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Sample records for left-sided fronto-temporal network

  1. Perceived Conventionality in Co-speech Gestures Involves the Fronto-Temporal Language Network

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    Dhana Wolf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake or less so (e.g., self-grooming. We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i.e., the left hemispheric inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, Wernicke's area and studied 36 subjects watching video-recorded story retellings during a behavioral and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. It is well documented that neural correlates of such naturalistic videos emerge as intersubject covariance (ISC in fMRI even without involving a stimulus (model-free analysis. The subjects attended either to perceived conventionality or to a control condition (any hand movements or gesture-speech relations. Such tasks modulate ISC in contributing neural structures and thus we studied ISC changes to task demands in language networks. Indeed, the conventionality task significantly increased covariance of the button press time series and neuronal synchronization in the left IFG over the comparison with other tasks. In the left IFG, synchronous activity was observed during the conventionality task only. In contrast, the left pSTG exhibited correlated activation patterns during all conditions with an increase in the conventionality task at the trend level only. Conceivably, the left IFG can be considered a core region for the processing of perceived conventionality in co-speech gestures similar to spoken language. In general, the interpretation of conventionalized signs may rely on neural mechanisms that engage during language comprehension.

  2. Perceived Conventionality in Co-speech Gestures Involves the Fronto-Temporal Language Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dhana; Rekittke, Linn-Marlen; Mittelberg, Irene; Klasen, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language) relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake) or less so (e.g., self-grooming). We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i.e., the left hemispheric inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area) and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, Wernicke's area) and studied 36 subjects watching video-recorded story retellings during a behavioral and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. It is well documented that neural correlates of such naturalistic videos emerge as intersubject covariance (ISC) in fMRI even without involving a stimulus (model-free analysis). The subjects attended either to perceived conventionality or to a control condition (any hand movements or gesture-speech relations). Such tasks modulate ISC in contributing neural structures and thus we studied ISC changes to task demands in language networks. Indeed, the conventionality task significantly increased covariance of the button press time series and neuronal synchronization in the left IFG over the comparison with other tasks. In the left IFG, synchronous activity was observed during the conventionality task only. In contrast, the left pSTG exhibited correlated activation patterns during all conditions with an increase in the conventionality task at the trend level only. Conceivably, the left IFG can be considered a core region for the processing of perceived conventionality in co-speech gestures similar to spoken language. In general, the interpretation of conventionalized signs may rely on neural mechanisms that engage during language comprehension. PMID:29249945

  3. Fronto-temporal connectivity predicts cognitive empathy deficits and experiential negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; Wisner, Krista M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Barch, Deanna M; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; MacDonald, Angus W; Smith, Matthew J

    2017-03-01

    Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects. Study 1: We examined associations between cognitive empathy and medial prefrontal and temporal inter-component connectivity at rest using a group-matched schizophrenia and control sample. We then assessed whether inter-component connectivity metrics associated with cognitive empathy were also related to negative symptoms. Study 2: We sought to replicate the connectivity-symptom associations observed in Study 1 using an independent schizophrenia sample. Study 1 results revealed that while the groups did not differ in average inter-component connectivity, a medial-fronto-temporal metric and an orbito-fronto-temporal metric were related to cognitive empathy. Moreover, the medial-fronto-temporal metric was associated with experiential negative symptoms in both schizophrenia samples. These findings support recent models that link social cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1111-1124, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PROGRANULIN MUTATIONS AFFECTS BRAIN OSCILLATORY ACTIVITY IN FRONTO-TEMPORAL DEMENTIA

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    Davide Vito Moretti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD. Progranulin (PGRN has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non carriers in patients with overt FTD. Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE. Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers.Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations

  5. Dural based primary osteosarcoma in right fronto-temporal region with review of literature.

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    Ghosal, Nandita; Dadlani, Ravi; Furtado, Sunil V; Bagdi, Naman; Hegde, A S

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of primary dural based osteosarcoma in the right fronto-temporal convexity in a 43-year-old female who presented with a short history of seizure and headache. Radiologic evaluation revealed a well defined brightly enhancing extra-axial lesion in the right fronto-temporal region with a dural tail around the sylvian fissure. The overlying bone was uninvolved. Paraffin section of the tumor showed plump cells with moderate nuclear and cellular pleomorphism with eosinophilic extracellular material (osteiod) between the cells. At a few places, lace like osteiod was seen encasing individual cells signifying osteiod being formed by tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry for EMA was focally positive and negative for S-100 protein and GFAP. A final histopathological diagnosis of dural based primary osteosarcoma of the right fronto-temporal region was rendered. To the best of our knowledge this will be the eighth such case in literature.

  6. The fronto-temporal component in mild and moderately severe head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, JM; vanZomeren, AH; vanderNaalt, J

    The history of the identification of the so-called (fronto-)temporal lobe contusion is reviewed. Treatment of minor head injuries actually starts with the right diagnosis. Injuries of the temporal lobe, characterized by a comparatively long period of post-traumatic amnesia should be distinguished

  7. Fronto-Temporal Connectivity Predicts ECT Outcome in Major Depression

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    Amber M. Leaver

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT is arguably the most effective available treatment for severe depression. Recent studies have used MRI data to predict clinical outcome to ECT and other antidepressant therapies. One challenge facing such studies is selecting from among the many available metrics, which characterize complementary and sometimes non-overlapping aspects of brain function and connectomics. Here, we assessed the ability of aggregated, functional MRI metrics of basal brain activity and connectivity to predict antidepressant response to ECT using machine learning.MethodsA radial support vector machine was trained using arterial spin labeling (ASL and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI metrics from n = 46 (26 female, mean age 42 depressed patients prior to ECT (majority right-unilateral stimulation. Image preprocessing was applied using standard procedures, and metrics included cerebral blood flow in ASL, and regional homogeneity, fractional amplitude of low-frequency modulations, and graph theory metrics (strength, local efficiency, and clustering in BOLD data. A 5-repeated 5-fold cross-validation procedure with nested feature-selection validated model performance. Linear regressions were applied post hoc to aid interpretation of discriminative features.ResultsThe range of balanced accuracy in models performing statistically above chance was 58–68%. Here, prediction of non-responders was slightly higher than for responders (maximum performance 74 and 64%, respectively. Several features were consistently selected across cross-validation folds, mostly within frontal and temporal regions. Among these were connectivity strength among: a fronto-parietal network [including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC], motor and temporal networks (near ECT electrodes, and/or subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC.ConclusionOur data indicate that pattern classification of multimodal f

  8. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

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    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  9. Right Fronto-Temporal EEG can Differentiate the Affective Responses to Award-Winning Advertisements.

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    Wang, Regina W Y; Huarng, Shy-Peih; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2018-04-01

    Affective engineering aims to improve service/product design by translating the customer's psychological feelings. Award-winning advertisements (AAs) were selected on the basis of the professional standards that consider creativity as a prerequisite. However, it is unknown if AA is related to satisfactory advertising performance among customers or only to the experts' viewpoints towards the advertisements. This issue in the field of affective engineering and design merits in-depth evaluation. We recruited 30 subjects and performed an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment while watching AAs and non-AAs (NAAs). The event-related potential (ERP) data showed that AAs evoked larger positive potentials 250-1400 [Formula: see text]ms after stimulus onset, particularly in the right fronto-temporal regions. The behavioral results were consistent with the professional recognition given to AAs by experts. The perceived levels of creativity and "product-like" quality were higher for the AAs than for the NAAs. Event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis further revealed statistically significant differences in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band activity in the right fronto-temporal regions between the AAs and NAAs. Our results confirm that EEG features from the time/frequency domains can differentiate affective responses to AAs at a neural circuit level, and provide scientific evidence to support the identification of AAs.

  10. Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro eKawasaki; Masahiro eKawasaki; Masahiro eKawasaki; Keiichi eKitajo; Keiichi eKitajo; Yoko eYamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    In humans, theta phase (4–8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from...

  11. Left-sided congenital heart lesions in mosaic Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayed Abdelmoula, Nouha; Abdelmoula, Balkiss; Smaoui, Walid; Trabelsi, Imen; Louati, Rim; Aloulou, Samir; Aloulou, Wafa; Abid, Fatma; Kammoun, Senda; Trigui, Khaled; Bedoui, Olfa; Denguir, Hichem; Mallek, Souad; Ben Aziza, Mustapha; Dammak, Jamila; Kaabi, Oldez; Abdellaoui, Nawel; Turki, Fatma; Kaabi, Asma; Kamoun, Wafa; Jabeur, Jihen; Ltaif, Wided; Chaker, Kays; Fourati, Haytham; M'rabet, Samir; Ben Ameur, Hedi; Gouia, Naourez; Mhiri, Mohamed Nabil; Rebai, Tarek

    2018-04-01

    In the era of the diseasomes and interactome networks, linking genetics with phenotypic traits in Turner syndrome should be studied thoroughly. As a part of this stratagem, mosaicism of both X and Y chromosome which is a common finding in TS and an evaluation of congenital heart diseases in the different situations of mosaic TS types, can be helpful in the identification of disturbed sex chromosomes, genes and signaling pathway actors. Here we report the case of a mosaic TS associated to four left-sided CHD, including BAV, COA, aortic aneurysms and dissections at an early age. The mosaicism included two cell lines, well-defined at the cytogenetic and molecular levels: a cell line which is monosomic for Xp and Xq genes (45,X) and another which is trisomic for pseudoautosomal genes that are present on the X and Y chromosomes and escape X inactivation: 45,X[8]/46,X,idic(Y)(pter→q11.2::q11.2→pter)[42]. This case generates two hypotheses about the contribution of genes linked to the sex chromosomes and the signaling pathways involving these genes, in left-sided heart diseases. The first hypothesis suggests the interaction between X chromosome and autosomal genes or loci of aortic development, possibly dose-dependent, and which could be in the framework of TGF-β-SMAD signaling pathways. The second implies that left-sided congenital heart lesions involve sex chromosomes loci. The reduced dosage of X chromosome gene(s), escaping X inactivation during development, contributes to this type of CHD. Regarding our case, these X chromosome genes may have homologues at the Y chromosome, but the process of inactivation of the centromeres of the isodicentric Y spreads to the concerned Y chromosome genes. Therefore, this case emerges as an invitation to consider the mosaics of Turner syndrome and to study their phenotypes in correlation with their genotypes to discover the underlying developmental and genetic mechanisms, especially the ones related to sex chromosomes.

  12. Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In humans, theta phase (4–8 Hz synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM.

  13. Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In humans, theta phase (4-8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM.

  14. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

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    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  15. Roentgenologic appearance of left-sided inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira; Saitoh, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    2 Cases of left-sided inferior vena cava, and 2 cases of left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos and hemiazygos continuation were evaluated with computed tomography and other roentgenologic procedures and discussed thier clinical and radiological significance. Left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos (hemiazygos) continuation is often associated with cyanotic or acyanotic congenital heart disease and abnormalities of cardiovascular position, abdominal situs and polysplenia. But, single left-sided inferior vena cavas have little tendency having associated anomalies. Both venous anomalies also shuld be embryologically differentiated, namely, failure of development of the lower portion of the supracardinal veins results in infrahepatic interruption of inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, persistence of the left cardinal system and atrophy of the right system lead to the left-side inferior vena cava. Knowledge of inferior vena cava anomalies is important to the radiologist in order to differentiate between venous anomalies and an enlarged lymph nodes in a patient with malignant tumor. (author)

  16. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  17. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  18. Incarcerated vermiform appendix in a left-sided inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, S; Eisenbach, C; Wille, G; Decurtins, M

    2005-03-01

    We report here of a patient with an incarcerated vermiform appendix occurring in a left-sided indirect inguinal hernia. Occasionally, appendices are found in a hernial sac; however, the finding of an incarcerated vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia on the left side is very unusual and has only been previously described once. The patient suffering this rare entity underwent appendectomy and repair of the hernia and experienced an uneventful postoperative recovery. The possibility of the presence of a situs inversus, or malrotation, as an underlying cause for the observed pathology was excluded by x-ray examination.

  19. Intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and benefits of antegrade intraoperative colonic irrigation (lavage) and primary anastomosis, after colonic resection, in the treatment of left sided large bowel emergencies. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Participants: Thirty ...

  20. Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease.

