Rath, David A

    2011-02-01

    In all codes of football, it is advantageous to be able to achieve a high ball speed or distance in a kick. An important determinant of ball speed and kick distance is the velocity of the foot at impact with the ball. Therefore, it is of interest to strength and conditioning practitioners to identify training programs that can increase foot velocity. The purpose of this review is to identify the factors influencing kicking performance and the research evidence relating to resistance training designed to enhance foot velocity in kicking. The review has been divided into 3 main sections. The first addresses the biomechanics of kicking to provide insights into the physical demands. The second section reviews the relationships between various measures of strength with performance indicators of maximum kicking, and the third part explores the research investigating the effects of resistance training on maximum kicking performance. Kicking can be described as a skill involving proximal-to-distal muscle activation. Foot velocity is determined by a complex sequencing of hip flexor and knee extensor concentric contractions and also involves hip extensor and knee flexor activation to assist with movement control. Research reporting correlations between strength and kicking performance support the importance of hip flexor and quadriceps strength. Although unclear, there is some evidence that adequate strength of the support leg, trunk muscles, hip adductors, and the muscles that control pelvic rotations are important. Strength training studies have shown that foot velocity and kicking performance can be enhanced by supplementary programs to regular football training, especially in nonelite athletes. Potentially valuable training includes plyometrics, exercises that simulate the whole kicking action, and kicking weighted balls. Exercises that isolate parts of the kicking action are not recommended because these do not appear to transfer well to kicking performance. There are

  10. Measurement of gliding resistance of the extensor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis II tendons within the extensor retinaculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsumi, Keiji; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan

    2004-03-01

    The etiology of spontaneous extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture is still largely unknown. It is possible that friction within the sheath may play a role. The purposes of this study were to compare gliding resistance of the EPL tendon with that of the extensor digitorum communis tendon of the index finger (EDC II) and to find the wrist position that gives the EPL tendon the lowest gliding resistance. Fifteen fresh-frozen cadavers were used. Gliding resistance was measured directly in 7 different wrist positions. The mean gliding resistance of the EPL tendon was 0.16 +/- 0.08 N and that of the EDC II tendon was 0.11 +/- 0.06 N. This difference was significant. There was also a significant effect on gliding resistance due to wrist position. For the EPL tendon, the gliding resistance was significantly greater in 60 degrees wrist flexion compared with all other wrist positions tested. Additionally the gliding resistance of the EPL in 30 degrees flexion, 60 degrees extension, and 15 degrees radial deviation was significantly higher than wrist positions of 30 degrees extension, neutral, and 30 degrees ulnar deviation. Positioning the wrist close to neutral flexion/extension and in some ulnar deviation minimizes the friction within the EPL sheath. Such positions may be advantageous for splinting patients at risk for EPL rupture.

  11. MEASURING EXPLOSIVE LEG STRENGTH USING MYOTEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Marković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The vertical jump is a fundamental quality for athlets, especially in volleyball, handball or basketball. Several tests and evaluatin systems can be deployed to assess this quality. The aim of this experiment was to check the validity of the Myotest for measuring vertical jump tests. The experiment involves comparing two measuring systems to measure vertical movement during squaat jumps (SJ and reactivity test. The example was consisted of 30 athlets (6 volleyball players and 24 handball players. Each subject was evaluated randomly by means of rhe two tests. Myotest and Ergojump were used. The jump height comparison gained from the Myotest and the Ergojump did not show any significant differences. This difference was approx. 3 cm. Therefore, the Myotets appears to be an efficient tool for evaluating performance during the vertical jump test

  12. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  13. Changes in lower extremity muscle mass and muscle strength after weight loss in obese men: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokun; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is not only associated with internal diseases but also with surgical problems. Surgical diseases related to obesity frequently occur in the load bearing joints of the lower limbs. To decrease the occurrence of surgical diseases related to obesity, weight loss has been recommended. It is important for obese men to maintain muscle mass and muscle strength after weight loss because low muscle mass and muscle strength are also related to the occurrence of surgical diseases. To date, the importance of muscle mass and muscle strength after weight loss in obese men has been underappreciated. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in lower extremity muscle mass and muscle strength resulting from a weight loss programme consisting of caloric restriction and exercise. All participants concurrently attended a 12-week diet class 1day/week and a 12-week exercise class 3days/week. Body weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and knee extensor strength by dynamometry were assessed. The weight loss programme led to a 14.1% weight loss accompanied by significant loss of leg muscle mass, static maximal muscle strength, dynamic maximal muscle strength and dynamic muscle endurance but not with significant loss of dynamic muscle power. Decline of muscle strength was related to a decrease in muscle mass, but not completely dependent on a decrease in muscle mass. Body weight-normalised muscle strength increased significantly. We recommend utilising resistance exercise to restore muscle mass and muscle strength in the legs after substantial weight loss. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kuruvilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a phenomenon of "kinaesthetic extensor plantar response" in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed.

  15. Foot varus in stroke patients: muscular activity of extensor digitorum longus during the swing phase of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, F; Dériaz, O; Bergeau, J

    2009-06-01

    Hemiparetic patients often present an abnormal leg muscles balance that can lead to foot deformities like equinovarus or varus. To assess whether a muscle imbalance between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus was associated with a varus deformity of the foot during the swing phase of gait in stroke patients. Twenty hemiparetic patients presenting a foot varus during the swing phase of gait were compared to 16 healthy subjects. Gait was analyzed by video recording and by surface electromyography. Duration and magnitude of electromyographic signal were collected for tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus. Presence of an activity of the calf muscles during the swing phase was also evaluated. Hemiparetic patients exhibited more often premature activity of the calf muscles (pextensor digitorum longus (pextensor digitorum longus activity (pextensor digitorum longus muscle during the swing phase of gait is important to balance the foot in the frontal plane. The activation of that muscle should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  16. Prophylactic Effects of Sauna on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness of the Wrist Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamwong, Peanchai; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon; Joseph, Leonard

    2015-06-01

    High-intensity of exercise or unaccustomed eccentric exercise can cause the phenomenon of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) which usually results in cramps, muscle strain, impaired muscle function and delayed-onset muscle soreness. This study investigated the prophylactic effects of sauna towards the symptoms associated with muscle damage from eccentric exercises of wrist extensor muscle group. A total of twenty-eight subjects (mean age 20.9 years old, SD = 1.6) were randomly divided into the sauna group (n = 14) and the control group (n = 14). In the sauna group, subjects received sauna before eccentric exercise of the wrist extensor. The eccentric exercises were conducted on the non-dominant arm by using an isokinetic dynamometer. Pain Intensity (PI), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) and passive range of motion of wrist flexion (PF-ROM) and extension (PE-ROM) were measured as pain variables. Grip Strength (GS) and Wrist Extension Strength (WES) were measured as variables of wrist extensor muscle function. All the measurements were performed at baseline, immediately after and from 1st to 8th days after the exercise-induced muscle damage. The sauna group significantly demonstrated a lower deficit in ROM (passive flexion and passive extension), GS and WES following exercise than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Sauna application prior to the exercise-induced muscle damage demonstrated effectiveness in reduction of sensory impairment (PF-ROM and PE-ROM) and improvement of muscle functions (GS, and WES) in wrist extensor muscle group.

  17. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis of the extensor tendons of the wrist

    OpenAIRE

    Mrabet, Dalila; Ouenniche, Kmar; Mizouni, Habiba; Ounaies, Mouna; Khémiri, Chékib; Sahli, Héla; Sellami, Slaheddine

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterial tuberculous tenosynovitis of the extensor tendon sheath is an extremely rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be easily delayed because of its non-specific clinical signs. We report a new case of tuberculous tenosynovitis of the extensor without concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis or documented immunodeficiency.

  18. Intrinsic properties of the knee extensor muscles after subacute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, A.M.H.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Beltman, M.J.; Koppe, P.A.; Janssen, T.W.J.; de Haan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Horstman AM, Gerrits KH, Beltman MJ, Koppe PA, Janssen, TW, de Haan A. Intrinsic properties of the knee extensor muscles after subacute stroke. Objective: To characterize muscle properties of paretic lower-limb (PL) and nonparetic lower-limb (NL) knee extensors in patients with subacute stroke.

  19. Leg blood flow is impaired during small muscle mass exercise in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2017-01-01

    -extensor exercise, and during arterial infusions of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD and eight age- and sex matched healthy controls were studied. During knee-extensor exercise (10 W), leg blood flow was lower in the patients compared...... the formation of interstitial prostacyclin (vasodilator) was only increased in the controls. There was no difference between groups in the nitrite/nitrate levels (vasodilator) in plasma or interstitial fluid during exercise. Moreover, patients and controls showed similar vasodilatory capacity in response...

  20. The innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle: an anatomical study for selective neurotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria, Nazzi; Giuseppe, Messina; Ivano, Dones; Giovanni, Broggi

    2009-10-01

    This study is aimed to describe the observable anatomical variants of the innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHLM) in order to have the surgical coordinates to perform neurotomy on the targeted branches of its innervation and to give a valuable alternative to the commonly used technique of fascicular subepineurial neurotomy in patients affected by toe hyperextension dystonia. In 15 fresh cadavers of adults, 29 lower limbs (14 right and 15 left) were studied. Anatomical dissections to isolate the innervating branches of EHLM were performed. Each branch from EHLM was analyzed by microscopical opening of the epineurium to observe the number of nerve fascicles. Various measurements were made to obtain anatomical coordinates for surgery. The distance between the most prominent point of the head of the fibula and the origin of the nervous branches innervating the EHLM is not proportional to the length of the leg. In 72.4% of the studied legs, the distance between the origin of the first branch innervating the EHLM and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 7 +/- 2 cm. In 80% of legs, the distance between the origin of the second branch and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 10 +/- 1.1 cm. In only one limb with double innervation, two fascicles were found, while in six limbs (25%) only one fascicle was found. This anatomical study traced some valuable surgical coordinates useful for the execution of a selective peripheral neurotomy on the nerve branch innervating the EHLM.

  1. Ultrasonography of the lower leg: technique, anatomy and pathologic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thain, L.M.F. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, London, Ontario (Canada); Lee, S.L. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Anaestesia, London, Ontario (Canada); Downey, D.B. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Diagnostic Ultrasound, London Health Sciences Centre, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a useful modality for examining the lower leg, particularly in patients who have sustained muscular, tendinous or bony injuries. This paper will demonstrate the proper technique for US examination of each compartment of the lower leg. The bones, muscles and tendons of the lower leg (i.e., patellar tendon, superficial posterior fascial compartment [gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus], deep posterior fascial compartment [tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus], lateral fascial compartment [peroneus longus, peroneus brevis], anterior faccial compartment [tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus], tibia and the fibula) will be reviewed with respect to their surface anatomy, US appearance and common pathologic conditions. A linear array high-frequency (at least 7.5 MHz) transducer should be used. One with variable centre frequency is useful to allow the examination of both deep and superficial areas in the same patient without switching transducers. Power Doppler is used to identify areas of increased blood flow, often due to inflammation or active healing. The transducer must be maintained perpendicular to the long axis of tendons to avoid anisotropy artifacts, which give a false appearance of decreased echogenicity. Structures should be followed from origin to insertion in the long and short axes. (author)

  2. Ultrasonography of the lower leg: technique, anatomy and pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thain, L.M.F.; Lee, S.L.; Downey, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a useful modality for examining the lower leg, particularly in patients who have sustained muscular, tendinous or bony injuries. This paper will demonstrate the proper technique for US examination of each compartment of the lower leg. The bones, muscles and tendons of the lower leg (i.e., patellar tendon, superficial posterior fascial compartment [gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus], deep posterior fascial compartment [tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus], lateral fascial compartment [peroneus longus, peroneus brevis], anterior faccial compartment [tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus], tibia and the fibula) will be reviewed with respect to their surface anatomy, US appearance and common pathologic conditions. A linear array high-frequency (at least 7.5 MHz) transducer should be used. One with variable centre frequency is useful to allow the examination of both deep and superficial areas in the same patient without switching transducers. Power Doppler is used to identify areas of increased blood flow, often due to inflammation or active healing. The transducer must be maintained perpendicular to the long axis of tendons to avoid anisotropy artifacts, which give a false appearance of decreased echogenicity. Structures should be followed from origin to insertion in the long and short axes. (author)

  3. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Restaino, Robert M.; King, Phillip M.; Crutcher, Kiera L.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans. PMID:25539935

  4. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea; Adderley, Una

    2016-01-15

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0 in 1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20 in 1000 people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 116 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 63 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 43 studies and the further review of 20 full publications. Of the 20 full articles evaluated, four systematic reviews were updated and four RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 23 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 13 interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, compression stockings for prevention of recurrence, compression bandages and stockings to treat venous leg ulcers, laser treatment (low level), leg ulcer clinics, pentoxifylline, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery for prevention of recurrence, superficial vein surgery to treat venous leg ulcers, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical negative pressure.

  5. The effect of accounting for biarticularity in hip flexor and hip extensor joint torque representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M G C; Yeadon, M R; King, M A

    2018-02-01

    Subject-specific torque-driven models have ignored biarticular effects at the hip. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of monoarticular hip flexors and hip extensors to total hip flexor and total hip extensor joint torques for an individual and to investigate whether torque-driven simulation models should consider incorporating biarticular effects at the hip joint. Maximum voluntary isometric and isovelocity hip flexion and hip extension joint torques were measured for a single participant together with surface electromyography. Single-joint and two-joint representations were fitted to the collected torque data and used to determine the maximum voluntary joint torque capacity. When comparing two-joint and single-joint representations, the single-joint representation had the capacity to produce larger maximum voluntary hip flexion torque (larger by around 9% of maximum torque) and smaller maximum voluntary hip extension torque (smaller by around 33% of maximum torque) with the knee extended. Considering the range of kinematics found for jumping movements, the single-joint hip flexors had the capacity to produce around 10% additional torque, while the single joint hip extensors had about 70% of the capacity of the two-joint representation. Two-joint representations may overcome an over-simplification of single-joint representations by accounting for biarticular effects, while building on the strength of determining subject-specific parameters from measurements on the participant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hip Strength in Patients with Quadriceps Strength Deficits after ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Walden, Courtney E

    2016-10-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI limb (reconstructed/nondominant vs healthy/dominant) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strength (%BW) for each of the six joint motions of interest (knee extensors/flexors, hip abductors/extensors/external, and internal rotators) while controlling for time from surgery. An interaction was observed for quadriceps strength (P limb in the low quadriceps group was weaker than all other limbs. A main effect for group was observed with the low quadriceps group having greater hip extension (P = 0.007) strength in both limbs compared with the other groups. Knee flexion strength was weaker in the reconstructed limb of the high quadriceps group (P = 0.047) compared with all other groups and limbs. Individuals with ACL reconstruction and involved limb quadriceps weakness have greater hip extension strength in both limbs compared with patients with bilateral strength symmetry and controls.

  7. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockie Robert G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time, and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength. Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ, a fivebound test (5BT, and the reactive strength index (RSI defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson’s correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05 determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40-0.54. The 5BT (5-10 and 0-10 m intervals and RSI (5-10 m interval also related to velocity (r = 0.37-0.47. Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0-5 m flight times (r = -0.46 to -0.51, and a longer 0-10 m step length (r = 0.38. Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r2 = 0.14-0.29 tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes.

  8. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Murphy, Aron J

    2015-12-22

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson's correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40-0.54). The 5BT (5-10 and 0-10 m intervals) and RSI (5-10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37-0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0-5 m flight times (r = -0.46 to -0.51), and a longer 0-10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r(2) = 0.14-0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes.

  9. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During 4 Weeks of Training Leads to Improved Anaerobic Endurance Capacity, but not Maximal Strength, Speed, or Power in Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Leyre; Brown, Frankie F; Alexander, Lee; Dick, James; Bell, Gordon; Witard, Oliver C; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2017-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days. Assessments of physical function and respiratory function were conducted pre (PRE) and post (POST) supplementation. Training session intensity, competitive games and nutritional intake were monitored during the 4-week period. No differences were observed in respiratory measurements (FEV1, FVC) between groups. No main effect of treatment was observed for 1RM knee extensor strength, explosive leg power, or 20 m sprint performance, but strength improved as a result of the training period in both groups (p speed assessments in competitive soccer players. However, the increase in anaerobic endurance capacity evident only in the n-3 FA treatment group suggests an interaction that requires further study.

  10. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. Methods: The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps’ femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf were measured during reactive hyperemia. Results: The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg (P 0.1. Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P < 0.05 and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P = 0.09. Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction.

  11. Feasibility and test-retest reliability of measuring lower‑limb strength in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vulpen, L F; De Groot, S; Becher, J G; De Wolf, G S; Dallmeijer, A J

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying leg muscle strength in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) is essential for identifying muscle groups for treatment and for monitoring progress. To study the feasibility, intratester reliability and the optimal test design (number of test occasions and repetitions) of measuring lower-limb strength with handheld dynamometry (HHD) and dynamic ankle plantar flexor strength with the standing heel-rise (SH) test in 3-10 year aged children with CP. Test-retest design. Rehabilitation centre, special needs school for children with disabilities, and university medical centre. Knee extensor, hip abductor and calf muscle strength was assessed in 20 ambulatory children with spastic CP (3-5 years [N.=10] and 6-10 years [N.=10]) on two test occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Smallest Detectable Differences (SDD) were calculated to determine the optimal test design for detecting changes in strength. All isometric strength tests had acceptable SDDs (9-30%), when taking the mean values of 2-3 test occasions (separate days) and 2-3 repetitions. The one-leg SH test had large SDDs (40-128% for younger group, 23-48% for older group). Isometric strength (improvements) can only be measured reliably with HHD in young children with CP when the average values over at least 2 test occasions are taken. Reliability of the SH test is not sufficient for measuring individual changes in dynamic muscle strength in the younger children. Results of this study can be used to determine the optimal number of test occasions and repetitions for reliable HHD measurements depending on expected changes, muscle group and age in 3-10 year old children with CP.

  12. Isolated Tuberculous Tenosynovitis of the Anterior Tibial and Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhan Genç

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.

  13. Isolated tuberculous tenosynovitis of the anterior tibial and extensor digitorum longus tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Mayda, Aslan; Sen, Nazime

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.

  14. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    balanced itself in 31) using a tabular ctontrol sclwnme. With only thUiee actuated degrees it used a shuffling gait to balance that reminds one of Charlie ... Chaplin . * The present study explores the control of a physical one-legged hopping machine. The objective of using a machine with only one leg was to

  15. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  16. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, Andreas; Harridge, Stephen D R; Mizuno, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Paretic human muscle rapidly loses strength and oxidative endurance, and electrical stimulation training may partly reverse this. We evaluated the effects of two training protocols on the contractile and metabolic properties of the wrist extensor in 12 C-5/6 tetraplegic individuals. The wrist...... by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-NMRS) during and following a continuous 40-s 10-HZ contraction. In the Hr group the cost of contraction decreased by 38% (P ... induced stimulation of the wrist extensor muscles in spinal cord injury (SCI) increases fatigue resistance independent of training pattern. However, only the Hr protocol increased muscle strength and was shown to improve muscle aerobic metabolism after training. Muscle Nerve 27: 72-80, 2003...

  17. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of Brazilian Propolis on leg health in broilers reared under heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposing broiler chickens to heat stress increases leg abnormalities and Gait Score, also it reduced the time of Latency to Lie Test. This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplemention with green Brazilian propolis on Latency to Lie Test for leg strength and leg abnormaliti...

  19. The bilateral strength and power asymmetries in untrained boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahalka, Frantisek; Mala, Lucia; Cech, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the level of isokinetic strength and power of lower limbs in 13-year-old untrained boys (n=22, height: 158.5±8.0 cm, mass: 49.1±12.6 kg), to determine bilateral deficit between the limbs in the tests and examine their mutual relationship. Maximum peak muscle torque of knee extensors (PTQ) and flexors (PTH) on dominant (DL) and non-dominant leg (NL) were measured by isokinetic dynamometer. Three types of a vertical jump: countermovement jump with (CMJFA) and without arms (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) were performed on two force platforms. We found the significant effect (p.05, ηp2=0.03), however a significant effect of AV was found in knee flexors (F4,84=2.70, p.05, ηp2=.01). Bilateral deficit (Q:Q, H:H) did not significantly correlate with bilateral deficit in jumps (p>.05). Despite the possibility of identifying muscle asymmetries in the sense of strength imbalances, their mutual relationship with results in isokinetic dynamometry and power jump tests is still unclear. PMID:28352699

  20. Drill Penetration Injury to Extensor Tendons: A Biomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahylis, Jared M; Burwell, Anora K; Bonneau, Laura; Marshall, Lynn M; Mirarchi, Adam J

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about extensor tendon failure following drill injury at the time of volar plate fixation. Our goals were to analyze extensor tendon injury following simulated drill penetration, and change in tendon displacement during cyclic loading following simulated drill penetration injury. Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were harvested from 9 fresh frozen cadaveric arms. Eighteen EPL and 18 ECRB samples were created from harvested tendons. Drill penetration injury was performed in either a continuous or an oscillating mode. Injured tendons were subjected to 1200 cycles at 1- to 15-kg cyclic load at a frequency of 1 Hz, and analyzed for failure at drill sites and change in displacement throughout the testing cycle. Ten EPL samples and 16 ECRB samples completed testing without failure. Tendon type (ECRB, EPL), mode of injury (continuous, oscillating), and location (proximal, distal) did not affect tendon displacement during loading. A single EPL tendon failed following continuous drill penetration injury. Extensor carpi radialis brevis samples had a mean change in displacement of 2.8 (standard deviation [SD]: 1.5 mm) and 5.9 mm (SD: 4.7 mm) for oscillating and continuous modes, respectively. Six EPL samples had a mean change in displacement of 4.7 (SD: 2.7 mm) and 4.3 mm (SD: 1.8 mm) for oscillating and continuous modes, respectively. Complete extensor tendon failure due to drill penetration was rare. Drill mode did not affect the degree of elongation. Increasing cyclic loading of extensor tendons after drill injury caused modest extensor tendon elongation.

