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Sample records for left-to-right spatially oriented

  1. From left to right: Processing acronyms referring to names of political parties activates spatial associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    In line with previous studies, showing that abstract concepts like opowero or ogodo implicitly activate spatial associations, in the present study we hypothesized that spatial associations are coactivated during the processing of acronyms referring to names of political parties as well. In four

  2. Infants learn better from left to right: a directional bias in infants' sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Gariboldi, Valeria; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2017-05-26

    A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal information onto a directional space. We investigated whether 7-month-olds' ability to learn high-order rule-like patterns from visual sequences of geometric shapes was affected by the spatial orientation of the sequences (left-to-right vs. right-to-left). Results showed that infants readily learn rule-like patterns when visual sequences were presented from left to right, but not when presented from right to left. This result provides evidence that spatial orientation critically determines preverbal infants' ability to perceive and learn ordered information in visual sequences, opening to the idea that a left-to-right spatially organized mental representation of ordered dimensions might be rooted in biologically-determined constraints on human brain development.

  3. Infants learn better from left to right: a directional bias in infants? sequence learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Gariboldi, Valeria; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal infor...

  4. Sexual orientation and spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Ma Rosa; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed at determining the influence of sexual orientation in human spatial learning and memory. Participants performed the Boxes Room, a virtual reality version of the Holeboard. In Experiment I, a reference memory task, the position of the hidden rewards remained constant during the whole experiment. In Experiment II, a working memory task, the position of rewards changed between blocks. Each block consisted of two trials: One trial for acquisition and another for retrieval. The results of Experiment I showed that heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and heterosexual women. They found the rewarded boxes faster. Moreover, homosexual participants committed more errors than heterosexuals. Experiment II showed that working memory abilities are the same in groups of different sexual orientation. These results suggest that sexual orientation is related to spatial navigation abilities, but mostly in men, and limited to reference memory, which depends more on the function of the hippocampal system.

  5. Measurement of left-to-right shunts by gated radionuclide angiography: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Chevigne, M.

    1982-01-01

    Gated cardiac blood-pool scans allow comparison of left- and right-ventricular stroke volume. We have applied these measurements to the quantification of left-to-right shunts (QP/QS) in nine patients with atrial septal defects, one patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, four patients with ventricular septal defects, and two patients with patent ductus arteriosus. None of these patients had combined lesions. QP/QS was measured as the right-ventricular (RV) stroke counts divided by the left-ventricular (LV) stroke counts and as the LV stroke counts divided by the RV stroke counts in patients with RV and LV diastolic volume overload respectively. All patients had also QP/QS measurements by oximetry and first-pass radionuclide angiography. The stroke-count measurements indicated the overloaded ventricle in all patients. QP/QS determined by equilibrium gated studies correlated well with those obtained by oximetry (r . 0.79). Reproducibility of the equilibrium measurements was good. We conclude that gated cardiac blood-pool scans can measure left-to-right shunts and can distinguish between shunts with RV and LV volume overload

  6. Deconvolving out indicator smearing in the right ventricle facilities left-to-right shunt quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eterovic, D.; Popovic, S.; Dujic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A simple algorithm is developed to enhance the resolution of components of multimodal pulmonary radiohistogram. Based on the assessed right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), it deconvolves out the effect of indicator smearing in the right ventricle on the heart rate samples of the pulmonary radiohistogram, c k . The output is the ideal curve, c k =c k /RVEF-(1-EF)xC k-1 /RVEF, that would be obtained if RVEF equalled unity. Since the formula is not a recursive one it does not suffer from error propagation pertinent to numerical deconvolution. Once RVEF is known, implementation of the algorithm is trivial. If RVEF is not known accurately it may be replaced with its upper estimate, RVEF upp > RVEF, yielding a partial deconvolution of the curve. When applied to patients with left-to-right shunt the method improves the accuracy and lessens the interobserver variation of the Maltz-Treves method. (author)

  7. Surgical outcome of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Gon Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Despite recent advances in pulmonary hypertension management and surgery, appropriate guidelines remain to be developed for operability in congenital heart disease with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH. Our aim was to evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with severe PAH who underwent surgical closure of left-to-right shunt lesions (LRSL on the basis of pulmonary reactivity. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who underwent surgical closure of LRSL with severe PAH (?#248; Wood unit from January 1995 to April 2009. The median age at operation was 26 years. Atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (VSD, VSD and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and PDA was present in 11, 4, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. Results : Operability was based on vasoreactivity of PAH. Of the 21 patients, 5 showed response to pulmonary vasodilator therapy and 8 showed vasoreactivity after balloon occlusion of defects. The remaining 8 patients were considered operable because of significant left-to-right shunt (Qp/Qs ?#241;.5. Five patients underwent total closure of defects and 16 were left with small residual shunts. The median follow-up duration was 32 months. There was no significant postoperative mortality or morbidity. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP decreased in all but 2 patients. All patients except 1 showed improvement of New York Heart Association functional class. Conclusion : Closure of LRSL in patients with severe PAH on the basis of pulmonary vasoreactivity seems reasonable. PAP and clinical symptoms improved in most patients. Further research is needed for the evaluation of long-term results.

  8. Radionuclide Angiocardiographic Evaluation of Left-to-Right Cardiac Shunts: Analysis of Time-Active Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Chi Kyung

    1987-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the radionuclide angiocardiography provided a useful approach for the evaluation of left-to-right cardiac shunts (LRCS). While the qualitative information can be obtained by inspection of serial radionuclide angiocardiograms, the quantitative information of radionuclide angiocardiography can be obtained by the analysis of time-activity curves using advanced computer system. The count ratios method and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) by gamma variate fit method were used to evaluate the accuracy of detection and localization of LRCS. One hundred and ten time-activity curves were analyzed. There were 46 LRCS (atrial septal defects 11, ventricular septal defects 22, patent ductus arteriosus 13) and 64 normal subjects. By computer analysis of time-activity curves of the right atriurn, ventricle and the lungs separately, the count ratios modified by adding the mean cardiac transit time were calculated in each anatomic site. In normal subjects the mean count ratios in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs were 0.24 on average. In atrial septal defects, the count ratios were high in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs, whereas in ventricular septal defects the count ratios were higher only in the right ventricle and lungs. Patent ductus arteriosus showed normal count ratios in the heart but high count ratios were obtained in the lungs. Thus, this count ratios method could be separated normal from those with intracardiac or extracardiac shunts, and moreover, with this method the localization of the shunt level was possible in LRCS. Another method that could differentiate the intracardiac shunts from extracardiac shunts was measuring QP/QS in the left and right lungs. In patent ductus arteriosus, the left lung QP/QS was higher than those of the right lung, whereas in atrial septal defects and ventricular septal defects QP/ QS ratios were equal in both lungs. From this study, it was found that by measuring QP/QS separately in the lungs

  9. Object orientation affects spatial language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burigo, Michele; Sacchi, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process. However, the effects of the LO's orientation on spatial language have not received great attention. This study explores whether the pure geometric information of the LO (e.g., its orientation) affects spatial language comprehension using placing and production tasks. Our results suggest that the orientation of the LO influences spatial language comprehension even in the absence of functional relationships. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Rudhe syndrome: reversible right middle lobe emphysema in infants with left-to-right shunts - an historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Lee K.; Levin, Terry L.; Berdon, Walter E.; Cowles, Robert A.; Newman, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    In 1971, the Swedish radiologist Ulf Rudhe wrote a provocative paper on right middle lobe emphysema in infants with left-to-right shunts in which he suggested cardiac surgery rather than lung resection. At the time, this was counter to accepted medical practice. Earlier diagnosis and better medical management of ventricular septal defect in infants has proved Rudhe correct. However, two current cases of large left-to-right shunts in infants with emphysema of the right middle lobe prompt this historical review of what seemed a closed-episode in pediatric cardiac surgery. (orig.)

  11. Photography activities for developing students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendroanto, Aan; van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, D.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Istiandaru, A.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial orientation and spatial visualization are the foundation of students’ spatial ability. They assist students’ performance in learning mathematics, especially geometry. Considering its importance, the present study aims to design activities to help young learners developing their spatial orientation and spatial visualization ability. Photography activity was chosen as the context of the activity to guide and support the students. This is a design research study consisting of three phases: 1) preparation and designing 2) teaching experiment, and 3) retrospective analysis. The data is collected by tests and interview and qualitatively analyzed. We developed two photography activities to be tested. In the teaching experiments, 30 students of SD Laboratorium UNESA, Surabaya were involved. The results showed that the activities supported the development of students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization indicated by students’ learning progresses, answers, and strategies when they solved the problems in the activities.

  12. No deficiency in left-to-right processing of words in dyslexia but evidence for enhanced visual crowding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, Maaike; Whitney, Carol; Tops, Wim; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Whitney and Cornelissen hypothesized that dyslexia may be the result of problems with the left-to-right processing of words, particularly in the part of the word between the word beginning and the reader's fixation position. To test this hypothesis, we tachistoscopically presented consonant trigrams

  13. Ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: effects on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyst, A.F.J. van; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Tanke, R.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics of a patent ductus arteriosus with left-to-right shunt during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a lamb model. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study in animals. SETTING: Animal research laboratory of a

  14. Cardiac resynchronisation therapy in the presence of left-to-right intracardiac shunting: more good than harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Kyu; Seow, Swee Chong; Wong, Raymond; Kojodjojo, Pipin

    2016-03-17

    An elderly Chinese man with moderately impaired left ventricular function, left bundle branch block and ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular septal rupture had class IV heart failure symptoms refractory to medical and surgical interventions. As a treatment of last resort, a cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) pacemaker was implanted apprehensively, as preoperative concerns were raised whether CRT could exacerbate left-to-right shunting, hence negating the potential benefits of CRT. Introduction of CRT significantly improved the patient's haemodynamic status and symptoms, allowing for successful discharge home. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with severely symptomatic acute heart failure, widened QRS and active left-to-right intracardiac shunting, treated successfully with CRT. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. [Development of spatial orientation during pilot training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Vorob'ev, O A; Snipkov, Iu Iu

    1988-01-01

    The problem of spatial orientation of pilots flying high-altitude aircraft is in the focus of present-day aviation medicine because of a growing number of accidents in the air. One of the productive lines of research is to study spatial orientation in terms of active formation and maintenance of its imagery in a complex environment. However investigators usually emphasize the role of visual (instrumental) information in the image construction, almost ignoring the sensorimotor component of spatial orientation. The theoretical analysis of the process of spatial orientation has facilitated the development of the concept assuming that the pattern of space perception changes with growing professional experience. The concept is based on an active approach to the essence, emergence, formation and variation in the pattern of sensory perception of space in man's consciousness. This concept asserts that as pilot's professional expertise increases, the pattern of spatial orientation becomes geocentric because a new system of spatial perception evolves which is a result of the development of a new (instrumental) type of motor activity in space. This finds expression in the fact that perception of spatial position inflight occurs when man has to resolve a new motor task--movement along a complex trajectory in the three-dimensional space onboard a flying vehicle. The meaningful structure of this problem which is to be implemented through controlling movements of the pilot acts as a factor that forms this new system of perception. All this underlies the arrangement of meaningful collection of instrumental data and detection of noninstrumental signals in the comprehensive perception of changes in the spatial position of a flying vehicle.

  16. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of patients with left to right shunts before and after surgical correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiannikas, J.; Moodie, D.S.; Gill, C.C.; Sterba, R.; McIntyre, R.; Buonocore, E.

    1984-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative structural changes and pulmonary to systemic flow (QP/QS) ratios were assessed using digital angiography in 34 patients documented to have a left to right shunt at cardiac catheterization. There were 16 men and 18 women whose ages ranged from 4 months to 60 years. The radiographic single mask mode was used for all digital subtraction angiographic studies with a typical radiographic sequence being 80 to 100 kV, 5 to 10 mA/frame at six frames/s for 15 seconds. Renografin-76 was used as a bolus injection at 0.5 to 1.0 ml/kg via an arm vein in most patients. The level of the left to right shunt and any associated anomalies were noted and compared with results from cardiac catheterization. Digital subtraction angiographic flow curves were generated from the pulmonary arteries, and QP/QS ratios were calculated pre- and postoperatively using the gamma variate fit method and compared with the QP/QS ratio from first pass radionuclide studies. A strong correlation between preoperative digital subtraction angiographically derived QP/QS ratio and radionuclide-derived QP/QS ratio was found, with an r value equal to 0.89, p less than 0.0001. Postoperatively, all patients had a QP/QS ratio less than 1.2:1.0 for both digital subtraction angiography and radionuclide studies. The level of left to right shunt was accurately assessed in all patients, and its absence observed postoperatively. Associated anomalies, such as a persistent left superior vena cava, coarctation of the aorta and partial anomalous venous return, were identified in all cases

  17. Quantification of left to right shunts in adults with atrial septal defects of secundum type, using radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sire, S.; Rootwelt, K.; Mangschau, A.

    1991-01-01

    Quantification of left to right shunt was carried out in 15 adult patients with a suspected ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II). Radionuclide shunt quantitation correlated well with the results of righ heart catheterization. The radionuclide technique failed in two patients for technical reasons, but revealed no false negative or false positive results when technically satisfactory. The diagnosis was confirmed at operation. It is concluded that the radionuclide technique is a useful and reliable method which can also be used at follow-up after surgery in patients with artrial septal defects of secundum type. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Left-to-Right Atrial Inward Rectifier Potassium Current Gradients in Patients With Paroxysmal Versus Chronic Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Niels; Trausch, Anne; Knaut, Michael; Matschke, Klaus; Varró, András; Van Wagoner, David R.; Nattel, Stanley; Ravens, Ursula; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that atrial fibrillation (AF) is maintained by high-frequency reentrant sources with a left-to-right–dominant frequency gradient, particularly in patients with paroxysmal AF (pAF). Unequal left-to-right distribution of inward rectifier K+ currents has been suggested to underlie this dominant frequency gradient, but this hypothesis has never been tested in humans. Methods and Results Currents were measured with whole-cell voltage-clamp in cardiomyocytes from right atrial (RA) and left (LA) atrial appendages of patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and patients with AF undergoing cardiac surgery. Western blot was used to quantify protein expression of IK1 (Kir2.1 and Kir2.3) and IK,ACh (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) subunits. Basal current was ≈2-fold larger in chronic AF (cAF) versus SR patients, without RA-LA differences. In pAF, basal current was ≈2-fold larger in LA versus RA, indicating a left-to-right atrial gradient. In both atria, Kir2.1 expression was ≈2-fold greater in cAF but comparable in pAF versus SR. Kir2.3 levels were unchanged in cAF and RA-pAF but showed a 51% decrease in LA-pAF. In SR, carbachol-activated (2 μmol/L) IK,ACh was 70% larger in RA versus LA. This right-to-left atrial gradient was decreased in pAF and cAF caused by reduced IK,ACh in RA only. Similarly, in SR, Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 proteins were greater in RA versus LA and decreased in RA of pAF and cAF. Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 expression was unchanged in LA of pAF and cAF. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that a left-to-right gradient in inward rectifier background current contributes to high-frequency sources in LA that maintain pAF. These findings have potentially important implications for development of atrial-selective therapeutic approaches. PMID:20657029

  19. Radionuclide angiocardiography. Improved diagnosis and quantitation of left-to-right shunts using area ratio techniques in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, P.O.; Jost, R.G.; Strauss, A.W.; Boonvisut, S.; Markham, J.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of several reported methods for detection and quantitation of left-to-right shunts by radionuclides was performed in 50 children. Count ratio (C2/C1) techniques were compared with the exponential extrapolation and gamma function area ratio techniques. C2/C1 ratios accurately detected shunts and could reliably separate shunts from normals, but there was a high rate of false positives in children with valvular heart disease. The area ratio methods provided more accurate shunt quantitation and a better separation of patients with valvular heart disease than did the C2/C1 ratio. The gamma function method showed a higher correlation with oximetry than the exponential method, but the difference was not statistically significant. For accurate shunt quantitation and a reliable separation of patients with valvular heart disease from those with shunts, area ratio calculations are preferable to the C2/C1 ratio

  20. Radionuclide detection and differential diagnosis of left-to-right cardiac shunts by analysis of time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok-Hwa

    1986-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the radionuclide angiocardiography provided a useful approach for the evaluation of left-to-right cardiac shunts (LRCS). While the qualitative information can be obtained by inspection of serial radionuclide angiocardiograms, the quantitative information of radionuclide angiocardiography can be obtained by the analysis of time-activity curves using advanced computer system. The count ratios method and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) by gamma variate fit method were used to evaluate the accuracy of detection and localization of LRCS. One hundred and ten time-activity curves were analyzed. There were 46 LRCS (atrial septal defects 11, ventricular septal defects 22, patent ductus arteriosus 13) and 64 normal subjects. By computer analysis of time-activity histograms of the right atrium, ventricle and the lungs separately, the count ratios modified by adding the mean cardiac transit time were calculated in each anatomic site. In normal subjects the mean count ratios in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs were 0.24 on average. In atrial septal defects, the count ratios were high in the right atrium, ventricle and lungs, whereas in ventricular septal defects the count ratios were higher only in the right ventricle and lungs. Patent ductus arteriosus showed normal count ratios in the heart but high count ratios were obtained in the lungs. Thus, this count ratios method could be separated normal from those with intracardiac or extracardiac shunts, and moreover, with this method the localization of the shunts level was possible in LRCS. Another method that could differentiate the intracardiac shunts from extracardiac shunts was measuring QP/QS in the left and right lungs. In patent ductus arteriosus, the left lung QP/QS was hight than those of the right lung, whereas in atrial septal defects and ventricular septal defects QP/QS ratios were equal in both lungs. (J.P.N.)

  1. Percutaneous closure of postoperative ventricular septal residual left-to-right shunt with the China made device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yongwen; Zhao Xianxian; Wu Hong; Ding Jijun; Cao Jiang; Zheng Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous transcatheter closure of residual ventricular septal defect (VSD)after surgical closure using China made-nitinol VSD device. Methods: Transcatheter closure was attempted in 11 patients (5 males, 6 females)with a residual VSD following surgical closure. The mean residual VSD narrowest diameter was(5.82 ± 2.09) mm (range from 3 to 9 mm)by echocardiography. A 6 F-9 F delivery sheath was advanced across the residual VSD over a guidewire from femoral vein to deploy the occluder under guidance of left ventriculography and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: The left ventriculography showed membranous part aneurism-like residual VSD in 8 patients and funnel type in 3 cases. There were multiple outlet in 5 cases and one outlets in 6 cases, with mean residual VSD narrowest diameter of (6.09 ± 1.58) mm (range from 3 to 9 mm)measured by left ventriculography. The diameter of occluder was (9.18 ± 2.79) mm (range from 8 to 12 mm). Complete closure of the defect was obtained in 10 cases, and another small residual shunt still remained in one case who had four outlets been treated by 2 occluders. No aortic valvular regurgitation occured in all patients except 1 patient presented complete atrioventricular block within 3 days after the procedure and recovered 2 weeks later with intravenous steroids therapy; and no other complications occured. The fluoroscopy time was(16.91 ± 4.23) min (range from 8 to 30 min). During follow-up from 1 m - 4 y, only 1 case showed residual shunt, and the other had no episodes of endocarditis, thromboembolism, hemolysis, infectious endocarditis, displacement of the occluder and aortic valvular regurgitation. Conclusion: Transcatheter closure of postoperative ventricular septal residual left-to-right shunt with China made-nitinol occluder is safe and effective. (authors)

  2. The Impact of Atrial Left-to-Right Shunt on Pulmonary Hypertension in Preterm Infants with Moderate or Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Kyung Choi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The presence of an atrial left-to-right shunt was associated with PH in preterm infants with moderate or severe BPD. Close follow up is needed for infants with interatrial shunts, and a more tailored prognostic evaluation and treatment are recommended.

  3. Right heart ejection fraction, ventricular volumes, and left to right cardiac shunt measurements with a conventional Anger camera in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.A.; Go, R.T.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Moodie, D.S.; Houser, T.S.; Ceimo, J.; Underwood, D.; Yiannikas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to demonstrate that a conventional Anger camera can be used for measurement of right heart ejection fraction, ventricular volumes and left to right shunts in routine clinical determinations. The automatic selection of chamber and lung regions, the recirculation subtraction of recirculation, and the filtering of the right heart ejection fraction dilution curves are all done entirely without operator intervention. Thus, this entire evaluation has been incorporated into the routine procedures of patient care

  4. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  5. Complementary roles of m-mode echocardiography and scintigraphy in the evaluation of adults wih suspected left-to-right shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvinick, E.H.; Schiller, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    We sought to determine the relative clinical abilities and roles of echocardiography and scintigraphy in left-to-right shunt diagnosis. M-mode echocardiographic and scintigraphic studies were analyzed in 37 adults presenting diagnostic difficulties with suspected left-to-right shunts. An enlarged right ventricle on M-mode echocardiography was a sensitive (100%) but not specific (55%) indicator of atrial septal defect (ASD). M-mode lacked sensitivity for ventricular eptal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). In a few studies, two-dimensional echocardiography provided additional specific and clinically important anatomic information. Scintigraphic analysis demonstrated complete diagnostic accuracy and excellent localizing and quantitative abilities in all patients studied. Because it is extremely sensitie to ASD, free of any exposure to radioactivity, entirely noninvasive and may by simply and visually analyzed, echocardiography is the study of choice in the preliminary evaluation of patients presenting, diagnostic difficulty with suspected ASD. Scintigraphy is the study of choice in the preliminary evaluation of patients presenting diagnostic difficulty with suspected VSD and PDA and is the logical response to the finding of echocardiographic right ventricular enlargement when the diagnosis remains in doubt

  6. Video-assisted-thoracoscopic surgery in left-to-right Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum for prevention of serious complications - technical aspects based on 1006 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Krystian; Gąsiorowski, Łukasz; Gabryel, Piotr; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech

    2018-03-01

    Additional use of the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) technique in the Nuss procedure has been globally accepted for the improvement of safety of surgical treatment as well as for decreased frequency of serious intraoperative and postoperative complications. To evaluate VATS in surgical treatment of patients with pectus excavatum by the left-to-right Nuss procedure for prevention of serious intra- and postoperative complications. From 2002 to 2016, 1006 patients with pectus excavatum aged 7 to 62 years (mean: 18.6) underwent the Nuss procedure. There were 796 males and 210 females. The clinical records of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The follow-up varied from 1 to 172 months (mean: 80.7 ±43). The early 30-day postoperative mortality was zero. Early thoracoscopy-dependent postoperative complications, the majority transient and non-life-threatening, occurred in 35.6% of patients. The most frequent complication was pneumothorax, diagnosed in 24.5% of patients. Two patients required repeat surgery. One patient required VATS pleurectomy due to persistent postoperative air leakage. In another patient left thoracotomy following bleeding from the pleural cavity was performed. The use of VATS in the left-to-right Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum ensures the safety of surgical treatment and minimizes the occurrence of serious intra- and postoperative complications concerning injury of the mediastinum, lung, diaphragm or abdominal cavity.

  7. Multisensory perception of spatial orientation and self-motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winkel, K.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to improve our insight in how the brain combines information from different sensory systems (e.g. vestibular and visual system) into an integrated percept of self-motion and spatial orientation. Based on evidence from other research in different areas, such as hand-eye

  8. The Development and Temporal Dynamics of Spatial Orienting in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark H.; Tucker, Leslie A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses changes occurring in two-, four-, and six-month-old infants' visual attention span, through a series of experiments examining their ability to orient to peripheral visual stimuli. The results obtained were consistent with the hypothesis that infants get faster with age in shifting attention to a spatial location. (AA)

  9. The interest of the C15O2 method for the left to right cardiac shunts evaluation. A comparison with the sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therain, F.; Gros, J.; Debrun, D.; Blond, M.T.; Valois, M.

    1982-01-01

    99mTc pertechnetate dilution method (TcM) is a reference for the left to right shunts (L→RS) evaluation as well as oxymetry is. Another radionuclide method using C 15 O 2 (CO 2 M) was compared with TcM. The results obtained with CO 2 M confirm the reliability of the CO 2 M for the L→RS investigation. Characteristics of both non invasive radionuclide methods are summarized. The advantages of CO 2 M are that it is always available even in presence of valvular insufficiency, severe congestive heart failure, multiple cardiac lesions and that it is always repeatable giving an intra assay control unaccessible to TcM and finally it produces a much lower radiation absorbed dose with a special interest for children investigations

  10. Orientation Characterisation of Aerospace Materials by Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenqi; Coulson, Jethro; Smith, Richard J; Clark, Matt; Somekh, Michael G; Sharples, Steve D; Aveson, John W

    2014-01-01

    Material characteristics in metals such as strength, stiffness and fracture resistance are strongly related to the underlying microstructure. The crystallographic structure and orientation are related to the ultrasonic properties through the stiffness matrix. In individual grains it is possible to analytically determine the ultrasonic velocity from the orientation and stiffness, or determine the stiffness from the known orientation and measured velocity. In this paper we present a technique for imaging the crystallographic orientation of grains in metals using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) and a novel inverse solver that can determine the crystallographic orientation from the known stiffness matrix for the material and the SRAS velocity measurement. Previously we have shown the ability of this technique to determine the orientation on single crystal nickel samples; we extended the technique to multigrain industrial metals, such as aluminium, nickel and Inconel. The comparison between SRAS and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on the nickel sample is presented. SRAS is a fast, accurate, quantitative and robust technique for imaging material microstructure and orientation over a wide range of scales and industrial materials

  11. Age is not a good predictor of irreversibility of pulmonary hypertension in congenital cardiac malformations with left-to-right shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Amir-Reza; Perez, Marie-Hélène; Longchamp, David; Cotting, Jacques; Sekarski, Nicole; Hurni, Michel; Prêtre, René; Di Bernardo, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    Congenital cardiac malformations with high pulmonary blood flow and pressure due to left-to-right shunts are usually repaired in early infancy for both the benefits of early relief of heart failure and the fear that the concomitant pulmonary hypertension may become irreversible unless these defects are corrected at an early age. Age, however, has been a poor predictor of irreversibility of pulmonary hypertension in our experience, which is presented here. A retrospective observational study. We defined "late" as age ≥2 years. We examined clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic data from all patients aged ≥2 years with such malformations referred to us from 2004 untill 2015. Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital of Vaud, Lausanne, Switzerland. There were 39 patients, aged 2-35 years (median: 5 years), without chromosomal abnormalities. All had malformations amenable to biventricular repair, and all had high systolic right ventricular pressures by echocardiography prior to referral. All patients underwent catheterization for assessment of pulmonary hypertension. If this was reversible, surgical correction was offered. (1) Operability based on reversibility of pulmonary hypertension. (2) When surgery was offered, mortality and evidence of persisting postoperative pulmonary hypertension were examined. Eighteen patients had no pulmonary hypertension, 5 of variable ages were inoperable due to irreversible pulmonary hypertension, and 16 had reversible pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, 34 patients underwent corrective surgery, with no immediate or late mortality. Pulmonary arterial and right ventricular pressures decreased noticeably in all operated patients. This is sustained to date; they are all asymptomatic with no echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension at a median follow-up of 7 years (range 2-13 years). Pulmonary hypertension may still be reversible in many surprisingly old patients with left-to-right

  12. Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin eAsutay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations, which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (left-right or front-back. Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants’ task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotional-emotional or neutral-neutral did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain.

  13. Analysis of a spatial orientation memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuser, Kirsa; Triphan, Tilman; Mronz, Markus; Poeck, Burkhard; Strauss, Roland

    2008-06-26

    Flexible goal-driven orientation requires that the position of a target be stored, especially in case the target moves out of sight. The capability to retain, recall and integrate such positional information into guiding behaviour has been summarized under the term spatial working memory. This kind of memory contains specific details of the presence that are not necessarily part of a long-term memory. Neurophysiological studies in primates indicate that sustained activity of neurons encodes the sensory information even though the object is no longer present. Furthermore they suggest that dopamine transmits the respective input to the prefrontal cortex, and simultaneous suppression by GABA spatially restricts this neuronal activity. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster possesses a similar spatial memory during locomotion. Using a new detour setup, we show that flies can remember the position of an object for several seconds after it has been removed from their environment. In this setup, flies are temporarily lured away from the direction towards their hidden target, yet they are thereafter able to aim for their former target. Furthermore, we find that the GABAergic (stainable with antibodies against GABA) ring neurons of the ellipsoid body in the central brain are necessary and their plasticity is sufficient for a functional spatial orientation memory in flies. We also find that the protein kinase S6KII (ignorant) is required in a distinct subset of ring neurons to display this memory. Conditional expression of S6KII in these neurons only in adults can restore the loss of the orientation memory of the ignorant mutant. The S6KII signalling pathway therefore seems to be acutely required in the ring neurons for spatial orientation memory in flies.

  14. Application of artificial removal networks to estimation of the left-to-right cardiac or ductal shunts. Pt. 1. Studies on idealized mathematically created pulmonary radioangiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzki, K.; Rudzka, J.; Nowak, S.; Sadowski, T.; Czogala, E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to examine usefulness of the artificial neural network for classification of the left-to-right cardiac or ductal shunt intensity. Our own program of stimulation of three-layer neural network was used. Studies were carried out on three series of mathematically created, idealized curves. Effect of changing the numbers of neural network processing elements on learning and recognition procedures was examined. There was a relation of the number of the rounds necessary to train up the net to the number of classes according to the shunt size (Qp/Qs) and to the number of curves in each class of training series. Using of learning series containing more curves in each class improves the ability to classification of curves by a trained-up neural network. Reducing the input data to 24 points of the down slope of the curve improves the learning ability of the network and classification of the radioangiograms. These studies suggest that the neural networks could be a useful tool of classification of pulmonary radioangiograms. (author). 2 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, The Kingdom of Thailand at SM18 with (from left to right) A. De Roeck, P. Thajchayapong, F. Bordry, E. Tsesmelis and J. Ellis on Tuesday 13th April 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; SM18

    2010-01-01

    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, The Kingdom of Thailand at SM18 with (from left to right) A. De Roeck, P. Thajchayapong, F. Bordry, E. Tsesmelis and J. Ellis on Tuesday 13th April 2010

  16. Summer students and professor from the United Arab Emirates - from left to right : Alya Ali Binghurair, Shaikha Al Kalbani, Professor Chafia Hejase de Trad, Mariam Al Hassani, Aminah Al Abdouli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Summer students and professor from the United Arab Emirates - from left to right : Alya Ali Binghurair, Shaikha Al Kalbani, Professor Chafia Hejase de Trad, Mariam Al Hassani, Aminah Al Abdouli.

  17. Poor sleep quality affects spatial orientation in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Valera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is well known to have a significant impact on learning and memory. Specifically, studies adopting an experimentally induced sleep loss protocol in healthy individuals have provided evidence that the consolidation of spatial memories, as acquired through navigating and orienteering in spatial surroundings, is negatively affected by total sleep loss. Here, we used both objective and subjective measures to characterize individuals' quality of sleep, and grouped participants into either a poor (insomnia-like or normal (control sleep quality group. We asked participants to solve a wayfinding task in a virtual environment, and scored their performance by measuring the time spent to reach a target location and the number of wayfinding errors made while navigating. We found that participants with poor sleep quality were slower and more error-prone than controls in solving the task. These findings provide novel evidence that pre-existing sleep deficiencies in otherwise healthy individuals affects negatively the ability to learn novel routes, and suggest that sleep quality should be accounted for among healthy individuals performing experimental spatial orientation tasks in virtual environments.

  18. Spatial orientation and postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlitzki, E; Schlenstedt, C; Schmidt, N; Rotkirch, I; Gövert, F; Hartwigsen, G; Witt, K

    2018-02-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling and risky symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how this is mediated by a centrally impaired spatial orientation. Therefore, we performed a spatial orientation study in 21 PD patients (mean age 68years, SD 8.5 years, 9 women) in a medically on condition and 21 healthy controls (mean age 68.9years, SD 5.5years, 14 women). We compared their spatial responses to the horizontal axis (Sakashita's visual target cancellation task), the vertical axis (bucket-test), the sagittal axis (tilt table test) and postural stability using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB). We found larger deviations on the vertical axis in PD patients, although the direct comparisons of performance in PD patients and healthy controls did not reveal significant differences. While the total scores of the FAB Scale were significantly worse in PD (25.9 points, SD 7.2 points) compared to controls (35.1 points, SD 2.3 points, pbalance control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expectancy modulates pupil size during endogenous orienting of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Alessio; Lasaponara, Stefano; Pinto, Mario; Rotondaro, Francesca; De Luca, Maria; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2018-05-01

    fMRI investigations in healthy humans have documented phasic changes in the level of activation of the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) during cued voluntary orienting of spatial attention. Cues that correctly predict the position of upcoming targets in the majority of trials, i.e., predictive cues, produce higher deactivation of the right TPJ as compared with non-predictive cues. Since the right TPJ is the recipient of noradrenergic (NE) innervation, it has been hypothesised that changes in the level of TPJ activity are matched with changes in the level of NE activity. Based on aforementioned fMRI findings, this might imply that orienting with predictive cues is matched with different levels of NE activity as compared with non-predictive cues. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in pupil dilation, an indirect index of NE activity, during voluntary orienting of attention with highly predictive (80% validity) or non-predictive (50% validity) cues. In agreement with current interpretations of the tonic/phasic activity of the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrinic system (LC-NE), we found that the steady level of cue predictiveness that characterised both the predictive and non-predictive conditions caused, across consecutive blocks of trials, a progressive decrement in pupil dilation during the baseline-fixation period that anticipated the cue period. With predictive cues we observed increased pupil dilation as compared with non-predictive cues. In addition, the relative reduction in pupil size observed with non-predictive cues increased as a function of cue-duration. These results show that changes in the predictiveness of cues that guide voluntary orienting of spatial attention are matched with changes in pupil dilation and, putatively, with corresponding changes in LC-NE activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual Orientation-Related Differences in Virtual Spatial Navigation and Spatial Search Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Sharp, Jonathan; McVeigh, Meadhbh; Ho, Man-Ling

    2017-07-01

    Spatial abilities are generally hypothesized to differ between men and women, and people with different sexual orientations. According to the cross-sex shift hypothesis, gay men are hypothesized to perform in the direction of heterosexual women and lesbian women in the direction of heterosexual men on cognitive tests. This study investigated sexual orientation differences in spatial navigation and strategy during a virtual Morris water maze task (VMWM). Forty-four heterosexual men, 43 heterosexual women, 39 gay men, and 34 lesbian/bisexual women (aged 18-54 years) navigated a desktop VMWM and completed measures of intelligence, handedness, and childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). We quantified spatial learning (hidden platform trials), probe trial performance, and cued navigation (visible platform trials). Spatial strategies during hidden and probe trials were classified into visual scanning, landmark use, thigmotaxis/circling, and enfilading. In general, heterosexual men scored better than women and gay men on some spatial learning and probe trial measures and used more visual scan strategies. However, some differences disappeared after controlling for age and estimated IQ (e.g., in visual scanning heterosexual men differed from women but not gay men). Heterosexual women did not differ from lesbian/bisexual women. For both sexes, visual scanning predicted probe trial performance. More feminine CGN scores were associated with lower performance among men and greater performance among women on specific spatial learning or probe trial measures. These results provide mixed evidence for the cross-sex shift hypothesis of sexual orientation-related differences in spatial cognition.