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    Maeder, Micha Tobias; Schoch, Otto D; Kleiner, Rebekka; Joerg, Lucas; Weilenmann, Daniel; Swiss Society For Pulmonary Hypertension

    2017-01-19

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left-sided heart disease, the presence of pulmonary hypertension is typically a marker of more advanced disease, more severe symptoms, and worse prognosis. In contrast to pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH-LHD is characterised by an elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure (postcapillary pulmonary hypertension) without or with an additional precapillary component (isolated postcapillary versus combined postcapillary and precapillary pulmonary hypertension). Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary nonin-vasive imaging tool to estimate the probability of pulmonary hypertension and to establish a working diagnosis on the mechanism of pulmonary hyperten-sion. However, right heart catheterisation is always required if significant pulmonary hypertension is sus-pected and exact knowledge of the haemodynamic constellation is necessary. The haemodynamic con-stellation (mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) in combination with clinical infor-mation and imaging findings (mainly echocardiog-raphy, coronary angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) will usually allow the exact mech-anism underlying PH-LHD to be defined, which is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment. The general principle for the management of PH-LHD is to treat the underlying left-sided heart disease in an optimal man-ner using drugs and/or interventional or surgical ther-apy. There is currently no established indication for pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies in PH-LHD, and specific therapies may even cause harm in patients with PH-LHD.

  1. Left fronto-temporal dynamics during agreement processing: evidence for feature-specific computations.

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    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Pérez, Alejandro; Parkkonen, Lauri; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Grammatical agreement is a widespread language phenomenon that indicates formal syntactic relations between words; however, it also conveys basic lexical (e.g. grammatical gender) or semantic (e.g. numerosity) information about a discourse referent. In this study, we focus on the reading of Spanish noun phrases, violating either number or gender determiner-noun agreement compared to grammatical controls. Magnetoencephalographic activity time-locked to the onset of the noun in both types of violation revealed a left-lateralized brain network involving anterior temporal regions (~220 ms) and, later in time, ventro-lateral prefrontal regions (>300 ms). These activations coexist with dependency-specific effects: in an initial step (~170 ms), occipito-temporal regions are employed for fine-grained analysis of the number marking (in Spanish, presence or absence of the suffix '-s'), while anterior temporal regions show increased activation for gender mismatches compared to grammatical controls. The semantic relevance of number agreement dependencies was mainly reflected by left superior temporal increased activity around 340 ms. These findings offer a detailed perspective on the multi-level analyses involved in the initial computation of agreement dependencies, and theoretically support a derivational approach to agreement computation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Left-sided cecal diverticulitis associated with midgut malrotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Malrotation of the midgut is generally considered as a pediatric pathology with the majority of patients presenting in childhood. The diagnosis is rare in adults, which sometimes leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. An index of suspicion is therefore required when dealing with patients of any age group with abdominal symptoms. We present a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with left lower abdominal pain with preoperative computed tomography showing suspected left-sided appendicitis associated with midgut malrotation. The duodenum, small bowel, and cecum were abnormally located, with the presence of a thickened and inflamed appendix with fecalith images. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, and ruptured cecal diverticulitis with abscess formation was confirmed. We performed a cecectomy, and the patient did not have an uneventful postoperative recovery. A review of the literature is presented to highlight the rarity of midgut malrotation and the controversies surrounding its surgical management in the adult population with ruptured left-sided cecal diverticulitis.

  3. Left-sided cecal diverticulitis associated with midgut malrotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malrotation of the midgut is generally considered as a pediatric pathology with the majority of patients presenting in childhood. The diagnosis is rare in adults, which sometimes leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. An index of suspicion is therefore required when dealing with patients of any age group with abdominal symptoms. We present a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with left lower abdominal pain with preoperative computed tomography showing suspected left-sided appendicitis associated with midgut malrotation. The duodenum, small bowel, and cecum were abnormally located, with the presence of a thickened and inflamed appendix with fecalith images. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, and ruptured cecal diverticulitis with abscess formation was confirmed. We performed a cecectomy, and the patient did not have an uneventful postoperative recovery. A review of the literature is presented to highlight the rarity of midgut malrotation and the controversies surrounding its surgical management in the adult population with ruptured left-sided cecal diverticulitis.

  4. Management of acute regurgitation in left-sided cardiac valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokadam, Nahush A; Stout, Karen K; Verrier, Edward D

    2011-01-01

    The management of acute, severe cardiac valvular regurgitation requires expeditious multidisciplinary care. Although acute, severe valvular regurgitation can be a true surgical emergency, accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions require clinical acumen, appropriate imaging, and sound judgment. An accurate and timely diagnosis is essential for successful outcomes and requires appropriate expertise and a sufficiently high degree of suspicion in a variety of settings. Whereas cardiovascular collapse is the most obvious and common presentation of acute cardiac valvular regurgitation, findings may be subtle, and the clinical presentation can often be nonspecific. Consequently, other acute conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, or nonvalvular heart failure may be mistaken for acute valvular regurgitation. In comparison with that of the right-sided valves, regurgitation of the left-sided valves is more common and has greater clinical impact. Therefore, this review focuses on acute regurgitation of the aortic and mitral valves.

  5. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  6. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

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    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  7. Utilidad de la batería ejecutiva y cognición social de INECO en la evaluación de funciones ejecutivas de una serie de pacientes peruanos con demencia fronto-temporal, variante conductual.

    OpenAIRE

    Custodio, Nilton; Herrera-Pérez, Eder; Lira, David; Montesinos, Rosa; Alva-Diaz, Carlos; Cortijo, Patricia; Cuenca-Alfaro, José; Valeriano-Lorenzo, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Los síntomas característicos de la demencia fronto-temporal, variante conductual reflejan disfunción del cortex prefrontal ventromedial, y no existe consenso respecto a las pruebas neuropsicológicas más sensibles y específicos para evaluarlos. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar alteraciones específicas de funciones ejecutivas y de cognición social en pacientes con demencia fronto-temporal variante conductual. Material y Métodos: Evaluamos la batería ejecutiva y cognición soci...

  8. [Clinical, echocardiographic and prognostic profile of Streptococcus viridans left-sided endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; San Román, José A; Revilla, Ana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Luaces, María; Sarriá, Cristina; Gómez, Itziar; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2005-02-01

    Published case series on Streptococcus viridans endocarditis are scarce and outdated. The aims of our study were multiple: to analyze the profile of the Streptococcus viridans endocarditis, to compare it with other types of left-sided endocarditis and with cases caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and to determine predictors of poor outcome in Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. We analyzed 441 episodes of endocarditis: 330 left-sided and 54 caused by Streptococcus viridans (16%). We compared the 54 cases due to Streptococcus viridans with the remaining cases of left-sided endocarditis in our series, and also with cases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We also analyzed the predictors of death and urgent surgery in Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Left-sided endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans led to a similar degree of valvular destruction, showed acute onset less frequently, and led to less renal failure, septic shock and mortality than the remaining cases of left-sided endocarditis in our series. The same differences were found in comparison to Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Prognostic factors for Streptococcus viridans left-sided endocarditis were heart failure and periannular complications. Although Streptococcus viridans is a nonaggressive microorganism, valvular destruction is similar to that caused by other pathogens when it causes left-sided endocarditis. Nonetheless its prognosis is better, a feature which may be related to the fact that the systemic infectious syndrome can be treated more effectively. Prognostic factors in left-sided endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans are heart failure and periannular complications.

  9. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  10. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  11. Minimally invasive radical pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy has been regarded as a safe and effective treatment for benign and borderline malignant pancreatic lesions. However, its application for left-sided pancreatic cancer is still being debated. The clinical evidence for radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)-based minimally invasive approaches for left-sided pancreatic cancer was reviewed. Potential indications and surgical concepts for minimally invasive RAMPS were suggested. Despite the limited clinical evidence for minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy in left-sided pancreatic cancer, the currently available clinical evidence supports the use of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under oncologic principles in well-selected left sided pancreatic cancers. A pancreas-confined tumor with an intact fascia layer between the pancreas and left adrenal gland/kidney positioned more than 1 or 2 cm away from the celiac axis is thought to constitute a good condition for the use of margin-negative minimally invasive RAMPS. The use of minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) anterior RAMPS is feasible and safe for margin-negative resection in well-selected left-sided pancreatic cancer. The oncologic feasibility of the procedure remains to be determined; however, the currently available interim results indicate that even oncologic outcomes will not be inferior to those of open radical distal pancreatosplenectomy. PMID:24605031

  12. Comparison between the incidence of right and left sided congenital torticollis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, S.; Bashir, M.S.; Hussain, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital torticollis is an intriguing condition of unknown origin, characterized by unilateral shortening and tightness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Patients usually present with head tilt, facial asymmetry and plagiocephaly. A sternomastoid mass or tumor may or may not be clinically apparent. Untreated, cervical function and facial cosmesis may be severely compromised. Objective: My study is aimed at establishing a comparison between the incidence of right versus left sided congenital torticollis. Method: This observational study included 30 patients of congenital torticollis that completed the questionnaire. The data was collected from patients coming to the Physiotherapy and Orthopedic departments of Children Hospital, Lahore. Results: Results showed that right side was involved in 19 (63.3%) patients and left side was involved in 11 (36.7%) patients. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7%) were male, of which 8 had right sided congenital torticollis and 6 had left sided congenital torticollis, and 16 (53.3%) were female, of which right sided congenital torticollis and 5 had left sided congenital torticollis. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that incidence of right sided congenital torticollis is more common than left sided congenital torticollis. The incidence of con-genital torticollis is higher in females than in males. (author)

  13. 18F-FDG PET Reveals Fronto-temporal Dysfunction in Children with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuca, M.; Dulac, O.; Chiron, C.; Jambaque, I.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Bouilleret, V.; Archambaud, F.; Rodrigo, S.; Dulac, O.; Chiron, C.; Jambaque, I.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Bouilleret, V.; Archambaud, F.; Rodrigo, S.; Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Rodrigo, S.; Dulac, O.; Chiron, C.; Caviness, V.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a recently described epileptic entity whose etiology remains unknown. Brain abnormalities shown by MRI are usually limited to mesial-temporal structures and do not account for the catastrophic neuro-psychologic findings. Methods: We conducted FIRES studies in 8 patients, aged 6-13 y, using 18 F-FDG PET to disclose eventual neo-cortical dysfunction. Voxel-based analyses of cerebral glucose metabolism were performed using statistical parametric mapping and an age-matched control group. Results: Group analysis revealed a widespread inter-ictal hypo-metabolic network including the temporo-parietal and orbito-frontal cortices bilaterally. The individual analyses in patients identified hypo-metabolic areas corresponding to the predominant electroencephalograph foci and neuro-psychologic deficits involving language, behavior, and memory. Conclusion: Despite clinical heterogeneity, 18 F-FDG PET reveals a common network dysfunction in patients with sequelae due to fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy. (authors)

  14. High-gamma band fronto-temporal coherence as a measure of functional connectivity in speech motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingyon, J; Behroozmand, R; Kelley, R; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Narayanan, N S; Greenlee, J D W

    2015-10-01

    The neural basis of human speech is unclear. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings have revealed that high-gamma band oscillations (70-150Hz) are observed in the frontal lobe during speech production and in the temporal lobe during speech perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frontal and temporal brain regions had high-gamma coherence during speech. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the frontal and temporal cortices of five humans who underwent surgery for medically intractable epilepsy, and studied coherence between the frontal and temporal cortex during vocalization and playback of vocalization. We report two novel results. First, we observed high-gamma band as well as theta (4-8Hz) coherence between frontal and temporal lobes. Second, both high-gamma and theta coherence were stronger when subjects were actively vocalizing as compared to playback of the same vocalizations. These findings provide evidence that coupling between sensory-motor networks measured by high-gamma coherence plays a key role in feedback-based monitoring and control of vocal output for human vocalization. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional analysis of left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Riis, Lene B; Pittet, Valerie; Mueller, Christoph; Rogler, Gerhard; Olsen, Jørgen

    2014-12-01

    It is unknown why patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with patients with left-sided UC. This study characterizes the inflammatory processes in left-sided UC, pancolitis, and UC-associated dysplasia at the transcriptional level to identify potential biomarkers and transcripts of importance for the carcinogenic behavior of chronic inflammation. The Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 was applied on colonic biopsies from UC patients with left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed for validating selected transcripts in the initial cohort and in 2 independent cohorts of patients with UC. Microarray data were analyzed by principal component analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry data by the Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The principal component analysis results revealed separate clusters for left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Close clustering of dysplastic and pancolitic samples indicated similarities in gene expression. Indeed, 101 and 656 parallel upregulated and downregulated transcripts, respectively, were identified in specimens from dysplasia and pancolitis. Validation of selected transcripts hereof identified insulin receptor alpha (INSRA) and MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (MKNK2) with an enhanced expression in dysplasia compared with left-sided UC and controls, whereas laminin γ2 (LAMC2) was found with a lower expression in dysplasia compared with the remaining 3 groups. This study demonstrates pancolitis and left-sided UC as distinct inflammatory processes at the transcriptional level, and identifies INSRA, MKNK2, and LAMC2 as potential critical transcripts in the inflammation-driven preneoplastic process of UC.