  1. Long-term adherence and effects on grip strength and upper leg performance of prescribed supplemental vitamin D in pregnant and recently pregnant women of Somali and Swedish birth with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency: a before-and-after treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Paul; Rodhe, Nils; Bergqvist, Yngve; Löfvander, Monica

    2016-11-15

    Muscular weakness and severe vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Somali (veiled) pregnant women, Sweden. The study aims here were to explore adherence to prescribed supplemental vitamin D in new mothers with vitamin D deficiency and its effects on grip strength and upper leg performance in Somali (target group TG) and Swedish women (reference group RG) from spring through winter. A before- and after study was designed. A cross-sectional sample of women in antenatal care with serum 25-OHD ≤50 nmol/L were prescribed one or two tablets daily (800 or 1600 IU vitamin D3 with calcium) for 10 months. Reminders were made by Somali nurses (TG) or Swedish doctors (RG). Baseline and 10 month measurements of plasma nmol/L 25-OHD, maximal grip strength held for 10 s (Newton, N) and ability to squat (yes;no) were done. Total tablet intake (n) was calculated. Outcome variables were changes from baseline in grip strength and ability to squat. Predicting variables for change in grip strength and ability to squat were calculated using linear and binary regression in final models. Undetectable 25-OHD values (300 in total) predicted improved ability to squat (OR 16; 95% CI 1.8-144.6). Adherence to supplemental vitamin D and calcium should be encouraged as an even moderate intake was associated to improved grip strength and upper leg performance, which was particularly useful for the women with severe 25-OHD deficiency and poor physical performance at baseline. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02922803 . Date of registration: September 28, 2016.

  2. Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: Effects of tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Huub; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at

  3. Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: Effects of tibialis anterior and extensor digitrum longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at

  4. Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  6. Effect of amino acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength and physical function in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T; Tissier, Sandrine; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Ferrando, Arny A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2008-04-01

    With advancing age there is a gradual decline in muscle mass, strength and function. The aim of this study was to determine if regular intake of a nutritional supplement containing essential amino acids (EAA)+arginine could reverse these responses in elderly subjects. Twelve glucose intolerant subjects (67.0+/-5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of EAA+arginine two times a day, between meals for 16 weeks. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Lean body mass (DEXA) was measured every fourth week. Maximal leg strength was tested and functional tests were performed at week 0, 8, 12, and 16. Lean body mass (LBM) increased during the study (p=0.038). At week 12, the average increase in LBM was 1.14+/-0.36 (SE) kg (pvs baseline), whereas at week 16, the increase was 0.60+/-0.38 kg (NS vs baseline). The lower extremity strength measure score (sum of individual knee flexors and extensors' one repetition maximum, n=10) was 127.5+/-21.8 kg at baseline, and average increase during the study was 22.2+/-6.1% (pspeed (p=0.002), timed 5-step test (p=0.007), and timed floor-transfer test (p=0.022). Supplementation of the diet with EAA+arginine improves lean body mass, strength and physical function compared to baseline values in glucose intolerant elderly individuals.

  7. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activity during single-leg landing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-08-01

    Because there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of fatigue on the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis or on muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue on the lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction during a single-leg landing compared to a healthy control group. The participants included 20 subjects with ACL reconstruction (ACL reconstruction group-ACLRG) and 20 healthy subjects (control group-CG) who were aged between 18 and 35 years. Kinematic and electromyographic analyses were performed during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. The fatigue protocol included a series of 10 squats, two vertical jumps, and 20 steps. The effects of fatigue were increased peak trunk flexion and increased activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GMax) during the landing phase. After the fatigue protocol, an increase in peak trunk flexion and activation of the GMax and BF were observed, most likely as a strategy to reduce the load on the ACL. ACL injury prevention programs should include strength and endurance exercises for the hip and trunk extensor muscles so that they can efficiently control trunk flexion during landing. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  8. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  9. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Ioachimescu, Octavian C

    2015-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an urge to move, and associated with uncomfortable sensations in the legs (limbs). Restless legs syndrome can lead to sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia, and occasionally excessive daytime sleepiness, all leading to significant morbidity. Brain iron deficiency and dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disorder, along with other nondopaminergic systems, although the exact mechanisms are still. Intensive care unit patients are especially vulnerable to have unmasking or exacerbation of restless legs syndrome because of sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disturbance, immobilization, iron deficiency, and use of multiple medications that can antagonize dopamine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt before and after the performance of a fatigue protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe C; Peixoto, Jennifer G; Vicente, Eduardo J D; Chagas, Paula S C; Fonseca, Diogo S

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of data in the literature for determining the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilting and, thus, on lumbar stability. To assess the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited, with a body mass index (BMI) below 24.9 kg/m(2) and leg length discrepancy below 1 cm. The BMI, pelvic perimeter and lower-limb lengths were assessed and, subsequently, the degrees of hemi-pelvic tilt and asymmetry between them were analyzed using lateral view photographs of the subjects in a standing position, using SAPO (Software for Postural Assessment). Next, fatigue was induced in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on the dominant side, and after that the hemi-pelvic tilt and the asymmetry between the hemi-pelvises were reassessed. The Pearson r and Student t tests were conducted at the significance level of alpha=0.05. There were no significant correlations between the confounding variables and asymmetry of the hemi-pelvic angles. There were significant changes in the hemi-pelvic angle of the dominant side (t=3.760; p=0.004). Fatigue in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle can generate increases in the tilt angle of the ipsilateral pelvis.

  11. The Associations between Pain Sensitivity and Knee Muscle Strength in Healthy Volunteers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Henriksen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate associations between muscle strength and pain sensitivity among healthy volunteers and associations between different pain sensitivity measures. Methods. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21 females participated. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs were obtained from 1 computer-controlled pressure algometry on the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles and on the infrapatellar fat pad and 2 computerized cuff pressure algometry applied on the lower leg. Deep-tissue pain sensitivity (intensity and duration was assessed by hypertonic saline injections into the vastus lateralis, deltoid, and infrapatellar fat pad. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed isometrically at 60-degree knee flexion using a dynamometer. Associations between pain sensitivity and muscle strength were investigated using multiple regressions including age, gender, and body mass index as covariates. Results. Knee extension strength was associated with computer-controlled PPT on the vastus lateralis muscle. Computer-controlled PPTs were significantly correlated between sites (r>0.72 and with cuff PPT (r>0.4. Saline induced pain intensity and duration were correlated between sites (r>0.39 and with all PPTs (r<-0.41. Conclusions. Pressure pain thresholds at the vastus lateralis are positively associated with knee extensor muscle strength. Different pain sensitivity assessment methods are generally correlated. The cuff PPT and evoked infrapatellar pain seem to reflect the general pain sensitivity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351558.

  12. Single leg stance control in individuals with symptomatic gluteal tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kim; Bennell, Kim L; Grimaldi, Alison; Vicenzino, Bill; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    Lateral hip pain during single leg loading, and hip abductor muscle weakness, are associated with gluteal tendinopathy, but it has not been shown how or whether kinematics in single leg stance differ in those with gluteal tendinopathy. To compare kinematics in preparation for, and during, single leg stance between individuals with and without gluteal tendinopathy, and the effect of hip abductor muscle strength on kinematics. Twenty individuals with gluteal tendinopathy and 20 age-matched pain-free controls underwent three-dimensional kinematic analysis of single leg stance and maximum isometric hip abductor strength testing. Maximum values of hip adduction, pelvic obliquity (contralateral pelvis rise/drop), lateral pelvic translation (ipsilateral/contralateral shift) and ipsilateral trunk lean during preparation for leg lift and average values in steady single leg stance, were compared between groups using an analysis of covariance, with and without anthropometric characteristics and strength as covariates. Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy demonstrated greater hip adduction (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.70, P=0.04) and ipsilateral pelvic shift (SMD=1.1, P=0.002) in preparation for leg lift, and greater hip adduction (SMD=1.2, P=0.002) and less contralateral pelvic rise (SMD=0.86, P=0.02) in steady single leg stance than controls. When including strength as a covariate, only between-group differences in lateral pelvic shift persisted (SMD=1.7, P=0.01). Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy use different frontal plane kinematics of the hip and pelvis during single leg stance than pain-free controls. This finding is not influenced by pelvic dimension or the potentially modifiable factor of body mass index, but is by hip abductor muscle weakness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Placebo effects of caffeine on maximal voluntary concentric force of the knee flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Muhammad, Bilal; Islam, Mohammed; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    We examined the placebo effect of caffeine and the combined effect of caffeine and caffeine expectancy on maximal voluntary strength. Fourteen men completed 4 randomized, single-blind experimental trials: (1) told caffeine, given caffeine (5 mg/kg) (CC); (2) told caffeine, given placebo (CP); (3) told placebo, given placebo (PP); and (4) told placebo, given caffeine (PC). Maximal voluntary concentric force and fatigue resistance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. A significant and equal improvement in peak concentric force was found in the CC and PC trials. Despite participants believing caffeine would evoke a performance benefit, there was no effect of CP. Caffeine caused an improvement in some aspects of muscle strength, but there was no additional effect of expectancy. Performance was poorer in participants who believed caffeine would have the greatest benefit, which highlights a link between expected ergogenicity, motivation, and personality characteristics. Muscle Nerve 54: 479-486, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Extensor deficiency: first cause of childhood flexible flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittore, Donato; Patella, Vittorio; Petrera, Massimo; Caizzi, Gianni; Ranieri, Maurizio; Putignano, Piero; Spinarelli, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Childhood flexible flat foot is the most common paramorphism of the lower limb. The cause is not a bony malformation of the foot but a functional deficiency of the anatomic structures supporting the plantar arch. These structures, working as active tie rods (the tibialis anterior and posterior muscles) or passive factors of support (flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus muscles) act together to maintain the plantar arch. Their deficiency is responsible for childhood flexible flat foot, characterized by a flattening of the plantar arch and calcaneus pronation (heel valgus) and manifested in the characteristic "duck walking" in children. Hypothesizing poor extensor activity of the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and extensor hallucis longus muscles during the heel contact phase of the gait cycle, we began a preliminary study to evaluate, through superficial electromyography (sEMG), the activation of muscle groups involved in the pathogenesis of childhood flexible flat foot, in particular the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles, to plan a rehabilitative program addressing the strengthening of insufficient muscles. The therapeutic program should also include the use of a medial elastic push orthosis. Data obtained by sEMG highlight a reduced activation of muscles related to the grade of flat foot, emphasizing the concept that a reduced activation of extensor muscles may be involved in determining flexible flat foot.

  15. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  16. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Results The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength. PMID:26229814

  17. A Novel Two-Velocity Method for Elaborate Isokinetic Testing of Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Vladimir; Djuric, Sasa; Knezevic, Olivera M; Mirkov, Dragan M; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-09-01

    Single outcomes of standard isokinetic dynamometry tests do not discern between various muscle mechanical capacities. In this study, we aimed to (1) evaluate the shape and strength of the force-velocity relationship of knee extensors, as observed in isokinetic tests conducted at a wide range of angular velocities, and (2) explore the concurrent validity of a simple 2-velocity method. Thirteen physically active females were tested for both the peak and averaged knee extensor concentric force exerted at the angular velocities of 30°-240°/s recorded in the 90°-170° range of knee extension. The results revealed strong (0.960extensors and, if supported by further research, other muscles. This brief and fatigue-free testing procedure could discern between muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Associations of the stair climb power test with muscle strength and functional performance in people with COPD: A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Stair Climb Power Test (SCPT) is a functional test associated with leg muscle power in older people. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to compare the results of the SCPT in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and people who were healthy and to explore...... associations of the SCPT with muscle strength (force-generating capacity) and functional performance. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional investigation. METHODS: Twenty-one people with COPD and a predicted mean (SD) percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.2 (12.9) and 21 people who were...... healthy and matched for age, sex, and body mass were tested with the SCPT. Knee extensor and flexor muscle torque was assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. Functional performance was assessed with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (TUG) and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). RESULTS: People with COPD showed lower...

  19. Closed traumatic rupture of the extensor hallucis longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Ayman M A; Al-Shaeel, Rashed A

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old healthy laborer involved in a work-related injury, sustained excessive left ankle plantarflexion, which resulted in closed rupture of the extensor hallucis longus muscle without any predisposing factors. He had an associated fracture of the second metatarsal shaft. The muscle proximal to the musculotendinous junction was excised, and the tendon was looped through a longitudinal slit in the main extensor digitorum communis tendon and sutured to it. The second metatarsal fracture was fixed with Kirschner wires. The patient regained full function and was symptom free 6 months after surgery. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation of the Y-Balance Test with Lower-limb Strength of Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between Y-balance test (YBT) distance and the lower-limb strength of adult women. [Subjects] Forty women aged 45 to 80 years volunteered for this study. [Methods] The participants were tested for maximal muscle strength of the lower limbs (hip extensors, hip flexors, hip abductors, knee extensors, knee flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors) and YBT distances in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the linear relationships between YBT distances and lower-limb strength. [Results] Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT anterior distance. Hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with the YBT posteromedial distance. Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT posterolateral distance. [Conclusion] There was a weak correlation between lower-limb strength (hip extensors, hip abductors, and knee flexors) and dynamic postural control as measured by the YBT.

  1. Gain changes in sensorimotor pathways of the locust leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    BÜSchges; Wolf

    1996-01-01

    Feedback systems that control the leg joints of animals must be highly flexible in adapting to different behavioural tasks. One manifestation of such flexibility is changes in the gain of joint control networks. The femur­tibia (FT) control network of the locust leg is one of the feedback systems most thoroughly studied with regard to its neural circuitry. Despite excellent information concerning network topology, however, actual gain changes and their underlying mechanisms have not yet been examined because of the marked spontaneous variations in the action of the control network for this joint. We describe a behavioural situation and a preparation in which the locust (Locusta migratoria L.) FT control network exhibits reproducible changes in gain, allowing investigation of the neuronal basis of gain control. After ('fictive') flight motor activity, the gain of resistance reflexes in the FT joint of the locust middle leg is significantly decreased, with the flexor tibiae muscles being affected more strongly than the extensor muscles. Immediately after flight motor activity, the gain may be as low as 30 % of pre-flight levels. It returns to pre-flight values in under 150 s. The decrease in gain following flight motor activity is due to a decrease in motoneurone recruitment in the resistance reflex elicited by stimulation of the appropriate mechanoreceptor, the femoral chordotonal organ. Motoneurone recruitment is changed as a result of a drastic decline in the stimulus-related synaptic input to the motoneurones, which appears to be produced exclusively at the level of the pre-motor network. Two factors led to this conclusion: first, we found no indication of changes in membrane potential or membrane conductance of the tibia flexor and extensor motoneurones; second, recording from identified pre-motor nonspiking interneurones demonstrated that these may be involved in the observed gain changes. The putative behavioural relevance is discussed.

  2. The effects of high-load strength training with protein- or nonprotein-containing nutritional supplementation in patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian P; Eidemak, Inge; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load strength training and protein intake in patients undergoing dialysis with a focus on muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle morphology. This was a randomized controlled study conducted in three dialysis centers. Subjects for the study included 29 patients undergoing dialysis. The participants went through a control period of 16 weeks before completing 16 weeks of strength training. Before the training period, the participants were randomly assigned to receive a protein or a nonprotein drink after every training session. Muscle strength and power were tested using the good strength equipment and the leg extensor power rig. Physical performance and function were assessed using a chair stand test and the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Muscle fiber type size and composition were analyzed in biopsies obtained from the m. vastus lateralis. All variables remained unchanged during the control period. After training, muscle strength and power, physical performance, and physical function increased significantly. Muscle fiber composition was changed by a relative decrease in type 2x muscle fiber number whereas muscle size at the fiber level was unchanged. There were no effects of combining the training with protein intake. High-load strength training is associated with improvements in muscle strength and power, physical performance, and quality of life. The effects were surprisingly not associated with muscle hypertrophy, and the results did not reveal any additional benefit of combining the training with protein intake. The positive results in muscle strength and physical performance have clinically relevant implications in the treatment of patients undergoing dialysis. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute A4 Pulley Reconstruction with a First Extensor Compartment Onlay Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubietz, Michael G; Meffert, Rainer H; Schmidt, Karsten; Gruenert, Joerg G; Jakubietz, Rafael G

    2017-06-01

    The integrity of the flexor tendon pulley apparatus is crucial for unimpaired function of the digits. Although secondary reconstruction is an established procedure in multi-pulley injuries, acute reconstruction of isolated, closed pulley ruptures is a rare occurrence. There are 3 factors influencing the functional outcome of a reconstruction: gapping distance between tendon and bone (E-space), bulkiness of the reconstruction, and stability. As direct repair is rarely done, grafts are used to reinforce the pulley. An advantage of the first extensor retinaculum graft is the synovial coating providing the possibility to be used both as a direct graft with synovial coating or as an onlay graft after removal of the synovia when the native synovial layer is present. A graft from the first dorsal extensor compartment is used as an onlay graft to reinforce the sutured A4 pulley. This technique allows reconstruction of the original dimensions of the pulley system while stability is ensured by anchoring the onlay graft to the bony insertions of the pulley. Anatomical reconstruction can be achieved with this method. The measured E-space remained 0 mm throughout the recovery, while the graft incorporated as a slim reinforcement of the pulley, displaying no bulkiness. The ideal reconstruction should provide synovial coating and sufficient strength with minimal bulk. Early reconstruction using an onlay graft offers these options. The native synovial lining is preserved and the graft is used to reinforce the pulley.

  4. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; P<0.001) and between EMG activity and submaximal isometric torque (r ⩾ 0.99; P<0.05), for both extensor and flexor muscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extensor Pollicis Brevis tendon damage presenting as de Quervain's disease following kettlebell training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Karuppaiah; Carter-Esdale, Charles William; Vijayanathan, Sanjay; Kochhar, Tony

    2013-06-03

    Kettlebell exercises are more efficient for an athlete to increase his or her muscle strength. However it carries the risk of injury especially in the beginners. A 39 year old gentleman came to our clinic with radial sided wrist pain following kettlebell exercises. Clinically patient had swelling and tenderness over the tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment, besides Finklesten test was positive. Patient had a decreased excursion of the thumb when compared to the opposite side. Ultrasound/MRI scan revealed asymmetric thickening of the 1st compartment extensors extending from the base of the thumb to the wrist joint. Besides injury to the Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) tendon by repetitive impact from kettlebell, leading to its split was identified. Detailed history showed that the injury might be due to off-centre handle holding during triceps strengthening exercises. Our report stresses the fact that kettlebell users should be taught about problems of off-center handle holding to avoid wrist injuries. Also, in Kettlebell users with De Quervains disease clinical and radiological evaluation should be done before steroid injection as this might lead to complete tendon rupture.

  6. Extensor Pollicis Brevis tendon damage presenting as de Quervain’s disease following kettlebell training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Kettlebell exercises are more efficient for an athlete to increase his or her muscle strength. However it carries the risk of injury especially in the beginners. A 39 year old gentleman came to our clinic with radial sided wrist pain following kettlebell exercises. Clinically patient had swelling and tenderness over the tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment, besides Finklesten test was positive. Patient had a decreased excursion of the thumb when compared to the opposite side. Ultrasound/MRI scan revealed asymmetric thickening of the 1st compartment extensors extending from the base of the thumb to the wrist joint. Besides injury to the Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB) tendon by repetitive impact from kettlebell, leading to its split was identified. Detailed history showed that the injury might be due to off-centre handle holding during triceps strengthening exercises. Our report stresses the fact that kettlebell users should be taught about problems of off-center handle holding to avoid wrist injuries. Also, in Kettlebell users with De Quervains disease clinical and radiological evaluation should be done before steroid injection as this might lead to complete tendon rupture. PMID:23731737

  7. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Delecluse, Christophe; Coudyzer, Walter; Boonen, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    Muscle adaptations can be induced by high-resistance exercise. Despite being potentially more suitable for older adults, low-resistance exercise protocols have been less investigated. We compared the effects of high- and low-resistance training on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Fifty-six older adults were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)), LOW (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1RM), or LOW+ (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1RM, followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% of 1RM). All protocols ended with muscle failure. Leg press and leg extension of 1RM were measured at baseline and post intervention and before the first training session in weeks 5 and 9. At baseline and post intervention, muscle volume (MV) was measured by CT-scan. A Biodex dynamometer evaluated knee extensor static peak torque in different knee angles (PT(stat90°), PT(stat120°), PT(stat150°)), dynamic peak torque at different speeds (PT(dyn60°s)(-1), PT(dyn180°s)(-1), PT(dyn240°s)(-1)), and speed of movement at 20% (S20), 40% (S40), and 60% (S60) of PTstat90°. HIGH and LOW+ resulted in greater improvements in 1RM strength than LOW (presistance exercises ending with muscle failure may be similarly effective for hypertrophy. High-resistance training led to a higher increase in 1RM strength than low-resistance training (20% of 1RM), but this difference disappeared when using a mixed low-resistance protocol in which the resistance was intensified within a single exercise set (40% of 1RM). Our findings support the need for more research on low-resistance programs in older age, in particular long-term training studies and studies focusing on residual effects after training cessation. © 2013.

  8. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  9. Correlation between dynamic postural stability and muscle strength, anterior instability, and knee scale in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Hah; Kim, Do-Kyung; Yoo, Jae Chul; Lee, Yong Seuk; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Chang, Moon Jong; Park, Yong Serk

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlations between dynamic postural stability and muscle strength, anterior instability, and knee scores in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knees. We examined 40 male patients with ACL injury prior to surgery. Maximal torques of flexors and extensors of the injured knee at 60 and 180 degrees /s were evaluated using an isokinetic testing device. Anterior translations of the tibia were measured using a KT-2000 arthrometer, and dynamic postural stabilities were measured during single-leg stance using the Biodex Stability System (BSS). Knee statuses were evaluated using Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) knee scores. Correlations between dynamic postural stability and muscle strength, anterior instability, and knee scores were determined. Significant correlations were found between maximal torques of the extensor of injured knees at 60 and 180 degrees /s (r = -0.52, p = 0.048 and r = -0.46, p = 0.019, respectively) and dynamic postural stability, and maximal torques of flexors of injured knees showed similar relations (r = -0.51, p = 0.0048 and r = -0.47, p = 0.016, respectively). Lysholm and IKDC knee scores were also found to be correlated with dynamic postural stability (r = -0.49, p = 0.001 and r = -0.52, p = 0.005, respectively). However, no correlation was found between grade of anterior translation measured using the KT-2000 arthrometer and dynamic postural stability (p = 1.0). Dynamic postural stability determined using the BSS appears to be influenced by muscle strength, as determined by isokinetic testing, but not with grade of anterior translation measured using a KT-2000 arthrometer. Subjective knee scores appear to improve in parallel with dynamic postural stability.

  10. Examination of Knee Isokinetic Strength and Single-Leg Balance of Operated and Non-Operated Side of Patients with Unilateral Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI Surgery : Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağlar Soylu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: It was determined that the operated side's hamstring/quadriceps ratio after MACI surgery was weaker than the normal value, against the quadriceps, and for quadriceps muscle strength of both sides, there was a difference higher than 10%, which is considered to be the normal limit. This reveals that home programs may be insufficient for people who have undergone MACI surgery, and also that muscular strength of people should be followed up in the long term. Therefore, we think that special rehabilitation protocols as the ones that exist in other knee cartilage operations should be applied following MACI surgery.