  1. Reconstruction of paleoenvironments by analyzing spatial shell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Susanne; Lukeneder, Alexander; Weber, Gerhard W.; Exner, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    Fossils, especially their mass-occurrences, can be exploited as useful source of information about the depositional conditions. Particularly abundant fossils with elongated shape such as belemnites are useful indicators to draw conclusions about influencing factors (e.g. paleocurrents) of paleoenvironments. Orthocone cephalopods, gastropods, bivalves, foraminifers, vertebrate bones and others have been used so far in field-based spatial orientation studies (Flügel 2004). Normal coiled (planispiral) cephalopods can also provide such depositional information. A new method for reconstructing spatial shell orientation in 3D is presented here. A roughly 225 million-year-old (Carnian, Triassic) monospecific mass-occurrence of the ammonoid Kasimlarceltites krystyni from the Taurus Mountains in Turkey (project FWF P22109-B17; Lukeneder et al. 2012), embedded in limestone, is used for this pilot study. The most obvious method for digitization of the ammonoids, μ-computed tomography (CT), was not successful in this case due to the lack of density differences between the ammonoids (i.e. secondary calcite shells) and the embedding source rock (carbonate). Therefore we had to come back to the classic method of grinding, which, despite its invasive character, cannot always be disregarded, particularly if digital recording methods are not applicable and samples are large enough to sacrifice parts. A 150x170x140 mm block of the ammonoid bearing limestone bed has been grinded to 70 slices, with a distance of 2mm between each slice. By using a semi-automatic region growing algorithm of the 3D visualization software Amira, the ammonoids were segmented, and a 3D model of this mass-occurrence reconstructed. We used landmarks as well as trigonometric and vector-based calculations to compute the diameters and the spatial orientation of each ammonoid. For the diameters, the longest distance (longitudinal axis) of each shell (landmark a & b) and the orthogonal distance from this cord to

  2. The Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.; Howard, Ian P.; Smith, Theodore; Beall, Andrew C.; Natapoff, Alan; Zacher, James E.; Jenkin, Heather L.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts must rely on vision to remain spatially oriented. Although gravitational down cues are missing, most astronauts maintain a subjective vertical -a subjective sense of which way is up. This is evidenced by anecdotal reports of crewmembers feeling upside down (inversion illusions) or feeling that a floor has become a ceiling and vice versa (visual reorientation illusions). Instability in the subjective vertical direction can trigger disorientation and space motion sickness. On Neurolab, a virtual environment display system was used to conduct five interrelated experiments, which quantified: (a) how the direction of each person's subjective vertical depends on the orientation of the surrounding visual environment, (b) whether rolling the virtual visual environment produces stronger illusions of circular self-motion (circular vection) and more visual reorientation illusions than on Earth, (c) whether a virtual scene moving past the subject produces a stronger linear self-motion illusion (linear vection), and (d) whether deliberate manipulation of the subjective vertical changes a crewmember's interpretation of shading or the ability to recognize objects. None of the crew's subjective vertical indications became more independent of environmental cues in weightlessness. Three who were either strongly dependent on or independent of stationary visual cues in preflight tests remained so inflight. One other became more visually dependent inflight, but recovered postflight. Susceptibility to illusions of circular self-motion increased in flight. The time to the onset of linear self-motion illusions decreased and the illusion magnitude significantly increased for most subjects while free floating in weightlessness. These decreased toward one-G levels when the subject 'stood up' in weightlessness by wearing constant force springs. For several subjects, changing the relative direction of the subjective vertical in weightlessness-either by body

  3. Dictionary-based fiber orientation estimation with improved spatial consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Prince, Jerry L

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation. However, because FOs are only indirectly determined from the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms and not modeled as variables in the objective function, these methods do not incorporate FO smoothness directly, and their ability to produce smooth FOs could be limited. In this work, we propose an improvement to Fiber Orientation Reconstruction using Neighborhood Information (FORNI), which we call FORNI+; this method estimates FOs in a dictionary-based framework where FO smoothness is better enforced than in FORNI alone. We describe an objective function that explicitly models the actual FOs and the mixture fractions of dictionary atoms. Specifically, it consists of data fidelity between the observed signals and the signals represented by the dictionary, pairwise FO dissimilarity that encourages FO smoothness, and weighted ℓ 1 -norm terms that ensure the consistency between the actual FOs and the FO configuration suggested by the dictionary representation. The FOs and mixture fractions are then jointly estimated by minimizing the objective function using an iterative alternating optimization strategy. FORNI+ was evaluated on a simulation phantom, a physical phantom, and real brain dMRI data. In particular, in the real brain dMRI experiment, we have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the reproducibility of the proposed method. Results demonstrate that

  4. Visual dependence and spatial orientation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Maitreyi A; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Cohen, Helen S

    2018-01-01

    People with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) probably have otoconial particles displaced from the utricle into the posterior semicircular canal. This unilateral change in the inertial load distributions of the labyrinth may result in visual dependence and may affect balance control. The goal of this study was to explore the interaction between visual dependence and balance control. We compared 23 healthy controls to 17 people with unilateral BPPV on the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance on compliant foam with feet together, the Rod-and-Frame Test and a Mental Rotation Test. In controls, but not BPPV subjects, subjects with poor balance scores had significantly greater visual dependence, indicating that reliance on visual cues can affect balance control. BPPV and control subjects did not differ on the mental rotation task overall but BPPV reaction time was greater at greater orietantions, suggesting that this cognitive function was affected by BPPV. The side of impairment was strongly related to the side of perceived bias in the Earth vertical determined by BPPV subjects, indicating the relationship between the effect of asymmetric otolith unloading with simultaneous canal loading on spatial orientation perception.

  5. Visual spatial cue use for guiding orientation in two-to-three-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, D. van den; Janzen, G.

    2013-01-01

    In spatial development representations of the environment and the use of spatial cues change over time. To date, the influence of individual differences in skills relevant for orientation and navigation has not received much attention. The current study investigated orientation abilities on the

  6. Vestibular adaption to an altered gravitational environment : Consequences for spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Earth's gravity is an omnipresent factor in human life and provides a strong reference for spatial orientation. Changes in the prevailing gravity level, like the transition to weightlessness during space flight, affect spatial orientation and require adaptation of many physiological processes

  7. Dual-task results and the lateralization of spatial orientation: artifact of test selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, C A; Milham, L M; Price, C

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to identify the degree to which results regarding the lateralization of spatial orientation among men and women are artifacts of test selection. A dual-task design was used to study possible lateralization differences, providing baseline and dual-task measures of spatial-orientation performance, right- and left-hand tapping, and vocalization of "cat, dog, horse." The Guilford-Zimmerman Test (Guilford & Zimmerman, 1953), the Eliot-Price Test (Eliot & Price, 1976), and the Stumpf-Fay Cube Perspectives Test (Stumpf & Fay, 1983) were the three spatial-orientation tests used to investigate possible artifacts of test selection. Twenty-eight right-handed male and 39 right-handed female undergraduates completed random baseline and dual-task sessions. Analyses indicated no significant sex-related differences in spatial-orientation ability for all three tests. Furthermore, there was no evidence of differential lateralization of spatial orientation between the sexes.

  8. Spatial orienting around the fovea: exogenous and endogenous cueing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taoxi; Zhang, Jiyuan; Bao, Yan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of covert attention in perifoveal and peripheral locations has been studied extensively. However, it is less clear whether attention operates similarly in the foveal area itself. The present study aims to investigate whether the attentional orienting elicited by an exogenous or endogenous cue can operate within the foveal area and whether attentional orienting operates similarly between foveal and perifoveal regions. By manipulating exogenous orienting in Experiment 1 and endogenous orienting in Experiment 2, we observed both forms of cueing in the foveal area. Specifically, we observed a larger exogenous cue-induced inhibitory effect (i.e., inhibition of return effect) and a similar endogenous cue-elicited facilitatory effect for the perifoveal relative to the foveal targets. We conclude that exogenous and endogenous orienting subject to two independent attentional systems with distinct modulation patterns in the foveal area.

  9. Perceptual load affects exogenous spatial orienting while working memory load does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Finoia, Paola; Raffone, Antonino; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether or not increasing visual perceptual load or visual working memory (WM) load would affect the exogenous orienting of visuo-spatial attention, in order to assess whether or not exogenous orienting is genuinely automatic. In Experiment 1, we manipulated visual perceptual load by means of a central morphing shape that in some trials morphed into a particular target shape (a rectangle) that participants had to detect. In Experiment 2, the possibility that the presentation of any changing stimulus at fixation would eliminate exogenous orienting was ruled out, by presenting two alternating letters at fixation. In Experiment 3, we manipulated visual WM load by means of arrays consisting of three (low-load) or five (high-load) randomly located coloured squares. The participants had to remember these items in order to judge whether a cued square had been presented in the same or different colour at the end of each trial. In all the experiments, exogenous visuo-spatial attentional orienting was measured by means of an orthogonal spatial cuing task, in which the participants had to discriminate the elevation (up vs. down) of a visual target previously cued by a spatially nonpredictive visual cue. The results showed that increasing the perceptual load of the task eliminated the exogenous orienting of visuo-spatial attention. By contrast, increasing the WM load had no effect on spatial orienting. These results are discussed in terms of the light that they shed on claims regarding the automaticity of visuo-spatial exogenous orienting.

  10. Spatial confinement governs orientational order in patchy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Orientational order in condensed matter plays a key role in determining material properties such as ferromagnetism, viscoelasticity or birefringence. We studied purely orientational ordering in closely-packed one-patch colloidal particles confined between flat substrates, where the particles can only rotate and are ordered via the sticky interaction between the patches. For the first time, we experimentally realized a rich variety of mesoscopic patterns through orientational ordering of colloids by controlling patch size and confinement thickness. The combination of experiment and numerical simulation reveals the decisive role of confinement: An ordered state(s) is selected from the (meta)stable options in bulk when it is commensurate with the system geometry and boundary conditions; otherwise, frustration induces a unique order. Our study offers a new means of systematic control over mesoscopic structures via orientational ordering in patchy particles. The system would also possess unique functionalities through the rotational response of the particles to external stimuli.

  11. Spatial orientation in bone samples and Young's modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.G.M.; van Ruijven, L.J.; Verheij, H.G.C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; van Eijden, T.M.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Bone mass is the most important determinant of the mechanical strength of bones, and spatial structure is the second. In general, the spatial structure and mechanical properties of bones such as the breaking strength are direction dependent. The mean intercept length (MIL) and line frequency

  12. The computational worm: spatial orientation and its neuronal basis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockery, Shawn R

    2011-10-01

    Spatial orientation behaviors in animals are fundamental for survival but poorly understood at the neuronal level. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans orients to a wide range of stimuli and has a numerically small and well-described nervous system making it advantageous for investigating the mechanisms of spatial orientation. Recent work by the C. elegans research community has identified essential computational elements of the neural circuits underlying two orientation strategies that operate in five different sensory modalities. Analysis of these circuits reveals novel motifs including simple circuits for computing temporal derivatives of sensory input and for integrating sensory input with behavioral state to generate adaptive behavior. These motifs constitute hypotheses concerning the identity and functionality of circuits controlling spatial orientation in higher organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global-local visual biases correspond with visual-spatial orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michael R; Lowery, Natasha

    2004-02-01

    Within the past decade, numerous investigations have demonstrated reliable associations of global-local visual processing biases with right and left hemisphere function, respectively (cf. Van Kleeck, 1989). Yet the relevance of these biases to other cognitive functions is not well understood. Towards this end, the present research examined the relationship between global-local visual biases and perception of visual-spatial orientation. Twenty-six women and 23 men completed a global-local judgment task (Kimchi and Palmer, 1982) and the Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JLO; Benton, Sivan, Hamsher, Varney, and Spreen, 1994), a measure of visual-spatial orientation. As expected, men had better performance on JLO. Extending previous findings, global biases were related to better visual-spatial acuity on JLO. The findings suggest that global-local biases and visual-spatial orientation may share underlying cerebral mechanisms. Implications of these findings for other visually mediated cognitive outcomes are discussed.

  14. Neural network configuration and efficiency underlies individual differences in spatial orientation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Protzner, Andrea B; Bray, Signe; Levy, Richard M; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Spatial orientation is a complex cognitive process requiring the integration of information processed in a distributed system of brain regions. Current models on the neural basis of spatial orientation are based primarily on the functional role of single brain regions, with limited understanding of how interaction among these brain regions relates to behavior. In this study, we investigated two sources of variability in the neural networks that support spatial orientation--network configuration and efficiency--and assessed whether variability in these topological properties relates to individual differences in orientation accuracy. Participants with higher accuracy were shown to express greater activity in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right precentral cortex, and the left hippocampus, over and above a core network engaged by the whole group. Additionally, high-performing individuals had increased levels of global efficiency within a resting-state network composed of brain regions engaged during orientation and increased levels of node centrality in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right primary motor cortex, and the left hippocampus. These results indicate that individual differences in the configuration of task-related networks and their efficiency measured at rest relate to the ability to spatially orient. Our findings advance systems neuroscience models of orientation and navigation by providing insight into the role of functional integration in shaping orientation behavior.

  15. Sexual Orientation and Spatial Position Effects on Selective Forms of Object Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object…

  16. A Rehabilitation Protocol for Empowering Spatial Orientation in MCI. A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadler, Erminia; Grassi, Alessandra; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Spatial navigation is among the first cognitive functions to be impaired in Alzheimer's disease [1] and deficit in this domain is detectable earlier in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment [2]. Since efficacy of cognitive training in persons with MCI was successfully assessed [3], we developed a multitasking training protocol using virtual environments for stimulating attention, perception and visuo-spatial cognition in order to empower spatial orientation in MCI. Two healthy elders were exposed to the training over a period of four weeks and both showed improved performances in attention and orientation after the end of the intervention.

  17. The level of spatial orientation of basketball players aged 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomeschikova I. P.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the performance level of the spatial orientation of the basketball teams' pre-basic training, which was determined by standard methods. The study involved 12 athletes for 14 years with four years basketball. Teacher testing conducted to determine the allowed level of basketball and to determine the spatial relationship between the rates of the various manifestations of this ability. The level of spatial orientation of sportsmen evaluated according to the 8 test, methodology suggested V.A. Romanenko, L.P. Sergienko, V.I. Lyakh.

  18. Training the elderly on the ability factors of spatial orientation and inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S L; Schaie, K W

    1986-09-01

    We examined the effects of cognitive training with elderly participants from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Subjects were classified as having remained stable or having declined over the previous 14-year interval on each of two primary abilities, spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. Subjects who had declined on one of these abilities received training on that ability; subjects who had declined on both abilities or who had remained stable on both were randomly assigned to the spatial orientation or inductive reasoning training programs. Training outcomes were examined within an ability-measurement framework with empirically determined factorial structure. Significant training effects, at the level of the latent ability constructs, occurred for both spatial orientation and inductive reasoning. These effects were general, in that no significant interactions with decline status or gender were found. Thus, training interventions were effective both in remediating cognitive decline on the target abilities and in improving the performance of stable subjects.

  19. One-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS with rotating orientation on fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Simon, E-mail: simon.schwarz@h-ab.de; Rung, Stefan; Hellmann, Ralf

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Generation of one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS on transparent material. • Varying the angle of incidence results in a rotation of the one-dimensional LSFL. • Rotation angle of LSFL decreases with increasing the applied fluence. • Orientation of the LSFL is mirror-inverted when reversing the scanning direction. - Abstract: We report on the generation of one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS on transparent material. The influence of the applied laser fluence and angle of incidence on the periodicity, orientation and quality of the one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS is investigated, facilitating the generation of highly uniform LIPSS alongside a line. Most strikingly, however, we observe a previously unreported effect of a pronounced rotation of the one-dimensional low spatial frequency LIPSS for varying angle of incidence upon inclined laser irradiation.

  20. The Analysis of Elementary Mathematics Preservice Teachers' Spatial Orientation Skills with SOLO Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ahmet Sükrü; Göktepe Yildiz, Sevda

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The SOLO model places responses provided by students on a certain level instead of placing students there themselves. SOLO taxonomy, including five sub-levels, is used for determining observed structures of learning outcomes in various disciplines and grade levels. On the other hand, the spatial orientation skill is the ability…

  1. Spatial Coding of Eye Movements Relative to Perceived Orientations During Roll Tilt with Different Gravitoinertial Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness from six subjects allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. Both variability and curvature of gaze trajectories increased during roll tilt compared to the upright position. The saccades were less accurate during parabolic flight compared to measurements obtained in normal gravity. The trajectories of saccades along perceived horizontal orientations tended to deviate in the same direction as the head tilt, while the deviations in gaze trajectories along the perceived vertical orientations deviated in the opposite direction relative to the head tilt. Although subjects were instructed to look off in the distance while performing the eye movements, fixation distance varied with vertical gaze direction independent of whether the saccades were made along perceived aircraft or head orientations. This coupling of horizontal vergence with vertical gaze is in a consistent direction with the vertical slant of the horopter. The increased errors in gaze trajectories along both perceived orientations during microgravity can be attributed to the otolith's role in spatial coding of eye movements.

  2. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  3. Facilitated orienting underlies fearful face-enhanced gaze cueing of spatial location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Carlson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Faces provide a platform for non-verbal communication through emotional expression and eye gaze. Fearful facial expressions are salient indicators of potential threat within the environment, which automatically capture observers’ attention. However, the degree to which fearful facial expressions facilitate attention to others’ gaze is unresolved. Given that fearful gaze indicates the location of potential threat, it was hypothesized that fearful gaze facilitates location processing. To test this hypothesis, a gaze cueing study with fearful and neutral faces assessing target localization was conducted. The task consisted of leftward, rightward, and forward/straight gaze trials. The inclusion of forward gaze trials allowed for the isolation of orienting and disengagement components of gaze-directed attention. The results suggest that both neutral and fearful gaze modulates attention through orienting and disengagement components. Fearful gaze, however, resulted in quicker orienting than neutral gaze. Thus, fearful faces enhance gaze cueing of spatial location through facilitated orienting.

  4. Evaluation by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentrations and ross scoring of the efficacy of digoxin in the treatment of heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Sandikkaya, Ayse; Kocak, Gulendam; Karakurt, Cemsit; Taskapan, Cagatay; Yologlu, Saim

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digoxin in children with heart failure secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions and normal left ventricular systolic function. The study registered 37 such patients (ages 10 days to 24 months, groups 1 and 2) and used 20 healthy children as a control group (group 3). Left ventricular systolic function, as assessed by conventional echocardiography, was normal in all the subjects. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed by clinical evaluation and modified Ross scoring. Plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and complete blood counts were assessed in all the children. Group 1 was treated with digoxin, enalapril, and furosemide and group 2 with enalapril and furosemide. Approximately 1 month after starting treatment, the patients were reevaluated by physical and echocardiographic examinations, modified Ross scoring, plasma NT-proBNP concentrations, and complete blood counts. The pre- and posttreatment Ross scores of group 1 (p = 0.377) and group 2 (p = 0.616) did not differ significantly. The NT-proBNP values in both groups decreased after treatment (p = 0.0001). The pre- and posttreatment NT-proBNP values did not differ significantly in group 1 (p = 0.094)) and group 2 (p = 0.372). The pretreatment NT-proBNP values in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.003). A smaller difference was observed between posttreatment NT-proBNP values in group 1 and the control group (p = 0.045). We found no significant difference between the posttreatment NT-proBNP values of group 2 and those of the control group (p = 0.271). The study showed that both treatments currently used to treat heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts and preserved left ventricular systolic function are effective and do not differ significantly. Thus, digoxin does not provide any extra benefit in the treatment of such patients.

  5. Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy for rapid imaging of material microstructure and grain orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard J; Li, Wenqi; Coulson, Jethro; Clark, Matt; Somekh, Michael G; Sharples, Steve D

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the grain structure of aerospace materials is very important to understand their mechanical properties and in-service performance. Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy is an acoustic technique utilizing surface acoustic waves to map the grain structure of a material. When combined with measurements in multiple acoustic propagation directions, the grain orientation can be obtained by fitting the velocity surface to a model. The new instrument presented here can take thousands of acoustic velocity measurements per second. The spatial and velocity resolution can be adjusted by simple modification to the system; this is discussed in detail by comparison of theoretical expectations with experimental data. (paper)

  6. Microfluidic devices for analysis of spatial orientation behaviors in semi-restrained Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E McCormick

    Full Text Available This article describes the fabrication and use of microfluidic devices for investigating spatial orientation behaviors in nematode worms (Caenorhabditis elegans. Until now, spatial orientation has been studied in freely moving nematodes in which the frequency and nature of encounters with the gradient are uncontrolled experimental variables. In the new devices, the nematode is held in place by a restraint that aligns the longitudinal axis of the body with the border between two laminar fluid streams, leaving the animal's head and tail free to move. The content of the fluid streams can be manipulated to deliver step gradients in space or time. We demonstrate the utility of the device by identifying previously uncharacterized aspects of the behavioral mechanisms underlying chemotaxis, osmotic avoidance, and thermotaxis in this organism. The new devices are readily adaptable to behavioral and imaging studies involving fluid borne stimuli in a wide range of sensory modalities.

  7. Effects of Artificial Gravity and Bed Rest on Spatial Orientation and Balance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Moore, S. T.; Feiveson, A. H.; Taylor, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    While the vestibular system should be well-adapted to bed rest (a condition it experiences approximately 8/24 hrs each day), questions remain regarding the degree to which repeated exposures to the unusual gravito-inertial force environment of a short-radius centrifuge might affect central processing of vestibular information used in spatial orientation and balance control. Should these functions be impaired by intermittent AG, its feasibility as a counter-measure would be diminished. We, therefore, examined the effects of AG on spatial orientation and balance control in 15 male volunteers before and after 21 days of 6 HDT bed rest (BR). Eight of the subjects were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet; 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls (C). Spatial orientation was assessed by measures of ocular counter-rolling (OCR; rotation of the eye about the line of sight, an otolith-mediated reflex) and subjective visual vertical (SVV; perception of the spatial upright). Both OCR and SVV measurements were made with the subject upright, lying on their left sides, and lying on their right sides. OCR was measured from binocular eye orientation recordings made while the subjects fixated for 10s on a point target directly in front of the face at a distance of 1 m. SVV was assessed by asking subjects (in the dark) to adjust to upright (using a handheld controller) the orientation of a luminous bar randomly perturbed (15) to either side of the vertical meridian. Balance control performance was assessed using a computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) protocol similar to that currently required for all returning crew members. During each session, the subjects completed a combination of trials of sensory organization test (SOT) 2 (eyes closed, fixed platform) and SOT 5 (eyes closed, sway-referenced platform) with and without static and dynamic pitch plane head movements (plus or minus 20 deg., dynamic

  8. Effect of Exogenous Cues on Covert Spatial Orienting in Deaf and Normal Hearing Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Seema Gorur; Patil, Gouri Shanker; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Deaf individuals have been known to process visual stimuli better at the periphery compared to the normal hearing population. However, very few studies have examined attention orienting in the oculomotor domain in the deaf, particularly when targets appear at variable eccentricity. In this study, we examined if the visual perceptual processing advantage reported in the deaf people also modulates spatial attentional orienting with eye movement responses. We used a spatial cueing task with cued and uncued targets that appeared at two different eccentricities and explored attentional facilitation and inhibition. We elicited both a saccadic and a manual response. The deaf showed a higher cueing effect for the ocular responses than the normal hearing participants. However, there was no group difference for the manual responses. There was also higher facilitation at the periphery for both saccadic and manual responses, irrespective of groups. These results suggest that, owing to their superior visual processing ability, the deaf may orient attention faster to targets. We discuss the results in terms of previous studies on cueing and attentional orienting in deaf.

  9. Noninvasive quantification of left-to-right shunt by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging in secundum atrial septal defect: the effects of breath holding and comparison with invasive oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Sagiyama, Koji; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Hiasa, Ken-Ichi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nagao, Michinobu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2018-01-16

    To investigate the effect of breath-holding on left-to-right shunts in patients with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Thirty-five consecutive patients with secundum ASDs underwent right heart catheterization and invasive oximetry. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. All measurements were obtained during free breathing (FB) (quiet breathing; no breath-hold), expiratory breath-hold (EBH), and inspiratory breath-hold (IBH). Pulmonary circulation flow (Qp) and systemic circulation flow (Qs) were calculated by multiplying the heart rate by the stroke volume. Measurements during FB, EBH, and IBH were compared, and the differences compared to invasive oximetry were evaluated. There were significant differences among the measurements during FB, EBH, and IBH for Qp (FB, 7.70 ± 2.68; EBH, 7.18 ± 2.34; IBH, 6.88 ± 2.51 l/min); however, no significant difference was found for Qs (FB, 3.44 ± 0.74; EBH, 3.40 ± 0.83; IBH, 3.40 ± 0.86 l/min). There were significant differences among the measurements during FB, EBH, and IBH for Qp/Qs (FB, 2.38 ± 1.12; EBH, 2.24 ± 0.95; IBH, 2.14 ± 0.97). Qp/Qs during FB and EBH correlated better with Qp/Qs measured by invasive oximetry than did IBH. The limit of agreement was smaller for EBH than for FB and IBH. In patients with secundum ASDs, Qp/Qs significantly decreased with breath-holding. The accuracy of the Qp/Qs measurement by MRI compared with invasive oximetry during EBH was higher than during FB and IBH.

  10. Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, D.V.; Atema, J.

    1982-08-01

    Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules lost this ability, but did not show preferential turning toward the intact side. Unilateral medial antennule ablation did not affect orientation. Removal of all aesthetasc hairs from one lateral antennule caused loss of orientation ability less severe than unilateral ablation of the entire lateral antennule. Lobsters with unilaterally ablated lateral antennules and blocked walking leg receptors turned preferentially toward the side of the intact antennule. Thus, it appears that intact lobsters orient in odor space by tropotaxis principally using aesthetasc receptor input. Since loss of appendages is relatively common in lobsters, this partial overlap of organ function may serve the animal well in nature.

  11. Feature integration and spatial attention: common processes for endogenous and exogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderickx, David; Maetens, Kathleen; Soetens, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Briand (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 24:1243-1256, 1998) and Briand and Klein (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 13:228-241, 1987) demonstrated that spatial cueing effects are larger for detecting conjunction of features than for detecting simple features when spatial attention is oriented exogenously, and not when attention is oriented endogenously. Their results were interpreted as if only exogenous attention affects the posterior spatial attention system that performs the feature binding function attributed to spatial attention by Treisman's feature integration theory (FIT; 1980). In a series of 6 experiments, we attempted to replicate Briand's findings. Manipulations of distractor string size and symmetry of stimulus presentation left and right from fixation were implemented in Posner's cueing paradigm. The data indicate that both exogenous and endogenous cueing address the same attentional mechanism needed for feature binding. The results also limit the generalisability of Briand's proposal concerning the role of exogenous attention in feature integration. Furthermore, the importance to control the effect of unintended attentional capture in a cueing task is demonstrated.

  12. Oppugning the assumptions of spatial averaging of segment and joint orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrynowski, Michael Raymond; Ball, Kevin Arthur

    2009-02-09

    Movement scientists frequently calculate "arithmetic averages" when examining body segment or joint orientations. Such calculations appear routinely, yet are fundamentally flawed. Three-dimensional orientation data are computed as matrices, yet three-ordered Euler/Cardan/Bryant angle parameters are frequently used for interpretation. These parameters are not geometrically independent; thus, the conventional process of averaging each parameter is incorrect. The process of arithmetic averaging also assumes that the distances between data are linear (Euclidean); however, for the orientation data these distances are geodesically curved (Riemannian). Therefore we question (oppugn) whether use of the conventional averaging approach is an appropriate statistic. Fortunately, exact methods of averaging orientation data have been developed which both circumvent the parameterization issue, and explicitly acknowledge the Euclidean or Riemannian distance measures. The details of these matrix-based averaging methods are presented and their theoretical advantages discussed. The Euclidian and Riemannian approaches offer appealing advantages over the conventional technique. With respect to practical biomechanical relevancy, examinations of simulated data suggest that for sets of orientation data possessing characteristics of low dispersion, an isotropic distribution, and less than 30 degrees second and third angle parameters, discrepancies with the conventional approach are less than 1.1 degrees . However, beyond these limits, arithmetic averaging can have substantive non-linear inaccuracies in all three parameterized angles. The biomechanics community is encouraged to recognize that limitations exist with the use of the conventional method of averaging orientations. Investigations requiring more robust spatial averaging over a broader range of orientations may benefit from the use of matrix-based Euclidean or Riemannian calculations.

  13. What's Behind a "+" Sign? Perceiving an Arithmetic Operator Recruits Brain Circuits for Spatial Orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Romain; Epinat-Duclos, Justine; Sigovan, Monica; Breton, Audrey; Cheylus, Anne; Fayol, Michel; Thevenot, Catherine; Prado, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults. Activity in these regions was greater for "+" than for "×" signs, indicating that it is modulated by whether an operator reflects an operation that evokes numerical manipulation (rather than rote memorization). Finally, the degree to which subjects activated a spatial region in response to a "+" sign was correlated with the degree to which subjects benefited from being briefly presented with that sign before having to calculate a single-digit addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Therefore, not only are some arithmetic operators linked to spatial intuitions, but such intuitions might also have an important role during arithmetic calculation. More generally, our findings support the view that mathematical symbols inherently evoke spatial representations.

  14. Comparison of grain to grain orientation and stiffness mapping by spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy and EBSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, A F; Li, W; Sharples, S; Withers, P J

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to establish the capability of spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) to map grain orientations and the anisotropy in stiffness at the sub-mm to micron scale by comparing the method with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) undertaken within a scanning electron microscope. In the former the grain orientations are deduced by measuring the spatial variation in elastic modulus; conversely, in EBSD the elastic anisotropy is deduced from direct measurements of the crystal orientations. The two test-cases comprise mapping the fusion zones for large TIG and MMA welds in thick power plant austenitic and ferritic steels, respectively; these are technologically important because, among other things, elastic anisotropy can cause ultrasonic weld inspection methods to become inaccurate because it causes bending in the paths of sound waves. The spatial resolution of SRAS is not as good as that for EBSD (∼100 μm vs. ∼a few nm), nor is the angular resolution (∼1.5° vs. ∼0.5°). However the method can be applied to much larger areas (currently on the order of 300 mm square), is much faster (∼5 times), is cheaper and easier to perform, and it could be undertaken on the manufacturing floor. Given these advantages, particularly to industrial users, and the on-going improvements to the method, SRAS has the potential to become a standard method for orientation mapping, particularly in cases where the elastic anisotropy is important over macroscopic/component length scales. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Dorso-medial and ventro-lateral functional specialization of the human retrosplenial complex in spatial updating and orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burles, Ford; Slone, Edward; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The retrosplenial complex is a region within the posterior cingulate cortex implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the functional specialization of this large and anatomically heterogeneous region using fMRI and resting-state functional connectivity combined with a spatial task with distinct phases of spatial 'updating' (i.e., integrating and maintaining object locations in memory during spatial displacement) and 'orienting' (i.e., recalling unseen locations from current position in space). Both spatial 'updating' and 'orienting' produced bilateral activity in the retrosplenial complex, among other areas. However, spatial 'updating' produced slightly greater activity in ventro-lateral portions, of the retrosplenial complex, whereas spatial 'orienting' produced greater activity in a more dorsal and medial portion of it (both regions localized along the parieto-occipital fissure). At rest, both ventro-lateral and dorso-medial subregions of the retrosplenial complex were functionally connected to the hippocampus and parahippocampus, regions both involved in spatial orientation and navigation. However, the ventro-lateral subregion of the retrosplenial complex displayed more positive functional connectivity with ventral occipital and temporal object recognition regions, whereas the dorso-medial subregion activity was more correlated to dorsal activity and frontal activity, as well as negatively correlated with more ventral parietal structures. These findings provide evidence for a dorso-medial to ventro-lateral functional specialization within the human retrosplenial complex that may shed more light on the complex neural mechanisms underlying spatial orientation and navigation in humans.

  16. Evaluating spatial- and temporal-oriented multi-dimensional visualization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Ho Yu

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization tools are said to be helpful for researchers to unveil hidden patterns and..relationships among variables, and also for teachers to present abstract statistical concepts and..complicated data structures in a concrete manner. However, higher-dimension visualization..techniques can be confusing and even misleading, especially when human-instrument interface..and cognitive issues are under-applied. In this article, the efficacy of function-based, datadriven,..spatial-oriented, and temporal-oriented visualization techniques are discussed based..upon extensive review. Readers can find practical implications for both research and..instructional practices. For research purposes, the spatial-based graphs, such as Trellis displays..in S-Plus, are preferable over the temporal-based displays, such as the 3D animated plot in..SAS/Insight. For teaching purposes, the temporal-based displays, such as the 3D animation plot..in Maple, seem to have advantages over the spatial-based graphs, such as the 3D triangular..coordinate plot in SyStat.

  17. Relationships among childhood sex-atypical behavior, spatial ability, handedness, and sexual orientation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kenneth M

    2002-02-01

    Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and gender nonconformity. Handedness, also thought to reflect in utero hormone exposure, was evaluated. Gay and bisexual males reported greater femininity and lesser masculinity than heterosexuals, with bisexuals intermediate in masculinity, suggesting a common biological mediator for homoeroticism and sex atypicality. Among bisexual males, increased masculinity was related to enhanced performance on all spatial tasks. Group mean differences in spatial ability and handedness were not found; however, among bisexuals, poorer visual-spatial performance predicted increased homoeroticism and right-handedness positively correlated with all spatial tasks. If perinatal hormones contribute to a generalized feminization of the brain, the current data indicate that it is most apparent among bisexual males. Sexing of their brains may involve several sexually dimorphic regions that are related in a continuous manner. Inferred cerebral feminization was more circumscribed among gay and heterosexual males, for whom childhood sex atypicality was most highly-distinguishing. Unspecified mechanisms responsible for homoeroticism in them may differ from those that produce same-sex attractions in bisexuals and thus have relatively little impact on other components of cerebral feminization.

  18. Usefulness of the group-comparison method to demonstrate sex differences in spatial orientation and spatial visualization in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D

    1976-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of sex differences in cognitive test scores covering the dimensions of spatial orientation and spatial visualization in groups of 6 older men and 6 women matched for speed of performance on a maze test and level of performance on a spatial relations task. Older men were more proficient solving spatial problems using the body as a referent, whereas there was no significant difference between the sexes in imagining spatial displacement. Matched comparisons appear a useful adjunct to population research to understand the type(s) of cognitive processes where differential performance by the sexes is observed.

  19. Low-Carbon Transportation Oriented Urban Spatial Structure: Theory, Model and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyao Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimising the spatial structure of cities to promote low-carbon travel is a primary goal of urban planning and construction innovation in the low-carbon era. There is a need for basic research on the structural characteristics that help to reduce motor traffic, thereby promoting energy conservation. We first review the existing literature on the influence of urban spatial structure on transport carbon dioxide emissions and summarise the influence mechanisms. We then present two low-carbon transportation oriented patterns of urban spatial structure including the traditional walking city and the modern transit metropolis, illustrated by case studies. Furthermore, we propose an improved model Green Transportation System Oriented Development (GTOD, which is an extension of traditional transit-oriented development (TOD and includes the additional features of a walking city and an emphasis on the integration of land use with a green transportation system, consisting of the public transportation and non-auto travel system. A compact urban form, effective mix of land use and appropriate scale of block are the basic structural features of a low-carbon transportation city. However, these features are only effective at promoting low-carbon transportation when integrated with the green traffic systems. Proper integration of the urban structural system with the green space system is also required. The optimal land use/transportation integration strategy is to divide traffic corridors with wedge-shaped green spaces and limit development along the transit corridors. This strategy forms the basis of the proposed urban structural model to promote low-carbon transportation and sustainable urban growth management.

  20. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-11-07

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their gender and sexual orientation. While unaware of the suppressed pictures, heterosexual males' attention was attracted to invisible female nudes, heterosexual females' attention was attracted to invisible male nudes, gay males behaved similarly to heterosexual females, and gay/bisexual females performed in-between heterosexual males and females.

  1. Fractionating dead reckoning: role of the compass, odometer, logbook, and home base establishment in spatial orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas G.; Martin, Megan M.; Winter, Shawn S.