  16. Left side approach for aortic valve replacement in patient with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah E. Altarabsheh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement in patients with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis is technically challenging due to anatomical considerations. Modifications of the cannulation strategy and operative tool sets are helpful. We report a 47-year-old man who had dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis with severe aortic regurgitation. Our approach was precisely planned depending on the clear anatomy outlined by preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest. We used a surgical approach in which the main surgeon was standing on the left side of the patient. Left sided approach provided excellent exposure for aortic valve replacement in this case scenario.

  17. Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, İsmihan Selen; Sen, Onur; Gökalp, Selman; Onan, Burak

    2017-09-01

    Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with intact interatrial septum is a rare diagnosis in childhood. In these cases, a vertical vein drains the left upper pulmonary lobe into the brachiocephalic vein and finally to the right atrium. Surgical treatment is performed to prevent right ventricular failure and pulmonary artery disease in advanced age. In this report, the rare entity of isolated left-sided anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a 14-year-old girl and successful minimally invasive surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass are described.

  18. Left-sided approach for cardiac procedure and thoracoplasty in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, J; Kubota, H; Sudo, K

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of a 20-year-old female in whom we successfully performed a simultaneous Bentall procedure and thoracoplasty by initially removing only the left side of the costal cartilages. This modified sternal elevation technique offered chest stability and an excellent surgical view, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Guidelines of diagnostics and treatment of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, Caroline S.; Mulder, Irene M.; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J. F.; Verbon, Annelies; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; van Goor, Harry; Lange, Johan F.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.; Bleichrodt, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is increasing in the Western world. To improve the quality of patient care, a guideline for diagnosis and treatment of diverticulitis is needed. A multidisciplinary working group, representing experts of relevant specialties, was

  20. Surgical management of colonic diverticular disease: discrepancy between right- and left-sided diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-08-07

    To compare the outcome of the surgical management of left-sided and right-sided diverticular disease. The medical records of 77 patients who were surgically treated for diverticular disease between 1999 and 2010 in a tertiary referral hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was limited to cases wherein the surgical specimen was confirmed as diverticulosis by pathology. Right-sided diverticula were classified as those arising from the cecum, ascending colon, and transverse colon, and those from the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum were classified as left-sided diverticulosis. To assess the changing trend of occurrence of diverticulosis, data were compared with two previous studies of 51 patients. The proportion of left-sided disease cases was significantly increased compared to the results of our previous studies in 1994 and 2001, (27.5% vs 48.1%, P disease. However, patients with right-sided disease were significantly younger (50.9 year vs 64.0 year, P disease was significantly associated with a higher incidence of complicated diverticulitis (89.2% vs 57.5%, P diverticular disease, the incidence of left-sided disease in Korea has increased since 2001 and is associated with worse surgical outcomes.

  1. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, U; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, C

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective...

  2. Mean size estimation yields left-side bias: Role of attention on perceptual averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuei-An; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The human visual system can estimate mean size of a set of items effectively; however, little is known about whether information on each visual field contributes equally to the mean size estimation. In this study, we examined whether a left-side bias (LSB)-perceptual judgment tends to depend more heavily on left visual field's inputs-affects mean size estimation. Participants were instructed to estimate the mean size of 16 spots. In half of the trials, the mean size of the spots on the left side was larger than that on the right side (the left-larger condition) and vice versa (the right-larger condition). Our results illustrated an LSB: A larger estimated mean size was found in the left-larger condition than in the right-larger condition (Experiment 1), and the LSB vanished when participants' attention was effectively cued to the right side (Experiment 2b). Furthermore, the magnitude of LSB increased with stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), when spots on the left side were presented earlier than the right side. In contrast, the LSB vanished and then induced a reversed effect with SOA when spots on the right side were presented earlier (Experiment 3). This study offers the first piece of evidence suggesting that LSB does have a significant influence on mean size estimation of a group of items, which is induced by a leftward attentional bias that enhances the prior entry effect on the left side.

  3. Tricuspid regurgitation following left-sided valve surgery: echocardiographic evaluation and optimal timing of surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Chisato

    2015-03-01

    Severe tricuspid regurgitation may often appear and progress late after left-sided valve surgery without left-sided valve dysfunction, significant left heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. The clinical features, echocardiographic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of this disease entity have been discussed, but data is limited compared with left-sided valve diseases. Tricuspid annular dilatation associated with atrial fibrillation and right ventricular dysfunction strongly relate to development of isolated tricuspid regurgitation late after left-sided valve surgery. Three-dimensional evaluation may be useful in evaluating tricuspid valve anatomy in more detail. Better prognosis in patients undergoing surgical treatment for severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation than those who were treated medically has been reported; however, the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery is often too late. Right ventricular function is a key word for determining the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery; however, it is difficult to evaluate by conventional echocardiography. One of the serious issues in the future will be how to accurately evaluate right ventricular function.

  4. Left-Sided Reoperations After Arterial Switch Operation : A European Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Zanotto, Lorenza; Zanotto, Lucia; Stellin, Giovanni; Padalino, Massimo; Sarris, Georges; Protopapas, Eleftherios; Prospero, Carol; Pizarro, Christian; Woodford, Edward; Tlaskal, Thomas; Berggren, Hakan; Kostolny, Martin; Omeje, Ikenna; Asfour, Boulos; Kadner, Alexander; Carrel, Thierry; Schoof, Paul H; Nosal, Matej; Fragata, Josè; Kozłowski, Michał; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Vricella, Luca A; Cameron, Duke E; Sojak, Vladimir; Hazekamp, Mark G.; Salminen, Jukka; Mattila, Ilkka P; Cleuziou, Julie; Myers, Patrick O; Hraska, Viktor

    BACKGROUND: We sought to report the frequency, types, and outcomes of left-sided reoperations (LSRs) after an arterial switch operation (ASO) for patients with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) TGA-type. METHODS: Seventeen centers belonging to the

  5. Transcriptional analysis of left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Riis, Lene B

    2014-01-01

    to identify potential biomarkers and transcripts of importance for the carcinogenic behavior of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 was applied on colonic biopsies from UC patients with left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Reverse transcription...... polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed for validating selected transcripts in the initial cohort and in 2 independent cohorts of patients with UC. Microarray data were analyzed by principal component analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...... and immunohistochemistry data by the Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. RESULTS: The principal component analysis results revealed separate clusters for left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Close clustering of dysplastic and pancolitic samples indicated similarities in gene expression. Indeed, 101 and 656 parallel...

  6. Left-Sided Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Right-Sided Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 31-year-old female with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF and right-sided aortic arch (RAA with left-sided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA originating from the left brachiocephalic artery. This is a rare finding but most common site for a PDA in TOF and a RAA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this rare finding on MRI in the literature.

  7. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  8. Comparative molecular analyses of left-sided colon, right-sided colon, and rectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed E; Weinberg, Benjamin A; Xiu, Joanne; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Hwang, Jimmy J; Gatalica, Zoran; Philip, Philip A; Shields, Anthony F; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Marshall, John L

    2017-10-17

    Tumor sidedness has emerged as an important prognostic and predictive factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recent studies demonstrate that patients with advanced right-sided colon cancers have a worse prognosis than those with left-sided colon or rectal cancers, and these patient subgroups respond differently to biological therapies. Historically, management of patients with metastatic colon and rectal cancers has been similar, and colon and rectal cancer patients have been grouped together in large clinical trials. Clearly, the differences in molecular biology among right-sided colon, left-sided colon, and rectal cancers should be further studied in order to account for disparities in clinical outcomes. We profiled 10,570 colorectal tumors (of which 2,413 were identified as arising from the left colon, right colon, or rectum) using next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization, and fragment analysis (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ). Right-sided colon cancers had higher rates of microsatellite instability, more frequent aberrant activation of the EGFR pathway including higher BRAF and PIK3CA mutation rates, and increased mutational burden compared to left-sided colon and rectal cancers. Rectal cancers had higher rates of TOPO1 expression and Her2/neu amplification compared to both left- and right-sided colon cancers. Molecular variations among right-sided colon, left-sided colon, and rectal tumors may contribute to differences in clinical behavior. The site of tumor origin (left colon, right colon, or rectum) should certainly be considered when selecting treatment regimens and stratifying patients for future clinical trials.

  9. Clinical outcomes of tricuspid valve repair accompanying left-sided heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Azarnoush, Kasra; Nadeemy, Ahmad S; Pereira, Bruno; Leesar, Massoud A; Lambert, Céline; Azhari, Alaa; Eljezi, Vedat; Dauphin, Nicolas; Geoffroy, Etienne; Camilleri, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether the need for additional tricuspid valve repair is an independent risk factor when surgery is required for a left-sided heart disease. METHODS One hundred and eighty patients (68 ± 12 years, 79 males) underwent tricuspid annuoplasty. Cox proportional-hazards regression model for multivariate analysis was performed for variables found significant in univariate analyses. RESULTS Tricuspid regurgitation etiology was functional in 154 cases (86%), organic in 16 cases (9%),...

  10. Case Study Patient with Diagnosis After Fracture of Acetabulum on Left Side

    OpenAIRE

    Al Amri, Saad Khazim D

    2015-01-01

    Title of the thesis: Case study of patient after fracture of acetabulum in left side Author: Saad Al Amri Work placement: Kladno U Nemocnice Summary In the bachelor thesis, which was written by my self, it is divided in two parts, theoretical part and special part. The theoretical part describes anatomy of hip joint, it's bones, muscles, ligaments, nerves and blood supply of the hip joint. Information about kinesiological and biomechanical point of view were discussed as well. In the practica...

  11. Guenther Tulip Filter Retrieval from a Left-sided Inferior Vena Cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brountzos, Elias N.; Kaufman, John A.; Lakin, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Optional (retrievable) inferior cava filters (IVC) may have advantages over permanent filters in a certain subset of patients, especially in view of recent concerns about the long-term thrombotic complications of the latter. Retrieval of the Guenther Tulip Filter (GTF), an optional filter, has been reported in a total of 76 patients. We present the first description of GTF retrieval from a left-sided IVC using the right internal jugular approach

  12. Heart dose reduction by prone deep inspiration breath hold in left-sided breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Veldeman, Liv; Speleers, Bruno; Mahjoubi, Khalil; Remouchamps, Vincent; Van Greveling, Annick; Gilsoul, Monique; Berwouts, Dieter; Lievens, Yolande; Van den Broecke, Rudy; De Neve, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac disease has been related to heart dose after left-sided breast radiotherapy. This trial evaluates the heart sparing ability and feasibility of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position for left-sided whole breast irradiation (WBI). Twelve patients underwent CT-simulation in supine shallow breathing (SB), supine DIBH, prone SB and prone DIBH. A validation cohort of 38 patients received prone SB and prone DIBH CT-scans; the last 30 patients were accepted for prone DIBH treatment. WBI was planned with a prescription dose of 40.05 Gy. DIBH was able to reduce (p<0.001) heart dose in both positions, with results for prone DIBH at least as favorable as for supine DIBH. Mean heart dose was lowered from 2.2 Gy for prone SB to 1.3 Gy for prone DIBH (p<0.001), while preserving the lung sparing ability of prone positioning. Moreover prone DIBH nearly consistently reduced mean heart dose to less then 2 Gy, regardless of breast volume. All patients were able to perform the simulation procedure, 28/30 patients were treated with prone DIBH. This trial demonstrates the ability and feasibility of prone DIBH to acquire optimal heart and lung sparing for left-sided WBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava: a case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wee Choen; Doyle, Terry; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava (IVC) are two major anatomical variants within the spectrum of IVC malformations, both of which are developmental abnormalities of the supracardinal veins. Four clinical cases are described to highlight the computed tomographic appearances of these vascular malformations and provide novel data on venous dimensions. A systematic review of the recent literature (2000-2011) was conducted focusing on the anatomy, demographics, and associated pathology (congenital and acquired) of isolated left-sided and duplicate IVC. A total of 73 relevant articles were retrieved, consisting of case reports and small case series. The prevalence of left-sided IVC is about 0.1-0.4% and that for duplicate IVC about 0.3-0.4%; both anomalies show a slight male preponderance. In each condition, there are documented variations in the course and tributaries of the IVC. The clinical importance of these anomalies lies in three principal areas: the potential for misdiagnosis on imaging; technical difficulties during retroperitoneal surgery (particularly abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and live donor nephrectomy); and their significance in relation to the etiology and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis in adults: risk classification for mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Barakat, Lydia A; Buenconsejo, Joan; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2003-04-16

    Complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis causes significant morbidity and mortality in adults. Lack of valid data regarding estimation of prognosis makes management of this condition difficult. To derive and externally validate a prognostic classification system for adults with complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis. Retrospective observational cohort study conducted from January 1990 to January 2000 at 7 Connecticut hospitals among 513 patients older than 16 years who experienced complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis and who were divided into derivation (n = 259) and validation (n = 254) cohorts. All-cause mortality at 6 months after baseline. In the derivation and validation cohorts, the 6-month mortality rates were 25% and 26%, respectively. Five baseline features were independently associated with 6-month mortality (comorbidity [P =.03], abnormal mental status [P =.02], moderate to severe congestive heart failure [P =.01], bacterial etiology other than viridans streptococci [Pclassification system. In the derivation cohort, patients were classified into 4 groups with increasing risk for 6-month mortality: 5%, 15%, 31%, and 59% (Pendocarditis can be accurately risk stratified using baseline features into 4 groups of prognostic severity. This prognostic classification system might be useful for facilitating management decisions.