  11. Anatomical description of the leg muscles of Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino Cardoso Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus, as well as its entire family, is an endemic species of the Americas. It is widely found throughout the Brazilian territory and it inhabits all biomes, particularly the cerrado. This study used five adult specimens of P. cancrivorus for the characterization of the leg muscles. The animals were collected on roads (i. e. they had been killed by accident. The muscles were dissected, observing their proximal and distal insertions macroscopically, together with their topographic relationships to the arteries and nerves. The muscles studied are considered muscles of the tibia. The cranial tibial muscles, brevis, longus, long digital extensor and lateral extensor digitorum are craniolaterally distinct in the tibia, and the gastrocnemius muscles, lateral flexor of the fingers, popliteus, flexor digitorum, flexor digitorum and medial tibial flow are located in the caudal region of the tibia. The muscles of this group act as flexors and extensors of the hock joint and as flexors and extensors of the digital joints, except the popliteal muscle that acts as a flexor of the knee joint. The muscles studied were compared with their muscles in domestic carnivores, like the dog and cat, and great similarity was found.

  12. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gee Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors (MVC, static-squat jumps (SSJ, counter-movement jumps (CMJ, maximal rowing power strokes (PS and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01. However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05, and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 – 0.086. In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected.

  13. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  14. Side-alternating vibration training for balance and ankle muscle strength in untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulou, Styliani I; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2013-01-01

    Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Laboratory. A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91-16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater in the mediolateral (P training could enhance ankle muscle strength and reduce postural sway during static balance

  15. Leg stiffness can be maintained during reactive hopping despite modified acceleration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A; Ritzmann, R; Gruber, M; Gollhofer, A

    2012-06-26

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate reactive hops under systematically modified acceleration conditions. It was hypothesized that a high preactivity of the leg extensors and phase-specific adjustments of the leg muscle activation would compensate the alterations caused by the various acceleration levels in order to maintain a high leg stiffness, thus enabling the jumper to perform truly reactive jumps with short ground contact times despite the unaccustomed acceleration conditions. Ground reaction forces (GRF), kinematic and electromyographic data of 20 healthy subjects were recorded during reactive hopping in a special sledge jump system for seven different acceleration levels: three acceleration levels with lower than normal gravity (0.7g, 0.8g, 0.9g), one with gravitational acceleration (1g) and three with higher acceleration (1.1g, 1.2g, 1.3g). The increase of the acceleration from 0.7g to 1.3g had no significant effect on the preactivity of the leg extensors, the leg stiffness and the rate of force development. However, it resulted in increased peak GRF (+15%), longer ground contact time (+10%) and increased angular excursion at the ankle and knee joints (+3°). Throughout a wide acceleration range, the subjects were able to maintain a high leg stiffness and perform reactive hops by keeping the preactivity constantly high and adjusting the muscle activity in the later phases. In consequence, it can be concluded that the neuromuscular system can cope with different acceleration levels, at least in the acceleration range used in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT): A New Method to Assess Hip Posterolateral Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; das Neves Rodrigues, Helena Larissa; de Freitas, Bruno Wesley; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT) evaluates the strength of the hip posterolateral stabilizers in a position that favors greater activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius and lower activation of the tensor fascia lata. Objectives To check the validity and reliability of the HipSIT and to evaluate the HipSIT in women with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods The HipSIT was evaluated with a handheld dynamometer. During testing, the participants were sidelying, with their legs positioned at 45° of hip flexion and 90° of knee flexion. Participants were instructed to raise the knee of the upper leg while keeping the upper and lower heels in contact. To establish reliability and validity, 49 women were tested with the HipSIT by 2 different evaluators on day 1, and then again 7 days later. The strength of the hip extensors, abductors, and external rotators was also evaluated. Twenty women with unilateral PFP were also evaluated. Results The HipSIT has excellent intrarater and interrater reliability. The standard error of measurement was 0.01 kgf/kg, and the minimal detectable change was 0.036 kgf/kg. The HipSIT showed good validity in isolated hip abduction, external rotation, and extension (Pstrength deficits in women with PFP. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):906-913. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7274.

  18. Isokinetic testing of flexor and extensor muscles in athletes suffering from low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzit, G P; Chisotti, L; Albertini, G; Martore, M; Gribaudo, C G

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of isokinetic testing in athletes with chronic low back pain (LBP) to obtain quantitative information for rehabilitation purposes. a comparative study. Physiotherapy Department--Institute of Sports Medicine in Italy. 50 men, aged 25-65, practising running, cycling, triathlon, tennis, soccer, basketball, volleyball, skiing and golf. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A was treated for 3 months with postural exercises 2 or 3 times a week. Group B was treated for the same period of time with resistive exercises performed by resorting to specific machines. Before and after treatment, trunk muscle strength was evaluated by means of an isokinetic test carried out in a seated position. The isokinetic measurements used were peak torque (PT), work, power-in the best repetition and total work (TW) in four repetitions. Both the pain and the functional impairment during physical activity was evaluated by subjective visual analogic scale. The PT showed a parallel increase in flexor and extensor muscles in Group A. In Group B it increased by 32.2% at 60 degrees/s and 44.1% at 120 degrees/s as for the extensor muscles while the flexion-to-extension ratio decreased significantly. The TW registered a bigger percentage increase in both groups (+21% at 60 degrees/s and +20.4% at 120 degrees/s in Group A; +36.5% at 60 degrees/s and +50.3% at 120 degrees/s in Group B). The two rehabilitation programmes had the same effect on the course of LBP, but in Group B we observed a bigger increase in strength which could be potentially useful during a sports activity.

  19. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  20. Isometric knee extensor fatigue following a Wingate test: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M

    2013-02-01

    Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Aagaard, Per; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether changes from 2 to 4 years post arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in mechanical muscle function and objectively measured function differ between the operated and contra-lateral leg of APM patients or compared with controls. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 46.......6 ± 5.0, BMI 24.7 ± 2.9) and 25 controls (age 46.4 ± 5.2, BMI 25.1 ± 4.6) previously examined at ~2 years post APM were examined again at ~4 years post surgery for maximal knee extensor/flexor voluntary contraction (MVC) and rapid force capacity. Functional performance was assessed by the distance achieved...... during a one-leg hop test and the maximum number of knee bends performed in 30 s. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to evaluate self-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Overall changes from 2 to 4 years post APM did not differ in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity...

  2. Knee extensor mechanism allograft reconstruction following chronic disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Boisrenoult, P; Pujol, N; Beranger, J S; Tardy, N; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P

    2015-11-01

    The management of chronic extensor mechanism disruption can be complex. One of the options is allograft reconstruction. The goal of this study was to present the surgical procedure and provide preliminary results with this technique. The allograft uses the whole extensor mechanism (anterior tibial tubercle, patellar ligament, patella, quadriceps tendon). The native patella can be completely removed if the quality of the bone is poor, otherwise a bone groovecan be created to receive the allograft. The allograft is tightly tensioned with the knee in full extension. This surgical technique was performed 5 times with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Active extension was recovered in all cases. The mean postoperative KOOS was 55.5 the IKS function score was 68.5 and the IKS knee score was 83. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that 12-weeks’ intervention of whole-body vibration training can increase knee extensors strength and decrease spasticity with beneficial effects on walking speed and motor development in spastic diplegic CP children.

  4. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  5. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  6. [Isolated traumatic dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loty, B; Meunier, B; Mazas, F

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe one case of post-traumatic dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. They found eleven other cases reported in the literature. The type of lesion should be looked for in cases of trauma to the wrist without a bony lesion. The treatment should be surgical when function is impaired, either shortly after the initial trauma or if the dislocation becomes habitual. The aim is to reconstruct a tendon sheath. The results were generally satisfactory.

  7. Effects of Two Years of Calorie Restriction on Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    RACETTE, SUSAN B.; ROCHON, JAMES; UHRICH, MARY L.; VILLAREAL, DENNIS T.; DAS, SAI KRUPA; FONTANA, LUIGI; BHAPKAR, MANJUSHRI; MARTIN, CORBY K.; REDMAN, LEANNE M.; FUSS, PAUL J.; ROBERTS, SUSAN B.; KRAUS, WILLIAM E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Calorie restriction (CR) improves health span and delays age-related diseases in many species. The multicenter Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) study was the first randomized controlled trial of CR in nonobese humans. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of CR on V˙O2max and muscle strength in the CALERIE trial. Methods Healthy, normal-weight, and mildly overweight women and men (n = 218, mean ± SE age = 37.9 ± 0.5 yr) were randomized to 25% CR or an ad libitum (AL) control condition in a 2:1 allocation (143 CR, 75 AL). V˙O2max was determined with an incremental treadmill test; the strength of the knee flexors and extensors was assessed by dynamometry at baseline, 1 yr, and 2 yr. Results The CR group achieved an average 11.9% ± 0.7% CR during the 2-yr intervention. Body weight decreased in CR (−7.7 ± 0.4 kg), but not AL (+0.2 ± 0.5 kg). Absolute V˙O2max (L·min−1) decreased at 1 and 2 yr with CR, whereas V˙O2max expressed relative to body mass increased at both time points (1 yr: +2.2 ± 0.4; 2 yr: +1.9 ± 0.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) and relative to AL. The CR group increased their treadmill test time and workload at 1 and 2 yr. Strength results in CR were similar, with decreases in absolute flexor and extensor strength, but increases when expressed relative to body mass. No changes were observed for V˙O2max expressed relative to lean body mass or leg lean mass. Conclusions Two years of modest CR without a structured exercise component did not appear to compromise aerobic capacity in healthy nonobese adults. The clinical implications of the observed changes in V˙O2max and muscle strength will be important to explore in future studies. PMID:29045325

  8. Study on unified fatigue strength assessment method for welded structure. Hot spot stress evaluating method for various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length; Yosetsu kozo no toitsutekina hiro kyodo hyokaho ni kansuru kenkyu. Itaatsu to yosetsu ashinaga no kumiawase ni taisuru hot spot oryoku sanshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.; Inamura, F.; Koe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    There has been tried to apply unified assessment method using hot spot stress, which is effective to evaluate fatigue strength of fillet welded structures for ships and marine structures. This method can be applied to complicated structures and is independent of welding processes. In this study, first, stress analysis has been conducted for two-dimensional fillet welded joint models with various combinations of plate thickness and weld leg length of general fillet structures by means of boundary element method. Then, critical position, which is not affected by local stress concentration due to bead, was determined from the detailed stress distribution in the vicinity of weld toe. As a result, a general equation has been proposed to estimate the hot spot stress by one-point representative method. Second, the fatigue tests of typical fillet welded joints have been conducted by applying this method. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the unified fatigue strength can be evaluated by the S-N data based on hot spot stress range determined from the proposed equation, independent of structural stress concentration. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  9. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  10. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Forearm Kinesio Taping on Grip Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhzad Mohammadi, Hosein; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro; Naeimi, Sedighe Sadat; Pouretezad, Mohammad; Shokri, Esmaeil; Tafazoli, Mojdeh; Dastjerdi, Mahboobeh; Kardooni, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the fundamental role of gripping in most upper limb activities, grip strength promotion is a chief goal in the treatment of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Kinesio taping is a novel and effective therapeutic technique believed to facilitate muscle contraction through stimulating mechanoreceptors and increasing the sensory feedback around the taped region. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the best region (flexor, extensor and flexor/extensor regions) and time (immediate, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 hours) of forearm Kinesio taping to obtain the maximum improvement in grip strength. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 40 healthy men and women (the mean age of 22.3 ± 2.19 years) were selected among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran by simple, nonrandom sampling method. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength immediately and every 30 minutes during the two hours after I-shaped application of tape (with 50% stretch) to the flexor, extensor, and flexor/extensor forearm muscles. Results: Grip strength was significantly increased in various muscle groups for males (P = 0.002) and females (P = 0.000) of the forearm and at different intervals for males (P = 0.000) and females (P = 0.000). Moreover, in both men and women, tape application to the extensor region provided greater grip strength compared to taping of the flexor and flexor/extensor regions (P = 0.000 for both). Furthermore, the maximum increase in grip strength were 0.5 (10.8% increase, P = 0.001) and 1.5 h (23.9% increase, P = 0.000) after taping in males and females, respectively. Conclusions: Taping the extensor region of forearm is recommended to achieve higher grip strength. Although grip strength increased at a slower pace in females than males, the final values were higher in women. PMID:25389492

  11. Immediate and delayed effects of forearm kinesio taping on grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhzad Mohammadi, Hosein; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro; Naeimi, Sedighe Sadat; Pouretezad, Mohammad; Shokri, Esmaeil; Tafazoli, Mojdeh; Dastjerdi, Mahboobeh; Kardooni, Leila

    2014-08-01

    Due to the fundamental role of gripping in most upper limb activities, grip strength promotion is a chief goal in the treatment of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Kinesio taping is a novel and effective therapeutic technique believed to facilitate muscle contraction through stimulating mechanoreceptors and increasing the sensory feedback around the taped region. The present study aimed to identify the best region (flexor, extensor and flexor/extensor regions) and time (immediate, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 hours) of forearm Kinesio taping to obtain the maximum improvement in grip strength. In this longitudinal study, 40 healthy men and women (the mean age of 22.3 ± 2.19 years) were selected among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran by simple, nonrandom sampling method. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength immediately and every 30 minutes during the two hours after I-shaped application of tape (with 50% stretch) to the flexor, extensor, and flexor/extensor forearm muscles. Grip strength was significantly increased in various muscle groups for males (P = 0.002) and females (P = 0.000) of the forearm and at different intervals for males (P = 0.000) and females (P = 0.000). Moreover, in both men and women, tape application to the extensor region provided greater grip strength compared to taping of the flexor and flexor/extensor regions (P = 0.000 for both). Furthermore, the maximum increase in grip strength were 0.5 (10.8% increase, P = 0.001) and 1.5 h (23.9% increase, P = 0.000) after taping in males and females, respectively. Taping the extensor region of forearm is recommended to achieve higher grip strength. Although grip strength increased at a slower pace in females than males, the final values were higher in women.

  12. Trunk Strength Characteristics of Elite Alpine Skiers - a Comparison with Physically Active Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Lisa; Heisse, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers ( p = 0.003; 2.44 ± 0.30 Nm/kg) than in the controls (2.32 ± 0.42 Nm/kg). The relative peak torque for extension was 4.53 ± 0.65 Nm/kg in ski racers and 4.11 ± 0.52 Nm/kg in the controls ( p = 0.001). Female athletes were significantly stronger in both, relative flexion force ( p = 0.006; skiers 2.05 ± 0.22 Nm/kg; controls 1.74 ± 0.28 Nm/kg) and relative extension force ( p = 0.001; skiers 3.55 ± 0.53 Nm/kg; controls 3.14 ± 0.48 Nm/kg). No significant differences were found in the ratios of flexion to extension forces in females and males. Ski racers are engaged in extensive strength training for both leg and trunk muscles, which explains the higher peak values. Both groups indicated a low ratio from 0.54-0.59, which represents high trunk extensor muscles strength relative to flexor muscles.

  13. Trunk Strength Characteristics of Elite Alpine Skiers - A Comparison with Physically Active Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrandt Carolin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers (p = 0.003; 2.44 ± 0.30 Nm/kg than in the controls (2.32 ± 0.42 Nm/kg. The relative peak torque for extension was 4.53 ± 0.65 Nm/kg in ski racers and 4.11 ± 0.52 Nm/kg in the controls (p = 0.001. Female athletes were significantly stronger in both, relative flexion force (p = 0.006; skiers 2.05 ± 0.22 Nm/kg; controls 1.74 ± 0.28 Nm/kg and relative extension force (p = 0.001; skiers 3.55 ± 0.53 Nm/kg; controls 3.14 ± 0.48 Nm/kg. No significant differences were found in the ratios of flexion to extension forces in females and males. Ski racers are engaged in extensive strength training for both leg and trunk muscles, which explains the higher peak values. Both groups indicated a low ratio from 0.54-0.59, which represents high trunk extensor muscles strength relative to flexor muscles.

  14. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome.

  15. [Swollen leg with blisters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeiner, Ph; Templeton, A J; Vonesch, H J

    2005-10-05

    We report the case of a 84-year-old woman suffering from strong pain in her right leg initially resembling thrombosis of deep veins. Eight hours after admission a superficial blister developed at the calf with following hemorrhagic aspect and spontanous eruption of clear yellowish fluid. Later on a new blister appeared at the thigh. The patient died 33 hours after admission of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The latter was based on a necrotizing fasciitis. Streptoccus pyogenes (group A) could be cultivated from the blood and fluid of the blister. We discuss the clinical presentation of necrotizing fasciitis with "pain out of proportion" as characteristic complaint and the appropriate management.

  16. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  17. Tenosynovial (Extra-articular) Chondromatosis of the Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendon and Synovial Chondromatosis of the Ankle: Treated by Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendoscopy and Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-10-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare pathology in the foot and ankle region. We present a case of concomitant tenosynovial chondromatosis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon and synovial chondromatosis of the ankle, which was successfully treated by extensor digitorum tendon tendoscopy and ankle arthroscopy. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Hvid, L G; Hermann, A P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio-available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty-nine men...... function was assessed by Nottingham Leg Rig (leg extension power) and isokinetic dynamometry (knee extensor maximal isometric contraction, rate of force development (RFD100), maximal dynamic contraction (Dyn180)). Physical function was assessed by gait speed. Body composition was assessed by whole body...... aged 50-70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels Muscle mechanical...

  19. Testosterone therapy preserves muscle strength and power in aging men with type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L V; Hvid, L G; Hermann, A P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio-available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty-nine men...... aged 50-70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels Muscle mechanical...... function was assessed by Nottingham Leg Rig (leg extension power) and isokinetic dynamometry (knee extensor maximal isometric contraction, rate of force development (RFD100), maximal dynamic contraction (Dyn180)). Physical function was assessed by gait speed. Body composition was assessed by whole body...

  20. Net joint moments and muscle activation in barbell squats without and with restricted anterior leg rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; vonGaza, Gabriella L; Jean, Liane M Y

    2017-01-01

    Muscle utilisation in squat exercise depends on technique. The purpose of this study was to compare net joint moments (NJMs) and muscle activation during squats without and with restricted leg dorsiflexion. Experienced men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) performed full squats at 80% one repetition maximum. 3D motion analysis, force platform and (EMG) data were collected. Restricting anterior leg rotation reduced anterior leg (P = 0.001) and posterior thigh (P  0.05), vastus medialis (P > 0.05) and rectus femoris (P > 0.05) EMG were not different between squat types. Unrestricted squats have higher ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM than previously reported from jumping and landing. However, ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM are lower in restricted squats than previous studies of jumping and landing. The high NJM in unrestricted squat exercise performed through a full range of motion suggests this squat type would be more effective to stimulate adaptations in the lower extremity musculature than restricted squats.

  1. Subluxation of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Associated with the Extensor Digitorum Tendon Subluxation of the Long Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Yoon, Hong-Gi; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Park, Kang-Hee; Kim, Chang-Geun

    2013-01-01

    A twenty-year-old male visited our clinic with wrist and long finger metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint pain. Dynamic ultrasonography revealed sagittal band (SB) ulnar subluxation and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) volar subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed longitudinal splitting and dislocation of the volar half slip of the ECU tendon. The redundant radial SB was augmented and ECU sheath was advanced to the periosteum using suture anchors. He was able to perform his previous activities at the last follow-up. We encountered a case of "simulateous" ECU dislocation with extensor tendon subluxation of the long finger at the MP joint. Therefore, we report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:23467477

  2. Delayed rupture of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum communis tendons after breaching the anterior capsule with a radiofrequency probe during ankle arthroscopy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Serdar; Aksu, Neslihan; Isiklar, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with early arthritis, loose bodies, and anterolateral joint impingement symptoms in his left ankle, which was refractory to noninvasive therapeutic modalities for 1 year, underwent ankle arthroscopy and radiofrequency thermal ablation. The anterior capsule of the ankle joint was breached by the radiofrequency probe while the loose bodies were removed from the anterior recess, exposing the extensor tendons and resulting in a delayed spontaneous rupture of the extensor hallucis longus tendon and extensor tendons to the second and third toes. The extensor hallucis longus tendon was repaired with a semitendinosus tendon graft, and extensor digitorum tendons underwent primary repair. The patient regained full function and was symptom free 1 year after surgery. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proposing the LEGS framework to complement the WHO building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This includes the health sector. The framework is based on the four pillars of leadership, ethics, governance and systems, hence called LEGS framework. It can complement the six World Health Organization building blocks that guide inputs to help a health system achieve the intended goals. Despite all the strengths of the ...

  4. The effect of an intensive exercise programme on leg function in chronic stroke patients: a pilot study with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Roland; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of two weeks of intensive exercise on leg function in chronic stroke patients and to evaluate the feasibility of an intensive exercise programme in a group setting. Pilot study with one-group pre-test post-test design with two pre-tests and one-year follow-up. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twelve hemiparetic patients completed the intervention. Ten patients participated at one-year follow-up. Six hours of daily intensive exercise for two weeks with focus on weight-shifting towards the affected side and increased use of the affected extremity during functional activities. An insole with nubs in the shoe of the non-paretic limb was used to reinforce weight-shift toward the affected side. Timed Up and Go, Four Square Step Test, gait velocity, gait symmetry and muscle strength in knee and ankle muscles. Maximal gait velocity (P = 0.002) and performance time (seconds) on Timed Up and Go (mean, SD; 12.2, 3.8 vs. 9.4, 3.2) and Four Square Step Test improved from pre- to post-test (P = 0.005). Improvements remained significant at follow-up. Preferred gait velocity and gait symmetry remained unchanged. Knee extensor (Pstroke patients. Most improvements persisted at the one-year follow-up.

  5. Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William

    2014-07-01

    Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.