    2008-06-01

    Rats use multiple sources of information to maintain spatial orientation. Although previous work has focused on rats’ use of environmental cues, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that rats also use self-movement cues to organize navigation. This review examines the extent that kinematic analysis of naturally occurring behavior has provided insight into processes that mediate dead-reckoning-based navigation. This work supports a role for separate systems in processing self-movement cues that converge on the hippocampus. The compass system is involved in deriving directional information from self-movement cues; whereas, the odometer system is involved in deriving distance information from self-movement cues. The hippocampus functions similar to a logbook in that outward path unique information from the compass and odometer is used to derive the direction and distance of a path to the point at which movement was initiated. Finally, home base establishment may function to reset this system after each excursion and anchor environmental cues to self-movement cues. The combination of natural behaviors and kinematic analysis has proven to be a robust paradigm to investigate the neural basis of spatial orientation.

  2. Play for the development of body schema and spatial and temporal orientation: analysis of an intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domiciano Franco de Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood is a significant stage in human development in which many skills are developed influencing learning progress. Play is an activity of children’s daily lives that enhances cognitive, social, emotional, and psychomotor abilities. Objective: Evaluate the results of an intervention for a child with delayed development of body schema and spatial and temporal orientation. Method: This study adopted the semi-experimental design type of pre and post-test. The Motor Development Scale (MDS was applied in a four-year-old child. From the MDS results, an intervention plan was prepared concerning games that stimulate the previously mentioned acquisitions. The implementation of the plan lasted two months and the child was evaluated before and at the end of the intervention. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of significant and reliable clinical changes. Results: The child achieved significant change in the three items assessed. In terms of clinical significance, the child changed status on spatial organization, becoming part of the functional population. Body schema remained in the dysfunctional population and the child’s temporal orientation was in the range of uncertainty. Conclusion: The results showed positive and reliable changes in the evaluated items, confirming the positive effect of play as an occupational therapeutic resource present in the developmental intervention program. It emphasizes the importance of conducting further studies with a larger number of participants for new data and findings on the use of play in interventions into psychomotor development.

  3. Object-oriented spatial-temporal association rules mining on ocean remote sensing imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C J; Dong, Q; Ma, W X

    2014-01-01

    Using the long term marine remote sensing imagery, we develop an object-oriented spatial-temporal association rules mining framework to explore the association rules mining among marine environmental elements. Within the framework, two key issues are addressed. They are how to effectively deal with the related lattices and how to reduce the related dimensions? To deal with the first key issues, this paper develops an object-oriented method for abstracting marine sensitive objects from raster pixels and for representing them with a quadruple. To deal with the second key issues, by embedding the mutual information theory, we construct the direct association pattern tree to reduce the related elements at the first step, and then the Apriori algorithm is used to discover the spatio-temporal associated rules. Finally, Pacific Ocean is taken as a research area and multi- marine remote sensing imagery in recent three decades is used as a case study. The results show that the object-oriented spatio-temporal association rules mining can acquire the associated relationships not only among marine environmental elements in same region, also among the different regions. In addition, the information from association rules mining is much more expressive and informative in space and time than traditional spatio-temporal analysis

  4. Sexual orientation and spatial position effects on selective forms of object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object exchanges, object shifts, and novel objects) relative to veridical center (left compared to right side of the arrays) in a sample of 35 heterosexual men, 35 heterosexual women, and 35 homosexual men. Relative to heterosexual men, heterosexual women showed better location recovery in the right side of the array during object exchanges and homosexual men performed better in the right side during novel objects. However, the difference between heterosexual and homosexual men disappeared after controlling for IQ. Heterosexual women and homosexual men did not differ significantly from each other in location change detection with respect to task or side of array. These data suggest that visual space biases in processing categorical spatial positions may enhance aspects of object location memory in heterosexual women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. William Brinkman (centre), Director of the Department of Energy, U.S.A. at the superconducting magnet test hall SM18 with (from left to right) Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss, Advisor for Non-Member States J. Ellis, J. Strait from Fermilab and Deputy Head of Technology Department L. Rossi on 13 November 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; SM18

    2009-01-01

    William Brinkman (centre), Director of the Department of Energy, U.S.A. at the superconducting magnet test hall SM18 with (from left to right) Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss, Advisor for Non-Member States J. Ellis, J. Strait from Fermilab and Deputy Head of Technology Department L. Rossi on 13 November 2009.

  6. from left to right : Mr Michel Della Negra (Last spokeperson of CMS), Prof. Tejinder ("Jim") Virdee (actual spokeperson of CMS), Mr Robert Aymar (CERN Director General) and Mr Sigurd Lettow (Chief Financial Officer of CERN) assist to the Lowering of the final element (YE-1) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector into its underground experimental cavern.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    from left to right : Mr Michel Della Negra (Last spokeperson of CMS), Prof. Tejinder ("Jim") Virdee (actual spokeperson of CMS), Mr Robert Aymar (CERN Director General) and Mr Sigurd Lettow (Chief Financial Officer of CERN) assist to the Lowering of the final element (YE-1) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector into its underground experimental cavern.

  7. Ian Taylor MBE MP Chairman Parliamentary and Scientific Committee, United Kingdom (second from left) with (from left to right) CMS Technical Coordinator A. Ball, CMS Spokesperson Tejinder (Jim) Virdee and Adviser to the Director-General J. Ellis on 2 November 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; CMS

    2009-01-01

    Ian Taylor MBE MP Chairman Parliamentary and Scientific Committee, United Kingdom (second from left) with (from left to right) CMS Technical Coordinator A. Ball, CMS Spokesperson Tejinder (Jim) Virdee and Adviser to the Director-General J. Ellis on 2 November 2009.

  8. Ceremony for the laying of the foundation stone of Building 42. From left to right: Architect J. Perret, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Geneva State Councillor in charge of the Institutions Department L. Moutinot, State Secretary for Education and Research M. Dell’Ambrogio and Mayor of Meyrin R .Sansonnen.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien.brice

    2009-01-01

    Picture 01 : from left to right, architect J. Perret, Director-General R. Heuer, Geneva State Councillor Head of the Department of Institutions, State Secretary for Education and Research M. Dell'Ambrogio and the Mayor of the Commune of Meyrin R. Sansonnens on 9th September 2009

  9. ISOLDE PH team, from left to right: Jennifer Weterings (user support), Susanne Kreim (research fellow), Marek Pfützner (scientific associate), Maria Garcia Borge (team leader), Elisa Rapisarda (research fellow) , Magdalena Kowalska (physics coordinator), Jan Kurcewicz (applied fellow), Monika Stachura (applied fellow). Not in the photo: Kara Lynch (PhD student).

    CERN Multimedia

    Visual Media Office

    2013-01-01

    ISOLDE PH team, from left to right: Jennifer Weterings (user support), Susanne Kreim (research fellow), Marek Pfützner (scientific associate), Maria Garcia Borge (team leader), Elisa Rapisarda (research fellow) , Magdalena Kowalska (physics coordinator), Jan Kurcewicz (applied fellow), Monika Stachura (applied fellow). Not in the photo: Kara Lynch (PhD student).

  10. H.E. Dr Danilo Türk President of the Republic of Slovenia (second from right) visiting the ATLAS detector with, from left to right, Ambassador A. Logar, Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Director-General R. Heuer, First Lady B. Miklič Türk and ATLAS Slovenian national contactperson M. Mikuz.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    H.E. Dr Danilo Türk President of the Republic of Slovenia (second from right) visiting the ATLAS detector with, from left to right, Ambassador A. Logar, Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Director-General R. Heuer, First Lady B. Miklič Türk and ATLAS Slovenian national contactperson M. Mikuz.

  11. The Honourable Lawrence Gonzi Prime Minister of Malta visiting CMS experiment on 10 January 2008, from left to right Ministry of Finance Permanent Secretary A. Camilleri, Ambassador V. Camilleri, Maltese Representative at CERN N. Sammut, Prime Minister L. Gonzi, CMS Collaboration Spokesperson T. Virdee, CERN Director-General R. Aymar, University of Malta Rector J. Camilleri, Adviser to Director-General E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    The Honourable Lawrence Gonzi Prime Minister of Malta visiting CMS experiment on 10 January 2008, from left to right Ministry of Finance Permanent Secretary A. Camilleri, Ambassador V. Camilleri, Maltese Representative at CERN N. Sammut, Prime Minister L. Gonzi, CMS Collaboration Spokesperson T. Virdee, CERN Director-General R. Aymar, University of Malta Rector J. Camilleri, Adviser to Director-General E. Tsesmelis.

  12. Spatial orientation and electric-field-driven transport of hypericin inside of bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strejčková, Alena; Staničová, Jana; Jancura, Daniel; Miškovský, Pavol; Bánó, Gregor

    2013-02-07

    Fluorescence experiments were carried out to investigate the interaction of hypericin (Hyp), a natural hydrophobic photosensitizer, with artificial bilayer lipid membranes. The spatial orientation of Hyp monomers incorporated in diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) membranes was determined by measuring the dependence of the Hyp fluorescence intensity on the angle of incidence of p- and s-polarized excitation laser beams. Inside of the membrane, Hyp monomers are preferentially located in the layers near the membrane/water interface and are oriented with the S(1) ← S(0) transition dipole moments perpendicular to the membrane surface. Transport of Hyp anions between the two opposite sides of the lipid bilayer was induced by applying rectangular electric field pulses to the membrane. The characteristic time for Hyp transport through the membrane center was evaluated by the analysis of the Hyp fluorescence signal during the voltage pulses. In the zero-voltage limit, the transport time approached 70 ms and gradually decreased with higher voltage applied to the membrane. In addition, our measurements indicated an apparent pK(a) constant of 8 for Hyp deprotonation in the membrane.

  13. Spatial asymmetry in tactile sensor skin deformation aids perception of edge orientation during haptic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Wong, Ruben D; Hellman, Randall B; Santos, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb amputees rely primarily on visual feedback when using their prostheses to interact with others or objects in their environment. A constant reliance upon visual feedback can be mentally exhausting and does not suffice for many activities when line-of-sight is unavailable. Upper-limb amputees could greatly benefit from the ability to perceive edges, one of the most salient features of 3D shape, through touch alone. We present an approach for estimating edge orientation with respect to an artificial fingertip through haptic exploration using a multimodal tactile sensor on a robot hand. Key parameters from the tactile signals for each of four exploratory procedures were used as inputs to a support vector regression model. Edge orientation angles ranging from -90 to 90 degrees were estimated with an 85-input model having an R (2) of 0.99 and RMS error of 5.08 degrees. Electrode impedance signals provided the most useful inputs by encoding spatially asymmetric skin deformation across the entire fingertip. Interestingly, sensor regions that were not in direct contact with the stimulus provided particularly useful information. Methods described here could pave the way for semi-autonomous capabilities in prosthetic or robotic hands during haptic exploration, especially when visual feedback is unavailable.

  14. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Benchmark Tests in Three Spatial Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the aging alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. This test effort marks the final phase of a 5-yr development program that began under the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, transitioned into the Next Generation Launch Technologies (NGLT) Program, and continued under Constellation Systems in the Exploration Technology Development Program. Initially, the engineering model (EM) powerplant was evaluated with respect to its performance as compared to acceptance tests carried out at the manufacturer. This was to determine the sensitivity of the powerplant performance to changes in test environment. In addition, a series of tests were performed with the powerplant in the original standard orientation. This report details the continuing EM benchmark test results in three spatial orientations as well as extended duration testing in the mission profile test. The results from these tests verify the applicability of PEM fuel cells for future NASA missions. The specifics of these different tests are described in the following sections.

  15. Active Control of Thermal Convection in a Rectangular Loop by Changing its Spatial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsun, Dmitry A.; Krasnyakov, Ivan V.; Zyuzgin, Alexey V.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of the automatic control of the fluid flow in a rectangular convective loop heated from below is studied theoretically and experimentally. The control is performed by using a feedback subsystem which changes the convection regimes by introducing small discrete changes in the spatial orientation of the loop with respect to gravity. We focus on effects that arise when the feedback controller operates with an unavoidable time delay, which is cause by the thermal inertia of the medium. The mathematical model of the phenomenon is developed. The dynamic regimes of the convection in the thermosyphon loop under control are studied. It is shown that the proposed control method can successfully stabilize not only a no-motion state of the fluid, but also time-dependent modes of convection including the irregular fluid flow at high values of the Rayleigh number. It is shown that the excessive gain of the proportional feedback can result in oscillations in the loop orientation exciting the unsteady convection modes. The comparison of the experimental data obtained for dielectric oil and dodecane with theory is given, and their good agreement is demonstrated.

  16. Novel technique for spatially resolved imaging of molecular bond orientations using x-ray birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M., E-mail: HarrisKDM@cardiff.ac.uk; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Kariuki, Benson M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2016-07-27

    Birefringence has been observed in anisotropic materials transmitting linearly polarized X-ray beams tuned close to an absorption edge of a specific element in the material. Synchrotron bending magnets provide X-ray beams of sufficiently high brightness and cross section for spatially resolved measurements of birefringence. The recently developed X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) technique has been successfully applied for the first time using the versatile test beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source. Orientational distributions of the C–Br bonds of brominated “guest” molecules within crystalline “host” tunnel structures (in thiourea or urea inclusion compounds) have been studied using linearly polarized incident X-rays near the Br K-edge. Imaging of domain structures, changes in C–Br bond orientations associated with order-disorder phase transitions, and the effects of dynamic averaging of C–Br bond orientations have been demonstrated. The XBI setup uses a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator upstream from the sample and a horizontally deflecting single-crystal polarization analyzer downstream, with a Bragg angle as close as possible to 45°. In this way, the ellipticity and rotation angle of the polarization of the beam transmitted through the sample is measured as in polarizing optical microscopy. The theoretical instrumental background calculated from the elliptical polarization of the bending-magnet X-rays, the imperfect polarization discrimination of the analyzer, and the correlation between vertical position and photon energy introduced by the monochromator agrees well with experimental observations. The background is calculated analytically because the region of X-ray phase space selected by this setup is sampled inefficiently by standard methods.

  17. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: the effects of body orientation and language on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Matlock, Teenie

    2014-01-01

    Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person's body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings are in line with previous work on spatial displacement that uses a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  18. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: The effects of body orientation and language on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Vinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person’s body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings replicate are in line with previous work on spatial displacement task that used a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  19. Anxiety-related biases in visual orienting and spatial motor response selection independently assessed by a probe-classification task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.G.S.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Mogg, K.; Bradley, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    This dot-probe study assessed anxiety-related biases in visual attentional orienting and spatial motor response selection (motor attention) in high- and low-trait-anxious adults, and whether anxiety-related biases depend on response speed. Emotional-neutral word pairs appeared for 14 or 500 ms, with

  20. Off-resonant vibrational excitation: Orientational dependence and spatial control of photofragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2000-01-01

    Off-resonant and resonant vibrational excitation with short intense infrared (IR) laser pulses creates localized oscillating wave packets, but differs by the efficiency of the excitation and surprisingly by the orientational dependence. Orientational selectivity of the vibrational excitation...... of randomly oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules can be obtained under simultaneous irradiation by a resonant and an off-resonant intense IR laser pulse: Molecules with one initial orientation will be vibrationally excited, while those with the opposite orientation will be at rest. The orientation-dependent...... distribution. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  1. The influence of spatial orientation of the photovoltaic system to generate electricy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umihanić Midhat Š.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, or solar energy, is an inexhaustible energy resource. Solar energy is the cleanest of all renewable energy sources with the least negative impact on the environment and therefore this energy resource gives great importance. Utilization of solar energy as possible its transformation into electricity using photovoltaic ( PV photovoltaic systems. The main problem in PV systems is their small degree of efficiency. On the laboratory conditions of about 30 %. when the coefficient or factor in the commercial utilization of the system, about 15 %. Therefore, every step toward increasing capacity utilization of such systems brings tremendous results in terms of energy yield. More efficient capacity utilization of such systems can be improved by selecting the optimal position PV system in relation to the geometry of the Sun - Earth. This paper aims to show the influence of the spatial orientation of the PV system to the capacity utilization factor of PV systems, or to produce electricity. For simulation and analysis used PVGIS ( Photovoltaic Geographical Information System Interactive Maps on-line calculator.

  2. Motion sickness and development of synergy within the spatial orientation system. A hypothetical unifying concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedry, F. E.; Rupert, A. R.; Reschke, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptation to research paradigms such as rotating rooms and optical alteration of visual feedback during movement results in development of perceptual-motor programs that provide the reflexive assistance that is necessary to skilled control of movement and balance. The discomfort and stomach awareness that occur during the adaptation process has been attributed to conflicting sensory information about the state of motion. Vestibular signals depend on the kinematics of head movements irrespective of the presence or absence of signals from other senses. We propose that sensory conflict when vestibular signals are at least one component of the conflict are innately disturbing and unpleasant. This innate reaction is part of a continuum that operates early in life to prevent development of inefficient perceptual-motor programs. This reaction operates irrespective of and in addition to reward and punishment from parental guidance or goal attainment to yield efficient control of whole body movement in the operating environment of the individual. The same mechanism is involved in adapting the spatial orientation system to strange environments. This conceptual model "explains" why motion sickness is associated with adaptation to novel environments and is in general consistent with motion sickness literature.

  3. [The impact of psilocybin on visual perception and spatial orientation--neuropsychological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Mikolaj; Bala, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin is a substance of natural origin, occurring in hallucinogenic mushrooms (most common in the Psilocybe family). After its synthesis in 1958 research began on its psychoactive properties, particularly strong effects on visual perception and spatial orientation. Due to the very broad spectrum of psilocybin effects research began on the different ranges of its actions--including the effect on physiological processes (such as eye saccada movements). Neuro-imaging and neurophysiological research (positron emission tomography-PET and electroencephalography-EEG), indicate a change in the rate of metabolism of the brain and desync cerebral hemispheres. Experimental studies show the changes in visual perception and distortion from psilocybin in the handwriting style of patients examined. There are widely described subjective experiences reported by the subjects. There are also efforts to apply testing via questionnaire on people under the influence of psilocybin, in the context of the similarity of psilocybin-induced state to the initial stages of schizophrenia, as well as research aimed at creating an 'artificial' model of the disease.

  4. Advanced Techniques for Assessment of Postural and Locomotor Ataxia, Spatial Orientation, and Gaze Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Conrad., III

    1999-01-01

    In addition to adapting to microgravity, major neurovestibular problems of space flight include postflight difficulties with standing, walking, turning corners, and other activities that require stable upright posture and gaze stability. These difficulties inhibit astronauts' ability to stand or escape from their vehicle during emergencies. The long-ter7n goal of the NSBRI is the development of countermeasures to ameliorate the effects of long duration space flight. These countermeasures must be tested with valid and reliable tools. This project aims to develop quantitative, parametric approaches for assessing gaze stability and spatial orientation during normal gait and when gait is perturbed. Two of this year's most important findings concern head fixation distance and ideal trajectory analysis. During a normal cycle of walking the head moves up and down linearly. A simultaneous angular pitching motion of the head keeps it aligned toward an imaginary point in space at a distance of about one meter in front of a subject and along the line of march. This distance is called the head fixation distance. Head fixation distance provides the fundamental framework necessary for understanding the functional significance of the vestibular reflexes that couple head motion to eye motion. This framework facilitates the intelligent design of counter-measures for the effects of exposure to microgravity upon the vestibular ocular reflexes. Ideal trajectory analysis is a simple candidate countermeasure based upon quantifying body sway during repeated up and down stair stepping. It provides one number that estimates the body sway deviation from an ideal sinusoidal body sway trajectory normalized on the subject's height. This concept has been developed with NSBRI funding in less than one year. These findings are explained in more detail below. Compared to assessments of the vestibuo-ocular reflex, analysis of vestibular effects on locomotor function is relatively less well developed

  5. Amplified Head Rotation in Virtual Reality and the Effects on 3D Search, Training Transfer, and Spatial Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Eric D; Scerbo, Siroberto; Bacim, Felipe; Bowman, Doug A

    2017-08-01

    Many types of virtual reality (VR) systems allow users to use natural, physical head movements to view a 3D environment. In some situations, such as when using systems that lack a fully surrounding display or when opting for convenient low-effort interaction, view control can be enabled through a combination of physical and virtual turns to view the environment, but the reduced realism could potentially interfere with the ability to maintain spatial orientation. One solution to this problem is to amplify head rotations such that smaller physical turns are mapped to larger virtual turns, allowing trainees to view the entire surrounding environment with small head movements. This solution is attractive because it allows semi-natural physical view control rather than requiring complete physical rotations or a fully-surrounding display. However, the effects of amplified head rotations on spatial orientation and many practical tasks are not well understood. In this paper, we present an experiment that evaluates the influence of amplified head rotation on 3D search, spatial orientation, and cybersickness. In the study, we varied the amount of amplification and also varied the type of display used (head-mounted display or surround-screen CAVE) for the VR search task. By evaluating participants first with amplification and then without, we were also able to study training transfer effects. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of using amplified head rotation to view 360 degrees of virtual space, but noticeable problems were identified when using high amplification with a head-mounted display. In addition, participants were able to more easily maintain a sense of spatial orientation when using the CAVE version of the application, which suggests that visibility of the user's body and awareness of the CAVE's physical environment may have contributed to the ability to use the amplification technique while keeping track of orientation.

  6. Performance-oriented Architecture and the Spatial and Material Organisation Complex. Rethinking the Definition, Role and Performative Capacity of the Spatial and Material Boundaries of the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ulrich Hensel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the proposition that performance-oriented design is characterised by four domains of ‘active agency’: the human subject, the spatial and material organisation complex and the environment (Hensel, 2010. While these four domains are seen to be interdependent and interacting with one another, it is nevertheless necessary to examine each in its own right. However, the spatial and material organisation complex contains both the spatial and material domains, which are interdependent to such a degree that these need to be examined in relation to one another and also in relation to the specific environment they are set within and interacting with. To explore this combined domain within the context of performance-oriented design is the aim of this article, in particularly in relation to the question of the definition and performative capacity of spatial and material boundaries. The various sections are accompanied by research by design efforts undertaken in specified academic contexts, which are intended as examples of modes and areas of inquiry relative to the purpose of this article.

  7. Individual differences in using geometric and featural cues to maintain spatial orientation: cue quantity and cue ambiguity are more important than cue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jonathan W; McNamara, Timothy P; Bodenheimer, Bobby; Carr, Thomas H; Rieser, John J

    2009-02-01

    Two experiments explored the role of environmental cues in maintaining spatial orientation (sense of self-location and direction) during locomotion. Of particular interest was the importance of geometric cues (provided by environmental surfaces) and featural cues (nongeometric properties provided by striped walls) in maintaining spatial orientation. Participants performed a spatial updating task within virtual environments containing geometric or featural cues that were ambiguous or unambiguous indicators of self-location and direction. Cue type (geometric or featural) did not affect performance, but the number and ambiguity of environmental cues did. Gender differences, interpreted as a proxy for individual differences in spatial ability and/or experience, highlight the interaction between cue quantity and ambiguity. When environmental cues were ambiguous, men stayed oriented with either one or two cues, whereas women stayed oriented only with two. When environmental cues were unambiguous, women stayed oriented with one cue.

  8. Engineers' Spatial Orientation Ability Development at the European Space for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, C. Carbonell; Perez, J. L. Saorin; Cantero, J. de la Torre; Gonzalez, A. M. Marrero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the new geographic information technologies, included as teaching objectives in the new European Space for Higher Education Engineering degrees, develop spatial abilities. Bearing this in mind, a first year seminar using the INSPIRE Geoportal (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) was…

  9. The comparison of spatial accessibility measures between non-obstacle and obstacle oriented based on gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Cai-Hui

    2009-10-01

    Spatial accessibility denotes the ease with which activities may be reached from a given location using a particular transportation system. There are a number of accessibility measures methods and models, such as time of access to city centre, mean travel costs and opportunity accessibility. But these methods or models ignore the existence of obstacles. In fact, there are many kinds of obstacles in the world, such as rivers, railways, etc. The paper reviews the progress of accessibility measures, and introduces the obstacle to the accessibility measures. Meanwhile, through the analysis of A* algorithm, the advantage of A* algorithm that could avoid obstacles is put forward. Based on the above mentioned, the obstacle oriented accessibility measures based on simple gravity model is discussed in details. Finally, a case study is fulfilled by comparison between the obstacle oriented and non-obstacle accessibility measures.

  10. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their ...

  11. σ-Bond Electron Delocalization in Oligosilanes as Function of Substitution Pattern, Chain Length, and Spatial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Hlina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polysilanes are known to exhibit the interesting property of σ-bond electron delocalization. By employing optical spectroscopy (UV-vis, it is possible to judge the degree of delocalization and also differentiate parts of the molecules which are conjugated or not. The current study compares oligosilanes of similar chain length but different substitution pattern. The size of the substituents determines the spatial orientation of the main chain and also controls the conformational flexibility. The chemical nature of the substituents affects the orbital energies of the molecules and thus the positions of the absorption bands.

  12. Translingual Practice as Spatial Repertoires: Expanding the Paradigm beyond Structuralist Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The expanding orientations to translingualism are motivated by a gradual shift from the structuralist paradigm that has been treated as foundational in modern linguistics. Structuralism encouraged scholars to consider language, like other social constructs, as organized as a self-defining and closed structure, set apart from spatiotemporal…

  13. Photoionization cross-section for atomic orbitals with random and fixed spatial orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.M.; Fadley, C.S.; Kono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic photoionization subshell cross-sections and asymmetry parameters necessary for determining the differential cross-sections of randomly-oriented atoms have been calculated within the one-electron, central-potential model and the dipole approximation for all subshells of C, O, Al, Si, S, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Se, In, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Ta, W, Pt, Au, and Pb for a photon energy range from 20 to 1500 eV, and the relevant Cooper minima located to within 10 eV. These values are tabulated for general use, together with the associated radial matrix elements and phase shifts. Differential photoionization cross-sections for fixed-orientation s-, p- and d-orbitals have also been derived within the same model for a completely general experimental geometry, and closed-form expressions depending on radial matrix elements and phase shifts are given. For the special geometry of a polarized excitation source with polarization parallel to the electron emission direction, it is further shown that such oriented-atom cross-sections are exactly proportional to the probability distribution of the initial orbital, a result equivalent to that derived by using a plane-wave final-state approximation. However, detailed numerical calculations of cross-sections for oriented Cu 3d and O 2p orbitals in various general geometries and at various energies exhibit significant differences in comparison to plane-wave cross-sections. By contrast, certain prior angular-resolved X-ray photoemission studies of single-crystal valence bands are found to have been carried out in an experimental geometry that fortuitously gave cross-sections close to the plane-wave predictions. (orig.)

  14. The development of spatial orientation and laterality in physical education classes from the countryside - pilot test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora-Mihaela Iconomescu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present a pilot test on the development of space orientation and laterality in pupils in primary education in the physical education lesson. Testing of psychomotricity components was performed by the Piaget Head and Harris test. The differences between the two initial and final tests have shown that through the physical movement of the physical education we have improved the two components of psychomotricity.

  15. Optokinetic and vestibular stimulation determines the spatial orientation of negative optokinetic afternystagmus in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Barmack, N H

    1999-02-15

    Prolonged binocular optokinetic stimulation (OKS) in the rabbit induces a high-velocity negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II) that persists for several hours. We have taken advantage of this uniform nystagmus to study how changes in static head orientation in the pitch plane might influence the orientation of the nystagmus. After horizontal OKS, the rotation axis of the OKAN II remained almost constant in space as it was kept aligned with the gravity vector when the head was pitched by as much as 80 degrees up and 35 degrees down. Moreover, during reorientation, slow-phase eye velocity decreased according to the head pitch angle. Thereafter, we analyzed the space orientation of OKAN II after optokinetic stimulation during which the head and/or the OKS were pitched upward and downward. The rotation axis of OKAN II did not remain aligned with an earth vertical axis nor a head vertical axis, but it tended to be aligned with that of the OKS respace. The slow-phase eye velocity of OKAN II was also affected by the head pitch angle during OKS, because maximal OKAN II velocity occurred at the same head pitch angle as that during optokinetic stimulation. We suggest that OKAN II is coded in gravity-centered rather than in head-centered coordinates, but that this coordinate system may be influenced by optokinetic and vestibular stimulation. Moreover, the velocity attenuation of OKAN II seems to depend on the mismatch between the space-centered nystagmus rotation axis orientation and that of the "remembered" head-centered optokinetic pathway activated by OKS.

  16. The effect of the configuration and the interior design of a virtual weightless space station on human spatial orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Yamaguchi, Takao

    2005-05-01

    In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space station-like routes constructed of rectangular and cubical modules, and did Pointing and Modeling tasks. In Experiment 1, configurations of the routes were changed with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes, and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. The results indicated that spatial orientation ability was relevant to the variables and that orientational errors were explained by two causes. One of these was that the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns were incorrect. The other was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. In Experiment 2, the effect of the interior design was examined by testing three design settings. Wall colors that showed the allocentric frame of reference and the different interior design of vertical and horizontal modules were effective; however, there was a limit to the effectiveness in complicated configurations.

  17. The effect of the configuration and the interior design of a virtual weightless space station on human spatial orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Yamaguchi, Takao

    2005-01-01

    In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space station-like routes constructed of rectangular and cubical modules, and did Pointing and Modeling tasks. In Experiment 1, configurations of the routes were changed with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes, and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. The results indicated that spatial orientation ability was relevant to the variables and that orientational errors were explained by two causes. One of these was that the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns were incorrect. The other was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. In Experiment 2, the effect of the interior design was examined by testing three design settings. Wall colors that showed the allocentric frame of reference and the different interior design of vertical and horizontal modules were effective; however, there was a limit to the effectiveness in complicated configurations. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  19. Seeing the forest before the trees-spatial orientation in freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon motoro) in a hole-board task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Herzog, H; Scherpenstein, M

    2015-10-01

    Freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon motoro) have been shown to use a variety of spatial learning strategies including directional, landmark and place learning. In the present study, the significance of landmarks and geometric cues was investigated in a hole-board task. The aim was to determine cue preferences and collect additional information on the orientation mechanisms used in elasmobranchs. In four experiments, five juvenile stingrays had to memorize a fixed goal location within either a rectangular or a circular arena in the presence of goal-associated, signaling landmarks, proximal and distal cues. Transfer tests elucidated which cues the rays used or favored to reach the goal position. All rays successfully solved three of four tasks; as expected, different strategies were used in the process. Small alterations in the positioning of signaling landmarks (causing a spatial conflict between the previous feeding location and the new position of the signaling landmark) caused individuals to visit both locations equally often, whereas large alterations caused animals to ignore signaling cues and return to the previous feeding location. In the last and most complex experiment, three of five rays found the feeding location by remembering the positions of both proximate and distal landmarks in addition to memorizing particular swimming paths. Results showed that rays generally placed more importance on the overall environmental or geometric arrangement of the arena than on (individual) landmarks. This seems ecologically feasible, as distinct landmarks (e.g. rocks, pieces of wood, water plants) in the rays' natural environment may be more easily altered, removed or obscured from view than global ones (e.g. a river bend), which tend to be more stable. Overall, these results confirm those of previous studies, in that freshwater stingrays orient visually, learn quickly and can apply various orientation strategies, which are not mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2015

  20. Delayed discrimination of spatial frequency for gratings of different orientation: behavioral and fMRI evidence for low-level perceptual memory stores in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein; Greenlee, Mark W

    2008-07-01

    The concept of perceptual memory refers to the neural and cognitive processes underlying the storage of specific stimulus features such as spatial frequency, orientation, shape, contrast, and color. Psychophysical studies of perceptual memory indicate that observers can retain visual information about the spatial frequency of Gabor patterns independent of the orientation with which they are presented. Compared to discrimination of gratings with the same orientation, reaction times to orthogonally oriented gratings, however, increase suggesting additional processing. Using event-related fMRI we examined the pattern of neural activation evoked when subjects discriminated the spatial frequency of Gabors presented with the same or orthogonal orientation. Blood-oxygen level dependent BOLD fMRI revealed significantly elevated bilateral activity in visual areas (V1, V2) when the gratings to be compared had an orthogonal orientation, compared to when they had the same orientation. These findings suggest that a change in an irrelevant stimulus dimension requires additional processing in primary and secondary visual areas. The finding that the task-irrelevant stimulus property (orientation) had no significant effect on the prefrontal and intraparietal cortex supports a model of working memory in which discrimination and retention of basic stimulus dimensions is based on low-level perceptual memory stores that are located at an early stage in the visual process. Our findings suggest that accessing different stores requires time and has higher metabolic costs.

  1. Spatial Orientation and Balance Control Changes Induced by Altered Gravito-Inertial Force Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Galen D.; Wood, Scott J.; Gianna, Claire C.; Black, F. Owen; Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Seventeen healthy and eight vestibular deficient subjects were exposed to an interaural centripetal acceleration of 1 G (resultant 45 deg roll tilt of 1.4 G) on a 0.8 meter radius centrifuge for a period of 90 minutes in the dark. The subjects sat with head fixed upright, except every 4 of 10 minutes when instructed to rotate their head so that their nose and eyes pointed towards a visual point switched on every 3 to 5 seconds at random places (within +/- 30 deg) in the Earth horizontal plane. Motion sickness caused some subjects to limit their head movements during significant portions of the 90 minute period, and led three normal subjects to stop the test earlier. Eye movements, including directed saccades for subjective Earth- and head-referenced planes, were recorded before, during, and immediately after centrifugation using electro-oculography. Postural stability measurements were made before and within ten minutes after centrifugation. In normal subjects, postural sway and multisegment body kinematics were gathered during an eyes-closed head movement cadence (sway-referenced support platform), and in response to translational/rotational platform perturbations. A significant increase in postural sway, segmental motion amplitude and hip frequency was observed after centrifugation. This effect was short-lived, with a recovery time of several postural test trials. There were also asymmetries in the direction of post-centrifugation center of sway and head tilt which depended on the subject's orientation during the centrifugation adaptation period (left ear or right ear out). To delineate the effect of the magnitude of the gravito-inertial vector versus its direction during the adaptive centrifugation period, we tilted eight normal subjects in the roll axis at a 45 deg angle in the dark for 90 minutes without rotational motion. Their postural responses did not change following the period of tilt. Based on verbal reports, normal subjects overestimated roll

  2. Error estimation for goal-oriented spatial adaptivity for the SN equations on triangular meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathouwers, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate different error estimation procedures for use within a goal oriented adaptive algorithm for the S N equations on unstructured meshes. The method is based on a dual-weighted residual approach where an appropriate adjoint problem is formulated and solved in order to obtain the importance of residual errors in the forward problem on the specific goal of interest. The forward residuals and the adjoint function are combined to obtain both economical finite element meshes tailored to the solution of the target functional as well as providing error estimates. Various approximations made to make the calculation of the adjoint angular flux more economically attractive are evaluated by comparing the performance of the resulting adaptive algorithm and the quality of the error estimators when applied to two shielding-type test problems. (author)

  3. High spatial resolution grain orientation and strain mapping in thin films using polychromatic submicron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Valek, B.; Bravman, J. C.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area two-dimensional detector technology, has allowed us to develop an x-ray synchrotron technique that is capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular levels. Due to the relatively low absorption of x-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  4. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Tang

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR, but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and

  5. Spatial frequency-dependent feedback of visual cortical area 21a modulating functional orientation column maps in areas 17 and 18 of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luoxiu; Chen, Xin; Shou, Tiande

    2004-02-20

    The feedback effect of activity of area 21a on orientation maps of areas 17 and 18 was investigated in cats using intrinsic signal optical imaging. A spatial frequency-dependent decrease in response amplitude of orientation maps to grating stimuli was observed in areas 17 and 18 when area 21a was inactivated by local injection of GABA, or by a lesion induced by liquid nitrogen freezing. The decrease in response amplitude of orientation maps of areas 17 and 18 after the area 21a inactivation paralleled the normal response without the inactivation. Application in area 21a of bicuculline, a GABAa receptor antagonist caused an increase in response amplitude of orientation maps of area 17. The results indicate a positive feedback from high-order visual cortical area 21a to lower-order areas underlying a spatial frequency-dependent mechanism.