  15. Differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer in patient characteristics, cancer morphology and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Toru; Kato, Jun; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hisayuki; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the clinical and biological differences between right- and left-sided colon cancers have been widely debated. However, close analyses of these clinical differences, based on large-scale studies, have been scarcely reported. A total of 3552 consecutive Japanese colorectal cancer cases were examined and the clinical differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer cases were investigated. The proportion of right-sided colon cancer was relatively high in patients aged less than 40 years (33%) and more than 80 years (43%). The proportion of right-sided colon cancer in patients aged 40-59 years was relatively low (male 22% and female 29%). In male patients the proportion increased in the 70-79 years age group (30%), while in female patients the proportion increased in the 60-69 years age group (39%). Right-sided colon cancer was more likely to be detected at an advanced stage (T1 stage; left 22%, right 15%) (P cancer was dominant in the left colon (left 59%; right 40%) (P cancer in the right colon was significantly higher than that in the left colon (left 25%; right 44%) (P colon cancer was observed and the difference between male and female patients was highlighted. Other clinical features also differed between right- and left-sided colon cancer, suggesting that different mechanisms may be at work during right and left colon carcinogenesis.

  16. Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum: a case report

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    Bekele K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left-sided

  17. Early experience of the compression anastomosis ring (CARTM 27) in left-sided colon resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeon; Woo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hong-Jo; Park, Ki-Jae; Roh, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ki-Han; Lee, Hak-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate clinical validity of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) anastomosis in left-sided colonic resection. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27 between November 2009 and January 2011. Eligibility criteria of the use of the CAR™ 27 were anastomoses between the colon and at or above the intraperitoneal rectum. The primary short-term clinical endpoint, rate of anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes, including intra- and postoperative complications, length of operation time and hospital stay, and the ring elimination time were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 79 patients (male, 43; median age, 64 years) underwent an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27. Colectomy was performed laparoscopically in 70 patients, in whom two patients converted to open procedure (2.9%). There was no surgical mortality. As an intraoperative complication, total disruption of the anastomosis occurred by premature enforced tension on the proximal segment of the anastomosis in one patient. The ring was removed and another new CAR™ 27 anastomosis was constructed. One patient with sigmoid colon cancer showed postoperative anastomotic leakage after 6 d postoperatively and temporary diverting ileostomy was performed. Exact date of expulsion of the ring could not be recorded because most patients were not aware that the ring had been expelled. No patients manifested clinical symptoms of anastomotic stricture. CONCLUSION: Short-term evaluation of the CAR™ 27 anastomosis in elective left colectomy suggested it to be a safe and efficacious alternative to the standard hand-sewn or stapling technique. PMID:22147979

  18. Early experience of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) in left-sided colon resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeon; Woo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hong-Jo; Park, Ki-Jae; Roh, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ki-Han; Lee, Hak-Yoon

    2011-11-21

    To evaluate clinical validity of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) anastomosis in left-sided colonic resection. A non-randomized prospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27 between November 2009 and January 2011. Eligibility criteria of the use of the CAR™ 27 were anastomoses between the colon and at or above the intraperitoneal rectum. The primary short-term clinical endpoint, rate of anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes, including intra- and postoperative complications, length of operation time and hospital stay, and the ring elimination time were evaluated. A total of 79 patients (male, 43; median age, 64 years) underwent an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27. Colectomy was performed laparoscopically in 70 patients, in whom two patients converted to open procedure (2.9%). There was no surgical mortality. As an intraoperative complication, total disruption of the anastomosis occurred by premature enforced tension on the proximal segment of the anastomosis in one patient. The ring was removed and another new CAR™ 27 anastomosis was constructed. One patient with sigmoid colon cancer showed postoperative anastomotic leakage after 6 d postoperatively and temporary diverting ileostomy was performed. Exact date of expulsion of the ring could not be recorded because most patients were not aware that the ring had been expelled. No patients manifested clinical symptoms of anastomotic stricture. Short-term evaluation of the CAR™ 27 anastomosis in elective left colectomy suggested it to be a safe and efficacious alternative to the standard hand-sewn or stapling technique.

  19. Chylous ascites as a complication of left sided robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pahouja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to present a case series of the sparsely reported complication of chylous ascites (CA after left sided robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN, identify possible risk factors for the development of postoperative CA, and explore current recommendations for identification, management and prevention of CA. Material and methods: A retrospective review of patients that were treated with a RALPN during a one year time period (August 2012 to August 2013 by one surgeon at our institution was conducted. A total of 12 patients were included in the study. Demographics, tumor characteristics, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. Results: Three patients in the study experienced postoperative CA. All three patients had left sided surgery. The initial clinical suspicion for CA was raised due to complaints of abdominal pain with increased milky appearance of JP fluid. JP triglycerides were elevated in all three patients. The patients responded to conservative measures, with two patients treated with medium chain triglyceride diets and one patient treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN. Among the patients treated with RALPN, the group that was diagnosed with postoperative CA (CA group was found to have a statistically significant lower average body mass index (BMI as compared to the group that did not have CA (non-CA group (24.67 kg/m2 in the CA group versus 31.77 kg/m2 in the non-CA group; P = 0.026. Other demographic data, tumor characteristics, and perioperative outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusions: CA as a result of RALPN is a newly reported and rare postoperative complication. As utilization of RALPN continues to increase, urologists should be aware of this possible complication and be adept at diagnosing and managing CA. We suggest that left sided retroperitoneal surgery and a lower BMI preoperatively be considered risk factors for developing this complication.

  20. Clinical outcomes of tricuspid valve repair accompanying left-sided heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoush, Kasra; Nadeemy, Ahmad S; Pereira, Bruno; Leesar, Massoud A; Lambert, Céline; Azhari, Alaa; Eljezi, Vedat; Dauphin, Nicolas; Geoffroy, Etienne; Camilleri, Lionel

    2017-10-26

    To determine whether the need for additional tricuspid valve repair is an independent risk factor when surgery is required for a left-sided heart disease. One hundred and eighty patients (68 ± 12 years, 79 males) underwent tricuspid annuoplasty. Cox proportional-hazards regression model for multivariate analysis was performed for variables found significant in univariate analyses. Tricuspid regurgitation etiology was functional in 154 cases (86%), organic in 16 cases (9%), and mixed in 10 cases (6%), respectively. Postoperative mortality at 30 days was 11.7%. Mean follow-up was 51.7 mo with survival at 5 years of 73.5%. Risk factors for mortality were acute endocarditis [hazard ratio (HR) = 9.22 (95%CI: 2.87-29.62), P disease requiring myocardial revascularization [HR = 2.79 (1.26-6.20), P = 0.012], and aortic valve stenosis [HR = 2.6 (1.15-5.85), P = 0.021]. Significant predictive factors from univariate analyses were double-valve replacement combined with tricuspid annuloplasty [HR = 2.21 (1.11-4.39), P = 0.003] and preoperatively impaired ejection fraction [HR = 1.98 (1.04-3.92), P = 0.044]. However, successful mitral valve repair showed a protective effect [HR = 0.32 (0.10-0.98), P = 0.046]. Additionally, in instances where tricuspid regurgitation required the need for concomitant tricuspid valve repair, mortality predictor scores such as Euroscore 2 could be shortened to a simple Euroscore-tricuspid comprised of only 7 inputs. The explanation may lie in the fact that significant tricuspid regurgitation following left-sided heart disease represents an independent risk factor encompassing several other factors such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and dyspnea. Tricuspid annuloplasty should be used more often as a concomitant procedure in the presence of relevant tricuspid regurgitation, although it usually reveals an overly delayed correction of a left-sided heart disease.

  1. Midgut malrotation presenting with left-sided acute appendicitis and CT inversion sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlar, Emrah; Arıbaş, Bilgin; Tiken, Ramazan; Keskin, Suat

    2014-01-01

    In patients presenting with abdominal pain, appendicitis is the most common surgical disorder. Appendicitis causing pain in the left lower quadrant is extremely rare and can occur with congenital abnormalities that include true left-sided appendix or as an atypical presentation of right-sided long appendix, which projects into the left lower quadrant. We report a case of a 69-year-old man showing midgut malrotation with acute appendicitis presenting as left lower quadrant abdominal pain. PMID:24682135

  2. Missed diagnosis of atresia of the right pulmonary artery in woman with left-sided pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnegård, Hanna; Ryom, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary atresia is an uncommon condition, which can go undiagnosed for a long time in asymptomatic patients. Sometimes, diagnosis can be made at pregnancy due to respiratory symptoms. There is no known increased risk of pneumothorax. We here present a case where a second-time pregnant ...... woman with an unknown atresia of the right pulmonary artery received a left-sided pneumothorax. The diagnosis was initially missed in spite of adequate imaging and the condition progressed to respiratory stop. We describe the course of diagnostics and the chosen strategy of treatment....

  3. CT of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis and differential diagnoses

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    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R.; Cordes, M. [St. Theresien-Krankenhaus, Nuernberg (Germany). Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum

    2005-07-01

    This review shows the diagnostic potential of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis. Using a single detector spiral CT, standard examination of the entire abdomen is performed after oral and rectal administration of diluted iodinated contrast medium with collimation of 8 mm, pitch of 1.5, and reconstruction increment of 8 mm before and after intravenous contrast injection. Intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents, various patient positions, and the thin-section technique with 3-5 mm slices are beneficial in difficult cases. The differential diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis includes tumorous, inflammatory, and ischemic diseases of the colon as well as infarctions of epiploic appendages and the omentum majus. The knowledge of the various CT criteria of acute colonic diverticulitis and their differential diagnoses helps to establish a correct diagnosis in a wide majority of cases. At present, CT is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing acute diverticulitis. Distinct knowledge of the CT features helps to differentiate the various entities accurately.

  4. CT of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis and differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R.; Cordes, M.

    2005-01-01

    This review shows the diagnostic potential of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis. Using a single detector spiral CT, standard examination of the entire abdomen is performed after oral and rectal administration of diluted iodinated contrast medium with collimation of 8 mm, pitch of 1.5, and reconstruction increment of 8 mm before and after intravenous contrast injection. Intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents, various patient positions, and the thin-section technique with 3-5 mm slices are beneficial in difficult cases. The differential diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis includes tumorous, inflammatory, and ischemic diseases of the colon as well as infarctions of epiploic appendages and the omentum majus. The knowledge of the various CT criteria of acute colonic diverticulitis and their differential diagnoses helps to establish a correct diagnosis in a wide majority of cases. At present, CT is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing acute diverticulitis. Distinct knowledge of the CT features helps to differentiate the various entities accurately

  5. Estimating cardiac substructures exposure from diverse radiotherapy techniques in treating left-sided breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Mei, Xin; Chen, Xingxing; Hu, Weigang; Hu, Silong; Zhang, Yingjian; Shao, Zhimin; Guo, Xiaomao; Tuan, Jeffrey; Yu, Xiaoli

    2015-05-01

    The study compares the physical and biologically effective doses (BED) received by the heart and cardiac substructures using three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and simple IMRT (s-IMRT) in postoperative radiotherapy for patients with left-sided breast cancer. From October 2008 to February 2009, 14 patients with histologically confirmed left-sided breast cancer were enrolled and underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) simulation and 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-CT to outline the left cardiac ventricle (LV) and other substructures. The linear-quadratic model was used to convert the physical doses received by critical points of inner heart to BED.The maximal dose, minimum dose, dose received by 99% of volume (D99) and dose received by 95% of volume (D95) in target areas were significantly better using IMRT and s-IMRT when compared with 3D-CRT (P technique, IMRT and s-IMRT had superior target dose coverage and dose uniformity. IMRT significantly reduced the maximal RT dose to heart and LV. IMRT and s-IMRT techniques did not reduce the volume of heart and LV receiving high doses.