  6. Central and peripheral fatigue in knee and elbow extensor muscles after a long-distance cross-country ski race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, G; Dardanello, D; Zoppirolli, C; Bortolan, L; Cescon, C; Schneebeli, A; Vernillo, G; Schena, F; Rainoldi, A; Pellegrini, B

    2017-09-01

    Although elbow extensors (EE) have a great role in cross-country skiing (XC) propulsion, previous studies on neuromuscular fatigue in long-distance XC have investigated only knee extensor (KE) muscles. In order to investigate the origin and effects of fatigue induced by long-distance XC race, 16 well-trained XC skiers were tested before and after a 56-km classical technique race. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured for both KE and EE. Furthermore, electrically evoked double twitch during MVC and at rest were measured. MVC decreased more in KE (-13%) than in EE (-6%, P = 0.016), whereas the peak RFD decreased only in EE (-26%, P = 0.02) but not in KE. The two muscles showed similar decrease in voluntary activation (KE -5.0%, EE -4.8%, P = 0.61) and of double twitch amplitude (KE -5%, EE -6%, P = 0.44). A long-distance XC race differently affected the neuromuscular function of lower and upper limbs muscles. Specifically, although the strength loss was greater for lower limbs, the capacity to produce force in short time was more affected in the upper limbs. Nevertheless, both KE and EE showed central and peripheral fatigue, suggesting that the origins of the strength impairments were multifactorial for the two muscles. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Anatomical aspects of the nerves of the leg and foot of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although distal stifle joint nerve distribution has been well established in domestic animals, this approach is scarcely reported in wild animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the nerves of the leg and foot of Myrmecophaga tridactyla with emphasis on their ramification, distribution, topography and territory of innervation. For this purpose, six adult cadavers fixed and preserved in 10% formalin solution were used. The nerves of the leg and foot of the M. tridactyla were the saphenous nerve (femoral nerve branch, fibular and tibial nerves and lateral sural cutaneous nerve (branches of the sciatic nerve and caudal sural cutaneous nerve (tibial nerve branch. The saphenous nerve branches to the skin, the craniomedial surface of the leg, the medial surface of the tarsal and metatarsal regions and the dorsomedial surface of the digits I and II (100% of cases, III (50% of cases and IV (25% of cases. The lateral sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the craniolateral region of the knee and leg. The fibular nerve innervates the flexor and extensor muscles of the tarsal region of the digits and skin of the craniolateral surface of the leg and dorsolateral surface of the foot. The tibial nerve innervates the extensor muscles of the tarsal joint and flexor, adductor and abductor muscles of the digits and the skin of the plantar surface. The caudal sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the caudal surface of the leg. The nerves responsible for the leg and foot innervation were the same as reported in domestic and wild animals, but with some differences, such as the more distal division of the common fibular nerve, the absence of dorsal metatarsal branches of the deep fibular nerve and a greater involvement of the saphenous nerve in the digital innervation with branches to the digits III and IV, in addition to digits I and II.

  8. Ulnar-sided pain due to extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cift Hakan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the case of a patient with extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation who was first treated for distal radioulnar joint sprain. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian man was seen at our policlinic one month after he had fallen on his outstretched hand. A diagnosis of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation was made clinically but we also had the magnetic resonance imaging scan of the patient’s wrist which displayed an increased signal on T2-weighted images consistent with inflammation around the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was found to be dislocating during supination and relocating during pronation. The sheath was reconstructed using extensor retinaculum due to attenuation of subsheath. Conclusion There was no recurrent dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon of the patient at his last follow up 12 months after the operation.

  9. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

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    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  10. [Extensor digitorum longus transfer in flexible overlapping fifth toe deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, R A; Pillukat, T

    2014-02-01

    Pain relief through realignment of the fifth toe by dorsomedial capsular release at the fifth metatarsophalaneal joint and transfer of the extensor digitorum longus tendon to the aponeurosis of the abductor digiti quinti muscle. Flexible overlapping fifth toe deformity. Fixed deformity. Angular toe deformity distal to the metatarsophalangeal joint (e.g. delta phalanx). Lateral drift of all lesser toes. Dorsolateral approach to the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. Release of the dorsomedial capsule. Tenotomy of the fifth extensor digitorum longus tendon at the dorsum of the foot. Transfer of the distally based tendon around the proximal phalanx to the aponeurosis of the abductor digiti quinti muscle. Correction of the deformity by tensioning the tendon graft appropriately. Ambulation with full weightbearing in a postoperative shoe. Toe alignment dressing for 6 weeks. A total of 48 patients (56 feet; average age 37 years) with a flexible overlapping fifth toe deformity were followed up after soft tissue release and transfer of the extensor digitorum longus tendon; 40 patients (48 feet) were re-evaluated clinically after 11.4 months (range 9-26 months). Postoperative complications were sensory disturbance at the lateral side of the fifth toe (n = 5), superficial wound slough (n = 3). Follow-up results included broad and hypertrophic scars at the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint (n = 16), physiological alignment of the fifth toe in 37 feet (77.1%), overcorrection (interdigital space 4/5 > 3 mm) in 4 feet (8.3%), undercorrection in 7 feet (14.6%). In 4 feet the undercorrection could be attributed to a Tailor's bunion deformity, which was not treated appropriately.

  11. Hyperparathyroidism-related extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist: a general review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Satoshi; Hidalgo-Diaz, Juan Jose; Prunières, Guillaume; Facca, Sybille; Bodin, Frédéric; Boucher, Stéphanie; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tenosynovitis often occurs accompanying with rheumatoid arthritis, gout, trauma, mycobacterium and dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, there is no recognition of extensor tenosynovitis accompanying with hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this general review was to describe the clinical condition and to report the results of surgical intervention in the extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist related to hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is thought to be a rare disease in adult. Although renal symptoms are the commonest symptom, musculoskeletal complaints also occur in hyperparathyroidism. From our general review, hyperparathyroidism deserves consideration in the differential diagnosis of extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist.

  12. Static balance control and lower limb strength in blind and sighted women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Thimara, Maria; Kouvelioti, Vassiliki; Kellis, Elefthrerios

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and to compare center of pressure (CoP) sway between blind and sighted women. A total of 20 women volunteered to participate in this study. Ten severe blind women (age 33.5 +/- 7.9 years; height 163 +/- 5 cm; mass 64.5 +/- 12.2 kg) and 10 women with normal vision (age 33.5 +/- 8.3 years; height 164 +/- 6 cm; mass 61.9 +/- 14.5 kg) performed 3 different tasks of increasing difficulty: Normal Quiet Stance (1 min), Tandem Stance (20 s), and One-Leg Stance (10 s). Participants stood barefoot on two adjacent force platforms and the CoP variations [peak-to-peak amplitude (CoPmax) and SD of the CoP displacement (CoPsd)] were analyzed. Sighted participants performed the tests in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Torque/angular velocity and torque/angular position relationships were also established using a Cybex dynamometer for knee extensors and flexors as well as for ankle plantar and dorsiflexors. The main finding of this study was that the ability to control balance in both anterior/posterior and medio/lateral directions was inferior in blind than in sighted women. However, when sighted participants performed the tests blindfolded, their CoP sway increased significantly in both directions. There were no differences in most isometric and concentric strength measurements of the lower limb muscles between the blind and sighted individuals. Our results demonstrate that vision is a more prominent indicator of performance during the postural tasks compared to strength of the lower limbs. Despite similar level of strength, blind individuals performed significantly worse in all balance tests compared to sighted individuals.

  13. Neck extensor muscle weakness (Dropped head syndrome) following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, S.; Miller, R.C.; Lachance, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Dropped head syndrome is an unusual condition in which the head cannot be held upright in its normal anatomic position secondary to pronounced, isolated, neck extensor muscle weakness. Case report. A case of dropped head syndrome in a female with a history of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma and a clinical history consistent with multiple sclerosis is presented, and potential etiologies are discussed. Conclusions. Muscular atrophy and lower motor neuron injury secondary to isolated anterior horn cell injury from radiotherapy emerge as the most likely etiology. (author)

  14. Work economy following strength training in elderly : alterations in muscle strength, muscle thickness and lean mass upon work economy in elderly men following 12 weeks of strength training

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i idrettsvitenskap - Universitetet i Agder 2013 AIM: To investigate if alterations in muscle strength, muscle mass and muscle thickness were followed by changes in work economy. METHODS: Fifty elderly men (60 – 81 years) followed a 12 week undulating periodized strength training program: Lean mass (Muscle mass; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (1RM; one repetition maximum, in leg press and leg extension), and muscle thickness (ultrasound; vastus lateralis a...

  15. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  16. Concurrent assessments of lower limb loading patterns, mechanical muscle strength and functional performance in ACL-patients--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, A; Jensen, C; Mortensen, N H M; Aagaard, P

    2014-01-01

    Full recovery in muscle strength and functional performance may not be achieved after ACL-injury. The aim of this study is to investigate loading patterns during jumping, muscle function and functional performance in ACL-reconstructed patients and to investigate the origin of between-limb asymmetry by means of a 3-dimensional movement analysis. Design is cross-sectional. 23 ACL-reconstructed men (27.2±7.5 years, BMI: 25.4±3.2) 27±7 month post-surgery and 25 matched controls (27.2±5.4 years, BMI: 24.1±1.8) were included. Participants performed (i) bilateral and (ii) unilateral counter movement jumps (CMJ). A 3-D movement analysis was performed by a six-camera Vicon MX-system. Subsequently, jump height (JH), knee joint range of motion (ROM), peak and mean sagittal knee moments were analyzed (iii) one-leg maximal jump for distance was performed, and (iv) maximal unilateral isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (MVC) were measured using stabilized dynamometry. No in-between group differences in age or BMI were observed. CMJ: Between-limb asymmetry ratios for ROM differed (p<0.01) between patients and controls in both types of CMJ (96.1% vs. 102.6% and 87.0% vs. 99.9% in bilateral and single-leg CMJs, respectively). Jump for distance: Patients demonstrated greater (p<0.01) asymmetry for jump length (92.9% vs. 98.6%). MVC: Asymmetry in hamstring MVC was greater (p<0.001) for patients than controls (77.4% vs. 101.3%). ACL-patients showed reduced function of the operated leg~2 years post ACL-reconstruction, especially for hamstring MVC. Hamstrings are important protagonists to the ACL, thus representing a potential risk factor for secondary ACL-rupture and/or osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle strength is only a weak to moderate predictor of gait performance in persons with late effects of polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Brogårdh, Christina; Lexell, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To assess muscle strength in the knee extensors, knee flexors and ankle dorsiflexors in persons with late effects of polio, and determine how much muscle strength, gender, age and BMI are related to gait performance. Ninety community-dwelling ambulant persons (47 men and 43 women; mean age 64 years SD 8) with late effects of polio participated. Isokinetic concentric knee extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured at 60°/s and ankle dorsiflexor muscle strength at 30°/s. Gait performance was assessed by the Timed "Up & Go", the Comfortable and Fast Gait Speed tests, and the 6-Minute Walk test. There were significant correlations between knee extensor and flexor muscle strength and gait performance (p polio, but the strength of the relationships indicates that other factors are also important.

  18. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the changes in muscle strength, power, and somatic parameters in elite volleyball players after a specific pre-season training programme aimed at improving jumping and strength performance and injury prevention. Twelve junior female volleyball players participated in an 8-week training programme. Anthropometric characteristics, isokinetic peak torque (PT single-joint knee flexion (H and extension (Q at 60º/s and 180º/s, counter movement jump (CMJ, squat jump (SJ, and reactive strength index (RSI were measured before and after intervention. Significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180 º/s in the dominant leg (DL (18.3±15.1%, likely; 17.8±11.2%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (7.4%±7.8%, very likely in the DL. In the non-dominant leg (NL significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180º/s (13.7±11.3%, likely; 13.4±8.0%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (10.7±11.5%, very likely. Small to moderate changes were observed for H/QCONV in the DL at 60º/s and 180º/s (15.9±14.1%; 9.6±10.4%, both likely and in the NL at 60º/s (moderate change, 9.6±11.8%, likely, and small to moderate decreases were detected for H/QFUNC at 180º/s, in both the DL and NL (-7.0±8.3%, likely; -9.5±10.0%, likely. Training-induced changes in jumping performance were trivial (for RSI to small (for CMJ and SJ. The applied pre-season training programme induced a number of positive changes in physical performance and risk of injury, despite a lack of changes in body mass and composition. CITATION: Lehnert M, Sigmund M, Lipinska P et al. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players. Biol Sport. 2017;34(2:205-213.

  19. Correlation of postural balance and knee muscle strength in the sit-to-stand test among women with and without postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brech, G C; Alonso, A C; Luna, N M S; Greve, J M

    2013-07-01

    The task of standing up from a chair forms a part of daily life for all independent individuals. However, this task becomes more difficult with advancing age. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis presented diminished knee extensor and flexor muscle strength. There was a weak correlation between knee muscle strength (greater with extensor strength) and postural balance during the act of standing up. This study aims to evaluate postural balance during the transition from sitting to standing and its relationship with knee extensor and flexor strength among women with and without postmenopausal osteoporosis. Assessments were made on 126 women (aged 55-65 years), divided into osteoporosis and control groups according to lumbar bone density. Their balance during the task of standing up from a chair was evaluated using the Balance Master® device. Knee muscle strength was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex®), in concentric/concentric mode, at a velocity of 60°/s. Spearman's correlation between the variables of muscle strength and postural balance was evaluated. Subsequently, to evaluate the association of each balance variable with the group and with muscle strength, multiple linear regression models were fitted. The significance level was set at 0.05. There was a difference in knee muscle strength between the groups (P Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis presented diminished knee extensor and flexor muscle strength. There was a weak correlation between knee muscle strength (greater with extensor strength) and postural balance during the act of standing up.

  20. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kunyan; West, Helen M; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Liangzhi; Li, Wenjuan

    2015-08-11

    Leg cramps are a common problem in pregnancy. Various interventions have been used to treat them, including drug, electrolyte and vitamin therapies, and non-drug therapies. To assess the effectiveness and safety of different interventions for treating leg cramps in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any intervention (drug, electrolyte, vitamin or non-drug therapies) for treatment of leg cramps in pregnancy compared with placebo, no treatment or other treatment. Quinine was excluded for its known adverse effects (teratogenicity). Cluster-RCTS were considered for inclusion. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included six studies (390 women). Four trials compared oral magnesium with placebo/no treatment, two compared oral calcium with no treatment, one compared oral vitamin B versus no treatment, and one compared oral calcium with oral vitamin C. Two of the trials were well-conducted and reported, the other four had design limitations. The process of random allocation was sub-optimal in three studies, and blinding was not attempted in two. Outcomes were reported in different ways, precluding the use of meta-analysis and limiting the strength of our conclusions.The 'no treatment' group in one four-arm trial has been used as the comparison group for the composite outcome (intensity and frequency of leg cramps) in magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B versus no treatment. This gives it disproportionate weight in the overall analysis, thus interpretation of these results should be cautious. Oral magnesium versus placebo/no treatmentMagnesium (taken orally for two to four weeks) did not consistently reduce the frequency of leg cramps compared with placebo or no treatment. Outcomes that showed

  1. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Cook, J L; Bass, S L; Austen, S; Kiss, Z S

    2004-10-01

    Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180 degrees /s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (ppatellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not. This suggests that the aetiology of these conditions may be different. However, interpretation must respect the limitation of small subject numbers.

  3. Specific Changes in Young Soccer Player's Fitness After Traditional Bilateral vs. Unilateral Combined Strength and Plyometric Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17.6 ± 0.5 years. One repetition maximum bilateral strength of knee muscle extensors (1RM_KE and flexors (1RM_KF, change of direction ability (COD, horizontal and vertical jump ability with one (unilateral and two (bilateral legs, and limb symmetry index were measured before and after an 8-week in-season intervention period. Some regular soccer drills were replaced by combination of plyometric and strength training drills. Magnitude-based inference statistics were used for between-group and within-group comparisons. Beneficial effects (p < 0.05 in 1RM_KE, COD, and several test of jumping performance were found in both groups in comparison to pre-test values. The limb symmetry index was not affected in either group. The beneficial changes in 1RM_KE (8.1%; p = 0.074 and 1RM_KF (6.7%; p = 0.004, COD (3.1%; p = 0.149, and bilateral jump performance (from 2.7% [p = 0.535] to 10.5% [p = 0.002] were possible to most likely beneficial in the TG than in the UG. However, unilateral jump performance measures achieved likely to most likely beneficial changes in the UG compared to the TG (from 4.5% [p = 0.090] to 8.6% [p = 0.018]. The improvements in jumping ability were specific to the type of jump performed, with greater improvements in unilateral jump performance in the UG and bilateral jump performance in the TG. Therefore, bilateral strength and plyometric training should be complemented with unilateral drills, in order to maximize adaptations.

  4. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  5. Restless legs syndrome: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition, with negative effects on sleep and daytime activities that affect personal, family and occupational life. The overall impact of restless legs syndrome on quality of life is comparable to that of chronic and frustrating conditions such as depression and diabetes. Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may increase patients' suffering in terms of uncertainty, overuse or misuse of care services and lack of trust. Presenting a synthesis of the main topics in the literature on restless legs syndrome facilitates for a better understanding and its management in primary care settings.

  6. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  7. Superior Effects of Eccentric to Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Profiles of Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60-76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group ( n = 13/group), and performed 30-60 eccentric or concentric contractions of knee extensors once a week. The intensity was progressively increased over 12 weeks from 10 to 100% of maximal concentric strength for eccentric training and from 50 to 100% for concentric training. Outcome measures were taken before and 4 days after the training period. The results showed that no sings of muscle damage were observed after any sessions. Functional physical fitness (e.g., 30-s chair stand) and maximal concentric contraction strength of the knee extensors increased greater ( P ≤ 0.05) after eccentric training than concentric training. Homeostasis model assessment, oral glucose tolerance test and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin showed improvement of insulin sensitivity only after eccentric training ( P ≤ 0.05). Greater ( P ≤ 0.05) decreases in fasting triacylglycerols, total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols were evident after eccentric training than concentric training, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols increased only after eccentric training. These results support the hypothesis and suggest that it is better to focus on eccentric contractions in exercise medicine.

  8. Superior Effects of Eccentric to Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Profiles of Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60–76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group (n = 13/group), and performed 30–60 eccentric or concentric contractions of knee extensors once a week. The intensity was progressively increased over 12 weeks from 10 to 100% of maximal concentric strength for eccentric training and from 50 to 100% for concentric training. Outcome measures were taken before and 4 days after the training period. The results showed that no sings of muscle damage were observed after any sessions. Functional physical fitness (e.g., 30-s chair stand) and maximal concentric contraction strength of the knee extensors increased greater (P ≤ 0.05) after eccentric training than concentric training. Homeostasis model assessment, oral glucose tolerance test and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin showed improvement of insulin sensitivity only after eccentric training (P ≤ 0.05). Greater (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in fasting triacylglycerols, total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols were evident after eccentric training than concentric training, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols increased only after eccentric training. These results support the hypothesis and suggest that it is better to focus on eccentric contractions in exercise medicine. PMID:28443029

  9. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  11. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Eric L.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Nollet, Frans; Gerrits, Karin H. L.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and 18 age-matched healthy individuals. Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with

  12. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  13. Assessment of muscular strength of knee flexors and extensors in individuals with and without osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate concentric and eccentric torque in individuals with and without knee osteoarthritis, and who did and did not practice physical activity. Specifically: to compare concentric and eccentric torque between groups; to compare the torques of dominant and non-dominant limbs within groups; to compare the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps ratio between groups. Fifty-eight elderly people participated, 32 with knee osteoarthritis and 26 with healthy knees. An isokinetic KinCom dynamometer was used for data collection. Concentric and eccentric peak torques of the quadriceps and hamstrings, normalized for body weight and concentric peak torque hamstring/quadriceps ratio of both sides were the study variables. At the Biomechanics Laboratory the following procedures were carried out: 1 identification form; 2 anthropometry; 3 warm-up and stretching; 4 positioning of the individual in a seated position with knee flexion of 90º and the back supported; 5 familiarization with the equipment; 6 acquisition of three reciprocal maximal concentric and eccentric contractions at 60º/s. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon and the U Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data, to p≤0.05. The majority of concentric and eccentric torques in the control group were higher than those in the knee osteoarthritis group, with the exception of the concentric torque of non-dominant hamstrings and the eccentric quadriceps ofthe non-dominant limb. Although not significant, dominance seems to be determinant of increased torques in individuals withoutknee osteoarthritis. No statistically significant differences were detected between those who did and those who did not take part in physical activity. The results demonstrate that osteoarthritis provokes decrease of force especially in quadriceps.

  14. Assessment of muscular strength of knee flexors and extensors in individuals with and without osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate concentric and eccentric torque in individuals with and without knee osteoarthritis, and who did and did not practice physical activity. Specifically: to compare concentric and eccentric torque between groups; to compare the torques of dominant and non-dominant limbs within groups; to compare the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps ratio between groups. Fifty-eight elderly people participated, 32 with knee osteoarthritis and 26 with healthy knees. An isokinetic KinCom dynamometer was used for data collection. Concentric and eccentric peak torques of the quadriceps and hamstrings, normalized for body weight and concentric peak torque hamstring/quadriceps ratio of both sides were the study variables. At the Biomechanics Laboratory the following procedures were carried out: 1 identification form; 2 anthropometry; 3 warm-up and stretching; 4 positioning of the individual in a seated position with knee flexion of 90º and the back supported; 5 familiarization with the equipment; 6 acquisition of three reciprocal maximal concentric and eccentric contractions at 60º/s. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon and the U Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data, to p≤0.05. The majority of concentric and eccentric torques in the control group were higher than those in the knee osteoarthritis group, with the exception of the concentric torque of non-dominant hamstrings and the eccentric quadriceps of the non-dominant limb. Although not significant, dominance seems to be determinant of increased torques in individuals without knee osteoarthritis. No statistically significant differences were detected between those who did and those who did not take part in physical activity. The results demonstrate that osteoarthritis provokes decrease of force especially in quadriceps.

  15. Leg pain and gynecologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lilly; Stevens, Erin E

    2013-09-01

    Gynecologic malignancies affect more than 83 000 women in the United States, each year. Because the disease involves the pelvis, many patients have side effects distal to this area in their lower extremities. The differential diagnosis of leg pain can be divided into vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal causes. In this review article, we address numerous etiologies of leg pain, reviewing the prevalence of disease, physical examination findings, diagnostic as well as treatment modalities.

  16. Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-02-04

    Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA.

  17. The relevance of the hip extensor muscles to low back pain in elite female field hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wege

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common complaint among field hockey players.  Only a few of the risk factors for LBP have however been assessed on these players.  These include trunk strength and lumbosacral range of motion.  The aim of the literature review was therefore to investigate the reports of LBP among elite female field hockey players, focusing on risk factors for LBP, biomechanical aspects of field hockey, muscle imbalance and the role of the gluteus maximus (GM muscle in the development of LBP.  The literature indicated a strong link between LBP and GM weakness.  More recent research supports this concept and clearly stated that female athletes with GM weakness are at risk for the development of LBP.  Considering that the biomechanical aspects and unique requirements of field hockey indicate hip extensor involvement, as well as the association between LBP and GM weakness, further investigation is warranted into the hip extensor muscles of field hockey players.