  6. The importance of spatial orientation and knowledge of traffic signs for children's traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Aleksandar; Pešić, Dalibor; Čičević, Svetlana; Antić, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills. Unlike adults, children have less than fully developed peripheral vision. Also, changes occur in color perception, i.e. discrimination. All this leads to the conclusion that the stage of physical and mental development of the child is very important for safe participation in traffic. So, to estimate if they are sufficiently equipped to participate safely in traffic, a sensitive test for young children that may be suitable for their level of cognitive development is required. Accordingly, road safety education should be arranged in such a way that considers the child's level of development, as has been shown to be more effective when started at younger ages. Play is the most natural and easiest way of learning because it is the lens through which children experience their world, and the world of others. Having this in mind, if we want to measure the abilities of a child, and their preparedness for safety participation in traffic, unavoidable is to use non-verbal tests. The purpose of this study is to explore primary schooler's spatial, and abilities of color perception and memorization, as well as their performances in interpreting the meaning of traffic signs. In addition, neighborhood environmental correlates (rural-urban) and possible individual differences influences on the relationship among these abilities was examined. Knowledge about these factors affecting children's safety can be applied to improve relevant intervention measures for promoting

  7. United Kingdom Shadow Secretary of State for Universities and Skills David Willetts MP (centre) in front of the CMS detector with (from left to right) A. Barr, Partner and Founder, Matterhorn Investment Management LLP P. Bate, S. Harper, M. Willetts, T. Virdee, J. Ellis, CMS Spokesperson G. Tonelli, CMS Technical Coordinator A. Ball and (front) Partner, Caravel Capital H. Hsueh and P. Wells. Monday 4th January 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; Point 5

    2010-01-01

    United Kingdom Shadow Secretary of State for Universities and Skills David Willetts MP (centre) in front of the CMS detector with (from left to right) A. Barr, Partner and Founder, Matterhorn Investment Management LLP P. Bate, S. Harper, M. Willetts, T. Virdee, J. Ellis, CMS Spokesperson G. Tonelli, CMS Technical Coordinator A. Ball and (front) Partner, Caravel Capital H. Hsueh and P. Wells. Monday 4th January 2010

  8. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  9. Professional mathematicians differ from controls in their spatial-numerical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Hohol, Mateusz; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus; Brożek, Bartosz; Kucharzyk, Bartłomiej; Nęcka, Edward

    2016-07-01

    While mathematically impaired individuals have been shown to have deficits in all kinds of basic numerical representations, among them spatial-numerical associations, little is known about individuals with exceptionally high math expertise. They might have a more abstract magnitude representation or more flexible spatial associations, so that no automatic left/small and right/large spatial-numerical association is elicited. To pursue this question, we examined the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect in professional mathematicians which was compared to two control groups: Professionals who use advanced math in their work but are not mathematicians (mostly engineers), and matched controls. Contrarily to both control groups, Mathematicians did not reveal a SNARC effect. The group differences could not be accounted for by differences in mean response speed, response variance or intelligence or a general tendency not to show spatial-numerical associations. We propose that professional mathematicians possess more abstract and/or spatially very flexible numerical representations and therefore do not exhibit or do have a largely reduced default left-to-right spatial-numerical orientation as indexed by the SNARC effect, but we also discuss other possible accounts. We argue that this comparison with professional mathematicians also tells us about the nature of spatial-numerical associations in persons with much less mathematical expertise or knowledge.

  10. Spatial-orientation priming impedes rather than facilitates the spontaneous control of hand-retraction speeds in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Yanovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Often in Parkinson's disease (PD motor-related problems overshadow latent non-motor deficits as it is difficult to dissociate one from the other with commonly used observational inventories. Here we ask if the variability patterns of hand speed and acceleration would be revealing of deficits in spatial-orientation related decisions as patients performed a familiar reach-to-grasp task. To this end we use spatial-orientation priming which normally facilitates motor-program selection and asked whether in PD spatial-orientation priming helps or hinders performance. METHODS: To dissociate spatial-orientation- and motor-related deficits participants performed two versions of the task. The biomechanical version (DEFAULT required the same postural- and hand-paths as the orientation-priming version (primed-UP. Any differences in the patients here could not be due to motor issues as the tasks were biomechanically identical. The other priming version (primed-DOWN however required additional spatial and postural processing. We assessed in all three cases both the forward segment deliberately aimed towards the spatial-target and the retracting segment, spontaneously bringing the hand to rest without an instructed goal. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found that forward and retracting segments belonged in two different statistical classes according to the fluctuations of speed and acceleration maxima. Further inspection revealed conservation of the forward (voluntary control of speed but in PD a discontinuity of this control emerged during the uninstructed retractions which was absent in NC. Two PD groups self-emerged: one group in which priming always affected the retractions and the other in which only the more challenging primed-DOWN condition was affected. These PD-groups self-formed according to the speed variability patterns, which systematically changed along a gradient that depended on the priming, thus dissociating motor from spatial-orientation

  11. RELIABILITY OF THE DYNAMIC OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN (DOTCA-CH: THAI VERSION OF ORIENTATION, SPATIAL PERCEPTION, AND THINKING OPERATIONS SUBTESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitporn Lersilp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA-Ch is a tool for finding out about cognitive problems in school-aged children. However, the DOTCA-Ch was developed in English for Western children. For this reason, it’s not appropriate for Thai children because of the differences of culture and language. The objectives of this study were aimed at translating the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests to a Thai version with a World Health Organization back-translation process, and to examine its internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. The participants consisted of 38 intellectually impaired and learning disabled individuals between the ages of 6–12. Results from this study revealed high internal consistency in the Orientation subtest (α=.83 Spatial Perception subtest (α=.82 and Thinking Operations subtest (α=.82, high inter-rater reliability in the Orientation subtest (ICC =.83, Spatial Perception subtest (ICC =.84 and Thinking Operations subtest (ICC =.74 and high test-retest reliability in the Orientation subtest (ICC =.84 Spatial Perception subtest (ICC =.86 and Thinking Operations subtest (ICC =.85. These results indicate that the Thai version of the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests  might be used as an appropriate assessment tool for Thai children, based on psychometric evidence including internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. However, additional study of other psychometric properties, including, predictive validity, concurrent reliability, and inter-rater reliability during the mediation process of this assessment tool needs to be carried out.

  12. Effect of spaceflight on the spatial orientation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during eccentric roll rotation: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F; Wood, Scott J; Clément, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Ground-based studies have reported shifts of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) slow phase velocity (SPV) axis toward the resultant gravito-inertial force vector. The VOR was examined during eccentric roll rotation before, during and after an 8-day orbital mission. On orbit this vector is aligned with the head z-axis. Our hypothesis was that eccentric roll rotation on orbit would generate horizontal eye movements. Two subjects were rotated in a semi-supine position with the head nasal-occipital axis parallel to the axis of rotation and 0.5 m off-center. The chair accelerated at 120 deg/s2 to 120 deg/s, rotated at constant velocity for one minute, and then decelerated to a stop in similar fashion. On Earth, the stimulation primarily generated torsional VOR. During spaceflight, in one subject torsional VOR became horizontal VOR, and then decayed very slowly. In the other subject, torsional VOR was reduced on orbit relative to pre- and post-flight, but the SPV axis did not rotate. We attribute the shift from torsional to horizontal VOR on orbit to a spatial orientation of velocity storage toward alignment with the gravito-inertial force vector, and the inter-individual difference to cognitive factors related to the subjective straight-ahead.

  13. Evidence for impairments in using static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Melissa C; Mostow, Allison J; Vecera, Shaun P; Larson, Jennifer C Gidley; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Mahone, E Mark; Denckla, Martha B

    2008-09-01

    We examined the ability to use static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism (HFA) compared to typically developing children (TD). The task was organized such that on valid trials, gaze cues were directed toward the same spatial location as the appearance of an upcoming target, while on invalid trials gaze cues were directed to an opposite location. Unlike TD children, children with HFA showed no advantage in reaction time (RT) on valid trials compared to invalid trials (i.e., no significant validity effect). The two stimulus onset asynchronies (200 ms, 700 ms) did not differentially affect these findings. The results suggest that children with HFA show impairments in utilizing static line drawings of gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention.

  14. Radial bisection of words and lines in right-brain-damaged patients with spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Arduino, Lisa S; Girelli, Luisa; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The bisection of lines positioned radially (with the two ends of the line close and far, with respect to the participant's body) has been less investigated than that of lines placed horizontally (with their two ends left and right, with respect to the body's midsagittal plane). In horizontal bisection, patients with left neglect typically show a rightward bias for both lines and words, greater with longer stimuli. As for radial bisection, available data indicate that neurologically unimpaired participants make a distal error, while results from right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect are contradictory. We investigated the bisection of radially oriented words, with the prediction that, during bisection, linguistic material would be recoded to its canonical left-to-right format in reading, with the performance of neglect patients being similar to that for horizontal words. Thirteen right-brain-damaged patients (seven with left spatial neglect) and fourteen healthy controls were asked to manually bisect 40 radial and 40 horizontal words (5-10 letters), and 80 lines, 40 radial and 40 horizontal, of comparable length. Right-brain-damaged patients with spatial neglect exhibited a proximal bias in the bisection of short radial words, with the proximal part corresponding to the final right part of horizontally oriented words. This proximal error was not found in patients without neglect and healthy controls. For bisection, short radial words may be recoded to the canonical orthographic horizontal format, unveiling the impact of left neglect on radially oriented stimuli. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Neural correlates of the spatial and expectancy components of endogenous and stimulus-driven orienting of attention in the Posner task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doricchi, Fabrizio; Macci, Enrica; Silvetti, Massimo; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2010-07-01

    Voluntary orienting of visual attention is conventionally measured in tasks with predictive central cues followed by frequent valid targets at the cued location and by infrequent invalid targets at the uncued location. This implies that invalid targets entail both spatial reorienting of attention and breaching of the expected spatial congruency between cues and targets. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to separate the neural correlates of the spatial and expectancy components of both endogenous orienting and stimulus-driven reorienting of attention. We found that during endogenous orienting with predictive cues, there was a significant deactivation of the right Temporal-Parietal Junction (TPJ). We also discovered that the lack of an equivalent deactivation with nonpredictive cues was matched to drop in attentional costs and preservation of attentional benefits. The right TPJ showed equivalent responses to invalid targets following predictive and nonpredictive cues. On the contrary, infrequent-unexpected invalid targets following predictive cues specifically activated the right Middle and Inferior Frontal Gyrus (MFG-IFG). Additional comparisons with spatially neutral trials demonstrated that, independently of cue predictiveness, valid targets activate the left TPJ, whereas invalid targets activate both the left and right TPJs. These findings show that the selective right TPJ activation that is found in the comparison between invalid and valid trials results from the reciprocal cancelling of the different activations that in the left TPJ are related to the processing of valid and invalid targets. We propose that left and right TPJs provide "matching and mismatching to attentional template" signals. These signals enable reorienting of attention and play a crucial role in the updating of the statistical contingency between cues and targets.

  16. Apolipoprotein ɛ4 breaks the association between declarative long-term memory and memory-based orienting of spatial attention in middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; McCloud, Tayla; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 genotype has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The memory system is mostly involved in AD, and memory deficits represent its key feature. A growing body of studies has focused on the earlier identification of cognitive dysfunctions in younger and older APOE ɛ4 carriers, but investigation on middle-aged individuals remains rare. Here we sought to investigate if the APOE ɛ4 genotype modulates declarative memory and its influences on perception in the middle of the life span. We tested 60 middle-aged individuals recruited according to their APOE allele variants (ɛ3/ɛ3, ɛ3/ɛ4, ɛ4/ɛ4) on a long-term memory-based orienting of attention task. Results showed that the APOE ɛ4 genotype impaired neither explicit memory nor memory-based orienting of spatial attention. Interestingly, however, we found that the possession of the ɛ4 allele broke the relationship between declarative long-term memory and memory-guided orienting of visuo-spatial attention, suggesting an earlier modulation exerted by pure genetic characteristics on cognition. These findings are discussed in light of possible accelerated brain ageing in middle-aged ɛ4-carriers, and earlier structural changes in the brain occurring at this stage of the lifespan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. À propos d’une géométrie vernaculaire : pratiques d’orientation en pays touareg On a vernacular geometry: Spatial orientation in Tuareg country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Casajus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de quelques-uns des savoir-faire que les Touaregs doivent cultiver pour s’orienter dans l’espace et se le représenter, eux qui ne disposent ni de cartes ni de boussoles. Ces savoir-faire ne sont pas différents de ceux que nous mobilisons nous-mêmes quotidiennement, étant donné que notre pratique quotidienne de l’espace a peu à voir avec la représentation savante que nous pouvons nous en faire par ailleurs. Ce travail se fonde d’une part sur les pratiques observées par l’auteur au nord du Niger, d’autre part sur des documents (cartes, poèmes recueillis au xixe siècle et au début du xxe siècle.What practical knowledge do the Tuareg, who have neither maps nor compasses, develop to orient and mentally situate themselves in space? This know-how is no different from what we use everyday. Our day-by-day spatial orientation has little to do with the learned description that we can make of it. This article is drawn from practices observed in northern Niger and from a study of 19th and early 20th century documents.

  18. Relationships among video gaming proficiency and spatial orientation, laparoscopic, and traditional surgical skills of third-year veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Heather A Towle; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J

    2014-02-01

    To determine the relationships among traditional and laparoscopic surgical skills, spatial analysis skills, and video gaming proficiency of third-year veterinary students. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. A convenience sample of 29 third-year veterinary students. The students had completed basic surgical skills training with inanimate objects but had no experience with soft tissue, orthopedic, or laparoscopic surgery; the spatial analysis test; or the video games that were used in the study. Scores for traditional surgical, laparoscopic, spatial analysis, and video gaming skills were determined, and associations among these were analyzed by means of Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (rs). A significant positive association (rs = 0.40) was detected between summary scores for video game performance and laparoscopic skills, but not between video game performance and traditional surgical skills scores. Spatial analysis scores were positively (rs = 0.30) associated with video game performance scores; however, that result was not significant. Spatial analysis scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic surgical skills scores. Traditional surgical skills scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic skills or spatial analysis scores. Results of this study indicated video game performance of third-year veterinary students was predictive of laparoscopic but not traditional surgical skills, suggesting that laparoscopic performance may be improved with video gaming experience. Additional studies would be required to identify methods for improvement of traditional surgical skills.

  19. Accuracy and Coordination of Spatial Frames of Reference during the Exploration of Virtual Maps: Interest for Orientation and Mobility of Blind People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Simonnet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if their spatial reasoning capabilities remain quite similar to those of sighted people, blind people encounter difficulties in getting distant information from their surroundings. Thus, whole body displacements, tactile map consultations, or auditory solutions are needed to establish physical contacts with their environment. Therefore, the accuracy of nonvisual spatial representations heavily relies upon the efficiency of exploration strategies and the ability to coordinate egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference. This study aims to better understand the mechanisms of this coordination without vision by analyzing cartographic exploration strategies and assessing their influence on mental spatial representations. Six blind sailors were immersed within a virtual haptic and auditory maritime environment. They were required to learn the layout of the map. Their movements were recorded and we identified some exploration strategies. Then they had to estimate the directions of six particular seamarks in aligned and misaligned situations. Better accuracy and coordination were obtained when participants used the “central point of reference” strategy. Our discussion relative to the articulation between geometric enduring representations and salient transient perceptions provides implications on map reading techniques and on mobility and orientation programs for blind people.

  20. Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwegler Herbert

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper we review a series of experiments showing that heritable variations in the size of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields correlate with performance in spatial, but not non-spatial radial-maze tasks. Experimental manipulation of the size of this projection by means of early postnatal hyperthyroidism produces the effects predicted from the correlations obtained with inbred mouse strains. Although the physiological mechanisms behind these correlations are unknown as yet, several lines of evidence indicate that these correlations are causal.

  1. The rod orientation test in patients with right-hemisphere infarction : a clinical study of spatial perception in 154 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Meerwaldt (Johannes David (Jan))

    1982-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a clinical study of disturbances of spatial perception. Chapter I gives a short review of hemispheric asymmetry. For a long time the right hemisphere was regarded as the minor hemisphere, of which substantial regions were thought to have no specific function.

  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  3. Brain correlates of the orientation of auditory spatial attention onto speaker location in a "cocktail-party" situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Hanenberg, Christina; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Successful speech perception in complex auditory scenes with multiple competing speakers requires spatial segregation of auditory streams into perceptually distinct and coherent auditory objects and focusing of attention toward the speaker of interest. Here, we focused on the neural basis of this remarkable capacity of the human auditory system and investigated the spatiotemporal sequence of neural activity within the cortical network engaged in solving the "cocktail-party" problem. Twenty-eight subjects localized a target word in the presence of three competing sound sources. The analysis of the ERPs revealed an anterior contralateral subcomponent of the N2 (N2ac), computed as the difference waveform for targets to the left minus targets to the right. The N2ac peaked at about 500 ms after stimulus onset, and its amplitude was correlated with better localization performance. Cortical source localization for the contrast of left versus right targets at the time of the N2ac revealed a maximum in the region around left superior frontal sulcus and frontal eye field, both of which are known to be involved in processing of auditory spatial information. In addition, a posterior-contralateral late positive subcomponent (LPCpc) occurred at a latency of about 700 ms. Both these subcomponents are potential correlates of allocation of spatial attention to the target under cocktail-party conditions. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Influence of gravity on the spatial orientation of eye nystagmus induced by unilateral lesion of horizontal semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ermanno, M; Pierangelo, E; Silvarosa, G

    2000-03-01

    The influence of gravity in the orientation and slow phase eye velocity of the ocular nystagmus following unilateral damage of the cupula in the ampulla of the horizontal semicircular canal (UHCD) was investigated. The nystagmus was analysed at different sagittal head positions using the x-y infrared eye monitor technique. The nystagmus was almost horizontal at 0 degrees head pitch angle and remained partially fixed in space when the head was pitched upward or downward. The reorientation gain of the slow and quick phases was high (about 0.75) within +/- 45 degrees of head pitch angle, but beyond this range, it decreased greatly. The gain value depended on the lesion extension to otolithic receptors. The absolute value of the slow phase eye velocity of UHCD nystagmus was also modified systematically by the head pitch, showing a reduction in the upward and an increase in the downward.

  5. Variation of Oriental Oak (Quercus variabilis Leaf δ13C across Temperate and Subtropical China: Spatial Patterns and Sensitivity to Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the carbon-13 isotope (leaf δ13C in leaves is negatively correlated with the mean annual precipitation (MAP atlarge geographical scales. In this paper, we explain the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C variation for deciduous oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Bl. across temperate and subtropical biomes and its sensitivity to climate factors such as MAP. There was a 6‰ variation in the leaf δ13C values of oak with a significant positive correlation with latitude and negative correlations with the mean annual temperature (MAT and MAP. There was no correlation between leaf δ13C and altitude or longitude. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that leaf δ13C decreased 0.3‰ per 100 mm increase in MAP. MAP alone could account for 68% of the observed variation in leaf δ13C. These results can be used to improve predictions for plant responses to climate change and particularly lower rainfall.

  6. From Tree Structure to Interactive Network:A Preliminary Study on Transit-Oriented Spatial Development Patterns of Village-Town Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyan; WANG; Shuhua; HE; Fang; QIAN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the relatively developed highway and road network in China’s eastern coastal provinces, the public transit-oriented development model(TOD) for village-town communities aims to create a network connecting the urban and rural public transportation system and the public service system, by selectively constructing 'urban-type' communities with bus stops, thus promoting the mobility of urban and rural factors and to optimize the public service system, so as to change the traditional top-down development mode with tree structure. Through the planning practice in Linyi County, Dezhou City, it is found that a TOD-based spatial development mode in village-town communities can provide references for new countryside planning and construction in China in terms of upgrading the urban-rural functional structure, satisfying local demands, optimizing local government decisions, improving the planning mode, etc.

  7. The influence of magnetic field on the spatial orientation in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Batrakova

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study on the use of GMF for orientation in R. rutilus from a natural population. Our results confirm the presence of magnetosensitivity in roach. At the same time, the preferred direction in GMF matched the direction to the mouth of the channel where the fish were caught. It is possible that fish stressed by experimental manipulations have tried to “leave” the experimental arena in the usual direction of escape to the deep-water part of reservoir. Figure 1. Bimodal distribution of preferred directions in zebrafish by the reversal of vertical (a, horizontal (b, both vertical and horizontal (c components of GMF, and by the rotation of the horizontal component by 90 degrees clockwise (d. Distributions of preferred directions in control conditions (GMF for each experiment are given under corresponding diagrams (e, f, g, h. Figure 2. Distribution of preferred directions of roach in a GMF (a and the rotation of the horizontal component of the GMF by 90 degrees clockwise (b. Sample area with designation of the direction of the channel to the Rybinsk Reservoir (c. Asterisk shows the point of sampling.

  8. Organization dependent collective magnetic properties of secondary nanostructures with differential spatial ordering and magnetic easy axis orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, K. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Sarma, D.D. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Deb, P., E-mail: pdeb@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Achieving control on the formation of different organization states of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to harness their organization dependent physical properties in desired ways. In this study, three organization states of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), defining as (i) assembly (ii) network aggregate and (iii) cluster, have been developed by simply changing the solvent evaporation conditions. All three systems have retained the same phase and polydispersity of primary particles. Magnetic measurements show that the partial alignment of the easy axes of the particles in the network system due to the stacking aggregation morphology can result in significant enhancement of the coercivity and remanence values, while the opposite is obtained for the cluster system due to the random orientation of easy axes. Partial alignment in the aggregate system also results in noticeable non-monotonic field dependence of ZFC peak temperature (T{sub peak}). The lowest value of the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) for the cluster system is related to the lowering of the effective anisotropy due to the strongest demagnetizing effect. FC (Field cooled) memory effect was observed to be decreasing with the increasing strength of dipolar interaction of organization states. Therefore, the stacking aggregation and the cluster formation are two interesting ways of magnetic nanoparticles organization for modulating collective magnetic properties significantly, which can have renewed application potentials from recording devices to biomedicine. - Highlights: • Three organization states of magnetic nanoparticles were developed. • Aggregation enhances the H{sub c} and M{sub r}/M{sub s,} while spherical clustering shows opposite. • Organization morphology hardly effects on FC memory effect. • Developed secondary systems can have renewed application potentials in wide spectrum.

  9. Size and spatial orientation of uterine tissue transplants on the peritoneum crucially determine the growth and cyst formation of endometriosis-like lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körbel, Christina; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2010-10-01

    In many studies in rodents, intraperitoneal endometriosis-like lesions are surgically induced by syngeneic or autologous transplantation of uterine tissue samples, which are sutured to the abdominal wall. However, until now the surgical techniques have not been standardized, and we address this issue here. Uterine tissue samples were transplanted to the peritoneum of C57BL/6 mice (four study groups, n = 7 each). Using non-invasive high-resolution ultrasound imaging over a period of 4 weeks, we analyzed growth characteristics and cyst formation of the endometriosis-like lesions which developed, in relation to mode of transplantation (syngeneic versus autologous), type of tissue fixed adjacent to the peritoneum (endometrium versus perimetrium), and size of tissue transplanted (2 versus 3 mm). Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed. When the perimetrium, with underlying myometrium, was sutured next to the host peritoneum the endometriosis-like lesions which developed exhibited a higher growth rate (Pendometriosis-like lesions. Our study demonstrates that size and spatial orientation of peritoneally fixed uterine tissue samples crucially determine growth and cyst formation of endometriotic lesions in mice. These findings should improve the standardization and reliability of future studies, performed in the frequently used mouse model of surgically induced endometriosis.

  10. A component of DNA double-strand break repair is dependent on the spatial orientation of the lesions within the higher-order structures of chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.J.; Bryant, P.E. (Saint Andrews Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1994-11-01

    By the use of a modified neutral filter elution procedure variations in the repair of DNA dsb have been observed between the ionising radiation sensitive mutant xrs-5 and the parent cell line CHO-K1. Conventional neutral filter elution requires harsh lysis conditions to remove higher-order chromatin structures which interfere with elution of DNA containing dsb. By lysing cells with non-ionic detergent in the presence of 2 mol dm[sup -3] salt, histone-depleted structures that retain the higher-order nuclear matrix organization, including chromatin loops, can be produced. Elution from these structures will only occur if two or more dsb lie within a single-looped domain delineated by points of attachment to the nuclear matrix. Repair experiments indicate that in CHO cells repair of dsb in loops containing multiple dsb are repaired with slow kinetics whilst dsb occurring in loops containing single dsb are repaired with fast kinetics. Xrs-5 cells are defective in the repair of multiply damaged loops. This work indicates that the spatial orientation of dsb in the higher-order structures of chromatin are a possible factor in the repair of these lesions. (Author).

  11. A component of DNA double-strand break repair is dependent on the spatial orientation of the lesions within the higher-order structures of chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.J.; Bryant, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    By the use of a modified neutral filter elution procedure variations in the repair of DNA dsb have been observed between the ionising radiation sensitive mutant xrs-5 and the parent cell line CHO-K1. Conventional neutral filter elution requires harsh lysis conditions to remove higher-order chromatin structures which interfere with elution of DNA containing dsb. By lysing cells with non-ionic detergent in the presence of 2 mol dm -3 salt, histone-depleted structures that retain the higher-order nuclear matrix organization, including chromatin loops, can be produced. Elution from these structures will only occur if two or more dsb lie within a single-looped domain delineated by points of attachment to the nuclear matrix. Repair experiments indicate that in CHO cells repair of dsb in loops containing multiple dsb are repaired with slow kinetics whilst dsb occurring in loops containing single dsb are repaired with fast kinetics. Xrs-5 cells are defective in the repair of multiply damaged loops. This work indicates that the spatial orientation of dsb in the higher-order structures of chromatin are a possible factor in the repair of these lesions. (Author)

  12. From Left to Right: The Transformation of Eurosceptic Discourses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Denmark is usually portrayed as an archetypical Eurosceptic state. Arguably, the fairytale country is an ‘anxious European', uniting ‘an emotional attachment to the North' with ‘the economic attractions of the EEC' (Miljan 1977, quoted in Hansen 2002: 50). Meanwhile, the public debate leading up...... to the 2009 European Parliament (EP) election indicate that this picture no longer fits. Over the last years, Danish discourses on Europe have undergone significant transformations, moving Denmark closer to the European mainstream when it comes to its ways of debating Europe both in the media and within...

  13. Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Hoekstra, L. T. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bennink, R. J. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

  14. Sliding right into disaster : left-to-right sliding windows leak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Breitner, J.; Genkin, D.; Groot Bruinderink, L.; Heninger, N.; Lange, T.; van Vredendaal, C.; Yarom, Y.; Fischer, W.; Homma, N.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that constant-time implementations of modular exponentiation cannot use sliding windows. However, software libraries such as Libgcrypt, used by GnuPG, continue to use sliding windows. It is widely believed that, even if the complete pattern of squarings and multiplications is

  15. Paradoxical arterial hypoxemia in a left-to-right shunt congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2014-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome is a rare complication of different types of chronic hepatic diseases with associated portal venous hypertension, resulting in pulmonary vascular dilatation, predominantly in the lower lung fields, and leading to ventilation-perfusion mismatch, arterial hypoxemia and a poor prognosis. We present the case of 42-year-old male patient with an anomalous drainage of the right superior pulmonary vein into the azygos vein and a portal vein cavernomatosis with associated portal venous hypertension who presented severe oxygen desaturation, during exercise, in the context of a hepatopulmonary syndrome.

  16. Tweeting From Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More Than an Echo Chamber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, Pablo; Jost, John T; Nagler, Jonathan; Tucker, Joshua A; Bonneau, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We estimated ideological preferences of 3.8 million Twitter users and, using a data set of nearly 150 million tweets concerning 12 political and nonpolitical issues, explored whether online communication resembles an "echo chamber" (as a result of selective exposure and ideological segregation) or a "national conversation." We observed that information was exchanged primarily among individuals with similar ideological preferences in the case of political issues (e.g., 2012 presidential election, 2013 government shutdown) but not many other current events (e.g., 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, 2014 Super Bowl). Discussion of the Newtown shootings in 2012 reflected a dynamic process, beginning as a national conversation before transforming into a polarized exchange. With respect to both political and nonpolitical issues, liberals were more likely than conservatives to engage in cross-ideological dissemination; this is an important asymmetry with respect to the structure of communication that is consistent with psychological theory and research bearing on ideological differences in epistemic, existential, and relational motivation. Overall, we conclude that previous work may have overestimated the degree of ideological segregation in social-media usage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Eco-SpaCE: An object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks.

  18. Spatial Theography

    OpenAIRE

    van Noppen, Jean Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Descriptive theology («theography») frequently resorts to metaphorical modes of meaning. Among these metaphors, the spatial language of localization and orientation plays an important role to delineate tentative insights into the relationship between the human and the divine. These spatial metaphors are presumably based on the universal human experience of interaction between the body and its environment. It is dangerous, however, to postulate universal agreement on meanings associated with s...

  19. Differentiating Spatial Memory from Spatial Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Whitney N.; Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2014-01-01

    The perspective-taking task is one of the most common paradigms used to study the nature of spatial memory, and better performance for certain orientations is generally interpreted as evidence of spatial representations using these reference directions. However, performance advantages can also result from the relative ease in certain…

  20. A management-oriented framework for selecting metrics used to assess habitat- and path-specific quality in spatially structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Laura Lopez-Hoffman,; Norris, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Mobile species with complex spatial dynamics can be difficult to manage because their population distributions vary across space and time, and because the consequences of managing particular habitats are uncertain when evaluated at the level of the entire population. Metrics to assess the importance of habitats and pathways connecting habitats in a network are necessary to guide a variety of management decisions. Given the many metrics developed for spatially structured models, it can be challenging to select the most appropriate one for a particular decision. To guide the management of spatially structured populations, we define three classes of metrics describing habitat and pathway quality based on their data requirements (graph-based, occupancy-based, and demographic-based metrics) and synopsize the ecological literature relating to these classes. Applying the first steps of a formal decision-making approach (problem framing, objectives, and management actions), we assess the utility of metrics for particular types of management decisions. Our framework can help managers with problem framing, choosing metrics of habitat and pathway quality, and to elucidate the data needs for a particular metric. Our goal is to help managers to narrow the range of suitable metrics for a management project, and aid in decision-making to make the best use of limited resources.

  1. Laser induced nuclear orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.; Pappas, P.; Feld, M.S.; Murnick, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Resonant laser radiation can orient metastable nuclei, resulting in spatially anisotropic emission of β or γ radiation. This technique can be used to obtain isomer shifts and nuclear moments and can lead to isomer separation. (Auth.)

  2. Separate mechanisms for magnitude and order processing in the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect: The strange case of musical note values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpic, Valter; Fumarola, Antonia; De Tommaso, Matteo; Luccio, Riccardo; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-08-01

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect is considered an evidence of the association between numbers and space, with faster left key-press responses to small numbers and faster right key-press responses to large numbers. We examined whether visually presented note values produce a SNARC-like effect. Differently from numbers, note values are represented as a decreasing left-to-right progression, allowing us to disambiguate the contribution of order and magnitude in determining the direction of the effect. Musicians with formal education performed a note value comparison in Experiment 1 (direct task), a line orientation judgment in Experiment 2 (indirect task), and a detection task in Experiment 3 (indirect task). When note values were task relevant (direct task), participants responded faster to large note values with the left key-press, and vice versa. Conversely, when note values were task irrelevant (indirect tasks), the direction of this association was reversed. This evidence suggests the existence of separate mechanisms underlying the SNARC effect. Namely, an Order-Related Mechanism (ORM) and a Magnitude-Related Mechanism (MRM) that are revealed by different task demands. Indeed, according to a new model we proposed, ordinal and magnitude related information appears to be preferentially involved in direct and indirect tasks, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  4. Lucky numbers: spatial neglect affects physical, but not representational, choices in a lotto task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E R; Towse, John N; Bradshaw, John L; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Spatial neglect can be characterized by a "magnetic attraction" towards the right side of a visual stimulus array and a selection of stimuli from that hemispace. This study examined whether these distinctive characteristics in visuo-motor space are also evident in representational number space. Given that numbers are thought to be represented along a left-to-right oriented mental number line, an affinity for the spontaneous selection of larger numbers was anticipated for neglect patients. Contrary to this expectation, neglect patients (n=20) picked a similar range of numbers compared to controls (n=17) when generating a number between 1000 and 10,000 and when playing an imaginary lottery game. There was, however, a positive correlation between the biases for the imaginary lottery, number generation and a number bisection task - demonstrating that exploration asymmetries along the mental number line are consistent within individuals across tasks. Some of the patients selected smaller numbers in all of these tasks, confirming reports of dissociations between physical and numerical-representational forms of neglect. Conversely, only four (20%) of the patients could reliably be classified as demonstrating a neglect in number space. When filling out a physical lottery ticket, the neglect patients showed the expected bias towards picking numbers placed on the right-hand side of the ticket. These results demonstrate that the magnetic attraction towards the right side of mental representations is rather weak and that representational forms of neglect only occasionally co-exist with neglect in physical space. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of reference frames and number of cues available on the spatial orientation of males and females in a virtual memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Rosa; García, Rubén Fernández; Cimadevilla, Jose Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the number of cues and cue location in human spatial learning. To assess their importance, subjects performed variants of a virtual task called "The Boxes Room". Participants were trained to locate, in a computer-generated environment with 16 boxes, the rewarded boxes through 8 trials. In experiment I, the number of distal cues available was zero, one, two or the standard arrangement (seven cues). In experiment II, place navigation was compared based on distal landmarks (extra-maze cues placed on the walls) and proximal landmarks (proximal cues placed between the boxes). The results of experiment I demonstrated that one cue in the room is enough to obtain a good performance in the task. Experiment II showed that groups using proximal cues were slower and less accurate than groups using distal cues. In addition, our data suggest that men are better navigators than women, as they found the rewarded boxes sooner and committed fewer errors in both studies. These results indicate that performance can change depending on the number and location of available cues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  7. At the Reception Desk of the Public Information Office, left to right, Chantal Berthet, Coca Roth and Regine Chareyron.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    In keeping with Article II of the Convention, which stipulates that "the results of its (...) work shall be published or otherwise made available," CERN was already organising visits for the general public in the late 1950s, with members of the personnel doubling up as voluntary tour guides. By 1959, the Laboratory was opening its doors to almost 2 500 visitors a year. Ten years down the line, that number had risen to 12 700.

  8. Anatomical Closure of Left-to-Right Shunts in Premature Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Cautionary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra R. Dereddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Closure of a systemic to pulmonary shunt in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia may be beneficial, but in the presence of pulmonary hypertension is controversial. Here, we discuss two premature infants with pulmonary hypertension who developed acute pulmonary hypertensive crisis after closure of these shunts and hence advise caution.

  9. A comprehensive approach to improving patient flow in our hospitals--the 'left to right, over and under' concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardagh, Michael

    2015-08-21

    It is essential we manage the capacity of our hospitals so that acute demand can be accommodated without developing queues for care and backlogs of work. This paper presents a comprehensive model for improving patient flow in our hospitals by attending carefully to both the demand and capacity states of the hospital and maximising efficient flow of our acute patient journeys. The model includes attention to the patient journey as the central focus, with an overarching governance structure and an underpinning sophisticated operations structure.

  10. The impact of symbolic and non-symbolic quantity on spatial learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    Full Text Available An implicit mapping of number to space via a "mental number line" occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number--especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high--and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner.