  6. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome.

  7. [Comparison of ablation of left-sided accessory pathway by atrial septal and retrograde arterial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J G; Bao, Z Y; Gu, X

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To compare the advantages and disadvantages of radiofrequency ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by via atrial septal approach with retrograde through aortic approach. Methods: A total of 184 patients of left-side accessory pathways were treated in Taizhou People's Hospital and the Subei People's Hospital from March 2012 to August 2015.A total of 103 cases were treated by aortic retrograde approach as through arterial group, 81 cases were treated by punctured atrial septal to left atrial for mapping and ablation as through atrial septal group.Comparison of ablation procedure time, total and pathways of different parts(subgroup) at instant success and relapse rates, safety (serious complications), and statistics other complications in operation and postoperative. Results: Through arterial group and through atrial septal group were no significant difference ( P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((25±18 ) vs (22±15)min ), instant success(98.1% vs 97.5%) and relapse rates(1.0% vs 1.2%), security(1 vs 0 case). There was no statistical difference in septal part subgroups (all P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((22±18)vs (25±19)min), instant success(91.7% vs 89.9 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 11.1%); posterior wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((18±15)vs (16±12)min), instant success(100% vs 100 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 0)(all P >0.05); side wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((29±20)vs (21±18) min), instant success (98.3% vs 98.1%)and relapse rates(1.7% vs 0%)(all P >0.05). Conclusion: Ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by transseptal approach and transaortic approach has no statistical difference in the procedure time, instant success and relapse rates, security.In a particular case, there is a certain complementarity between the two methods.

  8. Prognostic factors in left-sided endocarditis: results from the andalusian multicenter cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Torre-Lima Javier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite medical advances, mortality in infective endocarditis (IE is still very high. Previous studies on prognosis in IE have observed conflicting results. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in a large multicenter cohort of left-sided IE. Methods An observational multicenter study was conducted from January 1984 to December 2006 in seven hospitals in Andalusia, Spain. Seven hundred and five left-side IE patients were included. The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Several prognostic factors were analysed by univariate tests and then by multilogistic regression model. Results The overall mortality was 29.5% (25.5% from 1984 to 1995 and 31.9% from 1996 to 2006; Odds Ratio 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.97-1.60; p = 0.07. In univariate analysis, age, comorbidity, especially chronic liver disease, prosthetic valve, virulent microorganism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and fungi, and complications (septic shock, severe heart failure, renal insufficiency, neurologic manifestations and perivalvular extension were related with higher mortality. Independent factors for mortality in multivariate analysis were: Charlson comorbidity score (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, prosthetic endocarditis (OR: 1.9; CI: 1.2-3.1, Staphylococcus aureus aetiology (OR: 2.1; CI: 1.3-3.5, severe heart failure (OR: 5.4; CI: 3.3-8.8, neurologic manifestations (OR: 1.9; CI: 1.2-2.9, septic shock (OR: 4.2; CI: 2.3-7.7, perivalvular extension (OR: 2.4; CI: 1.3-4.5 and acute renal failure (OR: 1.69; CI: 1.0-2.6. Conversely, Streptococcus viridans group etiology (OR: 0.4; CI: 0.2-0.7 and surgical treatment (OR: 0.5; CI: 0.3-0.8 were protective factors. Conclusions Several characteristics of left-sided endocarditis enable selection of a patient group at higher risk of mortality. This group may benefit from more specialised attention in referral centers and should help to identify those

  9. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  10. Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tie-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Gang; Meng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    A best evidence topic in adult valvular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase the perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?' A total of 561 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, country, journal, date of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Among these 12 papers, there were nine retrospective studies, two cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, additional tricuspid valve (TV) repair takes more time during operations, particularly with a ring annuloplasty method. The mean aortic cross-clamping times were 57-83 min without associated tricuspid repair and 62-100 min with, and cardiopulmonary bypass times without and with repair were 82-124 and 90-174 min, respectively. A study of 624 patients who had undergone isolated mitral valve (MV) surgery and MV surgery plus TV repair showed more female and atrial fibrillation patients in the tricuspid valve plasty (TVP) group, but no increase in the 30-day mortality was found. One RCT, presenting similar patient baseline characteristics, also found no difference in the hospital mortality rates between the TVP group and the non-TVP group. Another 10 studies also demonstrated no statistically significant differences in perioperative mortality. In a cohort study of 311 patients undergoing MV repair with or without tricuspid annuloplasty, postoperative complications, such as bleeding, stroke, pacemaker, haemofiltration and myocardial infarction, all showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. One study retrospectively analysed a large number of patients undergoing either isolated left-sided valve surgery or a concomitant TV repair, and there were no statistically significant differences

  11. A phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli associated with active left-sided inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas M; Nielsen, Eva M; Litrup, Eva

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli have been found in increased numbers in tissues from patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and adherent-invasive E. coli have been found in resected ileum from patients with Crohn's disease. This study aimed to characterize possible differences in phylogenetic...... 10 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated by sigmoidoscopy. Interestingly, E. coli strains of the phylogenetic group B2 were cultured from 60% of patients with IBD compared to 11% of healthy controls (p coli B2 strains with at least one...... group (triplex PCR), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) genes and multilocus sequence type (MLST) between E. coli strains isolated from IBD patients with past or present involvement of the left side of the colon and from controls. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from 18 patients and from...

  12. Losing the left side of the world: rightward shift in human spatial attention with sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Manly, Tom; Pustovaya, Olga V; Scott, Sophie K; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2014-05-28

    Unilateral brain damage can lead to a striking deficit in awareness of stimuli on one side of space called Spatial Neglect. Patient studies show that neglect of the left is markedly more persistent than of the right and that its severity increases under states of low alertness. There have been suggestions that this alertness-spatial awareness link may be detectable in the general population. Here, healthy human volunteers performed an auditory spatial localisation task whilst transitioning in and out of sleep. We show, using independent electroencephalographic measures, that normal drowsiness is linked with a remarkable unidirectional tendency to mislocate left-sided stimuli to the right. The effect may form a useful healthy model of neglect and help in understanding why leftward inattention is disproportionately persistent after brain injury. The results also cast light on marked changes in conscious experience before full sleep onset.

  13. Isolated left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis with left lung hypoplasia: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Govindaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery or pulmonary artery agenesis (UAPA is a rare congenital malformation that can present as an isolated lesion or in association with other cardiac anomalies. Though congenital, presentation in adults are also reported. Most common presentation in adults is of exercise intolerance. The developing lung on the affected side is hypoplastic. Diagnosis of UAPA is established by imaging methods like CT and MRI . There is no specific treatment for this condition. Treatment depends on patients symptomatology, presence of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a bad prognosis. We present two adult patients with isolated left sided unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT chest and perfusion scan.

  14. Left-sided thoracoscopy in the prone position for surgery of distal esophageal benign pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Issaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of the distal esophagus can be achieved by a wide variety of surgical approaches. The standard procedure is mostly by laparoscopy. In cases where laparoscopy is relatively contraindicated, thoracoscopy is preferred. In this case, exposure of the distal esophagus from the aorta, heart and lung is technically challenging using thoracoscopy in the right lateral decubitus position. Surgery in the prone position for esophageal cancer has been successfully described in previous literature. We present our experience with left-sided thoracoscopy in the prone position in three patients with benign distal esophageal pathologies. This approach provided a much better exposure of the distal esophagus and enabled a successful surgery to be done in all patients with less manipulation of the lung.

  15. Respiration Induced Heart Motion and Indications of Gated Delivery for Left-Sided Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Hu, Angela; Wang Kai; Newman, Francis; Crosby, Marcus; Hu Bin; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate respiration-induced heart motion for left-sided breast irradiation using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) technique and to determine novel indications to assess heart motion and identify breast patients who may benefit from a gated treatment. Methods and Materials: Images of 4DCT acquired during free breathing for 20 left-sided breast cancer patients, who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without regional nodal irradiation, were analyzed retrospectively. Dose distributions were reconstructed in the phases of 0%, 20%, and 50%. The intrafractional heart displacement was measured in three selected transverse CT slices using D LAD (the distance from left ascending aorta to a fixed line [connecting middle point of sternum and the body] drawn on each slice) and maximum heart depth (MHD, the distance of the forefront of the heart to the line). Linear regression analysis was used to correlate these indices with mean heart dose and heart dose volume at different breathing phases. Results: Respiration-induced heart displacement resulted in observable variations in dose delivered to the heart. During a normal free-breathing cycle, heart-induced motion D LAD and MHD changed up to 9 and 11 mm respectively, resulting in up to 38% and 39% increases of mean doses and V 25.2 for the heart. MHD and D LAD were positively correlated with mean heart dose and heart dose volume. Respiratory-adapted gated treatment may better spare heart and ipsilateral-lung compared with the conventional non-gated plan in a subset of patients with large D LAD or MHD variations. Conclusion: Proposed indices offer novel assessment of heart displacement based on 4DCT images. MHD and D LAD can be used independently or jointly as selection criteria for respiratory gating procedure before treatment planning. Patients with great intrafractional MHD variations or tumor(s) close to the diaphragm may particularly benefit from the gated treatment.

  16. Quality of life in patients with right- or left-sided brain tumours: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Lamanna, Francesca; Di Monte, Carmen; Calligaris, Sonia; Doretto, Mara; Criveller, Michela

    2008-06-01

    To determine if patients with left- or right-sided hemisphere neoplasm perceive their quality of life (QoL) differently. It is not clear whether patients with a lesion in the left hemisphere have a different QoL than those with a lesion in the right hemisphere. (1) In the pre-operative period, patients with a left-sided lesion may have different symptoms according to the position of the tumour. (2) Studies on patients with brain injury demonstrate an association between left frontal lesions and depression: depression can alter the patients' perception of QoL. (3) In the postoperative period, right-handed patients may be disadvantaged by surgical trauma to the motor cortex in the left hemisphere. (4) During the different phases of the disease, the various functions of the two hemispheres may influence the patient's capacity to control QoL; also, as suggested by authors, both the ego and the conscience are mostly located in the left hemisphere. This is the reason that patients with a left-sided lesion may perceive a worse QoL. A review of literature was carried out using the Medline database (1966-2007) and CINHAL (1982-2007), using the following Mesh Terms and key words: brain neoplasm, tumour or cancer, hemispheric dominance or laterality or right or left hemisphere, QoL. Seven studies emerged that documented non-homogeneous results and which included different populations. The association between QoL and the side of the lesion was evaluated. The lack of a substantial number of recent, robust follow-up studies investigating the QoL in patients at different stages of disease and treatment indicates that more research is needed. Relevance to clinical practice. Understanding the QoL in patients with brain neoplasm and the differences between right and left hemisphere sites of the neoplasm can help nurses develop different interventions and offer more guidance for effective clinical intervention.

  17. Obstructive Thrombosis of Left-Sided Mechanical Heart Valves: Clinical Profile and Thrombolytic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakasu, Arumugam; Jayachandran, Avinash; Gopinath Nayar, Pradeep; Meyyappan, Chokkalingam; Narayan, Ganesh; Basha Abdul Bari, Ahamed; Johnson Samuel, Prince

    2017-05-01

    Thrombosis of a mechanical prosthetic heart valve is a potentially life-threatening complication associated with a high mortality. Although thrombolytic therapy has been considered highly beneficial in this situation, very few studies have been conducted to monitor the effectiveness of such thrombolytic therapy among Asian populations. Hence, the study aim was to evaluate the clinical profile, efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic agent streptokinase (SK) in patients with obstructive thrombosis of a left-sided mechanical heart valve. Patients (n = 30) with left-sided mechanical heart valve thrombosis (LSMHVT) who had been managed with SK during the past four years were included in this retrospective study. Clinical features such as presenting symptoms based on NYHA functional class, prosthetic valve position, oral anticoagulant compliance, International Normalized Ratio (INR) and imaging methods including fluoroscopy, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and complications of SK were analyzed. The majority of patients presented with advanced NYHA class (III and IV, each 40%). Obstructive thromboses were observed at the mitral prosthesis in 70% of cases, at the aortic prosthesis in 27%, and at both valves in 3%. All patients underwent TTE, but fluoroscopy was used more often than TEE. Despite compliance with oral anticoagulation therapy, a sub-therapeutic INR was observed in 40% of cases at the time of presentation. Overall, thrombolysis was successful in 80% of patients using intravenous SK, with 100% success in patients in NYHA classes I-III and 42% for NYHA class IV. Moreover, embolic complications occurred in only a small number of patients. In patients with obstructive thrombosis of LSMHVT, intravenous SK was effective and should be considered as first choice in patients in NYHA classes I-III, and as an acceptable alternative in those in NYHA class IV.