  18. Chronic eccentric arm cycling improves maximum upper-body strength and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; Anderson, Dakota J; Wakeham, Travis R; Kilgas, Matthew A; Durocher, John J; Lindstedt, Stan L; LaStayo, Paul C

    2017-07-01

    Eccentric leg cycling (cycle ergometry adapted to impose muscle lengthening contractions) offers an effective exercise for restoring lower-body muscular function, maintaining health, and improving performance in clinical and athletic populations. We extended this model to the upper body and evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-week eccentric arm cycling (ECC arm ) intervention to improve upper-body muscular function. We also explored whether ECC arm would alter arterial function. Participants performed ECC arm (n = 9) or concentric arm cycling (CON arm ; n = 8) 3×/week while training intensity increased (5-20 min, 60-70% upper-body peak heart rate). Maximum elbow extensor strength, upper-body concentric power, and peripheral and central arterial stiffness were assessed before and after training. During training, heart rates and perceived exertion did not differ between groups (~68% upper-body peak heart rate, ~12 Borg units, both P > 0.05), whereas power during ECC arm was ~2× that for CON arm (122 ± 43 vs. 59 ± 20 W, P upper-body power (6 ± 8 vs. -3 ± 7%, P  0.05). Upper-body eccentric exercise improved dynamic muscular function while training at low exertion levels. Results occurred with minimal soreness and without compromising arterial function. ECC arm findings parallel eccentric leg cycling findings and indicate that eccentric cycle ergometry offers a robust model for enhancing upper-body muscular function. ECC arm could have applications in rehabilitation and sport training.

  19. Effects of dynamic stretching on strength, muscle imbalance, and muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pablo B; Herda, Trent J; Herda, Ashley A; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute effects of dynamic stretching on concentric leg extensor and flexor peak torque, eccentric leg flexor peak torque, and the conventional and functional hamstring-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. Twenty-one women (mean ± SD age = 20.6 ± 2.0 yr, body mass = 64.5 ± 9.3 kg, height = 164.7 ± 6.5 cm) performed maximal voluntary isokinetic leg extension, flexion, and eccentric hamstring muscle actions at the angular velocities of 60°·s and 180°·s before and after a bout of dynamic hamstring and quadriceps stretching as well as a control condition. Leg flexion peak torque decreased under both control (mean ± SE for 60°s = 75.8 ± 4.0 to 72.4 ± 3.7 N·m, 180°·s = 62.1 ± 3.2 to 59.1 ± 3.1 N·m) and stretching (60°·s = 73.1 ± 3.9 to 65.8 ± 3.3 N·m, 180°·s = 61.2 ± 3.3 to 54.7 ± 2.6 N·m) conditions, whereas eccentric hamstring peak torque decreased only after the stretching (60°·s = 87.3 ± 5.1 to 73.3 ± 3.6 N·m, 180°·s = 89.2 ± 4.4 to 77.0 ± 3.4 N·m) intervention (P ≤ 0.05). Stretching also caused a decrease in conventional H:Q (60°·s = 0.58 ± 0.02 to 0.54 ± 0.02, 180°·s = 0.67 ± 0.02 to 0.61 ± 0.03) and functional H:Q ratios (60°·s = 0.69 ± 0.03 to 0.60 ± 0.03, 180°·s = 1.00 ± 0.06 to 0.60 ± 0.03) (P ≤ 0.05). Because dynamic stretching reduced concentric and eccentric hamstring strength as well as the conventional and functional H:Q ratios, fitness and allied-health professionals may need to be cautious when recommending dynamic rather than static stretching to maintain muscle force.

  20. Spontaneous Extensor Tendon Rupture in the Rheumatoid Wrist: Risk Factors and Preventive Role of Extended Tenosynovectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Jung-Hua; Liu, Wen-Chung; Yang, Kuo-Chung; Hsu, Kuei-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Lee-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous extensor tendon rupture is often seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but the risk factors are not clearly defined. We therefore collected the data of RA patients with previous extensor tendon rupture and those with tenosynovitis and analyzed the relationship between extended tenosynovectomy and spontaneous extensor tendon rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 spontaneous extensor tendon rupture episodes in 15 RA patients and 14 tenosynovitis episodes that required tenosynovectomy in 12 RA patients from 1997 to 2013. Correlations between the incidence of tendon rupture, X-ray findings, and clinical findings in the affected wrists before tendon rupture were analyzed statistically using the test for proportion. The following parameters were significantly correlated with spontaneous extensor tendon rupture: disease duration longer than 8 years, persistent tenosynovitis longer than 1 year duration, and Larsen grade greater than 4 (P = 0.02, 0.03, and 0.01, respectively). Dislocation of the distal end of the ulna, carpal collapse, and the scallop sign on X-ray contributed to a higher spontaneous extensor tendon rupture rate among RA patients (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.03, respectively). Extended tenosynovectomy was performed on 14 wrists in 12 RA patients with persistent tenosynovitis longer than 6 months, and Larsen grade did not deteriorate in this group compared with those who did not undergo the surgery. No spontaneous extensor tendon rupture occurred following the surgery. Risk factors of spontaneous extensor tendon rupture included disease duration longer than 8 years, persistent tenosynovitis longer than 1 year, and wrist Larsen grade greater than 4. Dislocation of the distal end of the ulna, carpal collapse, and the scallop sign on X-ray indicated a higher probability of extensor tendon rupture. Rheumatologists should consult with hand surgeons promptly to preserve hand function before tendon rupture. Prophylactic extended tenosynovectomy

  1. Accuracy of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Detection of Extensor Tendon Lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bobby; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Sheppard, Joseph E

    2016-02-01

    Lacerations to the extensor mechanism are usually diagnosed clinically. Ultrasound (US) has been a growing diagnostic tool for tendon injuries since the 1990s. To date, there has been no publication establishing the accuracy and reliability of US in the evaluation of extensor mechanism lacerations in the hand. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of US to detect extensor tendon injuries in the hand. Sixteen fingers and 4 thumbs in 4 fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric hands were used. Sixty-eight 0.5-cm transverse skin lacerations were created. Twenty-seven extensor tendons were sharply transected. The remaining skin lacerations were used as sham dissection controls. One US technologist and one fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed real-time dynamic US studies in and out of water bath. A second fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist subsequently reviewed the static US images. Dynamic and static US interpretation accuracy was assessed using dissection as "truth." All 27 extensor tendon lacerations and controls were identified correctly with dynamic imaging as either injury models that had a transected extensor tendon or sham controls with intact extensor tendons (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 1.0; all significantly greater than chance). Static imaging had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 89%, and accuracy of 88% (all significantly greater than chance). The results of the dynamic real time versus static US imaging were clearly different but did not reach statistical significance. Diagnostic US is a very accurate noninvasive study that can identify extensor mechanism injuries. Clinically suspected cases of acute extensor tendon injury scanned by high-frequency US can aid and/or confirm the diagnosis, with dynamic imaging providing added value compared to static. Ultrasonography, to aid in the diagnosis of extensor mechanism lacerations, can be successfully used in a reliable and

  2. Tai Chi Chuan to improve muscular strength and endurance in elderly individuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C; Lai, J S; Chen, S Y; Wong, M K

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the training effect of a Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) program on knee extensor muscular strength and endurance in elderly individuals. Before-after trial. Community setting. Forty-one community dwelling subjects aged 61.1 +/- 9.8 years undertook a TCC program. Nine dropped out during the study. Pretraining and posttraining measurements were obtained from 15 men and 17 women. Subjects participated in a 6-month TCC program. Each session consisted of 20 minutes of warm-up, 24 minutes of structured TCC training, and 10 minutes of cool-down exercises. Peak torque of dominant and nondominant knee extensors was tested at speeds of 60 degrees , 180 degrees , and 240 degrees/sec concentrically and eccentrically. Muscular endurance of the knee extensor was tested at the speed of 180 degrees /sec. In the group of men, concentric knee extensor peak torque increased by 15.1% to 20.0% and eccentric peak torque increased by 15.1% to 23.7%. The group of women also showed increases, ranging from 13.5% to 21.8% in concentric peak torque, and 18.3% to 23.8% in eccentric peak torque. In addition, the knee extensor endurance ratio increased by 9.6% to 18.8% in the men and 10.1% to 14.6% in the women. TCC training may enhance muscular strength and endurance of knee extensors in elderly individuals.

  3. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders.

  4. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kirking

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women with chronic stroke (≥6 months and 23 (12 men, 11 women nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min. Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min. Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups.

  6. Aging impairs regulation of ryanodine receptors from extensor digitorum longus but not soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboardi, Angela J; Kressler, Jochen; Snow, Teresa K; Balog, Edward M

    2018-01-09

    Because impaired excitation-contraction coupling and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ release may contribute to the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle strength, we investigated the effect of aging on regulation of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) by physiological channel ligands. [ 3 H]Ryanodine binding to membranes from 8- and 26-month-old Fischer 344 extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles was used to investigate the effects of age on RyR1 modulation by Ca 2+ and calmodulin (CaM). Aging reduced maximal Ca 2+ -stimulated binding to EDL membranes. In 0.3 μM Ca 2+ , age reduced binding and CaM increased binding to EDL membranes. In 300 μM Ca 2+ , CaM reduced binding, but the age effect was not significant. Aging did not affect Ca 2+ or CaM regulation of soleus RyR1. In aged fast-twitch muscle, impaired RyR1 Ca 2+ regulation may contribute to lower SR Ca 2+ release and reduced muscle function. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  8. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2012-11-01

    Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of a twenty-four-week aquatic training program on muscular strength performance in healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourlou, Thomai; Benik, Athanasia; Dipla, Konstantina; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Kellis, Spiros

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a 24-week aquatic training (AT) program, which included both aerobic and resistance components, on muscle strength (isometric and dynamic), flexibility, and functional mobility in healthy women over 60 years of age. Twenty-two subjects were assigned randomly to either an AT (n = 12) or a control (C, n = 10) group. Volunteers participated in a supervised shallow-water exercise program for 60 minutes a day, 3 days a week; the exercise program consisted of a 10-minute warm-up and stretching, 25 minutes of endurance-type exercise (dancing) at 80% of heart rate (HR)(max), 20 minutes of upper- and lower-body resistance exercises with specialized water-resistance equipment, and a 5-minute cool down. Maximal isometric torque of knee extensors (KEXT) and knee flexors (KFLEX) were evaluated by a Cybex Norm dynamometer, grip strength (HGR) was evaluated using a Jamar hydraulic dynamometer, and dynamic strength was evaluated via the 3 repetition maximum (3RM) test for chest press, knee extension, lat pull down, and leg press. Jumping performance was evaluated using the squat jump (SJ), functional mobility with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test, and trunk flexion with the sit-and-reach test. Body composition was measured using the bioelectrical impedance method. The AT induced significant improvements in KEXT (10.5%) and KFLEX (13.4%) peak torque, HGR strength (13%), 3RM (25.7-29.4%), SJ (24.6%), sit-and-reach (11.6%), and TUG (19.8%) performance. The AT group demonstrated a significant increase in lean body mass (3.4%). No significant changes in these variables were observed in the C group. The results indicate that AT, with both aerobic and resistance components, is an alternative training method for improving neuromuscular and functional fitness performance in healthy elderly women.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of the human finger extensor mechanism during isometric pressing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the finger extensor mechanism on the bone-to-bone contact forces at the interphalangeal and metacarpal joints and also on the forces in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles during finger pressing. This was done with finger postures ranging from very flexed to fully extended. The role of the finger extensor mechanism was investigated by using two alternative finger models, one which omitted the extensor mechanism and another which included it. A six-camera three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to capture the finger posture during maximum voluntary isometric pressing. The fingertip loads were recorded simultaneously using a force plate system. Two three-dimensional biomechanical finger models, a minimal model without extensor mechanism and a full model with extensor mechanism (tendon network, were used to calculate the joint bone-to-bone contact forces and the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle forces. If the full model is assumed to be realistic, then the results suggest some useful biomechanical advantages provided by the tendon network of the extensor mechanism. It was found that the forces in the intrinsic muscles (interosseus group and lumbrical are significantly reduced by 22% to 61% due to the action of the extensor mechanism, with the greatest reductions in more flexed postures. The bone-to-bone contact force at the MCP joint is reduced by 10% to 41%. This suggests that the extensor mechanism may help to reduce the risk of injury at the finger joints and also to moderate the forces in intrinsic muscles. These apparent biomechanical advantages may be a result of the extensor mechanism's distinctive interconnected fibrous structure, through which the contraction of the intrinsic muscles as flexors of the MCP joint can generate extensions at the DIP and PIP joints.

  11. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior.

  12. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  13. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  14. Spontaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon due to Unusual Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of spontaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon includes systemic or local steroid injections, wrist fracture, tenosynovitis, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and repetitive wrist motions. Case Report: We encountered a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture with an unusual etiology, cow milking. In this case, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius tendon was performed successfully. At 1 year after surgery, extension of the thumb was sufficient. Conclusion: It appears that patients with occupations involving repetitive motions are at a high risk of closed tendon ruptures.

  15. Rupture of the extensor hood of the fifth toe: a rare injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Sara; Gaba, Suchi; Mangwani, Jitendra

    2017-02-27

    Closed injuries of the extensor hood of the lesser toes are rare and seldom reported in the literature. We present the case of a woman aged 25 years who presented to the orthopaedic fracture clinic with a 2-week history of pain in the left fifth toe and inability to extend following a ballet dancing session. Investigations showed no fracture on plain radiographs, but an ultrasound scan demonstrated rupture to the extensor hood of the little toe. Successful surgical repair of the extensor hood was performed, and the patient made a good recovery with return to dancing activities. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Extensor digitorum longus tenosynovitis caused by talar head impingement in an ultramarathon runner: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Sakurai, M; Kobayashi, T

    2007-08-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon is an injury related to ultramarathon running. A 32-year-old male ultramarathon runner developed chronic tenosynovitis of the ankle dorsiflexors. He was diagnosed with extensor digitorum longus tenosynovitis caused by talar head impingement associated with exostosis. He failed to respond to non-operative management and decided to undergo tenosynovectomy of the extensor digitorum longus tendon. The pain was relieved without functional disturbance of the foot and ankle, and the patient returned to running 3 weeks postoperatively. At the 2-year follow-up, he was participating fully in ultramarathons.

  17. Cross-legged Gods and One-legged Foresters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrovskaia, N.I.

    The present article is a re-evaluation of a marvellous element in a medieval Welsh romance, Chwedl Iarlles y Ffynnawn ‘Tale of the Lady of the Fountain’, also known as Owein. One of the characters encountered by the hero is a one-eyed one-legged dark giant forester who appears to have a particular

  18. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  19. Is the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Jidovtseff, Boris; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the pre- and post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (Pmuscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles.

  20. Back Pain with Leg Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Bar, Negev; Eisenberg, Elon

    2017-07-01

    The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy. In addition, there are other pathologies distal to the nerve root that could be relevant to patients with back pain and leg pain such as plexus and peripheral nerve involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of back pain with leg pain can still be challenging. In this article, we present a patient with back and leg pain. The patient appears to have a radicular pain syndrome, but has no neurological impairment and shows signs of myofascial involvement. Is there a single diagnosis or indeed two overlapping syndromes? The scope of our article encompasses the common diagnostic possibilities for this type of patient. A discussion of treatment is beyond the scope of this article and depends on the final diagnosis/diagnoses made.

  1. Kan leg skabe fremtidens vindere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Dansk Boldspil Union skruer ned for den præstationsorienterede tilgang til børnefodbold. I stedet skal børnenes leg med bolden i fokus. Målet er at forhindre massivt frafald i børne- og ungdomsfodbolden og højne niveauet hos topspillerne....

  2. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  3. The function and the strength of the thumb is not affected when the extensor pollicis longus tendon is left out of the extensor retinaculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kabakas

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: It was determined that leaving the EPL tendon out of the retinaculum in cases with increased risk of adhesions and rupture did not cause marked muscle weakness or loss of range of movement. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 56-61

  4. Influence of visual feedback on knee extensor isokinetic concentric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isokinetic normative data can be invaluable in identifying an individual's strengths and weaknesses, and thus lead to a more effective use of the individual's time to minimise or overcome his weaknesses while maintaining or improving existing strength. However, visual feedback (VF) may significantly affect the result of ...

  5. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    population of flexor motoneurons solely exhibited the type II profile, characterized by a frequency-current (F-I) relationship with a clockwise hysteresis. In contrast, in addition to this type II profile, the other three profiles of repetitive firing (type I, III and IV) were observed in extensor...... postnatal development, a significant part of the population of extensor motoneurons, but not flexors, are able to produce self-sustained discharges known to involve the activation of persistent inward currents....

  6. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s -1 ±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P  0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that knee extensor DOMS greatly influences sagittal knee joint angular kinetics and, reduces sagittal power production at the ankle joint. However, knee extensor DOMS does not affect frontal and transverse plane lower limb joint biomechanics during running.

  7. Clinical Significance of Presence of Extensor Indicis Brevis Manus – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esakkiammal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of additional muscles and tendons are commonly encountered in extensor aspect of forearm and hand during surgeries and dissections. There are reports on different kinds of variations like, extra tendons, additional bellies, and abnormal attachments of the muscle. Surgeons should have the knowledge about these variations for muscle or tendon grafting and also to plan surgeries. While dissecting the extensor compartment forearm and dorsum of hand of an elderly female cadaver, an anomalous muscle belly was noticed on dorsum of hand bilaterally alongwith the main tendon of extensor indicis muscle. This additional belly of extensor indicis muscle was called Extensor Indicis Brevis Manus (EIBM. This muscle originated from the dorsal carpal ligament and joined the main tendon of extensor indicis muscle in both the hands. Awareness of existence of this kind of variation is important for clinicians and surgeons for a correct diagnosis and eventual surgery in patients presenting with a cyst on the dorsum of hand, to avoid accidental mishaps.

  8. The effectiveness of minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty to preserve quadriceps strength: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Soo Won; Ha, Jeong Ku; Choi, Hong Joon; Yang, Sang Jin; Lee, Mi Young

    2011-12-01

    We performed a single-center, randomized, double-blind study to compare muscle strength in patients who had undergone primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), performed using either a minimally invasive or a conventional surgical technique. We evaluated 30 knees in healthy age-matched subjects, 22 knees after conventional TKA (conventional group), and 23 knees after minimally invasive surgery TKA (MIS group). The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score, Oxford knee score (OKS), and isokinetic (60º/s) muscle strength were evaluated the day before surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. HSS and OKS improved significantly over time during follow-up (p0.05). The extensor peak torque (EPT) and flexor peak torque (FPT) improved significantly over time (phamstring-to-quadriceps ratio between the groups. Although MIS patients had a significant deficit in extensor strength following TKA, compared with healthy controls, this approach offers a significant improvement in extensor muscle strength over conventional surgery. These results suggest that the MIS approach results in better outcomes with regard to maintaining extensor strength than the conventional surgical approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recovery in mechanical muscle strength following resurfacing vs standard total hip arthroplasty - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, S

    2011-01-01

    in maximal lower limb muscle strength (in 2/6 muscle groups) compared to S-THA. Notably, the attenuated strength recovery following R-THA was most markedly manifested in the late phase (1 yr) of post-surgical recovery, and appeared to be due to the detachment of the lower half of the gluteus maximus muscle...... randomised into (A) standard total hip arthroplasty (S-THA) and (B) resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (R-THA). Pre-surgery assessment and follow-up were conducted (8, 26 and 52 wks). Maximal isometric muscle strength (Nm) and between-limb asymmetry for the knee extensors/flexors, hip adductors....../abductors, hip extensors/flexors were analysed. RESULTS: Maximal knee extensor and hip abductor strength were higher in S-THA than R-THA at 52 wks post-surgery (P ≤ 0.05) and hip extensors tended to be higher in S-THA at 52 wks (P = 0.06). All muscle groups showed substantial between-limb strength asymmetry (7...

  10. A comparison of one-legged and two-legged countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A J; Roebroeck, M.E.; Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1985-01-01

    Ten well-trained male volleyball players performed one-legged and two-legged vertical countermovement jumps. Ground reaction forces, cinematographic data, and electromyographic data were recorded. Jumping height in one-legged jumps was 58.5% of that reached in two-legged jumps. Mean net torques in

  11. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  12. Sex differences in peripheral arterial disease: leg symptoms and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary McGrae; Greenland, Philip; Liu, Kiang; Criqui, Michael H; Guralnik, Jack M; Celic, Lillian; Chan, Cheeling

    2003-02-01

    To compare lower extremity functioning and leg symptoms between women and men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Cross-sectional. Three Chicago-area medical centers. One hundred eighty-seven women and 273 men with PAD identified consecutively in patients in the noninvasive vascular laboratories and a general medicine practice at the three medical centers. Walking speed, 6-minute walk, accelerometer-measured 7-day physical activity, and a summary performance score. The summary performance score combines data on walking velocity, time for five repeated chair rises, and standing balance to achieve a score on a 0 to 12 scale (12 = best). Women with PAD were older and had a lower prevalence of prior leg revascularization, a higher prevalence of spinal stenosis, and a lower prevalence of other cardiovascular disease than men with PAD. Mean ankle brachial index (ABI) values +/- standard deviation were similar in women and men with PAD (0.64 +/- 0.15 vs 0.66 +/- 0.14, P =.15). Women with PAD were significantly more likely than men with PAD to have exertional leg pain that sometimes begins at rest (27.8% vs 13.2%, P speed (0.81 vs 0.92 m/s, P vs 1,182 feet, P vs 9.8, P leg symptoms. After adjusting for leg strength, sex differences in 6-minute walk performance and summary performance score were attenuated modestly (1,089 vs 1,177 feet for 6-minute walk, P =.022 and 9.2 vs 9.8 for summary performance score, P =.027). Women with PAD had a higher prevalence of leg pain on exertion and rest, poorer functioning, and greater walking impairment from leg symptoms than men with PAD. A higher prevalence of spinal stenosis in women may explain the observed sex differences in leg symptoms. Poorer leg strength in women may contribute to poorer lower extremity functioning in women with PAD than in men with PAD.

  13. Isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo C. Felício

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The isokinetic dynamometer enables accurate assessment of muscle function. In Brazil, few studies have assessed the isokinetic muscle performance in older adults making interpretation and comparison of results with other studies.Objectives To conduct a descriptive analysis of the performance of the muscle flexor and extensor muscles of the knee joint in elderly community and compare the performance between the age groups 65-74 years and 75 years or more.Methods This is a cross sectional observational study with a convenience sample of 229 elderly community. For the analysis of muscle performance was used isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3 Pro™ in the angular velocities of 60 °/s and 180 °/s. The variables evaluated were peak torque, peak torque normalized by body weight, total work normalized by body mass, total work, average power and agonist/antagonist ratio. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the sample. For comparison between age groups was used Student's t-test with α = 0.05.Results The elderly women with older age showed a statistically significant decrease in most of the variables (p < 0.05 except for the agonist and antagonist knee (p = 0.398.Conclusions The isokinetic was a sensitive tool to characterize the modifications caused by aging on muscle function. Elderly with results below the lower limits of the confidence intervals for all variables certainly has a decreased strength for the age group evaluated and must be addressed therapeutically. The results can be used as a benchmark in clinical practice and future research.