  11. Effects of spatial attention on mental time travel in patients with neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anelli, Filomena; Avanzi, Stefano; Arzy, Shahar; Mancuso, Mauro; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    Numerous studies agree that time is represented in spatial terms in the brain. Here we investigate how a deficit in orienting attention in space influences the ability to mentally travel in time, that is to recall the past and anticipate the future. Right brain-damaged patients, with (RBD-N+) and without neglect (RBD-N-), and healthy controls (HC) were subjected to a Mental Time Travel (MTT) task. Participants were asked to project themselves in time to past, present or future (i.e., self-projection) and, for each self-projection, to judge whether events were located relatively in the past or the future (i.e., self-reference). The MTT-task was performed before and after a manipulation, through prismatic adaptation (PA), inducing a leftward shift of spatial attention. Before PA, RBD-N+ were slower for future than for past events, whereas RBD-N- and HC responded similarly to past and future events. A leftward shift of spatial attention by PA reduced the difference in past/future processing in RBD-N+ and fastened RBD-N- and HC's response to past events. Assuming that time concepts, such as past/future, are coded with a left-to-right order on a mental time line (MTL), a recursive search of future-events can explain neglect patients' performance. Improvement of the spatial deficit following PA reduces the recursive search of future events on the rightmost part of the MTL, facilitating exploration of past events on the leftmost part of the MTL, finally favoring the correct location of past and future events. In addition, the study of the anatomical correlates of the temporal deficit in mental time travel through voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed a correlation with a lesion located in the insula and in the thalamus. These findings provide new insights about the inter-relations of space and time, and can pave the way to a procedure to rehabilitate a deficit in these cognitive domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a "Mental Line"? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presaghi, Fabio; Rullo, Marika

    2018-01-01

    Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one's own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social categories are mentally ordered from left to right on an ingroup-outgroup continuum when membership is salient. To substantiate our hypothesis, we consider empirical evidence from two areas of psychology: research on differences in processing of ingroups and outgroups and research on the effects of spatial biases on processing of quantitative information (e.g., time; numbers) which appears to be arranged from left to right on a small-large continuum, an effect known as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC). In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit) position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social categories (Experiment 3). Overall the results indicate that ingroups and outgroups are processed differently. The results are discussed with respect to social categorization theory, spatial agency bias, i.e., the effect observed in Western cultures whereby the agent of an action is mentally represented on the left and the recipient on the right, and the SNARC effect.

  13. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a “Mental Line”? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Presaghi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one’s own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social categories are mentally ordered from left to right on an ingroup–outgroup continuum when membership is salient. To substantiate our hypothesis, we consider empirical evidence from two areas of psychology: research on differences in processing of ingroups and outgroups and research on the effects of spatial biases on processing of quantitative information (e.g., time; numbers which appears to be arranged from left to right on a small–large continuum, an effect known as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social categories (Experiment 3. Overall the results indicate that ingroups and outgroups are processed differently. The results are discussed with respect to social categorization theory, spatial agency bias, i.e., the effect observed in Western cultures whereby the agent of an action is mentally represented on the left and the recipient on the right, and the SNARC effect.

  14. On the instability and constraints of the interaction between number representation and spatial attention in healthy humans: A concise review of the literature and new experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, E; Pinto, M; Merola, S; D'Onofrio, M; Doricchi, F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between number and space representation is still one of the most debated topics in studies of mathematical cognition. Here we offer a concise review of two important behavioral effects that have pointed out the use of a spatially left-to-right oriented mental number line (MNL) in healthy participants: the SNARC effect and the attentional SNARC effect (Att-SNARC). Following a brief summary of seminal investigations on the introspective properties of the MNL, we review recent empirical evidence and theories on the functional origin of the SNARC effect, where upon left/right response choices faster reaction times are found for small numbers with left-side responses and for large numbers with right-side responses. Then we offer a summary of the studies that have investigated whether the mere perception of visual Arabic numbers presented at central fixation can engender spatially congruent lateral shifts of attention, ie, leftward for small numbers and rightward for large ones, ie, the Att-SNARC effect. Finally, we summarize four experiments that tested whether the Att-SNARC depends on an active rather than passive processing of centrally presented digit cues. In line with other recent studies, these experiment do not replicate the original Att-SNARC and show that the mere perception of Arabic numerals does not trigger automatic shifts of attention. These shifts are instead found when the task requires the explicit left/right spatial coding of digit cues, ie, Spatial Att-SNARC (Fattorini et al., 2015b). Nonetheless, the reliability of the Spatial Att-SNARC effect seems not as strong as that of conventional SNARC effects where left/right codes are mapped onto responses rather than directly mapped on digit cues. Comparing the magnitude of digits to a numerical reference, ie, "5," also produced a Magnitude Comparison Att-SNARC that was weaker than the spatial one. However, the reliability of this Magnitude Comparison Att-SNARC should be considered with

  15. Innate and Cultural Spatial Time: A Developmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Magnani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed literature to understand when a spatial map for time is available in the brain. We carefully defined the concepts of metrical map of time and of conceptual representation of time as the mental time line (MTL in order to formulate our position. It is that both metrical map and conceptual representation of time are spatial in nature. The former should be innate, related to motor/implicit timing, it should represent all magnitudes with an analogic and bi-dimensional structure. The latter MTL should be learned, available at about 8–10 years-old and related to cognitive/explicit time. It should have uni-dimensional, linear and directional structure (left-to-right in Western culture. We bear the centrality of the development of number cognition, of time semantic concepts and of reading/writing habits for the development of ordinality and linearity of the MTL.

  16. Multisensory Integration for Pilot Spatial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    1993-0022). Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Armstrong Laboratories. Gilson, R.D., Ventola, R.W., & Fenton , R.E. (1975). A kinesthetic...Ventola, R.W., & Fenton , R.E. (1975). A kinesthetic-tactual display for stall deterrence. In Eleventh Annual Conference on Manual Control (NASA TM...M., L) 2 = Impact (H, M, L) 3 = Persistence/Difficulty to work-around (H, M., L) 4 = Overall Severity: 1=Severe, 2=Major, 3=Minor, 4= Cosmetic

  17. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  18. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  19. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.

    1981-07-15

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized.

  20. Spatial Disorientation Training – Demonstration and Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.

    2008-01-01

    Acclimatization ; Aerospace medicine ; Attitude indicators ; Aviation accidents ; Flight maneuvers ; Flight simulators ; Human factors engineering ; Orientation ; Perception ; Physiological effects ; Pilot training ; Pilots (personnel) ; Responses ; Reviews ; Situational awareness ; Spatial

  1. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  3. Orientation-crowding within contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, James C; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-07-15

    We examined how crowding (the breakdown of object recognition in the periphery caused by interference from "clutter") depends on the global arrangement of target and distracting flanker elements. Specifically we probed orientation discrimination using a near-vertical target Gabor flanked by two vertical distractor Gabors (one above and one below the target). By applying variable (opposite-sign) horizontal offsets to the positions of the two flankers we arranged the elements so that on some trials they formed contours with the target and on others they did not. While the presence of flankers generally elevated orientation discrimination thresholds for the target we observe maximal crowding not when flanker and targets were co-aligned but when a small spatial offset was applied to flanker location, so that contours formed between flanker and targets only when the target orientation was cued. We also report that observers' orientation judgments are biased, with target orientation appearing either attracted or repulsed by the global/contour orientation. A second experiment reveals that the sign of this effect is dependent both on observer and on eccentricity. In general, the magnitude of repulsion is reduced with eccentricity but whether this becomes attraction (of element orientation to contour orientation) is dependent on observer. We note however that across observers and eccentricities, the magnitude of repulsion correlates positively with the amount of release from crowding observed with co-aligned targets and flankers, supporting the notion of fluctuating bias as the basis for elevated crowding within contours.

  4. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1 or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment. The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation. The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2. Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  5. Postdictive modulation of visual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how visual orientation is modulated by subsequent orientation inputs. Observers were presented a near-vertical Gabor patch as a target, followed by a left- or right-tilted second Gabor patch as a distracter in the spatial vicinity of the target. The task of the observers was to judge whether the target was right- or left-tilted (Experiment 1) or whether the target was vertical or not (Supplementary experiment). The judgment was biased toward the orientation of the distracter (the postdictive modulation of visual orientation). The judgment bias peaked when the target and distracter were temporally separated by 100 ms, indicating a specific temporal mechanism for this phenomenon. However, when the visibility of the distracter was reduced via backward masking, the judgment bias disappeared. On the other hand, the low-visibility distracter could still cause a simultaneous orientation contrast, indicating that the distracter orientation is still processed in the visual system (Experiment 2). Our results suggest that the postdictive modulation of visual orientation stems from spatiotemporal integration of visual orientation on the basis of a slow feature matching process.

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  7. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  9. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  16. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  18. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  19. Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Moghimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting productivity is one of the goals of usinginformation technology in organizations. The purpose of this research isexamining the impact of IT on organizational productivity andrecognizing its mechanisms based on process-oriented approach. For thisend, by reviewing the literature of the subject a number of impacts of ITon organizational processes were identified. Then, through interviewswith IT experts, seven main factors were selected and presented in aconceptual model. This model was tested through a questionnaire in 148industrial companies. Data analysis shows that impact of IT onproductivity can be included in the eight major categories: Increasing ofthe Automation, Tracking, Communication, Improvement, Flexibility,Analytic, Coordination and Monitoring in organizational processes.Finally, to improve the impact of information technology onorganizational productivity, some suggestions are presented.

  20. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  1. Spin orientation for nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial orientations and the absolute values of angular momentum are determined for galaxies in the Local Group and the M 81/IC 342 group. For this purpose, the data on both velocity field and the dust knots configuration have been used. The spin direction has been established unambiguously for 21 objects; however, for the remaining 14 dwarf members the spin orientations are presented by pairs of alternative directions. The distribution of the spin vectors on the sky does not slow pronounced sings of anisotropy

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  3. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  4. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  12. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  13. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  14. A Conditioned Visual Orientation Requires the Ellipsoid Body in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using…

  15. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  16. Priming the Mental Time Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…

  17. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  18. El oriente de Chillida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Galante Rodero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Todo el arte es influyente porque todo arte nace del hombre. Esta pequeña reflexión quiere resaltar cómo el arte y el pensamiento oriental han sido más influyentes, no sólo en el ámbito estético, sino en la concepción espacial y del propio hecho creador, en el arte occidental de lo que a primera vista podemos apreciar. En el caso de Chillida es una influencia no intencionada, muy sutil y analizada desde dos perspectivas, la primera, a partir de sus contactos directos con Japón como Homenaje a Hokusai, exposiciones realizadas y premios concedidos en el país nipón y por otro lado, los contactos indirectos con Oriente como su biblioteca personal, sus colaboraciones editoriales con Heidegger y Valente y su encuentro con Mark Tobey en la Bienal de Venecia de 1958.All art is influential because all art is born of man. This short reflection wants to highlight how eastern art and Eastern thought have been most influential, not only in the aesthetic realm, in spatial conception and creative act, in Western art more than at first glance we can see. In the case of Chillida’s unintentional influence, very subtle and analyzed from two perspectives, first from direct contacts with Japan as Tribute to Hokusai, exhibitions and prizes awarded in the japanese country, and on the other hand, indirect contacts with the East as his personal library, his collaborations with Heidegger and Valente and his encounter with Mark Tobey at the Venice Biennale of 1958.

  19. VARIABILIDAD ESPACIAL DE LAS PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS DEL EPIPEDÓN DE UN ANDISOL HIDROMÓRFICO DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF THE EPIPEDON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN AN HYDROMORPHIC ANDISOL FROM THE ANTIOQUIA EAST ( COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial de algunas propiedades químicas del epipedón de un Andisol de régimen de humedad ácuico. La mayoría de las propiedades estudiadas presentó una dependencia espacial alta, con una variabilidad estructurada de más del 50% de la variabilidad total y con rango relativamente corto de 20 m en promedio, situación que puede estar reflejando una alta intensidad de uso y manejo del suelo en actividades agropecuarias como la aplicación de fertilizantes y enmiendas.The spatial variability of some chemical properties of the epipedon in an Andisol with aquic humidity regime was studied. The most properties presented a high spatial dependence (C/Sill>50% and a relatively short range average ( 20 m, possibly caused by the intensive use of soil that has involved the application of fertilizers and amendments.

  20. Spatial Data Management System (SDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    The Spatial Data Management System (SDMS) is a testbed for retrieval and display of spatially related material. SDMS permits the linkage of large graphical display objects with detail displays and explanations of its smaller components. SDMS combines UNIX workstations, MIT's X Window system, TCP/IP and WAIS information retrieval technology to prototype a means of associating aggregate data linked via spatial orientation. SDMS capitalizes upon and extends previous accomplishments of the Software Technology Branch in the area of Virtual Reality and Automated Library Systems.

  1. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  2. Orientation masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS): implications for estimates of filter bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Tim S; Holmes, David J

    2010-10-01

    Most contemporary models of spatial vision include a cross-oriented route to suppression (masking from a broadly tuned inhibitory pool), which is most potent at low spatial and high temporal frequencies (T. S. Meese & D. J. Holmes, 2007). The influence of this pathway can elevate orientation-masking functions without exciting the target mechanism, and because early psychophysical estimates of filter bandwidth did not accommodate this, it is likely that they have been overestimated for this corner of stimulus space. Here we show that a transient 40% contrast mask causes substantial binocular threshold elevation for a transient vertical target, and this declines from a mask orientation of 0° to about 40° (indicating tuning), and then more gently to 90°, where it remains at a factor of ∼4. We also confirm that cross-orientation masking is diminished or abolished at high spatial frequencies and for sustained temporal modulation. We fitted a simple model of pedestal masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS) to our data and those of G. C. Phillips and H. R. Wilson (1984) and found the dependency of orientation bandwidth on spatial frequency to be much less than previously supposed. An extension of our linear spatial pooling model of contrast gain control and dilution masking (T. S. Meese & R. J. Summers, 2007) is also shown to be consistent with our results using filter bandwidths of ±20°. Both models include tightly and broadly tuned components of divisive suppression. More generally, because XOS and/or dilution masking can affect the shape of orientation-masking curves, we caution that variations in bandwidth estimates might reflect variations in processes that have nothing to do with filter bandwidth.

  3. Monitoring eye movements to investigate the picture superiority effect in spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Rosen, Mitchell; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pelz, Jeff B

    2008-01-01

    Spatial memory is usually better for iconic than for verbal material. Our aim was to assess whether such effect is related to the way iconic and verbal targets are viewed when people have to memorize their locations. Eye movements were recorded while participants memorized the locations of images or words. Images received fewer, but longer, gazes than words. Longer gazes on images might reflect greater attention devoted to images due to their higher sensorial distinctiveness and/or generation with images of an additional phonological code beyond the visual code immediately available. We found that words were scanned mainly from left to right while a more heterogeneous scanning strategy characterized encoding of images. This suggests that iconic configurations tend to be maintained as global integrated representations in which all the item/location pairs are simultaneously present whilst verbal configurations are maintained through more sequential processes.

  4. The surface treatment lab team. From left to right : J Carosone, M Malabaila, JP Malivert (front row), M Thiebert and A Lasserre (back row)

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The surface treatment lab covers common metals with rarer ones through a process called electroplating. When electroplating is done, the piece of equipment made out of a common metal (like steel) is submerged in a solution which has the desired rare metal (like gold) dissolved in it. An electric current is then run through the solution to the common metal. The tiny rare metal particles follow the current and stick to the common metal when they reach it. It is then that the plating occcurs. All in all, a relatively simple process, but it can be potentially hazardous.

  5. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  6. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  7. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Computation and today’s microprocessors with the approach to operating system architecture, and the controversy between microkernels and monolithic kernels...Both Spatial Computation and microkernels break away a relatively monolithic architecture into in- dividual lightweight pieces, well specialized...for their particular functionality. Spatial Computation removes global signals and control, in the same way microkernels remove the global address

  8. Orientation of spiral galaxies in the local supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaaniste, J.A.; Saar, E.M.

    1977-01-01

    Two alternative models for the spatial orientation of galaxies - parallelism and perpendicularity of the planes of galaxies with respect to the supergalactic plane - are compared with the observed orientations of spiral galaxies within the volume of the radius of 50 Mpc. The first model does not agree with experimental data whereas the second one-perpendicularity of the planes - describes the above data well

  9. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  10. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Methods Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (S...

  11. A morphological basis for orientation tuning in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooser, François; Bosking, William H; Fitzpatrick, David

    2004-08-01

    Feedforward connections are thought to be important in the generation of orientation-selective responses in visual cortex by establishing a bias in the sampling of information from regions of visual space that lie along a neuron's axis of preferred orientation. It remains unclear, however, which structural elements-dendrites or axons-are ultimately responsible for conveying this sampling bias. To explore this question, we have examined the spatial arrangement of feedforward axonal connections that link non-oriented neurons in layer 4 and orientation-selective neurons in layer 2/3 of visual cortex in the tree shrew. Target sites of labeled boutons in layer 2/3 resulting from focal injections of biocytin in layer 4 show an orientation-specific axial bias that is sufficient to confer orientation tuning to layer 2/3 neurons. We conclude that the anisotropic arrangement of axon terminals is the principal source of the orientation bias contributed by feedforward connections.

  12. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...... orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  13. Feature-based attentional modulation of orientation perception in somatosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Annika Schweisfurth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a reaction time study of human tactile orientation detection the effects of spatial attention and feature-based attention were investigated. Subjects had to give speeded responses to target orientations (parallel and orthogonal to the finger axis in a random stream of oblique tactile distractor orientations presented to their index and ring fingers. Before each block of trials, subjects received a tactile cue at one finger. By manipulating the validity of this cue with respect to its location and orientation (feature, we provided an incentive to subjects to attend spatially to the cued location and only there to the cued orientation. Subjects showed quicker responses to parallel compared to orthogonal targets, pointing to an orientation anisotropy in sensory processing. Also, faster reaction times were observed in location-matched trials, i.e. when targets appeared on the cued finger, representing a perceptual benefit of spatial attention. Most importantly, reaction times were shorter to orientations matching the cue, both at the cued and at the uncued location, documenting a global enhancement of tactile sensation by feature-based attention. This is the first report of a perceptual benefit of feature-based attention outside the spatial focus of attention in somatosensory perception. The similarity to effects of feature-based attention in visual perception supports the notion of matching attentional mechanisms across sensory domains.

  14. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  15. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  16. Orientalism/Occidentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Orientalism and Occidentalism are interrelated concepts. Orientalism is defined in three keys ways: (i) as a study of “the Orient”; (ii) as a cultural and aesthetic concern with “the Orient”; and (iii) as a critical approach to understanding the construction of “the Orient” by European and American

  17. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  18. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  19. Selective enhancement of orientation tuning before saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Sven; Kuper, Clara; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Saccadic eye movements cause a rapid sweep of the visual image across the retina and bring the saccade's target into high-acuity foveal vision. Even before saccade onset, visual processing is selectively prioritized at the saccade target. To determine how this presaccadic attention shift exerts its influence on visual selection, we compare the dynamics of perceptual tuning curves before movement onset at the saccade target and in the opposite hemifield. Participants monitored a 30-Hz sequence of randomly oriented gratings for a target orientation. Combining a reverse correlation technique previously used to study orientation tuning in neurons and general additive mixed modeling, we found that perceptual reports were tuned to the target orientation. The gain of orientation tuning increased markedly within the last 100 ms before saccade onset. In addition, we observed finer orientation tuning right before saccade onset. This increase in gain and tuning occurred at the saccade target location and was not observed at the incongruent location in the opposite hemifield. The present findings suggest, therefore, that presaccadic attention exerts its influence on vision in a spatially and feature-selective manner, enhancing performance and sharpening feature tuning at the future gaze location before the eyes start moving.

  20. Synthesis of spatially variant lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier

    2012-07-02

    It is often desired to functionally grade and/or spatially vary a periodic structure like a photonic crystal or metamaterial, yet no general method for doing this has been offered in the literature. A straightforward procedure is described here that allows many properties of the lattice to be spatially varied at the same time while producing a final lattice that is still smooth and continuous. Properties include unit cell orientation, lattice spacing, fill fraction, and more. This adds many degrees of freedom to a design such as spatially varying the orientation to exploit directional phenomena. The method is not a coordinate transformation technique so it can more easily produce complicated and arbitrary spatial variance. To demonstrate, the algorithm is used to synthesize a spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystal to flow a Gaussian beam around a 90° bend. The performance of the structure was confirmed through simulation and it showed virtually no scattering around the bend that would have arisen if the lattice had defects or discontinuities.

  1. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  2. Scanning of speechless comics changes spatial biases in mental model construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Antonio; Flumini, Andrea; Santiago, Julio

    2018-08-05

    The mental representation of both time and number shows lateral spatial biases, which can be affected by habitual reading and writing direction. However, this effect is in place before children begin to read. One potential early cause is the experiences of looking at picture books together with a carer, as those images also follow the directionality of the script. What is the underlying mechanism for this effect? In the present study, we test the possibility that such experiences induce spatial biases in mental model construction, a mechanism which is a good candidate to induce the biases observed with numbers and times. We presented a speechless comic in either standard (left-to-right) or mirror-reversed (right-to-left) form to adult Spanish participants. We then asked them to draw the scene depicted by sentences like 'the square is between the cross and the circle'. The position of the lateral objects in these drawings reveals the spatial biases at work when building mental models in working memory. Under conditions of highly consistent directionality, the mirror comic changed pre-existing lateral biases. Processes of mental model construction in working memory stand as a potential mechanism for the generation of spatial biases for time and number.This article is part of the theme issue 'Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  4. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  5. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  6. fMRI orientation decoding in V1 does not require global maps or globally coherent orientation stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Arjen; Krugliak, Alexandra; Walther, Alexander; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    The orientation of a large grating can be decoded from V1 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, even at low resolution (3-mm isotropic voxels). This finding has suggested that columnar-level neuronal information might be accessible to fMRI at 3T. However, orientation decodability might alternatively arise from global orientation-preference maps. Such global maps across V1 could result from bottom-up processing, if the preferences of V1 neurons were biased toward particular orientations (e.g., radial from fixation, or cardinal, i.e., vertical or horizontal). Global maps could also arise from local recurrent or top-down processing, reflecting pre-attentive perceptual grouping, attention spreading, or predictive coding of global form. Here we investigate whether fMRI orientation decoding with 2-mm voxels requires (a) globally coherent orientation stimuli and/or (b) global-scale patterns of V1 activity. We used opposite-orientation gratings (balanced about the cardinal orientations) and spirals (balanced about the radial orientation), along with novel patch-swapped variants of these stimuli. The two stimuli of a patch-swapped pair have opposite orientations everywhere (like their globally coherent parent stimuli). However, the two stimuli appear globally similar, a patchwork of opposite orientations. We find that all stimulus pairs are robustly decodable, demonstrating that fMRI orientation decoding does not require globally coherent orientation stimuli. Furthermore, decoding remained robust after spatial high-pass filtering for all stimuli, showing that fine-grained components of the fMRI patterns reflect visual orientations. Consistent with previous studies, we found evidence for global radial and vertical preference maps in V1. However, these were weak or absent for patch-swapped stimuli, suggesting that global preference maps depend on globally coherent orientations and might arise through recurrent or top-down processes related to the perception of

  7. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  8. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  9. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  10. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  11. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form...

  12. Orienting attention to locations in mental representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Duncan Edward; Summerfield, Jennifer; Griffin, Ivan; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    Many cognitive processes depend on our ability to hold information in mind, often well beyond the offset of the original sensory input. The capacity of this ‘visual short-term memory’ (VSTM) is limited to around three to four items. Recent research has demonstrated that the content of VSTM can be modulated by top-down attentional biases. This has been demonstrated using retrodictive spatial cues, termed ‘retro-cues’, which orient participants’ attention to spatial locations within VSTM. In the current paper, we tested whether the use of these cues is modulated by memory load and cue delay. There are a number of important conclusions: i) top-down biases can operate upon very brief iconic traces as well as older VSTM representations (Experiment 1); ii) when operating within capacity, subjects use the cue to prioritize where they initiate their memory search, rather than to discard un-cued items (Experiments 2 and 3); iii) when capacity is exceeded there is little benefit to top-down biasing relative to a neutral condition, however, unattended items are lost, with there being a substantial cost of invalid spatial cueing (Experiment 3); iv) these costs and benefits of orienting spatial attention differ across iconic memory and VSTM representations when VSTM capacity is exceeded (Experiment 4). PMID:21972046

  13. Active listening for spatial orientation in a complex auditory scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Bohn, Kari; Gilkenson, Hannah; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2006-04-01

    To successfully negotiate a complex environment, an animal must control the timing of motor behaviors in coordination with dynamic sensory information. Here, we report on adaptive temporal control of vocal-motor behavior in an echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it captured tethered insects close to background vegetation. Recordings of the bat's sonar vocalizations were synchronized with high-speed video images that were used to reconstruct the bat's three-dimensional flight path and the positions of target and vegetation. When the bat encountered the difficult task of taking insects as close as 10-20 cm from the vegetation, its behavior changed significantly from that under open room conditions. Its success rate decreased by about 50%, its time to initiate interception increased by a factor of ten, and its high repetition rate "terminal buzz" decreased in duration by a factor of three. Under all conditions, the bat produced prominent sonar "strobe groups," clusters of echolocation pulses with stable intervals. In the final stages of insect capture, the bat produced strobe groups at a higher incidence when the insect was positioned near clutter. Strobe groups occurred at all phases of the wingbeat (and inferred respiration) cycle, challenging the hypothesis of strict synchronization between respiration and sound production in echolocating bats. The results of this study provide a clear demonstration of temporal vocal-motor control that directly impacts the signals used for perception.

  14. Active listening for spatial orientation in a complex auditory scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia F Moss

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully negotiate a complex environment, an animal must control the timing of motor behaviors in coordination with dynamic sensory information. Here, we report on adaptive temporal control of vocal-motor behavior in an echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it captured tethered insects close to background vegetation. Recordings of the bat's sonar vocalizations were synchronized with high-speed video images that were used to reconstruct the bat's three-dimensional flight path and the positions of target and vegetation. When the bat encountered the difficult task of taking insects as close as 10-20 cm from the vegetation, its behavior changed significantly from that under open room conditions. Its success rate decreased by about 50%, its time to initiate interception increased by a factor of ten, and its high repetition rate "terminal buzz" decreased in duration by a factor of three. Under all conditions, the bat produced prominent sonar "strobe groups," clusters of echolocation pulses with stable intervals. In the final stages of insect capture, the bat produced strobe groups at a higher incidence when the insect was positioned near clutter. Strobe groups occurred at all phases of the wingbeat (and inferred respiration cycle, challenging the hypothesis of strict synchronization between respiration and sound production in echolocating bats. The results of this study provide a clear demonstration of temporal vocal-motor control that directly impacts the signals used for perception.

  15. The automaticity of vantage point shifts within a synaesthetes' spatial calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Jensen, Candice; Dixon, Michael J; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Time-space synaesthetes report that time units (e.g., months, days, hours) occupy idiosyncratic spatial locations. For the synaesthete (L), the months of the year are projected out in external space in the shape of a 'scoreboard 7', where January to July extend across the top from left to right and August to December make up the vertical segment from top to bottom. Interestingly, L can change the mental vantage point (MVP) from where she views her month-space depending on whether she sees or hears the month name. We used a spatial cueing task to demonstrate that L's attention could be directed to locations within her time-space and change vantage points automatically - from trial to trial. We also sought to eliminate any influence of strategy on L's performance by shortening the interval between the cue and target onset to only 150 ms, and have the targets fall in synaesthetically cued locations on only 15% of trials. If L's performance was attributable to intentionally using the cue to predict target location, these manipulations should eliminate any cueing effects. In two separate experiments, we found that L still showed an attentional bias consistent with her synaesthesia. Thus, we attribute L's rapid and resilient cueing effects to the automaticity of her spatial forms. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  17. Evaluation of the Spatial Disorientation Sortie in Training Aviators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braithwaite, Malcolm

    1997-01-01

    .... In order to reinforce instruction in spatial disorientation (SD) within the environment in which they operate, British Army Air Corps helicopter pilots also receive an airborne demonstration of the limitations of their orientation senses...

  18. Tactile spatial resolution in blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, R W; Hamilton, R H; Kauffman, T; Keenan, J P; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-06-27

    To determine if blind people have heightened tactile spatial acuity. Recently, studies using magnetic source imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials have shown that the cortical representation of the reading fingers of blind Braille readers is expanded compared to that of fingers of sighted subjects. Furthermore, the visual cortex is activated during certain tactile tasks in blind subjects but not sighted subjects. The authors hypothesized that the expanded cortical representation of fingers used in Braille reading may reflect an enhanced fidelity in the neural transmission of spatial details of a stimulus. If so, the quantitative limit of spatial acuity would be superior in blind people. The authors employed a grating orientation discrimination task in which threshold performance is accounted for by the spatial resolution limits of the neural image evoked by a stimulus. The authors quantified the psychophysical limits of spatial acuity at the middle and index fingers of 15 blind Braille readers and 15 sighted control subjects. The mean grating orientation threshold was significantly (p = 0.03) lower in the blind group (1.04 mm) compared to the sighted group (1.46 mm). The self-reported dominant reading finger in blind subjects had a mean grating orientation threshold of 0.80 mm, which was significantly better than other fingers tested. Thresholds at non-Braille reading fingers in blind subjects averaged 1.12 mm, which were also superior to sighted subjects' performances. Superior tactile spatial acuity in blind Braille readers may represent an adaptive, behavioral correlate of cortical plasticity.

  19. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  20. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  1. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion ...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies.......I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion...

  2. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  3. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building......This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...

  4. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  5. Memória de orientação espacial: avaliação em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer e com epilepsia mesial temporal refratária Spatial orientation memory: evaluation in patents with Alzheimer disease and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Tuon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos experimentais identificaram células piramidais no hipocampo de ratos com participação na memória de orientação espacial (MOE, denominadas células de localização. O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar um teste baseado nesses experimentos para verificar o desempenho de MOE e a participação do hipocampo na MOE em pacientes com esclerose mesial temporal (EMT. Dividiu-se a pesquisa em dois estudos: no primeiro adaptou-se o teste e visando verificar sua capacidade de investigação de déficits de MOE aplicou-se em grupos de 10 indivíduos, um com doença de Alzheimer (DA e outro de idosos saudáveis (pExperimental studies have identified pyramidal cells in hippocampus in rats with participation in the spatial orientation memory (SOM, which are named location cells. This study had the purpose to adapt a test based in these experiments in order to check the performance of SOM and the participation of hippocampus into SOM in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS. The research was divided into two studies: the first one the test was adapted, and in order to check its capacity to investigate the deficits of SOM, it has applied in groups of 10 (ten subjects, one group with patients that have Alzheimer disease and the other one with healthy elderly (p<0.001. The second study has evaluated the participation of hippocampus into SOM in 43 patients (23 with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and 20 submitted to selective amygdala hippocampectomy (SAH and 23 healthy volunteers with p<0,05 between MTS and SAH and between controled and SAH. It was shown that the test of SOM is suitable to evaluate deficits, but it seems the SOM is not a specific function of human hippocampus.

  6. Fast and accurate edge orientation processing during object manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, J Randall; Johansson, Roland S

    2018-01-01

    Quickly and accurately extracting information about a touched object’s orientation is a critical aspect of dexterous object manipulation. However, the speed and acuity of tactile edge orientation processing with respect to the fingertips as reported in previous perceptual studies appear inadequate in these respects. Here we directly establish the tactile system’s capacity to process edge-orientation information during dexterous manipulation. Participants extracted tactile information about edge orientation very quickly, using it within 200 ms of first touching the object. Participants were also strikingly accurate. With edges spanning the entire fingertip, edge-orientation resolution was better than 3° in our object manipulation task, which is several times better than reported in previous perceptual studies. Performance remained impressive even with edges as short as 2 mm, consistent with our ability to precisely manipulate very small objects. Taken together, our results radically redefine the spatial processing capacity of the tactile system. PMID:29611804

  7. Control of liquid crystal molecular orientation using ultrasound vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Satoki [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Wave Electronics Research Center, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Koyama, Daisuke; Matsukawa, Mami [Wave Electronics Research Center, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Shimizu, Yuki; Emoto, Akira [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Nakamura, Kentaro [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-26, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    We propose a technique to control the orientation of nematic liquid crystals using ultrasound and investigate the optical characteristics of the oriented samples. An ultrasonic liquid crystal cell with a thickness of 5–25 μm and two ultrasonic lead zirconate titanate transducers was fabricated. By exciting the ultrasonic transducers, the flexural vibration modes were generated on the cell. An acoustic radiation force to the liquid crystal layer was generated, changing the molecular orientation and thus the light transmission. By modulating the ultrasonic driving frequency and voltage, the spatial distribution of the molecular orientation of the liquid crystals could be controlled. The distribution of the transmitted light intensity depends on the thickness of the liquid crystal layer because the acoustic field in the liquid crystal layer is changed by the orientational film.

  8. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  9. QUANTIFYING WILDLIFE ORIENTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment (P);. Attitudes expressed towards the natural environment (A);. Activity, or the involvement of a person in conservation actions in the broader sense {I). Different combinations of these functions give rise to four typologies of orientation. (Newgard et al., 1986) in the following way: TYPOLOGY. CHARACTERISTICS.

  10. Orientals and Orientalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reade, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews three books on archaeology. "Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and the Visualization of History in the Late Ottoman Empire," by Wendy M. K. Shaw; "Orientalism and Visual Culture: Imagining Mesapotamia in Nineteenth-Century Europe," by Frederick N. Bohrer; "Empires of the Pla......: Henry Rawlinson and the Lost Languages of Babylon," by Lesley Adkins....

  11. Management oriented process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ANAV decided to implement process-oriented management by adopting the U. S. NEI (Nuclear Electric Industry) model. The article describes the initial phases of the project, its current status and future prospects. The project has been considered as an improvement in the areas of organization and human factors. Recently, IAEA standard drafts are including processes as an accepted management model. (Author)

  12. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, C.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Lopes, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP’97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspectorientation. At ECOOP’98, during

  13. Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Doorn (Sebastiaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The

  14. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  15. The Spatial Dimension of House Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Gong

    2017-04-01

    This research underlines market forces in the operation of Chinese interurban housing markets in the post-reform era, and contributes to the understanding of spatial dimension of house prices, not only in China, but also in other market-oriented economies.

  16. Preschool children use space, rather than counting, to infer the numerical magnitude of digits: Evidence for a spatial mapping principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A milestone in numerical development is the acquisition of counting principles which allow children to exactly determine the numerosity of a given set. Moreover, a canonical left-to-right spatial layout for representing numbers also emerges during preschool. These foundational aspects of numerical competence have been extensively studied, but there is sparse knowledge about the interplay between the acquisition of the cardinality principle and spatial mapping of numbers in early numerical development. The present study investigated how these skills concurrently develop before formal schooling. Preschool children were classified according to their performance in Give-a-Number and Number-to-position tasks. Experiment 1 revealed three qualitatively different groups: (i) children who did not master the cardinality principle and lacked any consistent spatial mapping for digits, (ii) children who mastered the cardinality principle and yet failed in spatial mapping, and (iii) children who mastered the cardinality principle and displayed consistent spatial mapping. This suggests that mastery of the cardinality principle does not entail the emergence of spatial mapping. Experiment 2 confirmed the presence of these three developmental stages and investigated their relation with a digit comparison task. Crucially, only children who displayed a consistent spatial mapping of numbers showed the ability to compare digits by numerical magnitude. A congruent (i.e., numerically ordered) positioning of numbers onto a visual line as well as the concept that moving rightwards (in Western cultures) conveys an increase in numerical magnitude mark the mastery of a spatial mapping principle. Children seem to rely on this spatial organization to achieve a full understanding of the magnitude relations between digits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How Do Different Aspects of Spatial Skills Relate to Early Arithmetic and Number Line Estimation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Cornu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the predictive role of spatial skills for arithmetic and number line estimation in kindergarten children (N = 125. Spatial skills are known to be related to mathematical development, but due to the construct’s non-unitary nature, different aspects of spatial skills need to be differentiated. In the present study, a spatial orientation task, a spatial visualization task and visuo-motor integration task were administered to assess three different aspects of spatial skills. Furthermore, we assessed counting abilities, knowledge of Arabic numerals, quantitative knowledge, as well as verbal working memory and verbal intelligence in kindergarten. Four months later, the same children performed an arithmetic and a number line estimation task to evaluate how the abilities measured at Time 1 predicted early mathematics outcomes. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that children’s performance in arithmetic was predicted by their performance on the spatial orientation and visuo-motor integration task, as well as their knowledge of the Arabic numerals. Performance in number line estimation was significantly predicted by the children’s spatial orientation performance. Our findings emphasize the role of spatial skills, notably spatial orientation, in mathematical development. The relation between spatial orientation and arithmetic was partially mediated by the number line estimation task. Our results further show that some aspects of spatial skills might be more predictive of mathematical development than others, underlining the importance to differentiate within the construct of spatial skills when it comes to understanding numerical development.