  18. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, Marlies; Lutterbach, Johannes; Bjoernsgard, Mari; Reichmann, Ursula; Bartelt, Susanne [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (D{sub mean}, D{sub 98%}, D{sub 2%} for target volumes, D{sub 2%}, D{sub mean} and V{sub x%} for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D{sub 2%} = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D{sub 2%} = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  19. Right- vs. Left-Sided Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Differences in Tumor Biology and Bevacizumab Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ulivi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence of a different response to treatment with regard to the primary tumor localization (right-sided or left-sided in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. We analyzed the different outcomes and biomolecular characteristics in relation to tumor localization in 122 of the 370 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled onto the phase III prospective multicenter “Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ITACa”, randomized to receive first-line chemotherapy (CT or CT plus bevacizumab (CT + B. RAS and BRAF mutations; baseline expression levels of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2, ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP; and inflammatory indexes such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte rate and systemic immune-inflammation index were evaluated. Patients with right-sided tumors showed a longer median progression-free survival in the CT + B arm than in the CT group (12.6 vs. 9.0 months, respectively, p = 0.017. Baseline inflammatory indexes were significantly higher in left-sided tumors, whereas eNOS and EPHB4 expression was significantly higher and BRAF mutation more frequent in right-sided tumors. Our data suggest a greater efficacy of the CT + B combination in right-sided mCRC, which might be attributable to the lower inflammatory status and higher expression of pro-angiogenic factors that appear to characterize these tumors.

  20. Demência fronto-temporal: aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos Demencia frontotemporal: aspectos clínicos y terapéuticos Frontotemporal dementia: clinical and therapeutic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lúcio Teixeira-Jr

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A demência fronto-temporal é uma importante causa de demência no período pré-senil. Caracteriza-se por significativas modificações do comportamento e da personalidade, enquanto o funcionamento cognitivo avaliado por testes psicométricos tradicionais encontra-se relativamente preservado. Muitos pacientes buscam o psiquiatra em virtude dos sintomas comportamentais proeminentes, como apatia, desinibição e comportamentos perseverativos ou estereotipados. O tratamento racional da demência fronto-temporal é atualmente limitado. Os sintomas comportamentais são controlados principalmente por inibidores seletivos da recaptação de serotonina.La demencia frontotemporal es una importante causa de demencia en el período presenil de la vida. Se caracteriza por alteraciones significativas en el comportamiento y en la personalidad, mientras la función cognitiva evaluada por pruebas psicométricas convencionales resulta relativamente preservada. Muchos pacientes recurren al psiquiatra en función de síntomas comportamentales sobresalientes como apatía, desinhibición y comportamientos perseverantes o estereotipados. El tratamiento racional de la demencia frontotemporal aún se encuentra bastante limitado. Los síntomas comportamentales se controlan principalmente con inhibidores selectivos de la recaptación de serotonina.Frontotemporal dementia is a major cause of dementia in the presenium. It is characterized by significant changes in behavior and personality, while cognitive functioning as assessed by traditional psychometric tests is relatively preserved. Thus, many patients present to the psychiatrist because of the prominence of behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, disinhibition, perseverative or stereotyped behaviors. Rational treatment for frontotemporal dementia is currently limited. The behavioral symptoms are controlled mainly with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  1. Reproducibility of deep inspiration breath hold for prone left-sided whole breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Veldeman, Liv; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Speleers, Bruno; Van Greveling, Annick; Berwouts, Dieter; Remouchamps, Vincent; Van den Broecke, Rudy; De Neve, Wilfried

    2015-01-09

    Investigating reproducibility and instability of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position to reduce heart dose for left-sided whole breast irradiation. Thirty patients were included and underwent 2 prone DIBH CT-scans during simulation. Overlap indices were calculated for the ipsilateral breast, heart and lungs to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility of the DIBH maneuver. The breathing motion of 21 patients treated with prone DIBH were registered using magnetic probes. These breathing curves were investigated to gain data on intra-fraction reproducibility and instability of the different DIBH cycles during treatment. Overlap index was 0.98 for the ipsilateral breast and 0.96 for heart and both lungs between the 2 prone DIBH-scans. The magnetic sensors reported population amplitudes of 2.8 ± 1.3 mm for shallow breathing and 11.7 ± 4.7 mm for DIBH, an intra-fraction standard deviation of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm for DIBH, an intra-breath hold instability of 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and a treatment time of 300 ± 69 s. Prone DIBH can be accurately clinically implemented with acceptable reproducibility and instability.

  2. Diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis by three radiological modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, H.B.; Jacobsen, T.; Kolmannskog, F.; Bay, D.; Nygaard, K. [Oslo Univ., Dept. of Radiology (Norway)]|[Oslo Univ., Dept. of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Norway)]|[Oslo Univ., Central Inst. of Radiology (Norway)

    1998-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the findings at US, CT and contrast enema (CE) with the clinical, biochemical and surgical findings in patients with suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Material and Methods: The study comprised 32 consecutive patients hospitalized with clinically diagnosed ALCD. During the first 3 days of hospitalization, they were examined by US and CT of the pelvis and abdomen, and CE. Results: Of the 32 patients, 21 had ALCD according to the combined radiological, clinical, biochemical and surgical findings. Findings compatible with ALCD were verified by radiological examination alone in 12 patients (4 patients at US, 10 at CT, and 6 at CE). In 9 patients, only diverticula or tethering was found at either CE or CT, and the diagnoses were then supported by clinical and biochemical findings and clinical follow-up. The most common clinical symptoms and signs associated with ALCD were left lower quadrant pain, leftsided tenderness, and fever. Most patients showed elevations of the white bloodcell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein, but there was no statistical difference in the stages of severity of ALCD, or between ALCD and other abdominal disorders. Conclusion: Radiological examination is valuable in confirming the diagnosis of ALCD. CT was the radiological modality that best demonstrated ALCD and revealed complications (e.g. pericolic abscesses) during the course of the illness. (orig.).

  3. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc; Veldhoen, Simon; Derlin, Thorsten; Sehner, Susanne; Nagel, Hans-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  4. Left-sided appendicitis in a patient with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welte Frank J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case where CT was crucial diagnostically and helpful for pre-surgical planning in a patient presenting with an acute abdomen superimposed on complete congenital gastrointestinal malrotation. Case presentation A 46-year-old previously healthy male with four days of primarily left-sided abdominal pain, low-grade fevers, nausea and anorexia presented to the Emergency Department. His medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes and dyslipidemia. His white blood count at that time was elevated. Initial abdominal plain films suggested small bowel obstruction. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed with oral and IV contrast to exclude diverticulitis, revealing acute appendicitis superimposed on congenital intestinal malrotation. Following consultation with the surgical team for surgical planning, the patient went on to laparoscopic appendectomy and did well postoperatively. Conclusion Atypical presentations of acute abdominal conditions superimposed on asymptomatic gastrointestinal malrotation can result in delays in delivery of definitive therapy and potentially increase morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in a timely manner. Appropriate imaging can be helpful in hastening diagnosis and guiding intervention.

  5. Diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis by three radiological modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.; Jacobsen, T.; Kolmannskog, F.; Bay, D.; Nygaard, K.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the findings at US, CT and contrast enema (CE) with the clinical, biochemical and surgical findings in patients with suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Material and Methods: The study comprised 32 consecutive patients hospitalized with clinically diagnosed ALCD. During the first 3 days of hospitalization, they were examined by US and CT of the pelvis and abdomen, and CE. Results: Of the 32 patients, 21 had ALCD according to the combined radiological, clinical, biochemical and surgical findings. Findings compatible with ALCD were verified by radiological examination alone in 12 patients (4 patients at US, 10 at CT, and 6 at CE). In 9 patients, only diverticula or tethering was found at either CE or CT, and the diagnoses were then supported by clinical and biochemical findings and clinical follow-up. The most common clinical symptoms and signs associated with ALCD were left lower quadrant pain, leftsided tenderness, and fever. Most patients showed elevations of the white bloodcell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein, but there was no statistical difference in the stages of severity of ALCD, or between ALCD and other abdominal disorders. Conclusion: Radiological examination is valuable in confirming the diagnosis of ALCD. CT was the radiological modality that best demonstrated ALCD and revealed complications (e.g. pericolic abscesses) during the course of the illness. (orig.)

  6. The "hidden" concealed left-sided accessory pathway: An uncommon cause of SVT in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Robert H; Liberman, Leonardo; Silver, Eric S; Janson, Christopher M; Blaufox, Andrew D; Nappo, Lynn; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2018-01-12

    Concealed left-sided accessory pathways (CLAP) are a cause of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in the young. Most are mapped with right ventricular (RV) apical/outflow pacing. Rarely, alternative means of mapping are required. We review our experience from three pediatric electrophysiology (EP) centers with a rare form of "hidden" CLAP. All patients SVT and one AFIB (4%). APs were adenosine sensitive in 7/20 patients (35%) and VA conduction was decremental in six (26%). CLAP conduction was demonstrable with orthodromic reentrant tachycardia in all patients, with RV extrastimulus testing in seven (30%) and with rapid RV pacing (

  7. Reproducibility of deep inspiration breath hold for prone left-sided whole breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Veldeman, Liv; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Speleers, Bruno; Van Greveling, Annick; Berwouts, Dieter; Remouchamps, Vincent; Van den Broecke, Rudy; De Neve, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Investigating reproducibility and instability of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position to reduce heart dose for left-sided whole breast irradiation. Thirty patients were included and underwent 2 prone DIBH CT-scans during simulation. Overlap indices were calculated for the ipsilateral breast, heart and lungs to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility of the DIBH maneuver. The breathing motion of 21 patients treated with prone DIBH were registered using magnetic probes. These breathing curves were investigated to gain data on intra-fraction reproducibility and instability of the different DIBH cycles during treatment. Overlap index was 0.98 for the ipsilateral breast and 0.96 for heart and both lungs between the 2 prone DIBH-scans. The magnetic sensors reported population amplitudes of 2.8 ± 1.3 mm for shallow breathing and 11.7 ± 4.7 mm for DIBH, an intra-fraction standard deviation of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm for DIBH, an intra-breath hold instability of 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and a treatment time of 300 ± 69 s. Prone DIBH can be accurately clinically implemented with acceptable reproducibility and instability

  8. Left-sided appendicitis: review of 95 published cases and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Ulku, Abdullah; Senol, Ayhan; Tas, Mahmut; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2010-11-28

    To give an overview of the literature on left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM). We present a new case of LSAA with SIT and a literature review of studies published in the English language on LSAA, accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Ninety-five published cases of LSAA were evaluated and a 25-year-old female, who presented to our clinic with left lower abdominal pain caused by LSAA, is reported. In the reviewed literature, fifty-seven patients were male and 38 were female with an age range of 8 to 82 years and a median age of 29.1 ± 15.9 years. Sixty-six patients had SIT, 23 had MM, three had cecal malrotation, and two had a previously unnoted congenital abnormality. Fifty-nine patients had presented to the hospital with left lower, 14 with right lower and seven with bilateral lower quadrant pain, and seven subjects complained of left upper quadrant pain. The diagnosis was established preoperatively in 49 patients, intraoperatively in 19, and during the postoperative period in five; 14 patients were aware of having this anomaly. The data of eight patients were not unavailable. Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, which was combined with cholecystectomy in two cases. Histopathological examination of the appendix specimens revealed adenocarcinoma in only two of 95 patients. The diagnosis of left lower quadrant pain is based on well-established clinical symptoms, physical examination and physician's experience.

  9. Estimate the Sediment Load Entering the Left Side of Mosul Dam Lake Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Qusay Mahmood Alkattan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosul Dam is one of the important dams in Iraq, it suffers like other dams from the problem of sediment accumulation in the lake. The daily surface runoff was estimated from seven main valleys in the left bank of the lake during the period (1/1/1988-31/8/2016 by applying SWAT model. The model performance was assessed using the statistical criteria R2, IOA, NSE and T-Test, the results were good. The averages annual surface runoff from the main valleys to the lake ranged between 3.3*106 m3 to 42.1*106 m3. The daily sediment load was estimated by four methods, Bagnold method was used in SWAT sediments transport simulation, while Yang, Toffaletti methods and Excess Shear Theory were programed by MATLAB, The performance of sediments transport simulation using Bagnlod, Yang and Excess Shear Theory methods was assessed using the same four statistical criteria and the results were good, The averages annual sediment load from the main valleys to the lake were (5.78*103 - 68.62*103, (1.49*104 - 42.13*104, (8.46*103 - 160.77*103 and (4.26*104 - 78.6*104 tons for Bagnold, Yang, Excess Shear Theory and Toffaletti methods, respectively. The valley Jardiam is the main supplier of sediments to the left side of the dam lake with 56%.