  14. Isokinetic Performance of Knee Flexor and Extensor Muscles in American Football Players from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Severo-Silveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p426   The isokinetic performance of thigh muscles has been related to athletic performance and risk for non-contact injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and hamstring strains. Although isokinetic profile of American football players from United States (USA is widely described, there is a lack of studies comprising players acting outside the USA. The primary objective of this study was to describe the isokinetic performance of thigh muscles in elite American football players in Brazil. Secondarily, we aimed to compare the playing positions and compare the Brazilian players with high-level athletes from USA. Knee extensor (KE and flexor (KF muscles of 72 Brazilian players were assessed through isokinetic tests at 60°·s-1. KE concentric peak torque was 276±56 N·m, while KF had concentric and eccentric peak torques of 151±37 N·m and 220±40 N·m, respectively. Offensive linemen players presented greater peak torque values than defensive lineman, halfbacks, and wide receivers (all comparisons are provided in the article. Brazilian players had lower scores than USA athletes for KE and KF peak torque values. In addition, a conventional torque ratio (concentric/concentric lower than 0.6 was found in 76-83% of athletes, and a functional ratio (eccentric/eccentric below to 1.0 in 94%. Bilateral asymmetry greater than 10% was verified in 26% and 43% of athletes for KE and KF muscles, respectively. Elite players in Brazil present high incidence of strength imbalance in thigh muscles, and they are below USA players in relation to torque production capacity of KE and KF muscles.

  15. The effects of electromyostimulation training and basketball practice on muscle strength and jumping ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, N A; Cometti, G; Amiridis, I G; Martin, A; Pousson, M; Chatard, J C

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation training program on the strength of the knee extensors and the vertical jump performance of 10 basketball players. Electromyostimulation sessions were carried out 3 times weekly; each session consisted of 48 contractions. Testing was carried out before and after the electromyostimulation training program (week 4) and once more after 4 weeks of normal basketball training (week 8). At week 4, isokinetic strength increased significantly (p training increased also isometric strength at the two angles adjacent to the training angle (p jump increased significantly by 14% at week 4 (p jump showed no change. At week 8, gains in isokinetic, isometric strength and squat-jump performance were maintained and the counter movement jump performance increased significantly by 17% (ptraining program enhanced knee extensor strength and squat jump performance of basketball players.

  16. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  17. Thick legs - not always lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  18. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  19. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Hip Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdan; Huo, Ming; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.

  20. Those are Your Legs: The Effect of Visuo-Spatial Viewpoint on Visuo-Tactile Integration and Body Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozeg, Polona; Galli, Giulia; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a body part as one's own, i.e., body ownership, depends on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (including visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information) with the visual top-down signals from peripersonal space. Although it has been shown that the visuo-spatial viewpoint from where the body is seen is an important visual top-down factor for body ownership, different studies have reported diverging results. Furthermore, the role of visuo-spatial viewpoint (sometime also called first-person perspective) has only been studied for hands or the whole body, but not for the lower limbs. We thus investigated whether and how leg visuo-tactile integration and leg ownership depended on the visuo-spatial viewpoint from which the legs were seen and the anatomical similarity of the visual leg stimuli. Using a virtual leg illusion, we tested the strength of visuo-tactile integration of leg stimuli using the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) as well as the subjective sense of leg ownership (assessed by a questionnaire). Fifteen participants viewed virtual legs or non-corporeal control objects, presented either from their habitual first-person viewpoint or from a viewpoint that was rotated by 90°(third-person viewpoint), while applying visuo-tactile stroking between the participants legs and the virtual legs shown on a head-mounted display. The data show that the first-person visuo-spatial viewpoint significantly boosts the visuo-tactile integration as well as the sense of leg ownership. Moreover, the viewpoint-dependent increment of the visuo-tactile integration was only found in the conditions when participants viewed the virtual legs (absent for control objects). These results confirm the importance of first person visuo-spatial viewpoint for the integration of visuo-tactile stimuli and extend findings from the upper extremity and the trunk to visuo-tactile integration and ownership for the legs.

  1. Effect of a step-training program on muscle strength in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Coelho Zazá

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Step-training is associated with strength improvement of the lower limbs. Muscle strength is a critical component for the maintenance of functional capacity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks of step-training on work and power of the lower limbs in older women. Thirteen healthy and active women volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects underwent step-training classes three times per week for 60 min. Strength variables of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle work and power were assessed at an angular velocity of 60 and 180°/s. A significant difference (p<0.05 in knee flexor muscle work was observed between pre- and post-test at 60 and 180°/s. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in knee extensor muscle work between pre- and post-test at 60°/s. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-test values of knee flexor muscle power at 60°/s (p<0.05 and knee extensor muscle power at 60 and 180°/s (p<0.05. In conclusion, step-training can be recommended as an alternative physical activity to increase strength performance (work and power of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in older subjects.

  2. Proximal phalanx and flexor digitorum longus tendon biomechanics in flexor to extensor tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaolo, Zachary J; Ross, Matthew S; Laughlin, Richard T; Gould, Greg; Flower, Katie; Kiger, Lorrie; Markert, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    The flexor to extensor transfer of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon has been a relatively common operative procedure for the treatment of a flexible hammer toe deformity and chronic metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint dislocation. A possible complication of using the tunnel technique rather than the tendon splitting technique is iatrogenic fracture through the drilled tunnel site. The purpose of this investigation was to study the FDL tendon and proximal phalanx dimensions in the area of the transfer procedure in order to improve preoperative planning and minimize postoperative complications. Additionally, this study investigated the force necessary to create a fracture in a predrilled proximal phalanx and attempted to elucidate a relationship between that force and the percentage of bone remaining after the drilling process. The proximal phalanx and FDL tendon of the second, third, and fourth toes from both the right and the left foot of 14 fresh frozen cadavers were dissected, and the digit was amputated at the MTP joint. A total of 84 toes (42 right, 42 left) were obtained from 14 cadavers. The diameter of the FDL tendon was measured, and the circumference and volume were calculated. Fourteen proximal phalanges of either the right or the left foot were then drilled with a 3.5-mm drill, as is often done in a tendon transfer procedure. The 14 nondrilled bones from the contralateral foot were used as matched controls. Radiographs were then taken of the proximal phalanges, and the dimensions of the drill tunnel and remaining bone were calculated. These measurements were used to calculate the volume of the bone, the volume of the drill tunnel, and the percentage of bone remaining after the drilling process. The bones were then tested for load-to-failure using a biomechanical loading apparatus. The average bone and tendon diameter measurements showed a gradual decrease in size from the second to the fourth digits. The bone removed by drilling the tunnel accounted

  3. Muscle fatigue and exhaustion during dynamic leg exercise in normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Using an exercise device that integrates maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC) of knee extensor muscles with dynamic knee extension, we compared progressive muscle fatigue, i.e., rate of decline in force-generating capacity, in normoxia (758 Torr) and hypobaric hypoxia (464 Torr). Eight...... healthy men performed exhaustive constant work rate knee extension (21 +/- 3 W, 79 +/- 2 and 87 +/- 2% of 1-leg knee extension O2 peak uptake for normoxia and hypobaria, respectively) from knee angles of 90-150 degrees at a rate of 1 Hz. MVC (90 degrees knee angle) was performed before dynamic exercise...... and during MVC force was 578 +/- 29 N in normoxia and 569 +/- 29 N in hypobaria before exercise and fell, at exhaustion, to similar levels (265 +/- 10 and 284 +/- 20 N for normoxia and hypobaria, respectively; P > 0.05) that were higher (P

  4. Multiple extensor tendons reconstruction with hamstring tendon grafts and flap coverage for severe dorsal hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaydar, M; Orman, O; Ozel, O; Altan, E

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of patients with traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons on the dorsum of the hand is a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after reconstruction of soft tissues and multiple extensor tendons in patients who suffered traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons. Ten patients were enrolled in the study. These patients underwent single-stage reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon grafts for multiple extensor tendon defects and fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of dorsal hand defects. In total, 25 tendons (2 tendons in 5 patients and 3 tendons in 5 patients) were reconstructed. The semitendinosus tendon was used in all patients and the gracilis tendon was added in five patients for tendon reconstruction. Total tendon length requiring reconstruction was between 9cm and 31cm. Free anterolateral thigh flaps were used in six patients and reverse pedicled forearm flaps were used in four patients. According to Miller's scoring system, 8 fingers had excellent results, 12 fingers had good results and 5 fingers had fair results at the final follow-up. Hamstring tendons can be used satisfactorily for primary reconstruction of multiple digital extensor tendons due to their availability and compatibility, with a fasciocutaneous flap. IV. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  6. Structural Diversity of the Extensor Digitorum Profundus Muscle Complex in Platyrrhini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Mellin A; Panyutina, Aleksandra A

    2017-01-01

    Separate extension of fingers in the hand of primates is performed by 3 muscles: m. extensor pollicis longus, m. extensor digiti secundi, and m. extensor digitorum lateralis. Here it is proposed to consider them as parts of the extensor digitorum profundus muscular complex. The diversity in structure of these muscles in primates is examined based both on original anatomical study of New World monkeys and analysis of extensive published data on primates from different taxonomic groups. It is shown that in these muscles there are 2 main types of structure variations - the division of the muscle belly into several heads which give rise to separate tendons, and the split of the single terminal tendon into several branches. The first type of modification ensures the possibility of a separate management of the fingers, and the second, on the contrary, ensures the coupled control of extension of fingers. A scheme of evolutionary transformations of muscles belonging to the complex of the deep extensors of fingers is proposed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ultrasound findings in injuries of dorsal extensor hood: Correlation with MR and follow-up findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichouh, Mimoun; De Maeseneer, Michel; Jager, Tjeerd; Marcelis, Stefaan; Van Hedent, Eddy; Van Roy, Peter; De Mey, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to examine the dorsal hood in nine patients with a clinical suspicion of dorsal hood injuries. Material and methods: Clinical and imaging files from interesting case logbooks of nine patients were reviewed. Ultrasound was performed by one of the three radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal ultrasound. The examinations were also performed in flexion and in flexion with resistance. MR correlation was obtained in six patients. One patient underwent surgery. To obtain anatomical correlation of the normal dorsal hood 2 embalmed hand specimens were dissected. Results: The sagittal bands were easily depicted in the transverse plane on ultrasound images and presented as hypoechoic bands on both sides of the extensor communis tendons. Injuries of the sagittal bands were seen on ultrasound as hypoechoic thickening of the sagittal bands at the side of the extensor tendons. The normal shape of the sagittal bands was also no longer recognizable. Subluxations or dislocations of the extensor tendons were also seen. When the injuries were located in the fibrous slips between the extensor indicis and the extensor communis of the second finger, subluxations with an increased distance between these 2 tendons were seen, especially in flexion, or in flexion with resistance. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a valuable tool for the assessment of the injuries of the dorsal hood and is an easily available method for the diagnosis of the fine soft tissue components of the dorsal hood region.

  8. Rheumatoid wrist deformity and risk of extensor tendon rupture evaluated by 3DCT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Horizono, Hidehiro; Ishii, Katsushi; Seki, Eiko [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata city, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It causes immediate dysfunction of the hand and surgical reconstruction is usually required. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of extensor tendon rupture by quantifying wrist deformity on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. Three-dimensional CT images of 108 wrists in 102 patients with RA and 38 wrists in 38 healthy volunteers were analyzed retrospectively. All of the rheumatoid wrists had caused persistent pain for more than 6 months despite ongoing medical treatment. Extensor tendon rupture was noted in 49 wrists in 47 patients, and no rupture was noted in 59 wrists in 56 patients. The dorsal subluxation ratio (DSR) of the ulnar head and the carpal supination angle (CSA) were measured utilizing a new technique. The average DSR and CSA in the rupture group (n = 49), the non-rupture group (n = 59), and the normal wrist group (n = 38) were 37%, 19%, and 26%, and 15 , 11 , and 6 respectively. The cut-off values for extensor tendon rupture in the wrists of patients with RA were 32% (sensitivity; 70%, specificity; 75%) in the DSR, and 14 (71%, 68%) in the CSA. By utilizing 3DCT imaging of the rheumatoid wrist, these parameters can help improve our ability to predict extensor tendon rupture. (orig.)

  9. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    Full Text Available The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628, leg push power (r = 0.550, isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442, hand grip strength (r = 0.367, fast gait speed (r = 0.291, habitual gait speed (r = 0.256, body mass index (r = 0.411 and age (r = -0.392. Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  10. Analysis of elbow muscle strength parameters in Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, Bruno; Dellagrana, Rodolfo André; de Lima, Luis Antonio Pereira; Herzog, Walter; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Upper-body dynamic and isometric maximum strength are essential components for success in Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ). This study was aimed at analysing strength parameters in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles of BJJ practitioners. Participants (n = 28) performed maximum isometric contractions of elbow flexors and extensors to determine peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), and the torque-angle (T-A) relationship at elbow angles of 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120°. Additionally, concentric and eccentric PTs were measured at 1.04 rad·s -1 . Student t-test and ANOVA were performed using α = 0.05. Elbow flexors were stronger isometrically (P < 0.001, ES = 1.23) but weaker concentrically (P < 0.05, ES = 0.54) than extensor muscles, possibly because of the extensive grip disputes and pushing of opponents in BJJ. The T-A relationship had an inverted "U"-shape. Torque differences across elbow angles were moderate (ES = 0.62) for the extensor and large (ES = 0.92) for the flexor muscles. Isometric torque was greatest for elbow angles of 105° and 75° and smallest for 45° and 120° for extensor and flexor muscles, respectively. Elbow flexors had a greater RFD than extensors, regardless of elbow angle. The present study provides comprehensive results for elbow muscle strength in BJJ practitioners.

  11. Brief Report: Loss of Muscle Strength Prior to Knee Replacement: A Question of Anatomic Cross-Sectional Area or Specific Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Hamler, Felix C; Kemnitz, Jana; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether loss in thigh muscle strength prior to knee replacement is caused by reductions of muscle strength in the anatomic cross-sectional area or by reductions of specific strength. All 100 of the participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative who underwent knee replacement and whose medical records included data on thigh isometric muscle strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (58 women, and 42 men, mean ± SD age 65 ± 8 years, mean ± SD body mass index [BMI] 29 ± 5 kg/m 2 ) were matched with a control (no knee replacement) for age, sex, height, BMI, and radiographic severity. Thigh muscle anatomic cross-sectional area was determined by MRI at the research visit before knee replacement (time 0) and 2 years before time 0 (time -2). Specific strength (strength/anatomic cross-sectional area) was calculated, and the measures were compared by conditional logistic regression (i.e., odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation). ORs adjusted for pain (OR adj ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were also calculated. Knee replacement cases had significantly smaller extensor (but not flexor) anatomic cross-sectional areas than controls at time 0 (women, OR adj 1.89 [95% CI 1.05-3.90]; men, OR adj 2.22 [95% CI 1.04-4.76]), whereas no significant differences were found at time -2. Women who had knee replacement showed lower levels of extensor specific strength than controls at time 0 (OR 1.59 [95% CI 1.02-2.50]), although this difference was not observed in men and did not maintain significance after adjustment for pain (OR adj 1.22 [95% CI 0.71-2.08]). Female cases lost significantly more extensor specific strength between time -2 and time 0 than controls (OR adj 3.76 [95% CI 1.04-13.60]), whereas no significant differences were noted at time -2, or in men. Prior to knee replacement, a significant reduction in knee extensor strength appears to occur in women through 2 mechanisms: one driven by pain (loss of specific strength) and one independent of pain

  12. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    Full Text Available We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60, 100 (MVC100 and 140 (MVC140 deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s, 20 s (P20 and 40 s (P40 post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001. MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05 and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05. High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion.

  13. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, prestlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group than the left TLE group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quinine for Nocturnal Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Wells, George; Lau, Anita

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE With respect to the use of quinine for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps, to determine whether the findings of a previously performed meta-analysis of published data are altered with the addition of unpublished data, and whether publication bias is present in this area. DESIGN A meta-analysis of eight (four published and four unpublished) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, seven of which had a crossover design. SETTING Randomized trials that were available as of July 1997. SUBJECTS Ambulatory patients (659) who suffered from regular nocturnal leg cramps. MAIN RESULTS When individual patient data from all crossover studies were pooled, persons had 3.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15, 5.05) fewer cramps in a 4-week period when taking quinine compared with placebo. This compared with an estimate of 8.83 fewer cramps (95% CI 4.16, 13.49) from pooling published studies alone. The corresponding relative risk reductions were 21% (95% CI 12%, 30%) and 43% (95% CI 21%, 65%), respectively. Compared with placebo, the use of quinine was associated with an increased incidence of side effects, particularly tinnitus. Publication bias is present in the reporting of the efficacy of quinine for this indication, as almost all published studies reported larger estimates of its efficacy than did unpublished studies. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that quinine is efficacious in the prevention of nocturnal leg cramps. However, its benefit may not be as large as reported from the pooling of published studies alone. Given the side effect profile of quinine, nonpharmacologic therapy (e.g., regular passive stretching of the affected muscle) is the best first-line treatment. For persons who find this ineffective and whose quality of life is significantly affected, a trial of quinine is warranted. Prescribing physicians must closely monitor the risks and benefits in individual patients. Publication bias is present in this area even though there is

  15. UTILIZAÇÃO DE EXTENSORES ALTERNATIVOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE COMPENSADOS MULTILAMINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a potencialidade de uso de farinhas de soja, arroz, milho, aveia e mandioca, como extensores alternativos a farinha de trigo (testemunha para produção de compensados. Foram produzidas 21 chapas com lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo três chapas por tratamento, utilizando a seguinte formulação em partes por peso: resina uréia-formaldeído - 100, extensor - 75, água - 80 e catalisador - 7. Os resultados médios de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cizalhamento, pelo teste seco e úmido, demostraram que as farinhas de arroz e de aveia podem ser utilizados como extensor alternativo à farinha de trigo.

  16. Impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qiang; Wei, Yi-Yong; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the morphological alterations of the deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening have been investigated in cellular and extracellular aspects, the impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia remains largely unknown. This study aimed to address the changes of viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia during leg lengthening using uniaxial tensile test. Methods Animal model of leg lengthening was established in New Zealand white rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/day and 2 mm/day in two steps, and preceded until increases of 10% and 20% in the initial length of tibia had been achieved. The deep fascia specimens of 30 mm × 10 mm were clamped with the Instron 1122 tensile tester at room temperature with a constant tensile rate of 5 mm/min. After 5 load-download tensile tests had been performed, the specimens were elongated until rupture. The load-displacement curves were automatically generated. Results The normal deep fascia showed typical viscoelastic rule of collagenous tissues. Each experimental group of the deep fascia after leg lengthening kept the properties. The curves of the deep fascia at a rate of 1 mm/day with 20% increase in tibia length were the closest to those of normal deep fascia. The ultimate tension strength and the strain at rupture on average of normal deep fascia were 2.69 N (8.97 mN/mm2) and 14.11%, respectively. The increases in ultimate tension strength and strain at rupture of the deep fascia after leg lengthening were statistically significant. Conclusion The deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening exhibits viscoelastic properties as collagenous tissues without lengthening other than increased strain and strength. Notwithstanding different lengthening schemes result in varied viscoelastic properties changes, the most comparable viscoelastic properties to be demonstrated are under the scheme of a distraction rate of 1 mm/day and 20% increase in tibia length. PMID:19698092

  17. A Comparison of the Effect of Kettlebell Swings and Isolated Lumbar Extension Training on Acute Torque Production of the Lumbar Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinborough, Luke; Fisher, James P; Steele, James

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use a fatigue response test to measure the muscular fatigue (defined as a reduction in torque production) sustained by the lumbar extensors after a single set of kettlebell swings (KBS) in comparison with isolated lumbar extensions (ILEX) and a control condition (CON). The purpose of which is to measure the physiological response of KBS against an already established modality. Subsequent data provide insight of the efficacy of kettlebells swings in strengthening the lumbar muscles and lower back pain treatment. Eight physically active males participated in a repeated measures design where participants completed all conditions. There were statistically significant reductions in maximal torque, reported as strength index (SI), after both KBS and ILEX exercise. A statistically significant difference was found for reductions in maximal torque between CON and both KBS (p = 0.005) and ILEX (p = 0.001) and between KBS and ILEX (p = 0.039). Mean reduction and effect sizes were -1824 ± 1127.12 (SI) and -1.62 for KBS and -4775.6 ± 1593.41 (SI) and -3.00 for ILEX. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between KBS and ILEX for rate of perceived exertion (p = 0.012). Data suggest that both KBS and ILEX were able to fatigue the lumbar extensors. Isolated lumbar extension was able to generate a greater level of fatigue. However, contrary to previous research, the KBS was able to elicit a physiological response, despite the lack of pelvic restraint supporting the potential to strengthen the lumbar extensors.

  18. Leg fluid accumulation during prolonged sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Rubianto, Jonathan; Popovic, Milos; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2016-08-01

    The accumulation of fluid in the legs due to sedentariness can be a health risk in extreme cases. Negative health impacts associated with leg fluid accumulation include leg edema and risk of blood clots. Furthermore, fluid accumulating in the legs is accompanied by fluid shift into the upper body which is also associated with health risks such as: increased blood pressure when lying down, respiratory problems in people with heart failure, and increased sleep apnea. Understanding the pattern by which fluid accumulates in the legs can aid in the development of devices for reducing leg fluid accumulation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course of fluid accumulation over a two-and-half-hour seated period. Non-obese participants with sleep apnea and no other co-morbidities were included in the sample as part of a larger study. Leg fluid was measured continuously using a method of bioelectrical impedance. Participants were first asked to lie supine for 30 minutes as a washout, and then sat with their legs still for two and a half hours. The main finding of this study is that the pattern of leg fluid accumulation differed in the first 45 minutes compared to the latter 105 minutes. In the first 45 minutes, fluid accumulated according to first order exponential function. In the latter period, fluid accumulated according to a linear function. The initial exponential accumulation is likely due to the large increase in capillary pressure caused by rapid blood flow into the legs due to gravity, leading to substantial filtration of blood plasma into the tissue spaces. The latter linear portion likely represents continued slow filtration of fluid out of the vasculature and into the tissue spaces. This is the first study to show that fluid accumulation in the legs is a combination of an exponential and linear functions. The linear increase identifies that there is no foreseeable point in which leg fluid stops accumulating while sitting for prolonged periods.