  18. Device for removal of oriented core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhmalov, A.M.

    1981-05-04

    A device for removal of an oriented core, which contains an external core barrel, connected with a gear, a rock-crushing bit, nonrotary core-receiving pipe, and a core marker, placed in the core-receiving pipe and connected kinematically with the external core barrel and gear, is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the accuracy of determination of the spatial orientation of the core the gear of the core barrel and the marker come in the form of an electric drill, and a magnetic compass witha remote-fix indicator is attached to its housing. The device is also distinguished by the fact that it is equipped with an auxillary marker positioned symmetrically with respect to the first one.

  19. Self-reflection Orients Visual Attention Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tong, Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abstract concepts associated with spatial location (e.g., God in the Heavens) could direct visual attention upward or downward, because thinking about the abstract concepts activates the corresponding vertical perceptual symbols. For self-concept, there are similar metaphors (e.g., "I am above others"). However, whether thinking about the self can induce visual attention orientation is still unknown. Therefore, the current study tested whether self-reflection can direct visual attention. Individuals often display the tendency of self-enhancement in social comparison, which reminds the individual of the higher position one possesses relative to others within the social environment. As the individual is the agent of the attention orientation, and high status tends to make an individual look down upon others to obtain a sense of pride, it was hypothesized that thinking about the self would lead to a downward attention orientation. Using reflection of personality traits and a target discrimination task, Study 1 found that, after self-reflection, visual attention was directed downward. Similar effects were also found after friend-reflection, with the level of downward attention being correlated with the likability rating scores of the friend. Thus, in Study 2, a disliked other was used as a control and the positive self-view was measured with above-average judgment task. We found downward attention orientation after self-reflection, but not after reflection upon the disliked other. Moreover, the attentional bias after self-reflection was correlated with above-average self-view. The current findings provide the first evidence that thinking about the self could direct visual-spatial attention downward, and suggest that this effect is probably derived from a positive self-view within the social context.

  20. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  1. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  2. Cerro Largo South orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  3. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015). It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE) has been flourishing. The general theory o...

  4. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  5. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve: facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes pour la coupe genevoise de printemps: Samedi 22 mars: Apples (...

  6. Three-Dimensional Orientation Mapping in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2011-01-01

    resolution of 200 nanometers (nm). We describe here a nondestructive technique that enables 3D orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope of mono- and multiphase nanocrystalline materials with a spatial resolution reaching 1 nm. We demonstrate the technique by an experimental study...

  7. Evaluation of trauma service orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Orientation of residents to clinical services may be criticized as cumbersome, dull, and simplytoo much information. With the mandated resident-hour restrictions, the question arose: Do residents perceive the orientation to our trauma service as worthwhile? Residents attend a standardized orientation lecture on the first day of the rotation. Three weeks later, an eight-item, five-point Likert-scale survey is distributed to assess the residents' perceptions of the value of the orientation. Responses to each item were examined. Fifty-four (92%) of the residents completed the questionnaire between September 2005 and August 2006. Most indicated that orientation was helpful (85%), the Trauma Resuscitation DVD was informative (82%), the review of procedures was helpful (82%), and the instructor's knowledge was adequate (94%). Most (92%) disagreed with the statement that orientation should not be offered. Careful attention to orientation content and format is important to the perception that the orientation is worthwhile.

  8. Indigenous concepts of orientation of South Sulawesian sailors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst H. Liebner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some initial results of ongoing research on concepts of orientation of some maritime-orientated ethnic groups of South Sulawesi. I will not discuss the technicalities of indigenous navigation, but focus on the underlying concepts and categories of spatial orientation. I approach this through an analysis of the expressions and terms used by contemporary ‘traditional’ sailors and navigators to indicate a destination or direction. After outlining the problem and giving examples of spatial terminology used by South Sulawesian fishermen, sailors, and inter-island traders, in the second section I explain in detail the directional terms employed by the sailor-traders of Bira as an example of the complexity and sophistication of these patterns. The third and fourth sections place the discussion in the wider context of migration and settlement of insular Southeast Asia.

  9. The effects of market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Kåre

    1998-01-01

    This research is designed to accomplish three goals. The first goal is to revisit the market orientation construct in order to define the different facets of it. A review of the market orientation literature is made to assess and synthesize the stock of accumulated knowledge regarding the market orientation construct. The second goal of the research is to develop a theory of the effects ofmarket orientation. Using the literature concerning resource-based theory and organization...

  10. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  11. Community Orientation and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Kurt; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship among media use, participation in local shopping and leisure activities, and orientation toward the local community. Reexamines Robert Merton's Cosmopolitan scale, finding it to have both localite (exclusively local orientation) and cosmopolite (orientation to events outside the local community) dimensions. (MM)

  12. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation...... modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...... on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  13. Midline body actions and leftward spatial Aiming in patients with spatial neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eChaudhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial motor-intentional Aiming bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques such as visual scanning training do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated 1 whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space, and 2 whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: look to the left, point with your nose to the left, point with your [right] hand to the left, and stick out your tongue and point it to the left. She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested 9 more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research could examine these

  14. Mental map and spatial thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella Castellar, Sonia Maria; Cristiane Strina Juliasz, Paula

    2018-05-01

    The spatial thinking is a central concept in our researches at the Faculty of Education of University of São Paulo (FE-USP). The cartography is fundamental to this kind of thinking, because it contributes to the development of the representation of space. The spatial representations are the drawings - mental maps - maps, chart, aerial photos, satellite images, graphics and diagrams. To think spatially - including the contents and concepts geographical and their representations - also corresponds to reason, defined by the skills the individual develops to understand the structure, function of a space, and describe your organization and relation to other spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of mental maps in the development of concepts of city and landscape - structuring concepts for school geography. The purpose is to analyze how students in Geography and Pedagogy - future teachers - and young children in Early Childhood Education think, feel, and appropriate these concepts. The analys is indicates the importance of developing mental map in activities with pedagogy and geography graduate student to know that students at school can be producers of maps. Cartography is a language and allows the student to develop the spatial and temporal relationships and notions such as orientation, distance and location, learning the concepts of geographical science. Mental maps present the basic features of the location such as the conditions - the features verified in one place - and the connections that is to understand how this place connects to other places.

  15. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

  16. Sacral orientation and spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Masharawi, Youssef; Been, Ella; Abbas, Janan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2009-12-01

    A descriptive study (based on skeletal material) was designed to measure sacral anatomic orientation (SAO) in individuals with and without spondylolysis. To test whether a relationship between SAO and spondylolysis exists. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the pars interarticularis (mainly of L5). The natural history of the phenomenon has been debated for years with opinions divided, i.e., is it a developmental condition or a stress fracture phenomenon. There is some evidence to suggest that sacral orientation can be a "key player" in revealing the etiology of spondylolysis. The pelvis was anatomically reconstructed and SAO was measured as the angle created between the intersection of a line running parallel to the superior surface of the sacrum and a line running between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the anterior-superior edge of the symphysis pubis (PUBIS).SAO was measured in 99 adult males with spondylolysis and 125 adult males without spondylolysis. The difference between the groups was tested using an unpaired t test. Spondylolysis prevalence is significantly higher in African-Americans compared to European-Americans: 5.4% versus 2.04% in males (P < 0.001) and 2.31% versus 0.4%, P < 0.001 in females. SAO was significantly lower in the spondylolytic group (44.07 degrees +/- 11.46 degrees) compared to the control group (51.07 degrees +/- 8.46 degrees, P < 0.001). A more horizontally oriented sacrum leads to direct impingement on L5 pars interarticularis by both L4 inferior articular facet superiorly and S1 superior articular facet inferiorly. Repetitive stress due to standing (daily activities) or sitting increases the "pincer effect" on this area, and eventually may lead to incomplete synostosis of the neural arch.

  17. Emotion-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim

  18. Mina Oriental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.; Valverde, C.; Haut, R.

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to the obtained results of those geophysical works practiced during the year 1985 in Mina Oriental region, located in the department of Maldonado. The same ones had like object to supplement geophysical studies previous carried out in the area and to investigate a possible connection mineralized in the geologic context with Mina La Esperanza that , where they arose anomalous indications in geochemical prospecting. They were applied the following methods: Induced Polarization, Magnetometry and Electromagnetism. The conclusions and recommendations arrived express one discontinuity among the referred areas, even subtracting some explanations on the detected lateral anomalies.

  19. Perceived Average Orientation Reflects Effective Gist of the Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Oakyoon; Chong, Sang Chul

    2018-03-01

    The human ability to represent ensemble visual information, such as average orientation and size, has been suggested as the foundation of gist perception. To effectively summarize different groups of objects into the gist of a scene, observers should form ensembles separately for different groups, even when objects have similar visual features across groups. We hypothesized that the visual system utilizes perceptual groups characterized by spatial configuration and represents separate ensembles for different groups. Therefore, participants could not integrate ensembles of different perceptual groups on a task basis. We asked participants to determine the average orientation of visual elements comprising a surface with a contour situated inside. Although participants were asked to estimate the average orientation of all the elements, they ignored orientation signals embedded in the contour. This constraint may help the visual system to keep the visual features of occluding objects separate from those of the occluded objects.

  20. Monocular channels have a functional role in endogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, William; Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M; Gabay, Shai

    2018-03-01

    The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals. Results indicated that the onset of endogenous orienting was apparent earlier when the cue and target were presented to the same eye. The data provides converging evidence for the notion that endogenous facilitation is modulated by monocular portions of the visual stream. This, in turn, suggests that higher cortical mechanisms are not exclusively responsible for endogenous orienting, and that a dynamic interaction between higher and lower neural levels, might be involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2012-01-10

    Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], and foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nests [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of a celestial compass is a general and perhaps ancient capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short, straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. However, this flight mode is inconsistent with measured gene flow between geographically separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila can travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13]-a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the polarization angle. Our findings indicate that Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  3. Club d'orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2011-01-01

      Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2011 Nouvelle saison – nouveau programme Le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses pour la coupe de printemps. Elles se dérouleront des deux cotés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 19 mars: Vidy/Dorigny (Vd) - Score Samedi 26 mars: Attalens (Vd) Samedi 2 avril: Vulbens (74) Samedi 9 avril: Challex (74) Samedi 16 avril: Vernand-Dessus (Vd) Samedi 7 mai: Trelex (Vd) Samedi 14 mai: Chancy/Valleiry (Ge/74) Samedi 21 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 28 mai : Semnoz (74) Samedi 18 juin: La Faucille (01) – Finale Ces courses populaires ont lieu le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé...

  4. Milestones Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Villalón-Infante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 10, 1947, the University of Oriente is founded with the presence of local authorities and the historic Bell of the Damajagua. Since then it has generated outstanding events that have drawn guidelines in its history. These landmarks have taken place in different spheres of social, political and economic life. We have found that most workers and students from the University know less than fifty percent of such events, and we assume that the population outside the walls must have a greater ignorance. The present paper aims to spread these crucial events because knowing them will help appreciate better the real prestige of this house of higher learning through its rich  history, which will result in feelings of admiration and respect for this university. Thus, it is necessary to make a wider propagation through the press, radio and television programs and digital media such as Multimedia, Web Pages and the Internet.The theme landmark at the Universidad de Oriente of the subject Historical and Contemporary Debates implemented in the disciplines of all careers at this university gives freshmen the opportunity to investigate and learn about these remarkable  facts with some impact outside our national territory.

  5. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2011-01-01

    La première course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise de printemps a eu lieu près de Cossonay samedi 19 mars ; une bonne soixantaine de coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les vainqueurs sont : technique long, Domenico Lepori (Care Vevey) s’imposant d’une minute devant Yannick Gagneret (O’Jura) ; technique moyen, Jean-Rodolphe Knuchel (CO Lausanne-Jorat) devant Cédric Wehrle (CO CERN) ; technique court, Marie Droz (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Elia Martarelli devant Konstantinos Haider (CO CERN); facile court, Sarah Stuber (CO Lausanne-Jorat). Prochain rendez-vous à noter : samedi 26 mars dans la forêt d’Attalens (Canton de Vaud), parking au terrain de foot. Les inscriptions et départs de la course populaire se feront entre 13h et 15h. Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas l’orientation, c’est l&am...

  6. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Coupe de printemps La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée le samedi 21 avril dans la forêt de Pougny-Challex. étant donné le temps très humide qui domine depuis début avril, les coureurs ne pouvaient trouver qu’un terrain gras et trempé, mais cela fait partie des défis de la course d’orientation. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par Yvan Balliot, CO Annecy en 51:18 devant Jean-Charles Baritaux en 56:21 et Bruno Barge, CO CERN en 59:39. La prochaine CO populaire se courra à Vulbens le samedi 28 avril. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront entre 13h et 15h. A noter les courses en mai : • Samedi 5 mai : Trelex • Samedi 12 mai : Chancy / Valleiry • Samedi 19 mai : Lausan...

  7. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  8. Structural Transformations in Nematic Liquid Crystals with a Hybrid Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delev, V. A.; Krekhov, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The structural transformations in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) layer with a hybrid orientation (planar director orientation is created on one substrate and homeotropic director orientation is created on the other) are studied. In the case of a dc voltage applied to the NLC layer, the primary instability is flexoelectric. It causes the appearance of flexoelectric domains oriented along the director on the substrate with a planar orientation. When the voltage increases further, an electroconvective instability in the form of rolls moving almost normal to flexoelectric domains develops along with these domains. Thus, the following spatially periodic structures of different natures coexist in one system: equilibrium static flexoelectric deformation of a director and dissipative moving oblique electroconvection rolls. The primary instability in the case of an ac voltage is represented by electroconvection, which leads to moving oblique or normal rolls depending on the electric field frequency. Above the electroconvection threshold, a transition to moving "abnormal" rolls is detected. The wavevector of the rolls coincides with the initial director orientation on the substrate with a planar orientation, and the projection of the director at the midplane of the NLC layer on the layer plane makes a certain angle with the wavevector. The results of numerical calculations of the threshold characteristics of the primary instabilities agree well with the obtained experimental data.

  9. Applications of the rotating orientation XRD method to oriented materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhenqi; Li Fei; Jin Li; Bai Yu

    2009-01-01

    The rotating orientation x-ray diffraction (RO-XRD) method, based on conventional XRD instruments by a modification of the sample stage, was introduced to investigate the orientation-related issues of such materials. In this paper, we show its applications including the determination of single crystal orientation, assistance in crystal cutting and evaluation of crystal quality. The interpretation of scanning patterns by RO-XRD on polycrystals with large grains, bulk material with several grains and oriented thin film is also presented. These results will hopefully expand the applications of the RO-XRD method and also benefit the conventional XRD techniques. (fast track communication)

  10. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  11. Influence of orientation averaging on the anisotropy of thermal neutrons scattering on water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, M. I.; Radunovic, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of spatial distribution of neutron flux in water, most frequently used moderator in thermal reactors, demands microscopic scattering kernels dependence on cosine of thermal neutrons scattering angle when solving the Boltzmann equation. Since spatial orientation of water molecules influences this dependence it is necessary to perform orientation averaging or rotation-vibrational intermediate scattering function for water molecules. The calculations described in this paper and the obtained results showed that methods of orientation averaging do not influence the anisotropy of thermal neutrons scattering on water molecules, but do influence the inelastic scattering

  12. Impact Orientation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt SPEER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of impact orientation within the public sector constitutes an en-tirely new approach of governance. Until recently – and in many cases still so – public administration was primarily input-oriented, which means focusing on the resources (financial, personnel etc. needed to fulfil existing public tasks instead of focusing on the results and final effects which are intended to be reached ultimately by these often long ago defined assignments. As experience shows, the pressing challenge of increasing steadily the effectiveness and efficiency within public administration cannot be reached by such a one-sided and consequently limited approach. Thus, a wider and more comprehensive concept is necessary to optimize the public sector in all its dimensions. As a result of prevalent budget crises, increasing pressure of stakeholders towards public administration and generally less room for manoeuver due to a growing regulatory burden, new/adapted and more flexible ways of thinking and acting within the public sector are required. Hence, modern concepts of steering and control – not only in Europe but in a larger number of OECD countries – now tend to give more importance to the targets and effects of public administration and its activities within the societal context. This rather new concept – the so called “impact orientation” which has been introduced in Austria as core element of the Federal Budget Law Reform 2009/2013 – requires a fundamental alignment of governmental actions and a new focus on the outputs and even on the outcomes of political and administrative strategies. The results until now have been primarily “outwardly-oriented” reform concepts concentrating on the external societal effects of politico-administrative actions. However, recent research results show for Austria, that this external dimension has to be linked more closely with internal reform efforts and internal impact targets in order to

  13. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  14. An API for Integrating Spatial Context Models with Spatial Reasoning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2006-01-01

    The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible...... and can help reduce the complexity of algorithms making them easier to maintain and develop. This paper propose an object-oriented API for context models of the physical environment and extensions to a location modeling approach called geometric space trees for it to provide adequate support for location...... modeling. The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system, and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms....

  15. Gender differences associated with orienting attentional networks in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P <0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P >0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P >0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.

  16. Oriented Poly(dialkylstannane)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choffat, Fabien; Fornera, Sara; Smith, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction-deposited p......The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction......-deposited poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) layer. Orientation of the polystannanes has been examined by polarization microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy with polarized light, and X-ray diffraction and their direction is found to depend on the length of the alkyl side groups and the method of orientation. Remarkably...

  17. The theory of experience orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Legaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the theory of experience orientation, which builds on the division of experiences in two categories: Goal-oriented and Omni-oriented. The theory comes from preliminary studies of userexperiences in a work-context, where I have found this distinction to be beneficial....... In this paper I explain the theory behind it and the practical application of such a distinction when designing for an experience....

  18. Report of the Orientation Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho; Buus, Lillian; Ogange, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This Orientation Workshops is part of MAAGART project. The workshop is divided in three parts: 1) pre-Orientation Workshop stage, 2) Face-to-Face stage and 3) post-Orientation stage. Pre and post stages will be developed online. All the activities will take place in a virtual learning environment...... created for this purpose. Participants will receive all the information about how to access the virtual learning environment (Moodle) prior to the pre-orientation workshop. In this report we cover only the two first stages. Jørgen Bang, as a part of the Community of Practice activity, will be facilitating...

  19. Orientation decoding: Sense in spirals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Colin W G; Mannion, Damien J

    2015-04-15

    The orientation of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the multivariate pattern of fMRI activity in human visual cortex. Whether this capacity requires coarse-scale orientation biases is controversial. We and others have advocated the use of spiral stimuli to eliminate a potential coarse-scale bias-the radial bias toward local orientations that are collinear with the centre of gaze-and hence narrow down the potential coarse-scale biases that could contribute to orientation decoding. The usefulness of this strategy is challenged by the computational simulations of Carlson (2014), who reported the ability to successfully decode spirals of opposite sense (opening clockwise or counter-clockwise) from the pooled output of purportedly unbiased orientation filters. Here, we elaborate the mathematical relationship between spirals of opposite sense to confirm that they cannot be discriminated on the basis of the pooled output of unbiased or radially biased orientation filters. We then demonstrate that Carlson's (2014) reported decoding ability is consistent with the presence of inadvertent biases in the set of orientation filters; biases introduced by their digital implementation and unrelated to the brain's processing of orientation. These analyses demonstrate that spirals must be processed with an orientation bias other than the radial bias for successful decoding of spiral sense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  1. The effect of the spatial positioning of items on the reliability of questionnaires measuring affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Leo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation, and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation. It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence. Research purpose: The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect. Motivation for the study: The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire. Research approach, design and method: In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825. Major findings: In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect. Practical implications: These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design. Contribution/value-add: Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and

  2. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-04-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Sport Movement Observations: the Case of Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzandeh, K.; Karimipour, F.

    2017-09-01

    Study of movement observations is becoming more popular in several applications. Particularly, analyzing sport movement time series has been considered as a demanding area. However, most of the attempts made on analyzing movement sport data have focused on spatial aspects of movement to extract some movement characteristics, such as spatial patterns and similarities. This paper proposes statistical analysis of sport movement observations, which refers to analyzing changes in the spatial movement attributes (e.g. distance, altitude and slope) and non-spatial movement attributes (e.g. speed and heart rate) of athletes. As the case study, an example dataset of movement observations acquired during the "orienteering" sport is presented and statistically analyzed.

  4. Enhanced facilitation of spatial attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin M; Nestor, Paul G; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    While attentional functions are usually found to be impaired in schizophrenia, a review of the literature on the orienting of spatial attention in schizophrenia suggested that voluntary attentional orienting in response to a valid cue might be paradoxically enhanced. We tested this hypothesis with orienting tasks involving the cued detection of a laterally presented target stimulus. Subjects were chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) and matched healthy control subjects (HC). In Experiment 1 (15 SZ, 16 HC), cues were endogenous (arrows) and could be valid (100% predictive) or neutral with respect to the subsequent target position. In Experiment 2 (16 SZ, 16 HC), subjects performed a standard orienting task with unpredictive exogenous cues (brightening of the target boxes). In Experiment 1, SZ showed a larger attentional facilitation effect on reaction time than HC. In Experiment 2, no clear sign of enhanced attentional facilitation was found in SZ. The voluntary, facilitatory shifting of spatial attention may be relatively enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. This effect bears resemblance to other relative enhancements of information processing in schizophrenia such as saccade speed and semantic priming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The impact of I(C)T in spatial planning education, 25 years of blended e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wageningen spatial planning education curriculum is based on a mix of decision-oriented and design-oriented approaches. It is also intertwined with a wide range of E-learning options. The Elearning environment consists of a spectrum of applications such as model studies, spatial analysis using

  6. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

    Coupe d’automne Samedi 25 septembre, certains courageux ont osé affronter le temps pluvieux et frais et se sont rendus aux Pléiades pour participer à la quatrième étape de la coupe Genevoise d’automne. Le Club du CARE-Vevey avait préparé 5 jolis circuits : 3 techniques et 2 faciles. Félicitations à tous les concurrents et plus particulièrement aux vainqueurs de chaque parcours. Les résultats complets sont sur le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Technique long : 1. Samy Vaehaenen (CO CERN), 2. Clément Poncet (O’Jura), 3. Bernhard Wehrle (CO CERN). Technique moyen : 1. Sampo Vallotton (RTB), 2. Guillaume Ladine (RTB), 3. Anne Godel (CA Rosé). Technique court : 1. Miles Marston (Gimel), 2. Alison High (CARE Vevey), 3. Emese Szwuyog (CO CERN). Facile moyen : 1. Nicolas M&u...

  7. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2010-01-01

      Finale de la coupe d’automne La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 23 octobre après 7 épreuves. Les deux dernières courses se sont déroulées en l’espace de 24 heures, puisque le club organisait une course type nocturne vendredi 22 octobre sur le site du CERN et la dernière étape avait lieu dans la forêt de Merdisel sous la forme d’une course aux points samedi 23 après-midi. Les participants avaient à cœur de bien terminer lors de ces deux épreuves pour consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement général. Le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 4 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit ...

  8. Club d’orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’orientation

    2010-01-01

    On s’approche vers la finale ! Samedi 29 juin, le club d’orientation de Lausanne-Jorat (Canton de Vaud) a accueilli le relais inter-club. Douze équipes de deux coureurs étaient venues s’affronter sur le parcours de type «facile», et vingt-six équipes de trois coureurs du côté «technique». Tous ces parcours étaient proposés sur une zone semi-urbaine où il fallait alterner entre habitations, rues, bois, parc et adapter sa vitesse de course. Le suspens était bien présent notamment sur le relais technique. La victoire est revenue à l’équipe de l’OLG Huttwil composée de Thomas Hofer, Janick Zappa et Philipp Zappa en un temps de 2:14:07. Juste derrière à 50 secondes on trouve l’équipe CO CERN T1 avec Emese&am...

  9. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Tous à vos boussoles, cap sur une nouvelle saison! Le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose à nouveau une série de courses comptant pour la coupe genevoise. Le coup d’envoi sera donné samedi 17 mars au Flon dans le canton de Vaud  avec une course longue distance. Puis le programme sera le suivant: Samedi 21 avril : Challex Samedi 28 avril : Vulbens Samedi 5 mai : Trelex Samedi 12 mai : Chancy Samedi 19 mai : Lausanne/Sauvabelin Samedi 2 juin: La Faucille Samedi 9 juin: Bonmont/La Rippe Finale Ces courses populaires ont lieu le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour participer aux épreuves sur le territoire français, il faut être en possession soit ...

  10. COURSE D'ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2010-01-01

    Du Mont Mussy à Lamoura C’est au Mont Mussy près de Divonne que s’est déroulée la deuxième course comptant pour la coupe d’automne. Une bonne centaine de participants n’ont pas hésité à venir découvrir, sous un magnifique soleil, les 5 parcours proposés par la famille Williams/Hatzifotiadou. La plupart des participants ont couru en individuel, certains ont choisi de chercher les balises en famille. C’est un effet une possibilité qu’offrent nos courses d’orientation du samedi, à savoir que l’on peut pratiquer individuellement, en famille ou entre amis. Les résultats sur les 5 parcours sont les suivants : Technique long : Yannick Gagneret en 1.08:09, suivi par F. Janod en 1.09:41 et de Bruno Barge en 1.11:23. Technique moyen : Victoire pour Rémi...

  11. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  1er mai: muguet et balises à Vulbens Les week-ends s’enchainent et les courses aussi. La quatrième manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club sous la direction de J. Zosso, J. Iven et W. Heinze a eu lieu sur le site de Genolier (canton de Vaud) samedi dernier. Le soleil a, une nouvelle fois, accompagné les participants sur les cinq circuits proposés. On notera la jolie performance de Sami Vaehaenen élite finlandais (CO CERN) sur le parcours technique long en 49:09 avec une avance de presque 10 mm sur le second concurrent, le junior Clément Poncet (O’Jura). Les résultats complets de cette étape sont consultables en ligne à l’adresse suivante : http://cern.ch/club-orientation. La prochaine étape est prévue dans la forêt de Vulbens (Haute Savoie) samedi 1er mai sur une toute nouvelle carte. Les...

  12. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015. It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE has been flourishing. The general theory of entrepreneurship indicates that market opportunities are a common and dominant link for all entrepreneurial activities. The entrepreneurship theory refers to the identification or creation opportunities, their evaluation and exploitation. The expansion into new geographic markets is undoubtedly an important market opportunity for growth and development. The internationalisation as a response to the market opportunity takes diverse paths. Based on the in-depth literature search, this issue of our journal aims to determine whether, why and how, in the context of diverse environmental conditions, the pursuit of market opportunities contributes to the increase of internationalisation of the firm (Dimitratos & Plakoyiannaki, 2003; Dimitratos, Voudouris, Plakoyiannaki & Nakos,. 2012; Wach. 2015.

  13. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  14. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  15. CERN Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2018-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2018 C’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison ! Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires pour ce printemps. Le coup d’envoi sera donné samedi 7 avril à 13h à Trélex dans le canton de Vaud avec une course longue distance. Puis le programme sera le suivant : Samedi 14 avril : Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 21 avril : Pougny (01) Samedi 28 avril : Vulbens (74) Samedi 5 mai : Dorigny (VD) Samedi 19 mai : Prémanon (39) Samedi 26 mai : Chancy (GE) Samedi 2 juin : Monteret (VD) Samedi 9 juin : Bonmont (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l&...

  16. Functional Connectivity of Resting Hemodynamic Signals in Submillimeter Orientation Columns of the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddi, Anil K; Vazquez, Alberto L; Whitney, David E; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2016-09-07

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used for examining connectivity across brain regions. The spatial scale by which hemodynamic imaging can resolve functional connections at rest remains unknown. To examine this issue, deoxyhemoglobin-weighted intrinsic optical imaging data were acquired from the visual cortex of lightly anesthetized ferrets. The neural activity of orientation domains, which span a distance of 0.7-0.8 mm, has been shown to be correlated during evoked activity and at rest. We performed separate analyses to assess the degree to which the spatial and temporal characteristics of spontaneous hemodynamic signals depend on the known functional organization of orientation columns. As a control, artificial orientation column maps were generated. Spatially, resting hemodynamic patterns showed a higher spatial resemblance to iso-orientation maps than artificially generated maps. Temporally, a correlation analysis was used to establish whether iso-orientation domains are more correlated than orthogonal orientation domains. After accounting for a significant decrease in correlation as a function of distance, a small but significant temporal correlation between iso-orientation domains was found, which decreased with increasing difference in orientation preference. This dependence was abolished when using artificially synthetized orientation maps. Finally, the temporal correlation coefficient as a function of orientation difference at rest showed a correspondence with that calculated during visual stimulation suggesting that the strength of resting connectivity is related to the strength of the visual stimulation response. Our results suggest that temporal coherence of hemodynamic signals measured by optical imaging of intrinsic signals exists at a submillimeter columnar scale in resting state.

  17. Archives: Orient Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 26 of 26 ... Archives: Orient Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: Orient Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 26 of 26 Items ...

  18. Problem-Oriented Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch; Pedersen, Nils Kaare

    This book is meant to support problem-oriented learning activities. Problem-orientation concerns the reasoning about lack of knowledge, while project work includes the ethnomethods that are practiced when collectives produce scientific knowledge. This book reflects particular methods related...

  19. Assessing New Employee Orientation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jose M.; Yancey, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the importance of new employee orientation (NEO) programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a viewpoint of the importance of new employee orientation programs, the quality of typical NEOs, and how to improve NEOs. Findings: Although western…

  20. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry C. Zinn; Michael J. Manfredo; Susan C. Barro

    2002-01-01

    Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of...

  1. Nano-scale orientation mapping of graphite in cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuwissen, Koenraad; Lacaze, Jacques; Véron, Muriel; Laffont, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    A diametrical section of a graphite spheroid from a ductile iron sample was prepared using the focused ion beam-lift out technique. Characterization of this section was carried out through automated crystal orientation mapping in a transmission electron microscope. This new technique automatically collects electron diffraction patterns and matches them with precalculated templates. The results of this investigation are crystal orientation and phase maps of the specimen, which bring new light to the understanding of growth mechanisms of this peculiar graphite morphology. This article shows that mapping the orientation of carbon-based materials such as graphite, which is difficult to achieve with conventional techniques, can be performed automatically and at high spatial resolution using automated crystal orientation mapping in a transmission electron microscope. - Highlights: • ACOM/TEM can be used to study the crystal orientation of carbon-based materials. • A spheroid is formed by conical sectors radiating from a central nuclei. • Misorientations exist within the conical sectors, defining various orientation domains

  2. Different facets of market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2009-01-01

    the UK parties generally exhibited similar levels of market orientation on each of the relevant construct dimensions, the German parties had more distinct profiles; thus the applied dimensions of political market orientation show discriminatory power within and across electoral systems. In the UK......In this study we employ the concept of political market orientation to better understand how the main political parties in the UK and Germany relate to other stakeholders in the political sphere through an exploratory content analysis of their core election offering, the manifesto. This study has...... two aims: firstly, we will discuss the different facets of the market orientation of the main UK and German parties in their respective 2005 General Elections through an exploratory content analysis, and secondly, we will compare characteristics of market orientation between the two countries. Whilst...

  3. Customizable Time-Oriented Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Pantazos, Kostas; Lauesen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time......-oriented visualizations but it is time consuming and hard. To combine efficiency, the effort required to develop a visualization, and customizability, the ability to tailor a visualization, we developed time-oriented building blocks that address the specifics of time (e.g. linear vs. cyclic or point-based vs. interval......-based) and consist of inner customizable parts (e.g. ticks). A combination of the time-oriented and other primitive graphical building blocks allowed the creation of several customizable advanced time-oriented visualizations. The appearance and behavior of the blocks are specified using spreadsheet-like formulas. We...

  4. Is attention based on spatial contextual memory preferentially guided by low spatial frequency signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Buckley, Alice; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    A popular model of visual perception states that coarse information (carried by low spatial frequencies) along the dorsal stream is rapidly transmitted to prefrontal and medial temporal areas, activating contextual information from memory, which can in turn constrain detailed input carried by high spatial frequencies arriving at a slower rate along the ventral visual stream, thus facilitating the processing of ambiguous visual stimuli. We were interested in testing whether this model contributes to memory-guided orienting of attention. In particular, we asked whether global, low-spatial frequency (LSF) inputs play a dominant role in triggering contextual memories in order to facilitate the processing of the upcoming target stimulus. We explored this question over four experiments. The first experiment replicated the LSF advantage reported in perceptual discrimination tasks by showing that participants were faster and more accurate at matching a low spatial frequency version of a scene, compared to a high spatial frequency version, to its original counterpart in a forced-choice task. The subsequent three experiments tested the relative contributions of low versus high spatial frequencies during memory-guided covert spatial attention orienting tasks. Replicating the effects of memory-guided attention, pre-exposure to scenes associated with specific spatial memories for target locations (memory cues) led to higher perceptual discrimination and faster response times to identify targets embedded in the scenes. However, either high or low spatial frequency cues were equally effective; LSF signals did not selectively or preferentially contribute to the memory-driven attention benefits to performance. Our results challenge a generalized model that LSFs activate contextual memories, which in turn bias attention and facilitate perception.

  5. Strong orientational coordinates and orientational order parameters for symmetric objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the synthesis of anisotropic macromolecules and nanoparticles have spurred an immense interest in theoretical and computational studies of self-assembly. The cornerstone of such studies is the role of shape in self-assembly and in inducing complex order. The problem of identifying different types of order that can emerge in such systems can, however, be challenging. Here, we revisit the problem of quantifying orientational order in systems of building blocks with non-trivial rotational symmetries. We first propose a systematic way of constructing orientational coordinates for such symmetric building blocks. We call the arising tensorial coordinates strong orientational coordinates (SOCs) as they fully and exclusively specify the orientation of a symmetric object. We then use SOCs to describe and quantify local and global orientational order, and spatiotemporal orientational correlations in systems of symmetric building blocks. The SOCs and the orientational order parameters developed in this work are not only useful in performing and analyzing computer simulations of symmetric molecules or particles, but can also be utilized for the efficient storage of rotational information in long trajectories of evolving many-body systems. (paper)

  6. Spatial Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Mamoulis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Spatial database management deals with the storage, indexing, and querying of data with spatial features, such as location and geometric extent. Many applications require the efficient management of spatial data, including Geographic Information Systems, Computer Aided Design, and Location Based Services. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of spatial data management technology, with an emphasis on indexing and search techniques. It first introduces spatial data models and queries and discusses the main issues of extending a database system to support spatial data.

  7. Spatial displacement of numbers on a vertical number line in spatial neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula eMihulowicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies that investigated the association of numbers and space in humans came to contradictory conclusions about the spatial character of the mental number magnitude representation and about how it may be influenced by unilateral spatial neglect. The present study aimed to disentangle the debated influence of perceptual versus representational aspects via explicit mapping of numbers onto space by applying the number line estimation paradigm with vertical orientation of stimulus lines. Thirty-five acute right-brain damaged stroke patients (6 with neglect were asked to place two-digit numbers on vertically oriented lines with 0 marked at the bottom and 100 at the top. In contrast to the expected, nearly linear mapping in the control patient group, patients with spatial neglect overestimated the position of numbers in the lower middle range. The results corroborate spatial characteristics of the number magnitude representation. In neglect patients, this representation seems to be biased towards the ipsilesional side, independent of the physical orientation of the task stimuli.

  8. Spatial and Semantic Processing between Audition and Vision: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli was enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic- congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.