  10. Stomach position versus liver-to-thoracic volume ratio in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Anne-Gaël; Cannie, Mieke M; Guilbaud, Lucie; De Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Martinovic, Jéléna; Nowakowska, Dorota; Milejska-Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Rodó, Carlota; Viaris de Lesegno, Benjamin; Votino, Carmela; Senat, Marie-Victoire; Jani, Jacques C; Benachi, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe a new grading method for stomach position (SP) in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (L-CDH) using ultrasound and to correlate SP to liver position and to liver-to-thoracic cavity volume ratio (LiTR) using magnetic resonance imaging. SP were graded at the level of the 4-chamber view as following: grade 1-to-4 for stomach not visualised, visualised anteriorly at the apex of the heart, stomach showing abdominal structures anteriorly and stomach with its larger part posterior to the level of the atrial-ventricular heart valves, respectively. The LiTR was calculated and correlated to SP using the Mann-Whitney U test. Seventy-four fetuses were included. Median LiTR for grade 1 SP was 0% and was not different from median LiTR for grade 2 SP (0%, p=NS). Median LiTR for grade 3 SP was 14.9% and was significantly higher than for grade 2 SP (p<0.001). Similarly, median LiTR for grade 4 SP was 20.7% and was significantly higher than for grade 3 SP (p<0.05). When SP was grade 1 or 2, liver was intra-abdominal in 21 (84%) out of 25 fetuses while it was always intrathoracic for SP 3 or 4. In L-CDH, SP as described represents a simple indirect measurement of intrathoracic position and quantification of liver.

  11. Fetal Stomach Position Predicts Neonatal Outcomes in Isolated Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Amaya M; Lusk, Leslie A; Keller, Roberta L; Filly, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between the degree of stomach herniation by antenatal sonography and neonatal outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed neonatal medical records and antenatal sonography of fetuses with isolated left CDH cared for at a single institution (2000-2012). Fetal stomach position was classified on sonography as follows: intra-abdominal, anterior left chest, mid-to-posterior left chest, or retrocardiac (right chest). Ninety fetuses were included with 70% surviving to neonatal discharge. Stomach position was intra-abdominal in 14% (n = 13), anterior left chest in 19% (n = 17), mid-to-posterior left chest in 41% (n = 37), and retrocardiac in 26% (n = 23). Increasingly abnormal stomach position was linearly associated with an increased odds of death (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-10.9), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.9-16.7), nonprimary diaphragmatic repair (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.5), prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.3-15.6), and prolonged respiratory support (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.9). All fetuses with intra-abdominal stomach position survived without substantial respiratory morbidity or need for ECMO. Fetal stomach position is strongly associated with neonatal outcomes in isolated left CDH. This objective tool may allow for accurate prognostication in a variety of clinical settings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  13. An unusual case of metastasis to the left side of the heart: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyars Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac metastases are found in six to 20% of autopsies of patients with malignant neoplasm. The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the heart are malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia, but the relative numbers are greater with breast and lung cancers, reflecting the most common incidence of these cancers. Case presentation A 60-year-old Hispanic man presented to our hospital after being transferred from an outside hospital for workup and evaluation of an adrenal mass of the abdomen and pelvis, found on computed tomography. His chief complaint upon admission was altered mental status. Physical examination was unremarkable. He was alert and oriented and had a dry and non-erythematous oropharynx, and bilateral diffuse wheezing on lung examination. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple hypodense lesions in the left ventricular myocardium, suggestive of metastases. There were also tiny sub-centimeter nodular densities in the right upper and lower lobes. Adrenal glands contained hypodense lesions, which showed characteristic adenocarcinomatous malignant cells. Conclusion Cancers which have metastasized to the heart are found in six to 20% of patients with malignant neoplasms. The right side of the heart is more commonly involved in metastasis. This study is unusual in that a tumor of an unknown primary origin had metastasized to the left side of the heart.

  14. Quantitative assessment of left-sided valvular regurgitation using the fourier amplitude ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Jinsei; Yonahara, Yoshio; Asato, Tetsuyoshi; Naito, Masahito; Nishiguchi, Iku; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo.

    1985-01-01

    Since the amplitude value of a pixel is proportional to the stroke counts of the pixel, the total amplitude value of each ventricle would reflect its own stroke volume. Stroke count ratio (SCR) and ventricular amplitude ratio (VAR) values were simultaneously calculated and compared in 43 subjects, including 13 subjects with valvular regurgitation, after multigated equilibrium scintigraphy was performed. Mean values of SCR in 13 subjects with valvular regurgitation and 30 control subjects were 2.22+-1.11, 1.24+-0.41, respectively (p<0.005). Mean values of VAR were 2.52+-0.87, 1.36+-0.39, respectively (p<0.0005). The VAR method was independent of the tilting angles of the detector, and showed excellent intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibilities (r=0.95, r=0.91). The VAR method derived from the Fourier amplitude image is a noninvasive technique, is suitable for serial studies, and appears to be a relatively reliable means of assessing the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. (author)

  15. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqmani, Azien; Veldhoen, Simon; Dulz, Simon; Derlin, Thorsten; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Sehner, Susanne; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 & L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. HIR significantly reduces objective image noise in comparison to conventional FBP. HIR offers superior subjective image quality in comparison to conventional FBP. HIR allows reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT with acceptable image quality. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD significantly improves with HIR.

  16. A Left-Sided Prevalence of Lentigo Maligna: A UK Based Observational Study and Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer has been shown to present asymmetrically, prevalent on the left side of the body, more so in subtypes of cutaneous melanoma such as lentigo maligna. Biases have been linked to cumulative UV light exposure and automobile driving patterns. Though left-right ratios have previously correlated with the side men or women tend to position themselves or countries drive on, more recent trends indicate a consistent left-sided bias. To clarify reasons for changing trends, a review of the evidence base and LM’s laterality in a UK cohort (99 cases 2000–2011 was conducted for the first time. The strong correlation of left-sided excess, found in both genders (ratios 1.381–1.5, P<0.05  X2 0.841, is congruent with more recent findings. Though evidence indicates that driving position is no longer a risk factor for LM, due most likely to improved car window UV protection, it remains the most commonly attributed cause. Understanding phenomena such as UV lights “scatter effect” or that cumulative exposure may not be a significant risk factor helps rationalize older conclusions that would otherwise appear contradictory. The reasons for left-sided excess remain unclear but may be due to factors requiring further research such as the body’s anatomical/embryological asymmetry.

  17. [Analysis of clinicopathologic and survival characteristics in patients with right-or left-sided colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junjie; Zhou, Zhixiang; Liang, Jianwei; Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xingmao; Zeng, Weigen

    2015-07-28

    This study aimed to clarify the clinical and histological parameters, and survival difference between right- and left-sided colon cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records (2006.1-2009.12) of 1 088 consecutive colon cancer patients who received surgery at our hospital. Right- and left-sided colon cancers were compared regarding the clinical and histological parameters. The survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences. Right-sided colon cancer was associated with older age, a more advanced state, and poorly differentiated and undifferentiated adenocarcinoma (25.2% vs 13.2%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (33.5% vs 17.3%) and vascular invasion (9.9% vs 3.9%) were more commonly seen in right-sided colon cancer compared with right-sided colon cancer, and all these differences were statistically significant. Median overall survival was right, 67 months; and left, 68 months. The five-years overall survival of right- and left-sided colon cancer was I/II stage, 91.4% vs 88.6% (P = 0.819); III stage, 66.1% vs 75.4% (P = 0.010); and IV stage, 27.8% vs 38.5% (P = 0.020) respectively. Right- and left-sided colon cancers are significantly different regarding clinical and histological parameters. Right-sided colon cancers in stage III and IV have a worse prognosis.

  18. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  19. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.

  20. Genome-wide association study of maternal and inherited effects on left-sided cardiac malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Laura E; Agopian, A J; Bhalla, Angela; Glessner, Joseph T; Kim, Cecilia E; Swartz, Michael D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Congenital left-sided lesions (LSLs) are serious, heritable malformations of the heart. However, little is known about the genetic causes of LSLs. This study was undertaken to identify common variants acting through the genotype of the affected individual (i.e. case) or the mother (e.g. via an in utero effect) that influence the risk of LSLs. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using data from 377 LSL case-parent triads, with follow-up studies in an independent sample of 224 triads and analysis of the combined data. Associations with both the case and maternal genotypes were assessed using log-linear analyses under an additive model. An association between LSLs and the case genotype for one intergenic SNP on chromosome 16 achieved genome-wide significance in the combined data (rs8061121, combined P = 4.0 × 10(-9); relative risk to heterozygote: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9-3.7). In the combined data, there was also suggestive evidence of association between LSLs and the case genotype for a variant in the synaptoporin gene (rs1975649, combined P = 3.4 × 10(-7); relative risk to heterozygote: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0) and between LSLs and the maternal genotype for an intergenic SNP on chromosome 10 (rs11008222, combined P = 6.3 × 10(-7); relative risk to heterozygote: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). This is the first GWAS of LSLs to evaluate associations with both the case and maternal genotypes. The results of this study identify three candidate LSL susceptibility loci, including one that appears to be associated with the risk of LSLs via the maternal genotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Distinctive left-sided distribution of adrenergic-derived cells in the adult mouse heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Osuala

    Full Text Available Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced within the heart from neuronal and non-neuronal sources. These adrenergic hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular development and function, yet relatively little information is available about the specific tissue distribution of adrenergic cells within the adult heart. The purpose of the present study was to define the anatomical localization of cells derived from an adrenergic lineage within the adult heart. To accomplish this, we performed genetic fate-mapping experiments where mice with the cre-recombinase (Cre gene inserted into the phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase (Pnmt locus were cross-mated with homozygous Rosa26 reporter (R26R mice. Because Pnmt serves as a marker gene for adrenergic cells, offspring from these matings express the β-galactosidase (βGAL reporter gene in cells of an adrenergic lineage. βGAL expression was found throughout the adult mouse heart, but was predominantly (89% located in the left atrium (LA and ventricle (LV (p<0.001 compared to RA and RV, where many of these cells appeared to have cardiomyocyte-like morphological and structural characteristics. The staining pattern in the LA was diffuse, but the LV free wall displayed intermittent non-random staining that extended from the apex to the base of the heart, including heavy staining of the anterior papillary muscle along its perimeter. Three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction of XGAL+ staining revealed distribution throughout the LA and LV, with specific finger-like projections apparent near the mid and apical regions of the LV free wall. These data indicate that adrenergic-derived cells display distinctive left-sided distribution patterns in the adult mouse heart.

  2. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with fixed collimator jaws for locoregional left-sided breast cancer irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Yang, Zhaozhi; Hu, Weigang; Chen, Zhi; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao

    2017-05-16

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with the fixed collimator jaws technique (FJT) for the left breast and regional lymph node. The targeted breast tissue and the lymph nodes, and the normal tissues were contoured for 16 left-sided breast cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy after lumpectomy. For each patient, treatment plans using different planning techniques, i.e., volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), tangential IMRT (tangential-IMRT), and IMRT with FJT (FJT-IMRT) were developed for dosimetric comparisons. A dose of 50Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. The dose-volume histograms were generated, and the paired t-test was used to analyze the dose differences. FJT-IMRT had similar mean heart volume receiving 30Gy (V30 Gy) with tangential-IMRT (1.5% and 1.6%, p = 0.41), but inferior to the VMAT (0.8%, p < 0.001). In the average heart mean dose comparison, FJT-IMRT had the lowest value, and it was 0.6Gy lower than that for the VMAT plans (p < 0.01). A significant dose increase in the contralateral breast and lung was observed in VMAT plans. Compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT plans, FJT-IMRT reduced the mean dose of thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal by 47.6% (p < 0.01) and 45.7% (p < 0.01), 74.3% (p =< 0.01) and 73% (p =< 0.01), and 26.7% (p =< 0.01) and 29.2% (p =< 0.01). In conclusion, compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT, FJT-IMRT plan has the lowest thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal mean dose and it can be a reasonable treatment option for a certain subgroup of patients, such as young left-breast cancer patients and/or patients with previous thyroid disease.