  19. Lower Limb Force, Velocity, Power Capabilities during Leg Press and Squat Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Leban, Bruno; Cosso, Marco; Samozino, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to compare lower-limb power, force, and velocity capabilities between squat and leg press movements. Ten healthy sportsmen performed ballistic lower-limb push-offs against 5-to-12 different loads during both the squat and leg press. Individual linear force-velocity and polynomial power-velocity relationships were determined for both movements from push-off mean force and velocity measured continuously with a pressure sensor and linear encoder. Maximal power output, theoretical maximal force and velocity, force-velocity profile and optimal velocity were computed. During the squat, maximal power output (17.7±3.59 vs. 10.9±1.39 W·kg -1 ), theoretical maximal velocity (1.66±0.29 vs. 0.88±0.18 m·s -1 ), optimal velocity (0.839±0.144 vs. 0.465±0.107 m·s -1 ), and force-velocity profile (-27.2±8.5 vs. -64.3±29.5 N·s·m -1 ·kg -1 ) values were significantly higher than during the leg press (p=0.000, effect size=1.72-3.23), whereas theoretical maximal force values (43.1±8.6 vs. 51.9±14.0 N·kg -1 , p=0.034, effect size=0.75) were significantly lower. The mechanical capabilities of the lower-limb extensors were different in the squat compared with the leg press with higher maximal power due to much higher velocity capabilities (e.g. ability to produce force at high velocities) even if moderately lower maximal force qualities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  1. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP. He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  2. Enhanced spinal excitation from ankle flexors to knee extensors during walking in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achache, V.; Mazevet, D.; Iglesias, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear to what an extent altered reflex activity contributes to gait deficit following stroke. Spinal group I and group II excitations from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors were investigated during post-stroke walking. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied......: The spinal, presumed group II, excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors is particularly enhanced during post-stroke walking probably due to plastic adaptations in the descending control. SIGNIFICANCE: This adaptation may help to stabilize the knee in early stance when the patients have recover...... ankle dorsiflexor functions....

  3. A Reconstructive Stabilization Technique for Nontraumatic or Chronic Traumatic Extensor Tendon Subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Subluxation of the extensor tendon results from a disruption to the sagittal band at the metacarpophalangeal joint. When conservative treatment fails to correct the subluxation, surgical treatment may be necessary. Surgical techniques for chronic cases vary in graft source and graft pathway. We present a surgical technique to recentralize and stabilize the extensor tendon using a residual ruptured sagittal band. This technique is simple and effective without donor site morbidity and seems to provide potential biomechanical advantages by restoring nearly normal anatomy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (pleg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (pleg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liqin; Tang, Changfa; Tao, Xia

    2018-01-01

    To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST) indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump) were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength ( F total ) through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints' flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the F total . (1) Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2) Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  6. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Methods. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength (Ftotal through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints’ flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the Ftotal. Results. (1 Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2 Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Conclusions. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  7. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  8. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra

    2017-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Frederick M; Prior, Steven J; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E; Katzel, Leslie I; Macko, Richard F; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-04-01

    Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO 2 peak). ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Falls in the elderly: Part II, Balance, strength, and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlsen, G M; Whaley, M H

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the balance, muscular strength, and flexibility of two groups of elderly adults: one with a history of falls (HF) and one with no history of falls (NHF). Subjects were 19 men and 36 women. Static and dynamic balance was determined by a one-foot stance balance test and a backwards walking test. Hip, knee, and ankle joint muscular strength were assessed on a Cybex Leg Press Dynamometer. A goniometer was used to determine hip, knee, and ankle joint range of motion (flexibility), ANOVA indicated a significant difference between the two groups for static balance (p less than .001), leg strength (p less than .01), and hip and ankle flexibility (p less than .01). The results suggest that balance, leg strength, and flexibility may be factors contributing to falls in the elderly.

  11. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  12. Effects of long term Tai Chi practice and jogging exercise on muscle strength and endurance in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D Q; Li, J X; Hong, Y

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the influence of regular Tai Chi (TC) practice and jogging on muscle strength and endurance in the lower extremities of older people. Twenty one long term older TC practitioners were compared with 18 regular older joggers and 22 sedentary counterparts. Maximum concentric strength of knee flexors and extensors was tested at angular velocities of 30 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s. Ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were tested at 30 degrees/s and the dynamic endurance of the knee flexors and extensors was assessed at a speed of 180 degrees/s. The differences in the muscle strength of the knee joint amongst the three experimental groups were significant at the higher velocity. The strengths of knee extensors and flexors in the control group were significantly lower than those in the jogging group and marginally lower than those in the TC group. For the ankle joint, the subjects in both the TC and jogging groups generated more torque in their ankle dorsiflexors. In addition, the muscle endurance of knee extensors was more pronounced in TC practitioners than in controls. Regular older TC practitioners and joggers showed better scores than the sedentary controls on most muscle strength and endurance measures. However, the magnitude of the exercise effects on muscles might depend on the characteristics of different types of exercise.

  13. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  14. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was <50 Gy in all nine patients in the control group. The onset of this syndrome was 5 months, 6 months and 15 months. The early-onset DHS may have something to do with dose to the neck extensor muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy)

  15. Falls, muscle strength, and functional abilities in community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Falls are among the most common and serious problems facing elderly women. Falling is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, reduced functioning, loss of independence and hospitalization. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among fear of falling, muscle strength, and functional abilities in community-dwelling elderly women. Methods: Forty-nine elderly women (70.57 ± 5.59 years participated in this study. Records of falls, self-efficacy associated with falls (FES-I Brazil, functional abilities (the Timed Up and Down Stairs test [TUDS] and the Timed Up and Go test [TUG], lower limb muscle strength (knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors, and hand grip strength were investigated as variables of interest. Descriptive statistics, the one-way ANOVA, and linear regression tests were used to analyze the association between fear of falling and falls with other variables (α = 0.05. Results: Elderly women who presented records of falls within the last year had lesser strength of knee extensors and plantar flexors (p ≤. 05. Those who had low self-efficacy associated with falls presented lower strength of knee extensors (p ≤. 01. Variables associated with functional abilities (r = 0.70 and lower limb strength (r = 0.53 showed a positive correlation (p ≤. 01. Conclusion: The concern with the fear of falling and falls may be negative effects caused by lower limb muscle weakness.

  16. Assessment of isokinetic peak torque reliability of the hip flexor, extensor, adductors and abductors muscles in female soccer players from 14 to 25 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Andrade, Marilia; Mascarin, Naryana C; Benedito-Silva, Ana A; Carderelli Minozzo, Fabio; Vancini, Rodrigo L; Barbosa DE Lira, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate test-retest reliability of concentric flexor, extensor, abductor and adductor muscular isokinetic hip torques in female soccer players. Sixteen highly-trained female soccer players were evaluated. Isokinetic dynamometer assessment was performed at 30°/s and 150°/s concentrically. The muscles tested were hip flexor (Fl), extensor (Ext), adductor (Add) and abductor (Abd). The reproducibility of the measured peak torque (PT) was analyzed by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The difference in PT between the first and second tests was tested using Student's t-test. The ICC for the observed PT values revealed moderate to high reproducibility (ranging from 0.55 to 0.76) for the hip Fl and Ext measurements at 150º/s and for Add and Abd measurements at 30 and 150º/s. For the hip Fl and Ext measurements at 30º/s the ICC was poor. The isokinetic assessment of the concentric PT values generated by the hip Fl and Ext and Add and Abd is moderate to highly reproducible, when assessed at the highest test velocity (150º/s). The test-retest reliability of hip isokinetic strength measures seems to be affected by the type muscle and test velocity.

  17. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  18. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parellada, Antoni J.; Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B.; Sweet, Stephanie; Leinberry, Charles F.; Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark

    2007-01-01

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons, as well as

  19. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parellada, Antoni J. [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Frankford Hospitals - Torresdale Campus, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sweet, Stephanie [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Hand Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leinberry, Charles F. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery - Hand Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons

  20. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  1. Leg blood flow during static exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Persson, J

    1982-01-01

    Leg blood flow was studied with the constant infusion dye technique during static exercise of the thigh muscles (quadriceps) and during hand-grips at 15 and 25-30% of MVC. Blood flow and oxygen uptake in the leg increased in quadriceps exercise and reached their highest values (around 1.21/min and 165 ml/min respectively) at 25-30% of MVC, whereas leg vascular resistance decreased. Regional circulatory adaptations and the oxygen uptake - leg blood flow relationship were in close agreement with the responses found in dynamic leg exercise. In view of the marked rise in intramuscular pressure previously observed during quadriceps contractions, a restriction of blood flow and an increased vascular resistance had been expected. Involuntary activation of leg muscles other than the quadriceps may explain the finding. Contractions of the contralateral quadriceps induced a slight increase in leg blood flow, whereas hand-grips had no influence on blood flow or vascular resistance in the leg. The distribution of the cardiac output during static contractions is discussed, and it is concluded that during hand-grips the increase in blood flow is predominantly distributed to the upper part of the body.

  2. Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Broström, Stig

    Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed er et rigt felt med mange perspektiver, indgangsvinkler og nuancer. I denne bog kædes leg og det eksperimenterende og skabende sammen som to gensidigt forbundne fænomener og belyses i pædagogisk og didaktisk perspektiv. Desuden beskrives potentialet i båd...

  3. Surgical and anatomical studies on De Quervain's tenosynovitis syndrome: Variations in the first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Randal Pires J and uacute;nior

    2016-08-01

    Clinical relevance: As septation of the first extensor compartment and multiple APL tendons appears to represent risk factors for the development of DQT, prior knowledge of the frequency of such anomalies may assist surgeons in pre-operative evaluation and perioperative procedures. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 50-55

  4. Tendon properties and muscle architecture for knee extensors and plantar flexors in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Teshima, Takanori; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro; Hirose, Norikazu; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the elastic properties and size of tendinous structures and muscle architecture for knee extensors and plantar flexors in boys and men. Twenty-two early pubescent boys (9.6-12.7yrs) and 23 young adult men (19.8-26.2yrs) participated in this study. The maximal strain and thickness of tendinous structures for knee extensors and plantar flexors were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, the fascicle lengths of vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured. The maximal strain of tendinous structures for plantar flexors was significantly greater in boys than in men, while there was no difference in the maximal strain for knee extensors between the two groups. The relative thickness (to body mass(1/3)) of Achilles tendon was significantly greater in boys than in men, although there was no difference in that of patellar tendon between the two groups. The relative fascicle length (to limb length) of vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in boys than in men, although there was no difference in that of medial gastrocnemius muscle between the two groups. These results suggest that the amount of changes in the elastic properties and sizes of tendinous structures and in the fascicle lengths from early pubescence to maturity is different for different muscle groups (in particular, the knee extensors and the plantar flexors). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Short Submaximal test to determine the fatigue threshold of knee extensors in young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Hamacher, P.; Wolfs, B.G.A.

    Purpose Recently, a fatigue threshold obtained during submaximal repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions was related to VO 2max measured during cycling and to exercise endurance. However, test duration is quite long (20-30 min in young people) to be of practical and possibly clinical use.

  6. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow...

  7. The isometric torque at which knee-extensor muscle reoxygenation stops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Goudsmit, J.F.; Tricht, J.A.; de Haan, A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the knee-extensor torque at which reoxygenation (inflow of arterial blood) during an isometric contraction stopped, whether this torque depended on maximal torque capacity (MTC), and whether there were differences among the synergists. METHODS: Isometric knee-extension

  8. Isometric knee-extensor torque development and jump height in volleyball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Vermeulen, G.; Toussaint, H.M.; de Haan, A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to determine the contribution of the intrinsic muscle properties and muscle activation of the knee extensors to the maximal rate of unilateral isometric torque development and to relate both factors to maximal bilateral jumping performance in experienced

  9. Determination of functional strength imbalance of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U; Gerber, Aimee; Nimphius, Sophia; Shim, Jae K; Doan, Brandon K; Robertson, Mike; Pearson, David R; Craig, Bruce W; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2006-11-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether a significant strength imbalance existed between the left and right or dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) legs and (b) to investigate possible correlations among various unilateral and bilateral closed kinetic chain tests, including a field test, and traditional isokinetic dynamometry used to determine strength imbalance. Fourteen Division I collegiate women softball players (20.2 +/- 1.4 years) volunteered to undergo measures of average peak torque for isokinetic flexion and extension at 60 degrees .s(-1) and 240 degrees .s(-1); in addition, measures of peak and average force of each leg during parallel back squat, 2-legged vertical jump, and single-leg vertical jump and performance in a 5-hop test were examined. Significant differences of between 4.2% and 16.0% were evident for all measures except for average force during single-leg vertical jump between the D and ND limbs, thus revealing a significant strength imbalance. The 5-hop test revealed a significant difference between D and ND limbs and showed a moderate correlation with more sophisticated laboratory tests, suggesting a potential use as a field test for the identification of strength imbalance. The results of this study indicate that a significant strength imbalance can exist even in collegiate level athletes, and future research should be conducted to determine how detrimental these imbalances could be in terms of peak performance for athletes, as well as the implications for injury risk.

  10. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-01-11

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e. exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 y) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 mmHg vs. 104 ± 9 mmHg; p<0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 mmHg vs. 101 ± 10 mmHg; p<0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single-leg and double-leg (267 ± 150 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm vs. 214 ± 169 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm; p=0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (p<0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3 ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1 ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  11. The effect of age and unilateral leg immobilization for 2 weeks on substrate utilization during moderate‐intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, M.; Dybboe, R.; Kuhlman, A. B.; Prats, C.; Greenhaff, P. L.; Constantin‐Teodosiu, D.; Birk, J. B.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Dela, F.; Helge, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points This study aimed to provide molecular insight into the differential effects of age and physical inactivity on the regulation of substrate metabolism during moderate‐intensity exercise.Using the arteriovenous balance technique, we studied the effect of immobilization of one leg for 2 weeks on leg substrate utilization in young and older men during two‐legged dynamic knee‐extensor moderate‐intensity exercise, as well as changes in key proteins in muscle metabolism before and after exercise.Age and immobilization did not affect relative carbohydrate and fat utilization during exercise, but the older men had higher uptake of exogenous fatty acids, whereas the young men relied more on endogenous fatty acids during exercise.Using a combined whole‐leg and molecular approach, we provide evidence that both age and physical inactivity result in intramuscular lipid accumulation, but this occurs only in part through the same mechanisms. Abstract Age and inactivity have been associated with intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) accumulation. Here, we attempt to disentangle these factors by studying the effect of 2 weeks of unilateral leg immobilization on substrate utilization across the legs during moderate‐intensity exercise in young (n = 17; 23 ± 1 years old) and older men (n = 15; 68 ± 1 years old), while the contralateral leg served as the control. After immobilization, the participants performed two‐legged isolated knee‐extensor exercise at 20 ± 1 W (∼50% maximal work capacity) for 45 min with catheters inserted in the brachial artery and both femoral veins. Biopsy samples obtained from vastus lateralis muscles of both legs before and after exercise were used for analysis of substrates, protein content and enzyme activities. During exercise, leg substrate utilization (respiratory quotient) did not differ between groups or legs. Leg fatty acid uptake was greater in older than in young men, and although young men demonstrated net

  12. Extracting Extensor Digitorum Communis Activation Patterns using High-Density Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions.The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7×9 surface electromyogram (EMG recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic. Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal-distal direction than in the radial-ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders.

  13. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  14. Effect of leg length on ROM, VJ and leg dexterity in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, M A; Nevill, A M; Dekker, K; Brown, D D; Clarke, F; Pelly, J; Koutedakis, Y

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the associations between leg length and specific ballet movements in different skill groups. Volunteers were from an undergraduate dance programme (n=18), a pre-professional school (n=43) and from an elite classical ballet company (n=45). Individual data were collected for anthropometry, vertical jump, leg dexterity, and leg active and passive ROM. ANCOVA identified both main effects as significant with regard to vertical jump (gender Peffects with gender, skill or leg length. Active and passive range of motion noted gender (P=0.001) and skill (Peffects of leg length on fundamental ballet skills. The longer legs that benefit vertical jump have a negative influence on range of motion and leg dexterity except for highly skilled dancers, who through skill, seem to have overcome the effects of some of these dichotomies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  15. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations noted potential importance of isokinetic strength in rapid muscular performances, such as jumping. This study aimed to identify the influence of isokinetic-knee-strength on specific jumping performance in volleyball. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the two volleyball-specific jumping tests. The sample comprised 67 female (21.96±3.79 years; 68.26±8.52 kg; 174.43±6.85 cm) and 99 male (23.62±5.27 years; 84.83±10.37 kg; 189.01±7.21 cm) high- volleyball players who competed in 1st and 2nd National Division. Subjects were randomly divided into validation (N.=55 and 33 for males and females, respectively) and cross-validation subsamples (N.=54 and 34 for males and females, respectively). Set of predictors included isokinetic tests, to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors, and flexors for dominant and non-dominant leg. The main outcome measure for the isokinetic testing was peak torque (PT) which was later normalized for body mass and expressed as PT/Kg. Block-jump and spike-jump performances were measured over three trials, and observed as criteria. Forward stepwise multiple regressions were calculated for validation subsamples and then cross-validated. Cross validation included correlations between and t-test differences between observed and predicted scores; and Bland Altman graphics. Jumping tests were found to be reliable (spike jump: ICC of 0.79 and 0.86; block-jump: ICC of 0.86 and 0.90; for males and females, respectively), and their validity was confirmed by significant t-test differences between 1st vs. 2nd division players. Isokinetic variables were found to be significant predictors of jumping performance in females, but not among males. In females, the isokinetic-knee measures were shown to be stronger and more valid predictors of the block-jump (42% and 64% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively

  16. Magnitude of force perception errors during static contractions of the knee extensors in healthy young and elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzière, Séléna; Dubois, Benjamin; Brière, Anabèle; Nadeau, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of force perception during muscular contraction has not been studied extensively, despite its importance in rehabilitation and training. The purpose of this study was to quantify the errors made by healthy young and elderly individuals in their perceptions of force produced at the knee. Four different tasks were used to evaluate the perception of force and the effect of a sensory-motor reference and simultaneous contraction on the accuracy of perception. The absolute errors were similar between groups, with values of 11.9% to 16.3%, depending on the task. The raw perception errors were greater for high levels of force (>50% of the maximal voluntary contraction, or MVC), indicating an overestimation of the forces produced for both groups. At 70% MVC, the sensory-motor reference reduced raw perception errors, and the simultaneous contraction improved the accuracy of force production. Healthy young and elderly individuals had about the same capacity to judge the muscular force of their knee extensors. Therapists involved in the training of active elderly individuals should be aware that the accuracy of force perception is not perfect and that these clients have the same ability as young individuals to perceive their knee extension strength.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of the aging soleus and extensor digitorum longus rat muscles using TMT labeling and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Daniela F S; Carvalho, Paulo C; Lima, Diogo B; Nicastro, Humberto; Lorenzeti, Fábio M; Siqueira-Filho, Mário; Hirabara, Sandro M; Alves, Paulo H M; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Lancha, Antonio H

    2013-10-04

    Sarcopenia describes an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function that ultimately impairs metabolism and leads to poor balance, frequent falling, limited mobility, and a reduction in quality of life. Here we investigate the pathogenesis of sarcopenia through a proteomic shotgun approach. In brief, we employed tandem mass tags to quantitate and compare the protein profiles obtained from young versus old rat slow-twitch type of muscle (soleus) and a fast-twitch type of muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL). Our results disclose 3452 and 1848 proteins identified from soleus and EDL muscles samples, of which 78 and 174 were found to be differentially expressed, respectively. In general, most of the proteins were structural related and involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, detoxification, or transport. Aging affected soleus and EDL muscles differently, and several proteins were regulated in opposite ways. For example, pyruvate kinase had its expression and activity different in both soleus and EDL muscles. We were able to verify with existing literature many of our differentially expressed proteins as candidate aging biomarkers and, most importantly, disclose several new candidate biomarkers such as the glioblastoma amplified sequence, zero β-globin, and prolargin.

  18. Ground reaction force and 3D biomechanical characteristics of walking in short-leg walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songning; Clowers, Kurt G; Powell, Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Short-leg walking boots offer several advantages over traditional casts. However, their effects on ground reaction forces (GRF) and three-dimensional (3D) biomechanics are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to examine 3D lower extremity kinematics and joint dynamics during walking in two different short-leg walking boots. Eleven (five females and six males) healthy subjects performed five level walking trials in each of three conditions: two testing boot conditions, Gait Walker (DeRoyal Industries, Inc.) and Equalizer (Royce Medical Co.), and one pair of laboratory shoes (Noveto, Adidas). A force platform and a 6-camera Vicon motion analysis system were used to collect GRFs and 3D kinematic data during the testing session. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate selected kinematic, GRF, and joint kinetic variables (pboots were effective in minimizing ankle eversion and hip adduction. Neither walker increased the bimodal vertical GRF peaks typically observed in normal walking. However, they did impose a small initial peak (knee extensors while they decreased the demand of the knee and hip abductors based on the joint kinetic results.

  19. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  20. Acute Effects of Static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Muscle Strength and Power Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Sarah M; Cramer, Joel T; Fincher, A Louise; Massey, Laurie L; Dangelmaier, Suzanne M; Purkayastha, Sushmita; Fitz, Kristi A; Culbertson, Julie Y

    2005-06-01

    Context: Stretching is commonly used as a technique for injury prevention in the clinical setting. Our findings may improve the understanding of the neuromuscular responses to stretching and help clinicians make decisions for rehabilitation progression and return to play.Objective: To examine the short-term effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on peak torque (PT), mean power output (MP), active range of motion (AROM), passive range of motion (PROM), electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles during voluntary maximal concentric isokinetic leg extensions at 60 and 300 degrees .s.Design: A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design.Setting: A university human research laboratory.Patients or Other Participants: Ten female (age, 23 +/- 3 years) and 9 male (age, 21 +/- 3 years) apparently healthy and recreationally active volunteers.Intervention(s): Four static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises to stretch the leg extensor muscles of the dominant limb during 2 separate, randomly ordered laboratory visits.Main Outcome Measure(s): The PT and MP were measured at 60 and 300 degrees .s, EMG and MMG signals were recorded, and AROM and PROM were measured at the knee joint before and after the stretching exercises.Results: Static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching reduced PT (P = .051), MP (P = .041), and EMG amplitude (P = .013) from prestretching to poststretching at 60 and 300 degrees .s (P proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. The MMG amplitude increased in the rectus femoris muscle in response to the static stretching at 60 degrees .s (P = .031), but no other changes in MMG amplitude were observed (P > .05).Conclusions: Both static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching caused similar deficits in strength, power output, and muscle activation at

  1. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  2. Deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality, and mobility in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacIntyre, Donna L; Road, Jeremy D; Reid, Wendy D

    2011-01-01

    Midthigh intramuscular fat (IF), a feature of reduced muscle quality, is an important predictor of self-reported mobility loss in the elderly. This study compared measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy subjects. Associations between measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility were explored. Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. Cross-sectional area and IF of the thigh muscles were measured with computerized tomography. Mobility was assessed with the repetitive sit-to-stand, self-selected gait speed, and 6-minute walk tests. Patients with COPD (n = 21, age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, and a percentage predicted force expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.2 ± 12.9) and 21 healthy subjects matched for age (67.4 ± 8.6 years), gender, and body mass participated in the study. Patients with COPD showed reduced average knee extensor strength (29%, P = .016) cross-sectional area of the thigh muscles (17%, P = .007) and mobility measures (~23%, P ≤ .001). Knee extensor and flexor IF was 2-folds greater in people with COPD (P ≤ .005). Measures of knee extensor muscle strength, mass, and IF were not associated with mobility measures. Compared with healthy controls, patients with moderate to severe COPD show marked deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality, and mobility. More studies with larger sample size are required to elucidate whether any of these muscle deficits can explain mobility impairments in COPD.