  9. Service-oriented Context-aware Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Kovács

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Location- and context-aware services are emerging technologies in mobile and desktop environments, however, most of them are difficult to use and do not seem to be beneficial enough. Our research focuses on designing and creating a service-oriented framework that helps location- and context-aware, client-service type application development and use. Location information is combined with other contexts such as the users' history, preferences and disabilities. The framework also handles the spatial model of the environment (e.g. map of a room or a building as a context. The framework is built on a semantic backend where the ontologies are represented using the OWL description language. The use of ontologies enables the framework to run inference tasks and to easily adapt to new context types. The framework contains a compatibility layer for positioning devices, which hides the technical differences of positioning technologies and enables the combination of location data of various sources.

  10. Graphene levitation and orientation control using a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chao; Lin, Feng; Wang, Zhiming M.; Bao, Jiming; Hu, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies graphene levitation and orientation control using a magnetic field. The torques in all three spatial directions induced by diamagnetic forces are used to predict stable conditions for different shapes of millimeter-sized graphite plates. We find that graphite plates, in regular polygon shapes with an even number of sides, will be levitated in a stable manner above four interleaved permanent magnets. In addition, the orientation of micrometer-sized graphene flakes near a permanent magnet is studied in both air and liquid environments. Using these analyses, we are able to simulate optical transmission and reflection on a writing board and thereby reveal potential applications using this technology for display screens. Understanding the control of graphene flake orientation will lead to the discovery of future applications using graphene flakes.

  11. Low-temperature nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.; Postma, H.

    1986-01-01

    This book comprehensively surveys the many aspects of the low temperature nuclear orientation method. The angular distribution of radioactive emissions from nuclei oriented by hyperfine interactions in solids, is treated experimentally and theoretically. A general introductory chapter is followed by formal development of the theory of the orientation process and the anisotropic emission of decay products from oriented nuclei, applied to radioactive decay and to reactions. Five chapters on applications to nuclear physics cover experimental studies of alpha, beta and gamma emission, nuclear moment measurement and level structure information. Nuclear orientation studies of parity non-conservation and time reversal asymmetry are fully described. Seven chapters cover aspects of hyperfine interactions, magnetic and electric, in metals, alloys and insulating crystals, including ordered systems. Relaxation phenomena and the combined technique of NMR detection using oriented nuclei are treated at length. Chapters on the major recent development of on-line facilities, giving access to short lived nuclei far from stability, on the use of nuclear orientation for thermometry below 1 Kelvin and on technical aspects of the method complete the main text. Extensive appendices, table of relevant parameters and over 1000 references are included to assist the design of future experiments. (Auth.)

  12. Students’ Spatial Performance: Cognitive Style and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, U.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the students’ spatial abilities based on cognitive styles and sex differences. Spatial abilities in this study include 5 components, namely spatial perception, spatial visualization, mental rotation, spatial relations, and spatial orientation. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research were 4 students of junior high school, there were 1 male FI, 1 male FD, 1 female FI, and 1 female FI. The results showed that there are differences in spatial abilities of the four subjects that are on the components of spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial relations. The differences in spatial abilities were found in methods / strategies used by each subject to solve each component problem. The differences in cognitive styles and sex suggested different choice of strategies used to solve problems. The male students imagined the figures but female students needed the media to solve the problem. Besides sex, the cognitive style differences also have an effect on solving a problem. In addition, FI students were not affected by distracting information but FD students could be affected by distracting information. This research was expected to contribute knowledge and insight to the readers, especially for math teachers in terms of the spatial ability of the students so that they can optimize their students’ spatial ability.

  13. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis

  14. Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks.

  15. Oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  16. Deconstructing sexual orientation: understanding the phenomena of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T S

    1997-01-01

    The very terms of a debate about whether or not sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon fail to consider the complex origins of the phenomenon. Deconstruction of the term "homosexuality" shows that it refers to multiple factors which cannot be studied as or subsumed under a unitary concept. Adequate understanding of sexual orientation must consider the developmental, interpersonal, experiential, and cultural dimensions of sexuality, as well as any biological contributions to sexual attraction, behavior, and identity.

  17. Almeria spatial memory recognition test (ASMRT): Gender differences emerged in a new passive spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascón, Laura; García-Moreno, Luis Miguel; Cimadevilla, Jose Manuel

    2017-06-09

    Many different human spatial memory tasks were developed in the last two decades. Virtual reality based tasks make possible developing different scenarios and situations to assess spatial orientation but sometimes these tasks are complex for specific populations like children and older-adults. A new spatial task with a very limited technological requirement was developed in this study. It demanded the use of spatial memory for an accurate solution. It also proved to be sensitive to gender differences, with men outperforming women under high specific difficulty levels. Thanks to its simplicity it could be applied as a screening test and is easy to combine with EEG and fMRI studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling the impact of future development and public conservation orientation on landscape connectivity for conservation planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Alex Mark; Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark

    2015-01-01

    aspects of conservation planning. Objectives We present an approach for characterizing the potential effects of public conservation orientation and projected future development land use scenarios on landscape connectivity. Methods Using public participation GIS techniques (mail-based surveys linked...... to a mapping component), we classified spatially explicit conservation values and preferences into a conservation orientation index consisting of positive, negative, or neutral scores. Connectivity was then modeled using a least-cost path and graph-network approach for a range of conservation orientation...... and development scenarios in the Lower Hunter region, Australia. Scenarios were modelled through either adding vegetation (positive orientation) or removing vegetation (negative orientation, development). Results Scenarios that included positive conservation orientation link the isolated eastern and western...

  19. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmierer, Eric N [Los Alamos, NM; Prenger, F Coyne [Los Alamos, NM; Hill, Dallas D [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  20. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  1. The relationships between market orientation and alternative strategic orientations : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - One of the strongest convictions in marketing is that market orientation contributes to firms' performance substantially more than alternative strategic orientations such as innovation and entrepreneurial orientations. Still, some studies show that alternative orientations can also

  2. Why is the sunny side always up? Explaining the spatial mapping of concepts by language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; McGaw, Bethany; Kidd, Evan

    2014-10-01

    Humans appear to rely on spatial mappings to represent and describe concepts. The conceptual cuing effect describes the tendency for participants to orient attention to a spatial location following the presentation of an unrelated cue word (e.g., orienting attention upward after reading the word sky). To date, such effects have predominately been explained within the embodied cognition framework, according to which people's attention is oriented on the basis of prior experience (e.g., sky → up via perceptual simulation). However, this does not provide a compelling explanation for how abstract words have the same ability to orient attention. Why, for example, does dream also orient attention upward? We report on an experiment that investigated the role of language use (specifically, collocation between concept words and spatial words for up and down dimensions) and found that it predicted the cuing effect. The results suggest that language usage patterns may be instrumental in explaining conceptual cuing.

  3. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  4. Position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs

  5. Laser Controlled Molecular Orientation Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabek, O.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular orientation is a challenging control issue covering a wide range of applications from reactive collisions, high order harmonic generation, surface processing and catalysis, to nanotechnologies. The laser control scenario rests on the following three steps: (i) depict some basic mechanisms producing dynamical orientation; (ii) use them both as computational and interpretative tools in optimal control schemes involving genetic algorithms; (iii) apply what is learnt from optimal control to improve the basic mechanisms. The existence of a target molecular rotational state combining the advantages of efficient and post-pulse long duration orientation is shown. A strategy is developed for reaching such a target in terms of a train of successive short laser pulses applied at predicted time intervals. Each individual pulse imparts a kick to the molecule which orients. Transposition of such strategies to generic systems is now under investigation

  6. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren Gonzalez, Gorka

    2018-01-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target...... and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance...

  7. Interdisciplinary Problem Oriented Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we analyze the problem oriented project work practiced at the Bachelor Study Program in Natural Science (Nat Bach) at Roskilde University (RU) as a learning environment for developing students’ mathematical modelling competence. The projects are conducted in a rather sophisticated...... and radical learning environment grounded on the four pedagogical key principles of, problem orientation, participant directed group work, interdisciplinarity and exemplarity. We illustrate and discuss the interplay between the aim of developing the students’ modelling competence on the one hand...

  8. Security for service oriented architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although integrating security into the design of applications has proven to deliver resilient products, there are few books available that provide guidance on how to incorporate security into the design of an application. Filling this need, Security for Service Oriented Architectures examines both application and security architectures and illustrates the relationship between the two. Supplying authoritative guidance on how to design distributed and resilient applications, the book provides an overview of the various standards that service oriented and distributed applications leverage, includ

  9. Haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda L; Mier, Hanneke I van

    2006-04-01

    Research has shown that haptic spatial matching at intermanual distances over 60 cm is prone to large systematic errors. The error pattern has been explained by the use of reference frames intermediate between egocentric and allocentric coding. This study investigated haptic performance in near peripersonal space, i.e. at intermanual distances of 60 cm and less. Twelve blindfolded participants (six males and six females) were presented with two turn bars at equal distances from the midsagittal plane, 30 or 60 cm apart. Different orientations (vertical/horizontal or oblique) of the left bar had to be matched by adjusting the right bar to either a mirror symmetric (/ \\) or parallel (/ /) position. The mirror symmetry task can in principle be performed accurately in both an egocentric and an allocentric reference frame, whereas the parallel task requires an allocentric representation. Results showed that parallel matching induced large systematic errors which increased with distance. Overall error was significantly smaller in the mirror task. The task difference also held for the vertical orientation at 60 cm distance, even though this orientation required the same response in both tasks, showing a marked effect of task instruction. In addition, men outperformed women on the parallel task. Finally, contrary to our expectations, systematic errors were found in the mirror task, predominantly at 30 cm distance. Based on these findings, we suggest that haptic performance in near peripersonal space might be dominated by different mechanisms than those which come into play at distances over 60 cm. Moreover, our results indicate that both inter-individual differences and task demands affect task performance in haptic spatial matching. Therefore, we conclude that the study of haptic spatial matching in near peripersonal space might reveal important additional constraints for the specification of adequate models of haptic spatial performance.

  10. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN

    2006-02-21

    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  11. The role of social cues in the deployment of spatial attention: Head-body relationships automatically activate directional spatial codes in a Simon task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona ePomianowska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of body orientation in the orienting and allocation of social attention was examined using an adapted Simon paradigm. Participants categorized the facial expression of forward facing, computer-generated human figures by pressing one of two response keys, each located left or right of the observers’ body midline, while the orientation of the stimulus figure’s body (trunk, arms, and legs, which was the task-irrelevant feature of interest, was manipulated (oriented towards the left or right visual hemifield with respect to the spatial location of the required response. We found that when the orientation of the body was compatible with the required response location, responses were slower relative to when body orientation was incompatible with the response location. This reverse compatibility effect suggests that body orientation is automatically processed into a directional spatial code, but that this code is based on an integration of head and body orientation within an allocentric-based frame of reference. Moreover, we argue that this code may be derived from the motion information implied in the image of a figure when head and body orientation are incongruent. Our results have implications for understanding the nature of the information that affects the allocation of attention for social orienting.

  12. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  13. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  14. Understanding the brain through its spatial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Will Zachary

    The spatial location of cells in neural tissue can be easily extracted from many imaging modalities, but the information contained in spatial relationships between cells is seldom utilized. This is because of a lack of recognition of the importance of spatial relationships to some aspects of brain function, and the reflection in spatial statistics of other types of information. The mathematical tools necessary to describe spatial relationships are also unknown to many neuroscientists, and biologists in general. We analyze two cases, and show that spatial relationships can be used to understand the role of a particular type of cell, the astrocyte, in Alzheimer's disease, and that the geometry of axons in the brain's white matter sheds light on the process of establishing connectivity between areas of the brain. Astrocytes provide nutrients for neuronal metabolism, and regulate the chemical environment of the brain, activities that require manipulation of spatial distributions (of neurotransmitters, for example). We first show, through the use of a correlation function, that inter-astrocyte forces determine the size of independent regulatory domains in the cortex. By examining the spatial distribution of astrocytes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease, we determine that astrocytes are not actively transported to fight the disease, as was previously thought. The paths axons take through the white matter determine which parts of the brain are connected, and how quickly signals are transmitted. The rules that determine these paths (i.e. shortest distance) are currently unknown. By measurement of axon orientation distributions using three-point correlation functions and the statistics of axon turning and branching, we reveal that axons are restricted to growth in three directions, like a taxicab traversing city blocks, albeit in three-dimensions. We show how geometric restrictions at the small scale are related to large-scale trajectories. Finally we discuss the

  15. FULLY AUTOMATED IMAGE ORIENTATION IN THE ABSENCE OF TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stamatopoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated close-range photogrammetric network orientation has traditionally been associated with the use of coded targets in the object space to allow for an initial relative orientation (RO and subsequent spatial resection of the images. Over the past decade, automated orientation via feature-based matching (FBM techniques has attracted renewed research attention in both the photogrammetry and computer vision (CV communities. This is largely due to advances made towards the goal of automated relative orientation of multi-image networks covering untargetted (markerless objects. There are now a number of CV-based algorithms, with accompanying open-source software, that can achieve multi-image orientation within narrow-baseline networks. From a photogrammetric standpoint, the results are typically disappointing as the metric integrity of the resulting models is generally poor, or even unknown, while the number of outliers within the image matching and triangulation is large, and generally too large to allow relative orientation (RO via the commonly used coplanarity equations. On the other hand, there are few examples within the photogrammetric research field of automated markerless camera calibration to metric tolerances, and these too are restricted to narrow-baseline, low-convergence imaging geometry. The objective addressed in this paper is markerless automatic multi-image orientation, maintaining metric integrity, within networks that incorporate wide-baseline imagery. By wide-baseline we imply convergent multi-image configurations with convergence angles of up to around 90°. An associated aim is provision of a fast, fully automated process, which can be performed without user intervention. For this purpose, various algorithms require optimisation to allow parallel processing utilising multiple PC cores and graphics processing units (GPUs.

  16. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding.

  17. Efficient Implementation of GPR Data Inversion in Case of Spatially Varying Antenna Polarizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Aubry, P.J.; Yarovyi, O.

    2018-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar imaging from the data acquired with arbitrarily oriented dipole-like antennas is considered. To take into account variations of antenna orientations resulting in spatial rotation of antenna radiation patterns and polarizations of transmitted fields, the full-wave method

  18. Exogenous and endogenous spatial attention effects on visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabiano; Santangelo, Valerio; Raffone, Antonino; Lupiáñez, Juan; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we investigate how exogenous and endogenous orienting of spatial attention affect visuospatial working memory (VSWM). Specifically, we focused on two attentional effects and their consequences on storage in VSWM, when exogenous (Experiment 1) or endogenous (Experiment 2) orienting cues were used. The first effect, known as the meridian effect, is given by a decrement in behavioural performance when spatial cues and targets are presented in locations separated by vertical and/or horizontal meridians. The second effect, known as the distance effect, is given by a decrement in the orienting effects as a function of the spatial distance between cues and targets. Our results revealed a dissociation between exogenous and endogenous orienting mechanisms in terms of both meridian and distance effects. We found that meridian crossing affects performance only when endogenous cues were used. Specifically, VSWM performance with endogenous cueing depended more on the number of meridian crossings than on distance between cue and target. By contrast, a U-shaped distance dependency was observed using exogenous cues. Our findings therefore suggest that exogenous and endogenous orienting mechanisms lead to different forms of attentional bias for storage in VSWM.

  19. Single molecule optical measurements of orientation and rotations of biological macromolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Shroder, Deborah Y; Lippert, Lisa G; Goldman, Yale E

    2016-01-01

    The subdomains of macromolecules often undergo large orientation changes during their catalytic cycles that are essential for their activity. Tracking these rearrangements in real time opens a powerful window into the link between protein structure and functional output. Site-specific labeling of individual molecules with polarized optical probes and measuring their spatial orientation can give insight into the crucial conformational changes, dynamics, and fluctuations of macromolecules. Here...

  20. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-11-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  1. Design of spatial experiments: Model fitting and prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.V.

    1996-03-01

    The main objective of the paper is to describe and develop model oriented methods and algorithms for the design of spatial experiments. Unlike many other publications in this area, the approach proposed here is essentially based on the ideas of convex design theory.

  2. Spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna Risso 1826 (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of a specific site of attachment by a copepod parasite is determined by a set of mostly unknown factors. The spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna on the gill filaments of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias was investigated. The complete set of left gills of 11 hosts was examined and the location, orientation ...

  3. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  4. An improved spatial contour tree constructed method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ling; Guilbert, Eric; Long, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Contours are important data to delineate the landform on a map. A contour tree provides an object-oriented description of landforms and can be used to enrich the topological information. The traditional contour tree is used to store topological relationships between contours in a hierarchical structure and allows for the identification of eminences and depressions as sets of nested contours. This research proposes an improved contour tree so-called spatial contour tree that contains not only the topological but also the geometric information. It can be regarded as a terrain skeleton in 3-dimention, and it is established based on the spatial nodes of contours which have the latitude, longitude and elevation information. The spatial contour tree is built by connecting spatial nodes from low to high elevation for a positive landform, and from high to low elevation for a negative landform to form a hierarchical structure. The connection between two spatial nodes can provide the real distance and direction as a Euclidean vector in 3-dimention. In this paper, the construction method is tested in the experiment, and the results are discussed. The proposed hierarchical structure is in 3-demintion and can show the skeleton inside a terrain. The structure, where all nodes have geo-information, can be used to distinguish different landforms and applied for contour generalization with consideration of geographic characteristics.

  5. Signing of CERN's 300 million EUR loan from the EIB in December 2002. From left to right : Philippe Busquin, European Research Commissioner, Philippe Maystadt, EIB President and Luciano Maiani, Director General of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (EIB) is lending EUR 300 million to finance the final phase of construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN , the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The EIB loan will also help to finance the instrumentation to record and analyse the high-energy particle collisions at the LHC. A loan to enable construction of this major project was foreseen by CERN's governing Council when it approved the LHC in 1996.

  6. 2 September 2009 - H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco (second from right) visiting CMS underground experimental area with, from left to right, Ambassador R. Fillon, Collaboration Spokesperson T. Virdee and CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tirage 1-28:caverne expérimentale CMS avec le Porte-parole de la Collaboration T. Virdee Tirage 29-42:CCC avec le Chef du Département Faisceaux(BE) P. Collier et Département Faisceaux, groupe opérations, LHC Ingénieur Responsable L. Ponce.

  7. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  8. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  9. Moessbauer effects on oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayouti, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Standard nuclear orientation methods (not sensitive to the polarization) do not give information on the sign of the magnetic moment. Mossbauer effect separates right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized components, thus its detection on oriented nuclei (T approximately 10 mK) gives the sign of the magnetic moment of oriented state. In this thesis we applied this method to study the 3/2 - ground states of 191 Pt and 193 Os, which are in the prolate-oblate transition region, where assignement of experimental levels to theoretical states is often umbiguous. We show that for those nuclei the sign of the magnetic moment is the signature of the configuration, and its determination establishes the correspondance between experimental and theoretical levels [fr

  10. Competing strategically through market orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapert, M I; Yarbrough, L

    1997-01-01

    As organizations seek to better understand their customers, competitors, and environments, the marketing function effectively serves as the support mechanism for these activities in many industries. Accordingly, in many organizations the marketing concept has been elevated to the stature of a strategic weapon, manifested in the form of market orientation. Market-oriented firms emphasize the collection, organization, and dissemination of information regarding both customers and competitors. This strategy is especially well-suited for the health care industry where customer knowledge is of paramount importance, customer interaction is instantaneous, and customer satisfaction is essential. Results of a national study of general service hospitals suggest that firms which embrace a market orientation benefit through enhanced customer satisfaction and quality.

  11. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... development: Grounding We develop an empirically based conceptualization of modelling and use of models in system development projects characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in requirements and point to implications for tools and techniques for modelling in such a setting. Techniques We introduce......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...

  12. THE LIMITED EFFECT OF COINCIDENT ORIENTATION ON THE CHOICE OF INTRINSIC AXIS (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Su, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The allocentric system computes and represents general object-to-object spatial relationships to provide a spatial frame of reference other than the egocentric system. The intrinsic frame-of-reference system theory, which suggests people learn the locations of objects based upon an intrinsic axis, is important in research about the allocentric system. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the effect of coincident orientation on the choice of intrinsic axis was limited. Two groups of participants (24 men, 24 women; M age = 24 yr., SD = 2) encoded different spatial layouts in which the objects shared the coincident orientation of 315° and 225° separately at learning perspective (0°). The response pattern of partial-scene-recognition task following learning reflected different strategies for choosing the intrinsic axis under different conditions. Under the 315° object-orientation condition, the objects' coincident orientation was as important as the symmetric axis in the choice of the intrinsic axis. However, participants were more likely to choose the symmetric axis as the intrinsic axis under the 225° object-orientation condition. The results suggest the effect of coincident orientation on the choice of intrinsic axis is limited.

  13. ST-vector orientation and location of myocardial perfusion defects during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoons, M.L.; Withagen, A.; Vinke, R.; Kooy, P.; Bakker, W.; Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam

    1978-01-01

    In 34 patients with chest pain the spatial orientation of the ST-vectors in the exercise electrocardiogramm 30 and 80 msec after the end of QRS were compared with the location of exercise induced local defects of myocardial uptake of 201 Tl. The following results were obtained: 1. The sensitivity and specifity of myocardial perfusion imaging after exercise were the same as those of exercise electrocardiograms; 2. No relation could be observed beween the location of reduced 201 Tl uptake during exercise and the spatial orientation of the ST-vectors. (orig.) [de

  14. Spatial quality, location theory and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, Mathijs; Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with spatial quality as a possible factor in location choices made by companies. Actual location decisions as well as location theory have changed over time. In the industrial era primary “hard” cost factors were dominant, to be supplemented by agglomeration factors ever since the

  15. From service-oriented architecture to service-oriented enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Cordeiro, J.; Ivanov, I.; Shishkov, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) was originally motivated by enterprise demands for better business-technology alignment and higher flexibility and reuse. SOA evolved from an initial set of ideas and principles to Web services (WS) standards now widely accepted by industry. The next phase of SOA

  16. Social Dominance Orientation, Language Orientation, and Deaf Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the Deaf community as a linguistic-cultural minority has been increasingly recognized and studied over the last two decades. However, significant differences of opinion and perspective within that population typically have been neglected in the literature. Social dominance orientation (SDO), a theoretical construct, typically…

  17. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  18. High-field fMRI unveils orientation columns in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Essa; Harel, Noam; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    2008-07-29

    Functional (f)MRI has revolutionized the field of human brain research. fMRI can noninvasively map the spatial architecture of brain function via localized increases in blood flow after sensory or cognitive stimulation. Recent advances in fMRI have led to enhanced sensitivity and spatial accuracy of the measured signals, indicating the possibility of detecting small neuronal ensembles that constitute fundamental computational units in the brain, such as cortical columns. Orientation columns in visual cortex are perhaps the best known example of such a functional organization in the brain. They cannot be discerned via anatomical characteristics, as with ocular dominance columns. Instead, the elucidation of their organization requires functional imaging methods. However, because of insufficient sensitivity, spatial accuracy, and image resolution of the available mapping techniques, thus far, they have not been detected in humans. Here, we demonstrate, by using high-field (7-T) fMRI, the existence and spatial features of orientation- selective columns in humans. Striking similarities were found with the known spatial features of these columns in monkeys. In addition, we found that a larger number of orientation columns are devoted to processing orientations around 90 degrees (vertical stimuli with horizontal motion), whereas relatively similar fMRI signal changes were observed across any given active column. With the current proliferation of high-field MRI systems and constant evolution of fMRI techniques, this study heralds the exciting prospect of exploring unmapped and/or unknown columnar level functional organizations in the human brain.

  19. Single molecule optical measurements of orientation and rotations of biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, Deborah Y; Lippert, Lisa G; Goldman, Yale E

    2016-11-22

    Subdomains of macromolecules often undergo large orientation changes during their catalytic cycles that are essential for their activity. Tracking these rearrangements in real time opens a powerful window into the link between protein structure and functional output. Site-specific labeling of individual molecules with polarized optical probes and measurement of their spatial orientation can give insight into the crucial conformational changes, dynamics, and fluctuations of macromolecules. Here we describe the range of single molecule optical technologies that can extract orientation information from these probes, review the relevant types of probes and labeling techniques, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies for addressing specific inquiries.

  20. A REST Service for Triangulation of Point Sets Using Oriented Matroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Valero Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a prototype REST service for triangulation of point sets collected by mobile GPS receivers. The first objective of this paper is to test functionalities of an application, which exploits mobile devices’ capabilities to get data associated with their spatial location. A triangulation of a set of points provides a mechanism through which it is possible to produce an accurate representation of spatial data. Such triangulation may be used for representing surfaces by Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs, and for decomposing complex two-dimensional spatial objects into simpler geometries. The second objective of this paper is to promote the use of oriented matroids for finding alternative solutions to spatial data processing and analysis tasks. This study focused on the particular case of the calculation of triangulations based on oriented matroids. The prototype described in this paper used a wrapper to integrate and expose several tools previously implemented in C++.

  1. Orienting in virtual environments: How are surface features and environmental geometry weighted in an orientation task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Bischof, Walter F

    2008-10-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding of the geometric information, Experiment 1 showed that when featural information is conjoined with the environmental surfaces, men and women encoded both types of information. Experiment 2 showed that, although both types of information are encoded, performance in locating a goal position is better if it is close to a geometrically or featurally distinct location. Furthermore, although features are relied upon more strongly than geometry, initial experience with an environment influences the relative weighting of featural and geometric cues. Taken together, these results show that human adults use a flexible strategy for encoding spatial information.

  2. The Management of the Citizen Oriented Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Bogdan VINTILĂ

    2010-01-01

    The context of the knowledge based society is presented. The new user requirements in the context of the new society are analyzed. Basic concepts regarding the citizen oriented applications are presented. Issues specific to the citizen oriented applications are presented. The development cycle of the citizen oriented applications is analyzed. The particular elements for developing citizen oriented applications are described. The quality concept for the citizen oriented applications is defined...

  3. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user-sup...... different kinds of functionality as well as the ideas underlying their definition....

  4. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  5. On strategic spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  6. Theory of spatial networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1983-01-01

    A new framework of synchronous parallel processing systems called spatial networks is examined, in which the family of all cellular automata is included perfectly. This framework is free from the two restrictions of cellular automata of which one is the finiteness of the set of states of a cell and the other is the countability of an array space. Throughout this article, the relationships between function and structure of spatial networks are considered. First, the necessary and sufficient condition for spatial networks to be uniformly interconnected is given. That for spatial networks to be finitely interconnected is also given with a topological approach. The characterization theorem of cellular automata comes from these results. Second, it is shown that finitely and uniformly interconnected linear spatial networks can be characterized by the convolution form. Last, the conditions for their global mappings to be injective or surjective are discussed. 10 references.

  7. A response matrix method for one-speed discrete ordinates fixed source problems in slab geometry with no spatial truncation error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydia, Emilio J.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a response matrix method for one-speed slab-geometry discrete ordinates (SN) neutral particle transport problems that is completely free from spatial truncation errors. The unknowns in the method are the cell-edge angular fluxes of particles. The numerical results generated for these quantities are exactly those obtained from the analytic solution of the SN problem apart from finite arithmetic considerations. Our method is based on a spectral analysis that we perform in the SN equations with scattering inside a discretization cell of the spatial grid set up on the slab. As a result of this spectral analysis, we are able to obtain an expression for the local general solution of the SN equations. With this local general solution, we determine the response matrix and use the prescribed boundary conditions and continuity conditions to sweep across the discretization cells from left to right and from right to left across the slab, until a prescribed convergence criterion is satisfied. (author)

  8. Between structures and norms : Assessing tax increment financing for the Dutch spatial planning toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, Liz; Van Der Krabben, Erwin; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the institutional (mis)fit of tax increment financing for the Dutch spatial planning financial toolkit. By applying an institutionally oriented assessment framework, we analyse the interconnectivity of Dutch municipal finance and spatial planning structures and

  9. Spatial Foundations of Science Education: The Illustrative Case of Instruction on Introductory Geological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.; Kastens, Kim A.; Christensen, Adam E.

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of spatial concepts in science learning, 125 college students with high, medium, or low scores on a horizontality (water-level) spatial task were given information about geological strike and dip using existing educational materials. Participants mapped an outcrop's strike and dip, a rod's orientation, pointed to a distant…

  10. Interaction of visual and vestibular stimulation on spatial coordinates for eye movements in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Minciotti, M; Barmack, N H

    1998-07-01

    Researchers investigated how vestibular and optokinetic signals alter the spatial transformation of the coordinate system that governs the spatial orientation of reflexive eye movements. Also examined were the effects of sensory stimulation when vestibular and optokinetic signals act synergistically and when the two signals are in conflict.

  11. Diversity-oriented peptide stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thu Phuong; Larsen, Christian Ørnbøl; Røndbjerg, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    as a powerful method for peptide stapling. However, to date CuAAC stapling has not provided a simple method for obtaining peptides that are easily diversified further. In the present study, we report a new diversity-oriented peptide stapling (DOPS) methodology based on CuAAC chemistry. Stapling of peptides...

  12. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  13. Market Orientation and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hua Chin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation plays a vital role for organizations to compete to create sustainable competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between market orientation (MO and organizational performance (OP with service quality (SQ as a moderator in the context of the hotel industry in Malaysia. MO and OP were conceptualized as three- and two-dimensional constructs, respectively, whereas SQ, which consists of two-dimensional constructs, namely, technical quality and functional quality, was used as a moderator. Data were gathered through a survey using a structured questionnaire with a sample of 187 executive-level employees employed in hotels rated three stars and above in Malaysia. SmartPLS 2.0 (M3 with path modeling and bootstrapping was used to examine the standard error of the estimate and t-values. The findings suggest that only competitor orientation dimension of MO was significantly related to OP, whereas customer orientation and inter-functional coordination were not related. Interestingly, SQ was found to have moderated the relationship between MO and performance of the hotels in Malaysia. SQ exists to fill in the gap between customers’ expectations and their perception of the service providers’ performance that further creates differentiation and competitive advantage, which enhance MO practices and ultimately lead to improvements in the firm’s performance. Implications of the findings, potential limitations of the study, and directions for future research are highlighted.

  14. Communication Apprehension and People Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Bob

    Assuming that different programs for communication apprehensive/avoidant students attract different types of students according to their needs and apprehension types, a study examined the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and general people orientations, as measured by the Personal Record of Communication Apprehension-24…

  15. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

  16. Time orientation and construal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette; Handgraaf, Michel J.J.; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Eating and exercising behaviour are both characterized by immediate and future consequences. Consequently, consideration of these consequences (i.e. time orientation) predicts eating and exercising behaviour. We investigate whether construal level acts as an underlying mechanism of these

  17. Particle detection from oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J.; Moor, P. de; Schuurmans, P.; Severijns, N.; Vanderpoorten, W.; Vanneste, L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of particle emission from nuclei that have been spin oriented by cryogenical means. Experiments and recent developments with detectors in the low temperature environment and their on-line application are reviewed. The most recent results are mentioned. Some phenomena to be unraveled in future studies are pointed out. (orig.)

  18. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil…

  19. Strategy, market orientation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, R.P.; Zaefarian, Ghasem; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the fit between the strategic posture of a political party and its political market orientation, and analyses the impact of this fit on party performance. For this purpose, a configuration theory logic is applied to the context of the political market; in particular, we de...

  20. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation

  1. Context-Oriented Language Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractContext-oriented programming (COP) facilitates creating software that can dynamically adapt to its environment, such as device, user preferences, sensor inputs and so on. Software language engineering (SLE) is the discipline of principled methods and techniques for creating software

  2. Dimensionality of Women's Career Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sandra J.; Wijting, Jan P.

    1982-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from two samples identified nine indices of women's career orientation. Two factors accounted for significant variance common to the indices: career centeredness, which reflects the importance attached to a career relative to other life activities, and career commitment, which implies a commitment to lifetime employment.…

  3. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:

  4. Object Oriented Programming in Director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Director is one of the most popular authoring software. As software for developing multimedia applications, Director is an object oriented programming environment. A very important issue to develop multimedia applications is the designing of their own classes. This paper presents the particular aspects concerning the available facilities offered by Lingo to design classes and to generate objects.

  5. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, G; Patai, EZ; Nobre, AC

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on expl...

  6. Modeling mental spatial reasoning about cardinal directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Holger; Bertel, Sven; Barkowsky, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research into human mental spatial reasoning with orientation knowledge. In particular, we look at reasoning problems about cardinal directions that possess multiple valid solutions (i.e., are spatially underdetermined), at human preferences for some of these solutions, and at representational and procedural factors that lead to such preferences. The article presents, first, a discussion of existing, related conceptual and computational approaches; second, results of empirical research into the solution preferences that human reasoners actually have; and, third, a novel computational model that relies on a parsimonious and flexible spatio-analogical knowledge representation structure to robustly reproduce the behavior observed with human reasoners. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Tuned by experience: How orientation probability modulates early perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-09-01

    Probable stimuli are more often and more quickly detected. While stimulus probability is known to affect decision-making, it can also be explained as a perceptual phenomenon. Using spatial gratings, we have previously shown that probable orientations are also more precisely estimated, even while participants remained naive to the manipulation. We conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the effect that probability has on perception and visual-evoked potentials. In line with previous studies on oddballs and stimulus prevalence, low-probability orientations were associated with a greater late positive 'P300' component which might be related to either surprise or decision-making. However, the early 'C1' component, thought to reflect V1 processing, was dampened for high-probability orientations while later P1 and N1 components were unaffected. Exploratory analyses revealed a participant-level correlation between C1 and P300 amplitudes, suggesting a link between perceptual processing and decision-making. We discuss how these probability effects could be indicative of sharpening of neurons preferring the probable orientations, due either to perceptual learning, or to feature-based attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Spatial Thinking: Does Talk about the Spatial World Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruden, Shannon M.; Levine, Susan C.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relations between parent spatial language input, children's own production of spatial language, and children's later spatial abilities. Using a longitudinal study design, we coded the use of spatial language (i.e. words describing the spatial features and properties of objects; e.g. big, tall, circle, curvy, edge) from…

  9. Encouraging Spatial Talk: Using Children's Museums to Bolster Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinsky, Naomi; Perez, Jasmin; Grehl, Mora; McCrink, Koleen

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a…

  10. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Gage, Rachel; Baek, Yihwa; Bochsler, Tiana M

    2016-01-01

    Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms. Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135) and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900) conditions, and a Narrow Field (8°) condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating. With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition. If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  11. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E Legge

    Full Text Available Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms.Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135 and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900 conditions, and a Narrow Field (8° condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating.With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition.If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  12. The SPAtial EFficiency metric (SPAEF): multiple-component evaluation of spatial patterns for optimization of hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Julian; Cüneyd Demirel, Mehmet; Stisen, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The process of model evaluation is not only an integral part of model development and calibration but also of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to the scientific community and stakeholders. The modelling community has a large and well-tested toolbox of metrics to evaluate temporal model performance. In contrast, spatial performance evaluation does not correspond to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study makes a contribution towards advancing spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration by rigorously testing a multiple-component performance metric. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (SPAEF) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multiple-component approach is found to be advantageous in order to achieve the complex task of comparing spatial patterns. SPAEF, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are applied in a spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. Results suggest the importance of multiple-component metrics because stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information. The three SPAEF components are found to be independent, which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. In order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing platforms, this study suggests applying bias insensitive metrics which further allow for a comparison of variables which are related but may differ in unit. This study applies SPAEF in the hydrological context using the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; version 5.8), but we see great potential across disciplines related to spatially distributed earth system modelling.