  3. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  4. Study of the relationship between extensor tendon rupture and dorsal subluxation of rheumatoid wrists with using CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yusuke; Henmi, Shunichi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Saito, Masanobu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    In rheumatoid wrists, subluxation of the distal end of the ulna has been associated with extensor tendon rupture. However, no method has been established to quantitatively evaluate subluxation of the distal end of the ulna. We assessed this subluxation by using CT images and analyzed the correlation between this subluxation and extensor tendon rupture. The subluxation rate was 0.440±0.181 in the rupture group and 0.333±0.222 in the nonrupture group. The subluxation rate and extensor tendon rupture were closely correlated. Therefore, this method is useful for assessing subluxation of the distal end of the ulna of rheumatoid wrists. (author)

  5. Closed-loop control of trunk posture improves locomotion through the regulation of leg proprioceptive feedback after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraud, Eduardo Martin; von Zitzewitz, Joachim; Miehlbradt, Jenifer; Wurth, Sophie; Formento, Emanuele; DiGiovanna, Jack; Capogrosso, Marco; Courtine, Grégoire; Micera, Silvestro

    2018-01-08

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), sensory feedback circuits critically contribute to leg motor execution. Compelled by the importance to engage these circuits during gait rehabilitation, assistive robotics and training protocols have primarily focused on guiding leg movements to reinforce sensory feedback. Despite the importance of trunk postural dynamics on gait and balance, trunk assistance has comparatively received little attention. Typically, trunk movements are either constrained within bodyweight support systems, or manually adjusted by therapists. Here, we show that real-time control of trunk posture re-established dynamic balance amongst bilateral proprioceptive feedback circuits, and thereby restored left-right symmetry, loading and stepping consistency in rats with severe SCI. We developed a robotic system that adjusts mediolateral trunk posture during locomotion. This system uncovered robust relationships between trunk orientation and the modulation of bilateral leg kinematics and muscle activity. Computer simulations suggested that these modulations emerged from corrections in the balance between flexor- and extensor-related proprioceptive feedback. We leveraged this knowledge to engineer control policies that regulate trunk orientation and postural sway in real-time. This dynamical postural interface immediately improved stepping quality in all rats regardless of broad differences in deficits. These results emphasize the importance of trunk regulation to optimize performance during rehabilitation.

  6. Frozen allogeneic human epidermal cultured sheets for the cure of complicated leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar-Flores, Y J; Kuri-Harcuch, W

    1999-08-01

    Skin ulcers due to venous stasis or diabetes are common among the elderly and are difficult to treat. Repeated applications of cell-based products have been reported to result in cure or improvement of leg ulcers of small size in a fraction of patients. To examine the effects of frozen human allogeneic epidermal cultures for the treatment of acute and chronic ulcers. We treated a series of 10 consecutive patients with leg ulcers of different etiology and duration with frozen human allogeneic epidermal cultures stored frozen and thawed for 5-10 minutes at room temperature before application. Three patients had ulcers with exposed Achilles or extensor tendon. The ulcers treated were as large as 160 cm2 in area and of up to 20-years' duration. After preliminary preparation of the wounds by debridement to remove necrotic tissue and application of silver sulfadiazine to control infection, thawed cultures were applied biweekly from 2 to 15 times depending on the size and complexity of the ulcer. All ulcers healed, including those with tendon exposure. After the first few applications, granulation tissue formed in the ulcer bed and on exposed tendons, and epidermal healing took place through proliferation and migration of cells from the margins of the wound. The time required for complete healing ranged from 1 to 31 weeks after the first application. The use of frozen human allogeneic epidermal cultures is a safe and effective treatment for venous or diabetic ulcers, even those with tendon exposure. It seems possible that any leg ulcer will be amenable to successful treatment by this method.

  7. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  8. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Goodwill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21±3 years were allocated to a strength training (ST, m=3, f=4, a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m=3, f=4, or a control group (no training, m=3, f=4. Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, involving unilateral squats for the right leg, with or without WBV (35 Hz; 2.5 mm amplitude. All groups underwent dynamic single leg maximum strength testing (1RM and single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS prior to and following training. Strength increased in the trained limb for the ST (41%; ES=1.14 and ST + V (55%; ES=1.03 groups, which resulted in a 35% (ES=0.99 strength transfer to the untrained left leg for the ST group and a 52% (ES=0.97 strength transfer to the untrained leg for the ST + V group, when compared to the control group. No differences in strength transfer between training groups were observed (P=0.15. For the untrained leg, no differences in the peak height of recruitment curves or SICI were observed between ST and ST + V groups (P=1.00. Strength training with WBV does not appear to modulate the cross-transfer of strength to a greater magnitude when compared to conventional cross-education strength training.

  9. Leg pain (Osgood-Schlatter) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leg pain in older children or young adolescents can occur for many reasons. An Osgood-Schlatter lesion results from continued trauma to the anterior tibial bone and causes a visible lump below the knee.

  10. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  11. Sturge-Weber syndrome - legs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervous system (neurocutaneous) and is associated with Port Wine Stain, red vascular markings on the face and other parts of the body (shown here on the legs). This is an unusual case, due to the large size of the lesion ( ...

  12. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You will need to change the dressing on your limb. This will help ...

  13. Lower Extremity Muscle Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abbey C.; Villwock, Mark; Wojtys, Edward M.; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Quadriceps and hamstrings weakness occurs frequently after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. Evidence suggests that knee injury may precipitate hip and ankle muscle weakness, but few data support this contention after ACL injury and reconstruction. Objective: To determine if hip, knee, and ankle muscle weakness present after ACL injury and after rehabilitation for ACL reconstruction. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen individuals with ACL injury (8 males, 7 females; age = 20.27 ± 5.38 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.10 m, mass = 74.39 ± 13.26 kg) and 15 control individuals (7 men, 8 women; age = 24.73 ± 3.37 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.25 ± 13.48 kg). Intervention(s): Bilateral concentric strength was assessed at 60°/s on an isokinetic dynamometer. The participants with ACL injury were tested preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Control participants were tested on 1 occasion. Main Outcome Measures: Hip-flexor, -extensor, -abductor, and -adductor; knee-extensor and -flexor; and ankle–plantar-flexor and -dorsiflexor strength (Nm/kg). Results: The ACL-injured participants demonstrated greater hip-extensor (percentage difference = 19.7, F1,14 = 7.28, P = .02) and -adductor (percentage difference = 16.3, F1,14 = 6.15, P = .03) weakness preoperatively than postoperatively, regardless of limb, and greater postoperative hip-adductor strength (percentage difference = 29.0, F1,28 = 10.66, P = .003) than control participants. Knee-extensor and -flexor strength were lower in the injured than in the uninjured limb preoperatively and postoperatively (extensor percentage difference = 34.6 preoperatively and 32.6 postoperatively, t14 range = −4.59 to −4.23, P ≤ .001; flexor percentage difference = 30.6 preoperatively and 10.6 postoperatively, t14 range = −6.05 to −3.24, P ACL-injured participants. The ACL-injured participants had less

  14. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm.

  15. Organic trace minerals and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol affect performance characteristics, leg abnormalities, and biomechanical properties of leg bones of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferket, P R; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Mente, P L; Bohórquez, D V; Santos, A A; Grimes, J L; Richards, J D; Dibner, J J; Felts, V

    2009-01-01

    Leg problems and resulting mortality can exceed 1% per week in turkey toms starting at approximately 15 wk of age. Dietary supplementation of organic trace minerals (MIN) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (HyD) may improve performance, decrease incidence of leg abnormalities, and increase bone strength. Nicholas 85X700 toms were assigned to 4 treatments consisting of a factorial arrangement of 2 concentrations of MIN (0 and 0.1% of Mintrex P(Se), which adds 40, 40, 20, and 0.3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se, respectively) and 2 concentrations of HyD (0 and 92 microg/kg of HyD). Diets were formulated to be equal in nutrient content and fed ad libitum as 8 feed phases. Feed intake and BW were measured at 6, 12, 15, 17, and 20 wk of age. Valgus, varus, and shaky leg defects were determined at 12, 15, 17, and 20 wk of age. Tibia and femur biomechanical properties were evaluated by torsion and bending tests at 17 wk of age. There were no treatment effects on BW. Only MIN significantly improved feed conversion ratio through to 20 wk of age. Cumulative mortality at 3 wk of age was greater among the MIN birds, but it was lower by 20 wk (P = 0.085). The MIN decreased the incidence of varus defects at 17 wk of age; shaky leg at 12, 15, and 17 wk of age; and valgus defects at 15, 17, and 20 wk of age. There were no MIN x HyD interaction effects on individual gait problems. Maximum load and the bending stress required for tibias to break in a 4-point assay were increased with MIN supplementation, especially when HyD was also added. Maximum shear stress at failure of femoral bones in a torsion assay was increased by supplementation with both MIN and HyD together. Dietary supplementation of MIN and HyD may improve biomechanical properties of bones. Dietary MIN supplementation may improve feed conversion of turkeys, likely by decreasing leg problems.

  16. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting re...

  17. Efficiency and Speed in Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    which we substitute into (4.42) : ( -mv s J O=-km+ mvc -k __ c __ V v 2 c c 46 (4.43) (4.44) (4.45) (4.46) to fInd the switching curve m 3 s...Legged Mechanisms. IVSS. Traverse City, MI Muench, P., Alexander, J., Quinn, R., & Aschenbeck, K. (2005) Pneumatic Spring for Legged Walker. SPIE

  18. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  19. Quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L

    2013-05-01

    To examine the independent association between diabetes mellitus (and its duration and severity) and quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in a national population of older adults. Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. United States. Two thousand five hundred seventy-three adults aged 50 and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who had assessment of quadriceps strength. Diabetes mellitus was ascertained according to questionnaire. Measurement of isokinetic knee extensor (quadriceps) strength was performed at 60º/s. Gait speed was assessed using a 20-foot walk test. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between diabetes mellitus status and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders or mediators. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus had significantly slower gait speed (0.96 ± 0.02 m/s) than those without (1.08 ± 0.01 m/s; P diabetes mellitus was also associated with significantly lower quadriceps strength (-4.6 ± 1.9 Nm; P = .02) and power (-4.9 ± 2.0 W; P = .02) and slower gait speed (-0.05 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .002). Associations remained significant after adjusting for physical activity and C-reactive protein. After accounting for comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, amputation, cancer, arthritis, fracture, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), diabetes mellitus was independently associated only with gait speed (-0.04 ± 0.02 m/s; P = .02). Diabetes mellitus duration in men and women was negatively associated with age-adjusted quadriceps strength (-5.7 and -3.5 Nm/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) and power (-6.1 and -3.8 W/decade of diabetes mellitus, respectively) (all P ≤ .001, no significant interactions according to sex). Glycosylated hemoglobin was not associated with outcomes after accounting for body weight. Older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus have lower quadriceps strength and quadriceps power that is related

  20. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  1. The relationship between spasticity and muscle volume of the knee extensors in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Samuel R; Prosser, Laura A; Lee, Samuel C K; Lauer, Richard T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spasticity and muscle volume in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using isokinetic dynamometry and magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective sample of 8 children with diplegic CP was analyzed. One set of 10 passive knee flexion movements was completed at a velocity of 180° per second with concurrent surface electromyography of the medial hamstrings (MH) and vastus lateralis (VL) to assess knee extensor spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure maximum cross-sectional area and muscle volume of the quadriceps femoris. The quadriceps femoris muscle volume was positively correlated with MH reflex activity, VL reflex activity, MH/VL co-contraction, and peak knee extensor passive torque (P spasticity are associated with greater quadriceps muscle volume in children with spastic diplegic CP.

  2. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  3. COMPARISON OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH TRAINING IN IMPROVING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWER AMONG FUTSAL PLAYERS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar Nedunchezhiyan; Syed Abudaheer Kajamohideen; Ilayaraja AlagiaThiruvevenkadam; Karthikeyan Rajendran; Lorrian Shin Chee Lim; Anithabhavani Nedunchezhiyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injury is a common problem in many sports, especially those involving acceleration and maximal sprints. Hamstring strains are both common and painful. During sprinting the hip flexor and knee extensor torques are frequently produced and is opposed by the hamstring muscles, hence there are numerous studies done on the muscle strength training to prevent the hamstring strain injury as it is statistically stated as the highest rate involved injury in the contact sport. This...

  4. Changes in mechanical load and extensor muscle activity in the cervico-thoracic spine induced by sitting posture modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Stephen J; Sharp, Michael; Symes, Andew; Alhabib, Nawaf; Allison, Garry T

    2011-02-01

    The influence of whole body sitting posture on cervico-thoracic posture, mechanical load and extensor muscle activity was examined in 23 asymptomatic adults. Cervical and upper thoracic extensor muscle activity measured in guided slouched and lumbo-pelvic neutral postures was normalised to that measured in a self-selected habitual posture. Head and neck posture and gravitational load moment measurements were obtained in each posture. Sagittal head translation, upper cervical extension and load moment were significantly greater in the slouched posture (p sitting postures reduce the demand on the cervical extensor muscles and modify the relative contribution of cervical and thoracic extensors to the control of head and neck posture. Postures that promote these patterns of muscular activity may reduce cervical spine loading and the development of posture-related neck pain.

  5. Extensor digitorum brevis manus muscle in association with a metacarpal boss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Shamian, Ben; Li, Yinan

    2014-04-01

    Awareness of the existence of accessory muscles in the hand, such as the extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) muscle, is important when making a differential diagnosis and considering the treatment of mass lesions with similar appearances. Cases of EDBM with associated dorsal wrist ganglion have been reported in earlier published reports. This report describes an unusual case of the EDBM muscle in association with carpometacarpal (CMC) boss. To the best of the authors' knowledge this has not been previously reported.

  6. A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.

  7. Relationship between strength and muscle mass in middle-aged and elderly women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Carine Fernandes de; Vieira, Mariana Carmem Apolinário; Nascimento, Rafaela Andrade do; Moreira, Mayle Andrade; Câmara, Saionara Maria Aires da; Maciel, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze the relationship between handgrip strength and lower limb strength and the amount of segmental skeletal muscle mass in middle-aged and elderly women. Methods: an observational, cross-sectional, observational study of 540 women aged between 40 and 80 years in the cities of Parnamirim and Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, was performed. Sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements, handgrip dynamometry, knee flexors and extensors of the dominant limbs, as w...

  8. Weakness of the neck extensors, possible causes and relation to adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolong, Shen; Xuhui, Zhou; Jian, Chen; Ye, Tian; Wen, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Cervical kyphosis may be congenital, or occur as a result of laminectomy, post-traumatic deformity, infection, neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophies, motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tumor, and inflammation such as ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis was defined as cervical kyphotic deformity of adolescent patient without any cause such as those previously described. As no standard values for "cervical kyphosis" could be found in the literature, many reported studies only report a subjective classification, "kyphotic, straight or lordotic". But this method had proven to be unreliable. Grob et al. defined "straight" for the global curvature as +4° to -4°, and lordotic and kyphotic as +4°, respectively. The etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis remain little understood. Weakness of the neck extensors can result in "dropped head syndrome", a rare disorder characterized by weakness of neck extensor muscles causing an inability to extend the neck and resulting in a chin-on-chest deformity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a possible mechanical cause leading to the kyphotic deformity. We hypothesize that weakness of the neck extensors could be the initiating factor for adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technique tip: EDL-to-EHL double loop transfer for extensor hallucis longus reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Gonzalo F; Cuchacovich, Natalio; Schiff, Adam; Carcuro, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Manuel J

    2017-12-06

    Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon injuries often occur in the setting of lacerations to the dorsum of the foot. End-to-end repair is advocated in acute lacerations, or in chronic cases when the tendon edges are suitable for tension free repair. Reconstruction with allograft or autograft is advocated for cases not amenable to a primary direct repair. This is often seen in cases with tendon retraction and more commonly in the chronic setting. In many countries the use of allograft is very limited or unavailable making reconstruction with autograft and tendon transfers the primary choice of treatment. Tendon diameter mismatch and diminished resistance are common issues in other previously described tendon transfers. We present the results of a new technique for reconstruction of non-reparable EHL lacerations in three patients using a dynamic double loop transfer of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of the second toe that addresses these issues. At one-year follow up, all patients recovered active/passive hallux extension with good functional (AOFAS Score) and satisfaction results. No reruptures or other complications were reported in this group of patients. No second toe deformities or dysfunction were reported. Second EDL-to-EHL Double Loop Transfer for Extensor Hallucis Longus reconstruction is a safe, reproducible and low-cost technique to address EHL ruptures when primary repair is not possible. IV (Case Series). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dose-response of 1, 3, and 5 sets of resistance exercise on strength, local muscular endurance, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Fleck, Steven J; Leite, Thalita; Leite, Richard D; Pinto, Ronei S; Fernandes, Liliam; Simão, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The study's purpose was to compare the response of performing 1, 3, and 5 sets on measures of performance and muscle hypertrophy. Forty-eight men, with no weight training experience, were randomly assigned to one of the 3 training groups, 1 SET, 3 SETS, 5 SETS, or control group. All training groups performed 3 resistance training sessions per week for 6 months. The 5 repetition maximum (RM) for all training groups increased in the bench press (BP), front lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), and leg press (LP) (p ≤ 0.05), with the 5 RM increases in the BP and LPD being significantly greater for 5 SETS compared with the other training groups (p ≤ 0.05). Bench press 20 RM in the 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased with the increase being significantly greater than the 1-SET group and the 5-SET group increase being significantly greater than the 3-SET group (p ≤ 0.05). LP 20 RM increased in all training groups (p ≤ 0.05), with the 5-SETS group showing a significantly greater increase than the 1-SET group (p ≤ 0.05). The 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) with the 5-SET increase being significantly greater than the other 2 training groups (p ≤ 0.05). The 5-SET group significantly increased elbow extensor MT with the increase being significantly greater than the other training groups (p ≤ 0.05). All training groups decreased percent body fat, increased fat-free mass, and vertical jump ability (p ≤ 0.05), with no differences between groups. The results demonstrate a dose-response for the number of sets per exercise and a superiority of multiple sets compared with a single set per exercise for strength gains, muscle endurance, and upper arm muscle hypertrophy.

  11. Are fatigue-related EMG-parameters correlated to trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by the Sörensen test?

    OpenAIRE

    Demoulin Christophe; George, Florian; Matheve, Thomas; Jidovtseff, Boris; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Sorensen test has been extensively studied and is a rapid, simple, and reproducible evaluation of the trunk extensor muscles [1]. It is often considered as a fatigue test because fatigue-related electromyographic (EMG) parameters change throughout the test [2]; however, only recently it has been confirmed that this test induces a decrease of trunk extensor force during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) [3], which best characterises muscle fatigue. The main aim of this stud...

  12. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayao Ozaki,1 Jeremy P Loenneke,2 Robert S Thiebaud,2 Joel M Stager,3 Takashi Abe31Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USAAbstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia

  13. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Morouço

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking. A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r=0.77, P<0.01, whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r=0.81, P<0.01. The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  14. LOWER EXTREMITY MANIFESTATIONS OF PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE: THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC AND FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF LEG ISCHEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary McGrae

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is frequently under-diagnosed, in part because of the wide variety of leg symptoms manifested by patients with PAD and in part because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic PAD. In primary care medical practices, 30% to 60% of PAD patients report no exertional leg symptoms and approximately 45–50% report exertional leg symptoms that are not consistent with classic intermittent claudication. The prevalence and extent of functional impairment and functional decline in PAD may also be underappreciated. Functional impairment and functional decline is common in PAD, even among those who are asymptomatic. Lower extremity ischemia is also associated with pathophysiologic changes in calf skeletal muscle including smaller calf muscle area, increased calf muscle fat content, impaired leg strength, and impaired metabolic function. People with severe PAD have poorer peroneal nerve conduction velocity compared to people with mild PAD or no PAD. The degree of ischemia-related pathophysiologic changes in lower extremity muscles and peripheral nerves of people with PAD are associated with the degree of functional impairment. New interventions are needed to improve functional performance and prevent mobility loss in the large number of PAD patients, including in those who are asymptomatic or who have exertional leg symptoms other than claudication. PMID:25908727

  15. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Izquierdo, Mikel; Neiva, Henrique; Marques, Mário C

    2015-01-01

    The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female) randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking). A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r = 0.77, P swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r = 0.81, P < 0.01). The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  16. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  17. The relationship between bilateral knee muscle strength and gait performance after stroke: the predictive value for gait performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Watanabe, Aki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Fukuda, Michinari

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between bilateral knee extension strengths and gait performance in subjects with poststroke hemiparesis and to predict gait performance by the paretic and nonparetic knee extension strength. [Subjects and Methods] This was a correlational study in which 238 consecutive inpatients with poststroke hemiparesis were enrolled. Knee extensor muscle strengths in paretic and nonparetic lower limbs were measured with a handheld dynamometer, and the presence or absence of impaired gait was also determined. [Results] The mean strength in the paretic lower limb was 0.90 Nm/kg, and that in the nonparetic lower limb was 1.24 Nm/kg. Discriminant analysis classified the difference between the possibility and impossibility of gait by knee extensor muscle strength (standardized discriminant coefficient: paretic, 1.32; nonparetic, 0.55). Thus, paretic and nonparetic knee extension strengths were integrated in the strength index. A threshold level of 2.0 provided the best balance between positive and negative predictive values for the strength index. [Conclusion] The results indicated that both paretic and nonparetic knee extension strengths were related to gait performance. The strength index deduced from bilateral knee extension strengths may serve as a clinically meaningful index for rehabilitation assessment and training. PMID:26644680

  18. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health...

  19. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  20. Interdependence of torque, joint angle, angular velocity and muscle action during human multi-joint leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Herzog, Walter; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2014-08-01

    Force and torque production of human muscles depends upon their lengths and contraction velocity. However, these factors are widely assumed to be independent of each other and the few studies that dealt with interactions of torque, angle and angular velocity are based on isolated single-joint movements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine force/torque-angle and force/torque-angular velocity properties for multi-joint leg extensions. Human leg extension was investigated