  13. The time course of attention modulation elicited by spatial uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan; Liang, Huilou; Xue, Linyan; Wang, Meijian; Hu, Qiyi; Chen, Yao

    2017-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the target location is an influential factor for spatial attention. Modulation in spatial uncertainty can lead to adjustments in attention scope and variations in attention effects. Hence, investigating spatial uncertainty modulation is important for understanding the underlying mechanism of spatial attention. However, the temporal dynamics of this modulation remains unclear. To evaluate the time course of spatial uncertainty modulation, we adopted a Posner-like attention orienting paradigm with central or peripheral cues. Different numbers of cues were used to indicate the potential locations of the target and thereby manipulate the spatial uncertainty level. The time interval between the onsets of the cue and the target (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) varied from 50 to 2000ms. We found that under central cueing, the effect of spatial uncertainty modulation could be detected from 200 to 2000ms after the presence of the cues. Under peripheral cueing, the effect of spatial uncertainty modulation was observed from 50 to 2000ms after cueing. Our results demonstrate that spatial uncertainty modulation produces robust and sustained effects on target detection speed. The time course of this modulation is influenced by the cueing method, which suggests that discrepant processing procedures are involved under different cueing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  15. CONCEPTS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD ORIENTED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of cloud oriented learning environment (COLE of secondary school. It is examined the concept of "cloud oriented learning environment", "mobility training", the requirements for COLE, the goal of creating, the structural components, model deployment, maintenance. Four cloud storages are compared; the subjects and objects of COLE are described; the meaning of spatial and semantic, content and methodical, communication and organizational components are clarified; the benefits and features of cloud computing are defined. It is found that COLE creates conditions for active cooperation, provides mobility of learning process participants, and objects’ virtualization. It is available anywhere and at any time, ensures the development of creativity and innovation, critical thinking, ability to solve problems, to develop communicative, cooperative, life and career skills, to work with data, media, to develop ICT competence either of students and teachers.

  16. Spatially modulated imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    Noncoherent radiation, such as x-rays, is spatially coded, directed through an object and spatially detected to form a spatially coded pattern, from which an image of the object may be reconstructed. The x-ray source may be formed by x-ray fluorescence and substration of the holographic images formed by two sources having energy levels predominantly above and below the maximum absorption range of an agent in the object may be used to enhance contrast in the reproduced image. (Patent Office Record)

  17. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  18. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  19. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature

  20. Figure/ground segregation from temporal delay is best at high spatial frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Haruyuki

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of spatial frequency in performance of a figure/ground segregation task based on temporal cues. Figure orientation was much easier to judge when figure and ground portions of the target were defined exclusively by random texture composed entirely of high spatial frequencies. When target components were defined by low spatial frequencies only, the task was nearly impossible except with long temporal delay between figure and ground. These results are incons...

  1. Not all attention orienting is created equal: recognition memory is enhanced when attention orienting involves distractor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Worden, Michael S; Amso, Dima

    2015-04-01

    Learning through visual exploration often requires orienting of attention to meaningful information in a cluttered world. Previous work has shown that attention modulates visual cortex activity, with enhanced activity for attended targets and suppressed activity for competing inputs, thus enhancing the visual experience. Here we examined the idea that learning may be engaged differentially with variations in attention orienting mechanisms that drive eye movements during visual search and exploration. We hypothesized that attention orienting mechanisms that engaged suppression of a previously attended location would boost memory encoding of the currently attended target objects to a greater extent than those that involve target enhancement alone. To test this hypothesis we capitalized on the classic spatial cueing task and the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism (Posner, 1980; Posner, Rafal, & Choate, 1985) to demonstrate that object images encoded in the context of concurrent suppression at a previously attended location were encoded more effectively and remembered better than those encoded without concurrent suppression. Furthermore, fMRI analyses revealed that this memory benefit was driven by attention modulation of visual cortex activity, as increased suppression of the previously attended location in visual cortex during target object encoding predicted better subsequent recognition memory performance. These results suggest that not all attention orienting impacts learning and memory equally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Organizing for Customer and Competitor Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of structural liaison devices, specialization, the presence of a marketing function, and competitive intensity as antecedents to firms' customer and competitor orientation. Results based on a sample of 99 medium-sized (50-250 employees......) manufacturing firms indicate, that while specialization and liaison devices facilitate customer orientation only liaison devices facilitate competitor orientation. Competitive intensity has no effects on customer orientation but influence competitor orientation. The results also indicate that the presence...... of a marketing function has no influence on the level of firms' customer and competitor orientation....

  3. Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822

  4. Modeling Human Perception of Orientation in Altered Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin K. Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: a static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, b static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, c static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and d static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments.

  5. Assessment of tuberculosis spatial hotspot areas in Antananarivo, Madagascar, by combining spatial analysis and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonirina, Noël Harijaona; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Razafimahatratra, Solohery Lalaina; Raherison, Mamy Serge; Refrégier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rasolofo Razanamparany, Voahangy

    2017-08-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in Madagascar. A crucial element of TB control is the development of an easy and rapid method for the orientation of TB control strategies in the country. Our main objective was to develop a TB spatial hotspot identification method by combining spatial analysis and TB genotyping method in Antananarivo. Sputa of new pulmonary TB cases from 20 TB diagnosis and treatment centers (DTCs) in Antananarivo were collected from August 2013 to May 2014 for culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates were typed by spoligotyping on a Luminex® 200 platform. All TB patients were respectively localized according to their neighborhood residence and the spatial distribution of all pulmonary TB patients and patients with genotypic clustered isolates were scanned respectively by the Kulldorff spatial scanning method for identification of significant spatial clustering. Areas exhibiting spatial clustering of patients with genotypic clustered isolates were considered as hotspot TB areas for transmission. Overall, 467 new cases were included in the study, and 394 spoligotypes were obtained (84.4%). New TB cases were distributed in 133 of the 192 Fokontany (administrative neighborhoods) of Antananarivo (1 to 15 clinical patients per Fokontany) and patients with genotypic clustered isolates were distributed in 127 of the 192 Fokontany (1 to 13 per Fokontany). A single spatial focal point of epidemics was detected when ignoring genotypic data (p = 0.039). One Fokontany of this focal point and three additional ones were detected to be spatially clustered when taking genotypes into account (p Madagascar and will allow better TB control strategies by public health authorities.

  6. Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Spatial statistics and spatial econometrics are recent sprouts of the tree "spatial analysis with measurement". Still, several general themes have emerged. Exploring selected fields of possible interest is tantalizing, and this is what the authors aim here.

  7. Market Orientation Capabilities: A Study of Learning Processes in Market-Oriented Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Silkoset, Ragnhild

    2009-01-01

    The literature operates with three perspectives on market orientation. These include market orientation as behavior (Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990), market orientation as a unique resource (Hunt and Morgan 1995) and market orientation as a dynamic learning capability (Sinkula 1994; Day 1994b). A company's level of market orientation will vary with regard to the perspectives, including factors affecting a company’s degree of market orientation and the effect...

  8. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  9. Large sexual-orientation-related differences in performance on mental rotation and judgment of line orientation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the performance of heterosexual and homosexual men and women on 2 tests of spatial processing, mental rotation (MR) and Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO). The sample comprised 60 heterosexual men, 60 heterosexual women, 60 homosexual men, and 60 homosexual women. There were significant main effects of gender (men achieving higher scores overall) and Gender x Sexual Orientation interactions. Decomposing these interactions revealed large differences between the male groups in favor of heterosexual men on JLO and MR performance. There was a modest difference between the female groups on MR total correct scores in favor of homosexual women but no differences in MR percentage correct. The evidence suggests possible variations in the parietal cortex between homosexual and heterosexual persons.

  10. Role-Oriented Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Philip; Beringer, Joerg; Winther, Jacob

    This paper examines the concept of role-­oriented enterprise systems by investigating motivations for and approaches to constructing and reflecting predefined organizational roles in user interfaces of packaged enterprise systems. The research is conducted as case studies of Microsoft and SAP......, constructed from interviews, documents, and examples of role-­‐oriented enterprise system packages from both vendors. The research indicates that the primary motivation of the vendors for including predefined roles is to complement a function-­‐centric approach with a user-­‐centric approach to the design...... of user interfaces of enterprise systems. The research furthermore identifies strategies of an embedded and an independent approach to modeling the role concept and a unified and a componentized approach to reflecting role aggregation in user interfaces....

  11. Organizational search and market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2008-01-01

      Market orientation has evolved into a key construct in the marketing and strategy literature. While much progress has been made in empirical research, the concept lacks a coherent theoretical foundation. Essentially, much prior research has pointed to the role of market-sensing capabilities...... to explain performance differentials among firms (Day, 1994). We open up the black box of market-sensing capabilities by treating the issue of choosing marketing attributes of products as a problem of organizational search. Despite much robust research on organizational search in the strategy......, with their effectiveness depending on organizational and environmental factors. We provide an elaborate outline of the multidimensional aspect of firms' responsive and proactive search processes. First, we highlight the role of organizational aspiration-levels for market orientation. We then investigate the mechanisms...

  12. Constituency Orientation in Irish Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The constituency orientation of Irish politicians is a recurring topic in Irish political science. Its analysis has predominantly focused on TDs. This article uses a content analysis of candidate video statements in the general election 2016 in order to assess the strength of constituency...... this pattern, indicated by the weak constituency orientation in Dublin and Cork constituencies. Results also indicate differences between parties and some political statuses, while the gender of the candidates is of no relevance. Although the material does not permit a clear distinction between effects...... of political culture and short-term considerations, taken together the results indicate that localism in Irish politics matters, but in more complicated ways than usually depicted....

  13. Exploring object-oriented technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Object oriented technologies are the corner stone of modern software development. A piece of software is today conceived, constructed and tested as a set of objects interacting with each other, rather than as a large sequential program. OO is present throughout the whole software life cycle allowing for maintainable code re-use, clean design and manageable complexity. OO is also the seed upon which other technologies are being built and deployed, such as distributed computing, component models, open interoperability, etc.This series of three seminars will provide a pragmatic overview on the main ideas behind OO software development and will explain the inner workings of the most outstanding technologies being built on OO, such as UML, CORBA, Component Models, Agent Oriented Computing, Business Objects, etc.

  14. Orientalism and Heart of Darkness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳

    2012-01-01

      Heart of Darkness was written by Joseph Conrad and published as a whole in 1902. The story begins on a British ship“the Nellie”moored on the coast of the Thames. It mainly talks about what Marlow sees and thinks when he begins his journey up to the Congo Riveres and reveals a turning process of a white colonizer called Kurts who is at the very beginning, an idealistic white colonizer trying to bring“civilization”and“progress”to the Africa but in the end falls into a greedy, cruel person. The novel, on the one hand, describes the terrible life of African peple and reveals the tyranne, greed of western colo⁃nism and stong racism; and on the other hand, it also shows readers a strong orientalism towards the Africa. So my purpose of the paper is to analyse how Orientalism is revealed in the Heart of Darkness.

  15. Protonic decay of oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the multiparticle theory of protonic decay, the angular distributions of protons emitted by oriented spherical and deformed nuclei in the laboratory frame and in the internal coordinate frame of deformed parent nuclei are constructed with allowance for symmetry with respect to time inversion. It is shown that, because of the deep-subbarrier character of protonic decay, the adiabatic approximation is not applicable to describing the angular distributions of protons emitted by oriented deformed nuclei and that the angular distribution of protons in the laboratory frame does not coincide with that in the internal coordinate frame. It is demonstrated that these angular distributions coincide only if the adiabatic and the semiclassical approximation are simultaneously valid

  16. Apparatus for orientating cylindrical articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauder, D.R.; Bailey, A.

    1984-01-01

    First and second chambers, each having a rotor, are interconnected by a passage. The first chamber has a contoured periphery to receive articles and the passage is shaped and dimensioned to permit travel therealong only of those articles which are orientated in the first chamber with their longitudinal axes either in the direction of travel or normal to the direction of travel. Articles in other orientations are carried round the first chamber by the rotor for representation at the passage. The rotor in the second chamber permits the passage of those articles which have their longitudinal axes in the direction of travel and topples by means of blades, the articles having their axes normal to the direction of travel into positions in which the axes are in the direction of travel. (author)

  17. Spatial Search, Position Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB

    2014-01-01

    The Spatial Search specialist meeting in Santa Barbara (December 2014) brought together 35 academic and industry representatives from computational, geospatial, and cognitive sciences with interest in focused discussions on the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda to advance spatial search from scientific and engineering viewpoints. The position papers from participants represent the shared expertise that guided discussions and the formulation of research questions about proces...

  18. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  19. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Architecting Service-Oriented Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Abstract Service orientation is an approach to software systems development that has become a popular way to implement distributed, loosely coupled...runtime. The later you defer binding the more flexibility service providers and service consumers have to develop their software systems independently...Enterprise Service Bus An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a software pattern that can be part of a SOA infrastructure and acts as an intermediary

  1. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  2. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  3. Classroom-oriented research from a complex systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bringing a complex systems perspective to bear on classroom-oriented research challenges researchers to think differently, seeing the classroom ecology as one dynamic system nested in a hierarchy of such systems at different levels of scale, all of which are spatially and temporally situated. This article begins with an introduction to complex dynamic systems theory, in which challenges to traditional ways of conducting classroom research are interwoven. It concludes with suggestions for research methods that are more consistent with the theory. Research does not become easier when approached from a complex systems perspective, but it has the virtue of reflecting the way the world works.

  4. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... and output parameters and to perform a sensitivity analysis were developed and implemented. The capabilities of the methodology is illustrated on two practical cases....

  5. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Spatial Identity in Gagauzia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Salavatova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically the gagauz developed a self-perception based on their difference from Moldova as well as the ‘Turkish world’. The article argues that this fact has determined their pro-Russian political orientation as the only possible way of maintaining their identity. 

  7. A multichip aVLSI system emulating orientation selectivity of primary visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonomura, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and fabricated a multichip neuromorphic analog very large scale integrated (aVLSI) system, which emulates the orientation selective response of the simple cell in the primary visual cortex. The system consists of a silicon retina and an orientation chip. An image, which is filtered by a concentric center-surround (CS) antagonistic receptive field of the silicon retina, is transferred to the orientation chip. The image transfer from the silicon retina to the orientation chip is carried out with analog signals. The orientation chip selectively aggregates multiple pixels of the silicon retina, mimicking the feedforward model proposed by Hubel and Wiesel. The chip provides the orientation-selective (OS) outputs which are tuned to 0 degrees, 60 degrees, and 120 degrees. The feed-forward aggregation reduces the fixed pattern noise that is due to the mismatch of the transistors in the orientation chip. The spatial properties of the orientation selective response were examined in terms of the adjustable parameters of the chip, i.e., the number of aggregated pixels and size of the receptive field of the silicon retina. The multichip aVLSI architecture used in the present study can be applied to implement higher order cells such as the complex cell of the primary visual cortex.

  8. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Embodied memory allows accurate and stable perception of hidden objects despite orientation change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing Samantha; Bingham, Ned; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2017-07-01

    Rotating a scene in a frontoparallel plane (rolling) yields a change in orientation of constituent images. When using only information provided by static images to perceive a scene after orientation change, identification performance typically decreases (Rock & Heimer, 1957). However, rolling generates optic flow information that relates the discrete, static images (before and after the change) and forms an embodied memory that aids recognition. The embodied memory hypothesis predicts that upon detecting a continuous spatial transformation of image structure, or in other words, seeing the continuous rolling process and objects undergoing rolling observers should accurately perceive objects during and after motion. Thus, in this case, orientation change should not affect performance. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments and found that (a) using combined optic flow and image structure, participants identified locations of previously perceived but currently occluded targets with great accuracy and stability (Experiment 1); (b) using combined optic flow and image structure information, participants identified hidden targets equally well with or without 30° orientation changes (Experiment 2); and (c) when the rolling was unseen, identification of hidden targets after orientation change became worse (Experiment 3). Furthermore, when rolling was unseen, although target identification was better when participants were told about the orientation change than when they were not told, performance was still worse than when there was no orientation change. Therefore, combined optic flow and image structure information, not mere knowledge about the rolling, enables accurate and stable perception despite orientation change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Training sequence design for MIMO channels : An application-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katselis, D.; Rojas, C.R.; Bengtsson, M.; Bjornson, E.; Bombois, X.; Shariati, N.; Jansson, M.; Hjalmarsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of training optimization for estimating a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) flat fading channel in the presence of spatially and temporally correlated Gaussian noise is studied in an application-oriented setup. So far, the problem of MIMO channel estimation has mostly

  11. [Customer orientation in ambulant medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M

    2014-07-01

    Due to developments of the health market, economic aspects of the health system are more relevant. In this upcoming market the patient is regarded as customer and the doctor as provider of medical services. Studies on customer orientation in the ambulant medicine lag behind this dynamic. An aim of the study is to comprehend the attitudes of the doctors referring to the customer orientation. In a second step the findings are discussed according to statements of health-care paticipants. Developments in role comprehension of doctor and patient are focused to gain results in scientific and practical applications. Guideline-supported, partly narrative interviews with n=9 gynaecologists and n=11 general practitioners in Freiburg/Germany are recorded, transcribed and reviewed in a qualitative analysis. The statements of the doctors show patient satisfaction has an incremental meaning sspecially regarding the sequence of patient relationship and economic management of the doctor's workplace. The doctor's role comprehension meets with a refusal of the role of salesman and the patient as customer. The method of interviews is suitable to gather empirical impressions of the doctors. The control sample is adequate, however a bias due to inhomogeneous thematic affinitiy and local social-demographics might be possible. The customer orientation has become an important factor in doctor-patient relationtships. The relevance of the doctor-patient conversation and the risk of misuse of the patient confidence are mentioned by the doctors. The doctor as paternalistic care provider gives way to the customer-focused service provider. The doctor's necessity of autonomyssss and dependency on patient satisfaction have potential for conflict. Intensive mention of customer orientation in medicine in the media emphasises its importance. Rational handling with the possibilities of individual health markets is a prospective challange. Further research could be established in all aspects of

  12. Why competitors matter for market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    2009-01-01

      Purpose - This paper investigates whether it is meaningful to decompose market orientation into customer orientation and competitor orientation and what possible implications this decomposition may have for researchers and business practitioners.   Design - Through a review of existing market...... orientation research, two of its salient dimensions, customer orientation and competitor orientation, are theoretically investigated. Then, two symmetric component measures are developed and tested on 308 manufacturing firms in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, supplemented with census data.   Findings...... - Empirical evidence reveals that, while competitor orientation is positively related to a firm's market share, a customer orientation is detrimental to a firm's return on assets for firms in less competitive environments.   Research implications and limitations - The study advocates moving beyond ‘global...

  13. Why competitors matter for market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    2009-01-01

    and empirically tests two novel symmetric component measures of customer orientation and competitor orientation. Academicians are provided with insights with respect to the content and symmetry of component measures of the market orientation construct and their relation to firm performance. Furthermore, business......  Purpose - This paper investigates whether it is meaningful to decompose market orientation into customer orientation and competitor orientation and what possible implications this decomposition may have for researchers and business practitioners.   Design - Through a review of existing market...... - Empirical evidence reveals that, while competitor orientation is positively related to a firm's market share, a customer orientation is detrimental to a firm's return on assets for firms in less competitive environments.   Research implications and limitations - The study advocates moving beyond ‘global...

  14. Black Curriculum Orientations: A Preliminary Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Six curriculum orientations predominate in African-American educational experience: functionalism, accommodation, liberalism, Black Nationalism, Afrocentrism, and social reconstruction. Tied to the history of slavery and oppression, these orientations will continue to develop separate from the mainstream. (SK)

  15. Characteristics of leadership-oriented women

    OpenAIRE

    Htun, Tin Tin; Yamamoto, Mariko

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores within-gender differences between high leadership-oriented women and low leadership-oriented women regarding their characteristics and attitudes. One hundred and ninety-two Japanese ...

  16. Multiple spatial frequency channels in human visual perceptual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, V A; Whitaker, D; Heron, J; McKeefry, D J

    2011-12-08

    Current models of short-term visual perceptual memory invoke mechanisms that are closely allied to low-level perceptual discrimination mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which human visual perceptual memory for spatial frequency is based upon multiple, spatially tuned channels similar to those found in the earliest stages of visual processing. To this end we measured how performance on a delayed spatial frequency discrimination paradigm was affected by the introduction of interfering or 'memory masking' stimuli of variable spatial frequency during the delay period. Masking stimuli were shown to induce shifts in the points of subjective equality (PSE) when their spatial frequencies were within a bandwidth of 1.2 octaves of the reference spatial frequency. When mask spatial frequencies differed by more than this value, there was no change in the PSE from baseline levels. This selective pattern of masking was observed for different spatial frequencies and demonstrates the existence of multiple, spatially tuned mechanisms in visual perceptual memory. Memory masking effects were also found to occur for horizontal separations of up to 6 deg between the masking and test stimuli and lacked any orientation selectivity. These findings add further support to the view that low-level sensory processing mechanisms form the basis for the retention of spatial frequency information in perceptual memory. However, the broad range of transfer of memory masking effects across spatial location and other dimensions indicates more long range, long duration interactions between spatial frequency channels that are likely to rely contributions from neural processes located in higher visual areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissociation of spatial memory systems in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Mathilde; Fragnière, Emilie; Costanzo, Floriana; Di Vara, Silvia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic deletion syndrome, is characterized by severe visuospatial deficits affecting performance on both tabletop spatial tasks and on tasks which assess orientation and navigation. Nevertheless, previous studies of WS spatial capacities have ignored the fact that two different spatial memory systems are believed to contribute parallel spatial representations supporting navigation. The place learning system depends on the hippocampal formation and creates flexible relational representations of the environment, also known as cognitive maps. The spatial response learning system depends on the striatum and creates fixed stimulus-response representations, also known as habits. Indeed, no study assessing WS spatial competence has used tasks which selectively target these two spatial memory systems. Here, we report that individuals with WS exhibit a dissociation in their spatial abilities subserved by these two memory systems. As compared to typically developing (TD) children in the same mental age range, place learning performance was impaired in individuals with WS. In contrast, their spatial response learning performance was facilitated. Our findings in individuals with WS and TD children suggest that place learning and response learning interact competitively to control the behavioral strategies normally used to support human spatial navigation. Our findings further suggest that the neural pathways supporting place learning may be affected by the genetic deletion that characterizes WS, whereas those supporting response learning may be relatively preserved. The dissociation observed between these two spatial memory systems provides a coherent theoretical framework to characterize the spatial abilities of individuals with WS, and may lead to the development of new learning strategies based on their facilitated response learning abilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 3D topology of orientation columns in visual cortex revealed by functional optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Yu; Kalatsky, Valery A; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Sato, Takayuki; Rajagopalan, Uma Maheswari; Tanifuji, Manabu

    2018-04-01

    Orientation tuning is a canonical neuronal response property of six-layer visual cortex that is encoded in pinwheel structures with center orientation singularities. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals enables us to map these surface two-dimensional (2D) structures, whereas lack of appropriate techniques has not allowed us to visualize depth structures of orientation coding. In the present study, we performed functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT), a technique capable of acquiring a 3D map of the intrinsic signals, to study the topology of orientation coding inside the cat visual cortex. With this technique, for the first time, we visualized columnar assemblies in orientation coding that had been predicted from electrophysiological recordings. In addition, we found that the columnar structures were largely distorted around pinwheel centers: center singularities were not rigid straight lines running perpendicularly to the cortical surface but formed twisted string-like structures inside the cortex that turned and extended horizontally through the cortex. Looping singularities were observed with their respective termini accessing the same cortical surface via clockwise and counterclockwise orientation pinwheels. These results suggest that a 3D topology of orientation coding cannot be fully anticipated from 2D surface measurements. Moreover, the findings demonstrate the utility of fOCT as an in vivo mesoscale imaging method for mapping functional response properties of cortex in the depth axis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We used functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) to visualize three-dimensional structure of the orientation columns with millimeter range and micrometer spatial resolution. We validated vertically elongated columnar structure in iso-orientation domains. The columnar structure was distorted around pinwheel centers. An orientation singularity formed a string with tortuous trajectories inside the cortex and connected clockwise and counterclockwise

  19. Heat Energy Markets: Trends of Spatial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews competing forms of heat supply. It is shown that in Finland, Denmark, China and Russia the dominant form of heat supply is district heating system; in the United States and Canada the dominant form of heat supply is individual one. Using the countries’ data the author allocates 4 models of heat energy markets. The analysis is based on combinations of the following characteristics: the type of market, the orientation of market, the stage of market development, forms of state support of district heating systems and the approach to pricing. The results identified the failure of the current model of heat energy market in Russia (noncompetitive, manufacturer-oriented and evolved market with massive state support of its district heating system. The ‘target’ model of heat energy market in Russia is a model of noncompetitive, customer-oriented and evolved market with no state support of its district heating system. However, the ‘target’ model takes into account spatial heterogeneity of local heat energy markets in Russia only technically

  20. Navy Space and Astronautics Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, R. G.

    Fundamental concepts of the spatial environment, technologies, and applications are presented in this manual prepared for senior officers and key civilian employees. Following basic information on the atmosphere, solar system, and intergalactic space, a detailed review is included of astrodynamics, rocket propulsion, bioastronautics, auxiliary…

  1. How does firm performance influence market orientation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    This paper contributes by investigating how firm performance influences its market orientation. We draw on the aspiration-level model from the behavioral theory of the firm to develop testable propositions that substantiate and extend prior market orientation research. Specifically, we address how...... performance influences firms' market-oriented search behavior (responsive or proactive) and the allocation of attention (customer and competitor orientation) as well as the formation of aspiration levels. Research and managerial implications are discussed....

  2. The Development of Citizen Oriented Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of citizen-oriented computer application. Quality characteristics are set for computer applications developed in the conditions of citizen-oriented computing and outline the development cycle for these applications. It defines the conditions of existence for citizen-oriented applications. Average and long-term strategies are elaborated.

  3. Move to learn: Integrating spatial information from multiple viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Corinne A; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2018-05-11

    Recalling a spatial layout from multiple orientations - spatial flexibility - is challenging, even when the global configuration can be viewed from a single vantage point, but more so when it must be viewed piecemeal. In the current study, we examined whether experiencing the transition between multiple viewpoints enhances spatial memory and flexible recall for a spatial configuration viewed simultaneously (Exp. 1) and sequentially (Exp. 2), whether the type of transition matters, and whether action provides an additional advantage over passive experience. In Experiment 1, participants viewed an array of dollhouse furniture from four viewpoints, but with all furniture simultaneously visible. In Experiment 2, participants viewed the same array piecemeal, from four partitioned viewpoints that allowed for viewing only a segment at a time. The transition between viewpoints involved rotation of the array or participant movement around it. Rotation and participant movement were passively experienced or actively generated. The control condition presented the dollhouse as a series of static views. Across both experiments, participant movement significantly enhanced spatial memory relative to array rotation or static views. However, in Exp. 2, there was a further advantage for actively walking around the array compared to being passively pushed. These findings suggest that movement around a stable environment is key to spatial memory and flexible recall, with action providing an additional boost to the integration of temporally segmented spatial events. Thus, spatial memory may be more flexible than prior data indicate, when studied under more natural acquisition conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of I(C)T in spatial planning education, 25 years of blended e-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wageningen spatial planning education curriculum is based on a mix of decision-oriented and design-oriented approaches. It is also intertwined with a wide range of E-learning options. The Elearning environment consists of a spectrum of applications such as model studies, spatial analysis using GIS, scenario studies, imaging results or support in the educational and the planning process. At the end of the 1980’s already divers applications were intertwined in the training of planning stude...

  5. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  6. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However......, the queries studied so far generally focus on finding individual objects that each satisfy a query rather than finding groups of objects where the objects in a group collectively satisfy a query. We define the problem of retrieving a group of spatial web objects such that the group's keywords cover the query......'s keywords and such that objects are nearest to the query location and have the lowest inter-object distances. Specifically, we study two variants of this problem, both of which are NP-complete. We devise exact solutions as well as approximate solutions with provable approximation bounds to the problems. We...

  7. Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, L; Janhonen, S

    2000-05-01

    Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing This paper presents the results of a study focusing on the factors associated with orientations to nursing. Students' orientations to nursing have not as yet been a focus of nursing research. In some other professions, however, professional orientation has been associated with learning motivation and study performance, and has been seen as a predictor of work satisfaction. In this study, students' orientations to nursing were defined in terms of caring, nursing expertise and life orientation. The hypothesis of whether students' pre-educational experiences of nursing, gender, choice of nursing specialty, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing were associated with different orientations was tested. The extent to which students were orientated to caring, nursing expertise and their own life was also examined. The orientation to nursing measurement tool, which has been developed on the basis of a qualitative study, was used to collect the data. Nurse teachers collected the data from nursing students (n=184) who were studying in three different nursing programmes in Finland. Non-parametric assessments (Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test) of the differences between the students' orientations were carried out. A majority of the students were highly life-orientated, and two-thirds had average nursing expertise or caring orientation scores. The results supported the study hypothesis of an association between students' orientations and their gender, choice of nursing speciality, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing. However, the hypothesis of an association between students' pre-educational nursing experiences and orientation to nursing was not supported. The contradictions between students' orientation to nursing and the philosophy of nursing underlying the study programme may be a source of motivational problems and dissatisfaction with nursing education

  8. Spatially Embedded Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... and ethnification of job categories. However, the same spatial structures allows for a variety of opposition and conciliation strategies among minority employees, even though the latter tend to prevail in a reproduction rather than a transformation of the organizational opportunity structures. Research limitations...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...

  9. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  10. Pressure Safety Orientation Live #769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Pressure Safety Orientation (course #769) introduces workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to the Laboratory Pressure Safety Program and to pressure-related hazards. This course also affords a hands-on exercise involving the assembly of a simple pressure system. This course is required for all LANL personnel who work on or near pressure systems and are exposed to pressure-related hazards. These personnel include pressure-system engineers, designers, fabricators, installers, operators, inspectors, maintainers, and others who work with pressurized fluids and may be exposed to pressure-related hazards.

  11. On-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    This grant has as its overall goal the pursuit of on-line nuclear orientation experiments for the purpose of eliciting details of nuclear structure from the decays of neutron-deficient nuclei, such as those produced by the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge and extracted by the UNISOR Isotope Separator. This paper discusses: refrigerator development; the decay of 184 Au; the decay of 191 Hg to 191 Au; the decay of 189 Pt to 189 Ir; the decays of 109,111 Pd; the decay of 172 Er; and solid angle corrections

  12. Orientational epitaxy in adsorbed monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaco, A.D.; McTague, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The ground state for adsorbed monolayers on crystalline substrates is shown to involve a definite relative orientation of the substrate and adsorbate crystal axes, even when the relative lattice parameters are incommensurate. The rotation angle which defines the structure of the monolayer-substrate system is determined by the competition between adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate energy terms, and is generally not a symmetry angle. Numerical predictions are presented for the rare gas-graphite systems, whose interaction potentials are rather well known. Recent LEED data for some of these systems appear to corroborate these predictions

  13. Objective - oriented financial analysis introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostova – Pickett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of financial analysis has been immeasurably strengthened in recent years thanks to the ongoing evolution of computerized approaches in the form of spreadsheets and computer-based financial models of different types. These devices not only relieved the analyst's computing task, but also opened up a wide range of analyzes and research into alternative sensitivity, which so far has not been possible. The main potential for object-oriented financial analysis consists in enormously expanding the analyst's capabilities through an online knowledge and information interface that has not yet been achieved through existing methods and software packages.

  14. Problem-oriented project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2010-01-01

    and marking papers / essays is complemented and in some way overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem, they themselves have picked. However different dimensions of this new teacher role can be seen – from expert in an academic field (result......-oriented focusing on how the final product demonstrates the students’ ‘correct’ way to handle the academic aspects of the subject in mind) to a role more focusing on processes, methodological dimensions and stressing the importance of a reflexive approach. Some teachers may even tend to take on a role...

  15. Object oriented JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    You will first be introduced to object-oriented programming, then to the basics of objects in JavaScript. This book takes a do-it-yourself approach when it comes to writing code, because the best way to really learn a programming language is by writing code. You are encouraged to type code into Firebug's console, see how it works and then tweak it and play around with it. There are practice questions at the end of each chapter to help you review what you have learned.For new to intermediate JavaScript developer who wants to prepare themselves for web development problems solved by smart JavaSc

  16. Oriented Shape Index Histograms for Cell Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel extension to the shape index histogram feature descriptor where the orientation of the second-order curvature is included in the histograms. The orientation of the shape index is reminiscent but not equal to gradient orientation which is widely used for feature description. We...... evaluate our new feature descriptor using a public dataset consisting of HEp-2 cell images from indirect immunoflourescence lighting. Our results show that we can improve classification performance significantly when including the shape index orientation. Notably, we show that shape index orientation...

  17. Column-oriented database management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Možina, David

    2013-01-01

    In the following thesis I will present column-oriented database. Among other things, I will answer on a question why there is a need for a column-oriented database. In recent years there have been a lot of attention regarding a column-oriented database, even if the existence of a columnar database management systems dates back in the early seventies of the last century. I will compare both systems for a database management – a colum-oriented database system and a row-oriented database system ...

  18. Chromosome Gene Orientation Inversion Networks (GOINs) of Plasmodium Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Tumailli, Viviana F; Ortega-Tenezaca, Bernabé; González-Díaz, Humbert

    2018-03-02

    The spatial distribution of genes in chromosomes seems not to be random. For instance, only 10% of genes are transcribed from bidirectional promoters in humans, and many more are organized into larger clusters. This raises intriguing questions previously asked by different authors. We would like to add a few more questions in this context, related to gene orientation inversions. Does gene orientation (inversion) follow a random pattern? Is it relevant to biological activity somehow? We define a new kind of network coined as the gene orientation inversion network (GOIN). GOIN's complex network encodes short- and long-range patterns of inversion of the orientation of pairs of gene in the chromosome. We selected Plasmodium falciparum as a case of study due to the high relevance of this parasite to public health (causal agent of malaria). We constructed here for the first time all of the GOINs for the genome of this parasite. These networks have an average of 383 nodes (genes in one chromosome) and 1314 links (pairs of gene with inverse orientation). We calculated node centralities and other parameters of these networks. These numerical parameters were used to study different properties of gene inversion patterns, for example, distribution, local communities, similarity to Erdös-Rényi random networks, randomness, and so on. We find clues that seem to indicate that gene orientation inversion does not follow a random pattern. We noted that some gene communities in the GOINs tend to group genes encoding for RIFIN-related proteins in the proteome of the parasite. RIFIN-like proteins are a second family of clonally variant proteins expressed on the surface of red cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Consequently, we used these centralities as input of machine learning (ML) models to predict the RIFIN-like activity of 5365 proteins in the proteome of Plasmodium sp. The best linear ML model found discriminates RIFIN-like from other proteins with sensitivity and

  19. The basis of orientation decoding in human primary visual cortex: fine- or coarse-scale biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    Orientation signals in human primary visual cortex (V1) can be reliably decoded from the multivariate pattern of activity as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The precise underlying source of these decoded signals (whether by orientation biases at a fine or coarse scale in cortex) remains a matter of some controversy, however. Freeman and colleagues (J Neurosci 33: 19695-19703, 2013) recently showed that the accuracy of decoding of spiral patterns in V1 can be predicted by a voxel's preferred spatial position (the population receptive field) and its coarse orientation preference, suggesting that coarse-scale biases are sufficient for orientation decoding. Whether they are also necessary for decoding remains an open question, and one with implications for the broader interpretation of multivariate decoding results in fMRI studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Designs of Plasmonic Metamasks for Photopatterning Molecular Orientations in Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aligning liquid crystal (LC molecules into spatially non-uniform orientation patterns is central to the functionalities of many emerging LC devices. Recently, we developed a new projection photopatterning technique by using plasmonic metamasks (PMMs, and demonstrated high-resolution and high-throughput patterning of molecular orientations into arbitrary patterns. Here we present comparisons between two different types of metamask designs: one based on curvilinear nanoslits in metal films; the other based on rectangular nanoapertures in metal films. By using numerical simulations and experimental studies, we show that the PMMs based on curvilinear nanoslits exhibit advantages in their broadband and high optical transmission, while face challenges in mask designing for arbitrary molecular orientations. In contrast, the PMMs based on nanoapertures, though limited in optical transmission, present the great advantage of allowing for patterning arbitrary molecular orientation fields.