  3. Guidelines of diagnostics and treatment of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeweg, Caroline S; Mulder, Irene M; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F; Verbon, Annelies; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; van Goor, Harry; Lange, Johan F; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A; Bleichrodt, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is increasing in the Western world. To improve the quality of patient care, a guideline for diagnosis and treatment of diverticulitis is needed. A multidisciplinary working group, representing experts of relevant specialties, was involved in the guideline development. A systematic literature search was conducted to collect scientific evidence on epidemiology, classification, diagnostics and treatment of diverticulitis. Literature was assessed using the classification system according to an evidence-based guideline development method, and levels of evidence of the conclusions were assigned to each topic. Final recommendations were given, taking into account the level of evidence of the conclusions and other relevant considerations such as patient preferences, costs and availability of facilities. The natural history of diverticulitis is usually mild and treatment is mostly conservative. Although younger patients have a higher risk of recurrent disease, a higher risk of complications compared to older patients was not found. In general, the clinical diagnosis of ACD is not accurate enough and therefore imaging is indicated. The triad of pain in the lower left abdomen on physical examination, the absence of vomiting and a C-reactive protein >50 mg/l has a high predictive value to diagnose ACD. If this triad is present and there are no signs of complicated disease, patients may be withheld from further imaging. If imaging is indicated, conditional computed tomography, only after a negative or inconclusive ultrasound, gives the best results. There is no indication for routine endoscopic examination after an episode of diverticulitis. There is no evidence for the routine administration of antibiotics in patients with clinically mild uncomplicated diverticulitis. Treatment of pericolic or pelvic abscesses can initially be treated with antibiotic therapy or combined with percutaneous drainage. If this treatment

  4. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients: Geometrical Uncertainty of the Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, Rajko; Borst, Gerben R.; Nijkamp, Jasper; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the geometrical uncertainties for the heart during radiotherapy treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients and to determine and validate planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margins. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients treated in supine position in 28 fractions with regularly acquired cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans for offline setup correction were included. Retrospectively, the CBCT scans were reconstructed into 10-phase respiration correlated four-dimensional scans. The heart was registered in each breathing phase to the planning CT scan to establish the respiratory heart motion during the CBCT scan (σ resp ). The average of the respiratory motion was calculated as the heart displacement error for a fraction. Subsequently, the systematic (Σ), random (σ), and total random (σ tot =√(σ 2 +σ resp 2 )) errors of the heart position were calculated. Based on the errors a PRV margin for the heart was calculated to ensure that the maximum heart dose (D max ) is not underestimated in at least 90% of the cases (M heart = 1.3Σ-0.5σ tot ). All analysis were performed in left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions with respect to both online and offline bony anatomy setup corrections. The PRV margin was validated by accumulating the dose to the heart based on the heart registrations and comparing the planned PRV D max to the accumulated heart D max . Results: For online setup correction, the cardiac geometrical uncertainties and PRV margins were ∑ = 2.2/3.2/2.1 mm, σ = 2.1/2.9/1.4 mm, and M heart = 1.6/2.3/1.3 mm for LR/CC/AP, respectively. For offline setup correction these were ∑ = 2.4/3.7/2.2 mm, σ = 2.9/4.1/2.7 mm, and M heart = 1.6/2.1/1.4 mm. Cardiac motion induced by breathing was σ resp = 1.4/2.9/1.4 mm for LR/CC/AP. The PRV D max underestimated the accumulated heart D max for 9.1% patients using online and 13.6% patients using offline bony anatomy setup correction, which validated

  5. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS......: Consecutive patients with LNVIE, enrolled between January 2000 and September 2006, in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis were identified. Subjects without S aureus IE were matched to those with S aureus IE by the propensity of having S aureus. Survival differences were determined using log...

  6. Conservative management of a 31 year old male with left sided low back and leg pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Emily R

    2012-09-01

    This case study reported the conservative management of a patient presenting with left sided low back and leg pain diagnosed as a left sided L5-S1 disc prolapse/herniation. A 31-year-old male recreational worker presented with left sided low back and leg pain for the previous 3-4 months that was exacerbated by prolonged sitting. The plan of management included interferential current, soft tissue trigger point and myofascial therapy, lateral recumbent manual low velocity, low amplitude traction mobilizations and pelvic blocking as necessary. Home care included heat, icing, neural mobilizations, repeated extension exercises, stretching, core muscle strengthening, as well as the avoidance of prolonged sitting and using a low back support in his work chair. The patient responded well after the first visit and his leg and back pain were almost completely resolved by the third visit. Conservative chiropractic care appears to reduce pain and improve mobility in this case of a L5-S1 disc herniation. Active rehabilitative treatment strategies are recommended before surgical referral.

  7. Video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis: a right-sided or left-sided approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Hany Hasan; Gamal, Mahmoud; Raslan, Saleh; Abdel Hamid, Hossam

    2017-10-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was in [patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG)] is a [left-sided approach] superior to a [right-sided approach] in terms of [clinical outcome]? Two hundred and fifty-nine papers were found using the reported search. In looking at both procedures, we selected studies with a sizeable number of patients performing or studying both procedures and comparing their outcome. Hence, only 4 studies represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country, study type, patient group, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Two studies compared their clinical experience with a right-sided versus a left-sided video assisted thoracoscopic surgery thymectomy approach, while 1 study compared using a bilateral versus a unilateral right-sided approach in patients with non-thymomatous MG. The number of patients studied included 31, 107 and 103 patients, respectively. All 3 studies demonstrated no difference regarding surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative complications and therapeutic effects (the last study compared the 5-year complete stable remission rate). All 3 studies concluded that both approaches are feasible, effective and comparable in operative and long-term results for the treatment of non-thymomatous MG. One anatomical study compared both approaches in 10 cadavers, 5 in each group. They studied the size of the specimen resected and visualization of different anatomic sites via each approach. Visualization was superior using the left-sided approach, while a right-sided approach resulted in slightly higher chances of an incomplete resection. The study concluded that a left-sided approach achieves a better chance of radical thoracoscopic thymectomy due to anatomic considerations. In conclusion, despite 1

  8. The deep inspiration breath hold technique using Abches reduces cardiac dose in patients undergoing left-sided breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ha Yoon; Chang, Jee Suk; Lee, Ik Jae; Park, Kwang Woo; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Jun Won; Keum, Ki Chang

    2013-01-01

    We explored whether the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique using Abches during left-sided breast irradiation was effective for minimizing the amount of radiation to the heart and lung compared to free breathing (FB). Between February and July 2012, a total of 25 patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent two computed tomography scans each with the DIBH using Abches and using FB after breast-conserving surgery. The scans were retrospectively replanned using standardized criteria for the purpose of this study. The DIBH plans for each patient were compared with FB plans using dosimetric parameters. All patients were successfully treated with the DIBH technique using Abches. Significant differences were found between the DIBH and FB plans for mean heart dose (2.52 vs. 4.53 Gy), heart V30 (16.48 vs. 45.13 cm 3 ), V20 (21.35 vs. 54.55 cm 3 ), mean left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) dose (16.01 vs. 26.26 Gy, all p 3 of the LAD (41.65 vs. 47.27 Gy, p = 0.017). The mean left lung dose (7.53 vs. 8.03 Gy, p = 0.073) and lung V20 (14.63% vs. 15.72%, p 0.060) of DIBH using Abches were not different significantly compared with FB. We report that the use of a DIBH technique using Abches in breathing adapted radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer is easily feasible in daily practice and significantly reduces the radiation doses to the heart and LAD, therefore potentially reducing cardiac risk.

  9. Long-term mortality from cardiac causes after adjuvant hypofractionated vs. conventional radiotherapy for localized left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Elisa K.; Woods, Ryan; Virani, Sean; Speers, Caroline; Wai, Elaine S.; Nichol, Alan; McBride, Mary L.; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Ongoing concern remains regarding cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole breast/chest-wall radiotherapy (HF-WBI) compared to conventional radiotherapy (CF-WBI) in left-sided breast cancer patients. The purpose was to determine if cardiac mortality increases with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Materials and methods: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women with early-stage breast cancer received post-operative radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor and treatment factors. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were identified from hospital administrative records. A propensity-score model balanced risk factors between radiotherapy groups. Cause of death was coded as breast cancer, cardiac or other cause. Cumulative mortality from each cause after radiotherapy was estimated using a competing risk approach. Results: For left-sided cases, median follow-up was 14.2 years. 485 women received CF-WBI, 2221 women received HF-WBI. There was no difference in 15-year mortality from cardiac causes: 4.8% with HF-WBI and 4.2% with CF-WBI (p = 0.74), even after propensity-score adjustment (p = 0.45). There was no difference in breast cancer mortality or other cause mortality. For right-sided cases, there was no difference in mortality for the three causes of death. Conclusions: At 15-years follow-up, cardiac mortality is not statistically different among left-sided breast cancer patients treated with HF-WBI or CF-WBI

  10. Contralateral breast doses depending on treatment set-up positions for left-sided breast tangential irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Chan Seong; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Chung, Yoon Sun; Park, Won

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate Contralateral Breast Doses with Supine and Prone Positions for tangential Irradiation techniques for left-sided breast Cancer We performed measurements for contralateral doses using Human Phantom at each other three plans (conventional technique, Field-in-Field, IMRT, with prescription of 50 Gy/25fx). For the measurement of contralateral doses we used Glass dosimeters on the 4 points of Human Phantom surface (0 mm, 10 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm). For the position check at every measurements, we had taken portal images using EPID and denoted the incident points on the human phantom for checking the constancy of incident points. The contralateral doses in supine position showed a little higher doses than those in prone position. In the planning study, contralateral doses in the prone position increased mean doses of 1.2% to 1.8% at each positions while those in the supine positions showed mean dose decreases of 0.8% to 0.9%. The measurements using glass dosimeters resulted in dose increases (mean: 2.7%, maximum: 4% of the prescribed dose) in the prone position. In addition, the delivery techniques of Field-in-field and IMRT showed mean doses of 3% higher than conventional technique. We evaluated contralateral breast doses depending on different positions of supine and prone for tangential irradiations. For the phantom simulation of set-up variation effects on contralateral dose evaluation, although we used humanoid phantom for planning and measurements comparisons, it would be more or less worse set-up constancy in a real patient. Therefore, more careful selection of determination of patient set-up for the breast tangential irradiation, especially in the left-sided breast, should be considered for unwanted dose increases to left lung and heart. In conclusion, intensive patient monitoring and improved patient set-up verification efforts should be necessary for the application of prone position for tangential irradiation of left-sided breast cancer

  11. Presurgical language fMRI activation correlates with postsurgical verbal memory decline in left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Mertens, Markus; Aengenendt, Joerg; Ebner, Alois; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2010-12-01

    We analysed the association of presurgical language fMRI activations and postsurgical verbal memory changes in 16 left-sided mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with initially intact memory. Patients with severe verbal memory decline after surgery (n = 9) had stronger presurgical fMRI activations within the left posterior temporal lobe, compared to those with no decline (n = 7). Language fMRI activation may predict verbal memory outcome, even in patients with a high risk of postsurgical memory deterioration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: an unusual case of left-sided location with extension into the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foscolo, Sylvain; Mandry, Damien; Galloy, Marie-Agnes; Claudon, Michel; Champigneulles, Jacqueline; Miscault, Godefroy de

    2007-01-01

    Segmental omental infarction (OI) is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children. It generally occurs in the right lower and upper quadrants of the abdomen and only a few cases of other locations have been described in adults. We report a unique paediatric case of OI with an unusual left-sided location extending into the pelvis in a 6-year-old non-obese girl. The diagnosis was suspected on US and CT based on imaging patterns previously described in adults and children. Laparoscopic resection should be balanced with nonsurgical management. (orig.)

  13. Imaging analysis of heart movement for improving the respiration-gated radiotherapy in patients with left sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhamid, Rania; Farrag, A.; Khalifa, A. [Clinical Oncology Department, Assiut University (Egypt); Block, Andreas [Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenschutz, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Respiration induced heart movement during radiotherapy exposes the heart to the inevitable risks of radio-exposure, and hence radiation injury, in cases of Lt. sided breast cancer. The impact of such a risk is additionally aggravated by the use of radiotherapy in combination with cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Radio-oncologists pay special attention to the coronary arteries that might be included in this small part of the heart exposed to radiation. The aim of this study was to include the internal heart movement for improving respiration-gated radiotherapy of left sided breast cancer. For 70 patients, all females left sided breast cancer, two planning CT's in inspiration and expiration, and one free breathing scan are performed. The heart motion was analyzed with the clinic-developed software ORAT in the simulator sequence for acquiring information of the cranio-caudal amplitude of heart movements in free breathing (respiration-induced amplitude) and a 15 seconds breath-hold phase (inherent amplitude). The role of inherent heart movement varies from one patient to another which should be taken in consideration during defining the parameters of respiration-gated radiotherapy. The inherent amplitude of the heart motion is the physiological lower limit of the respiration-gating window.

  14. Stomach position in prediction of survival in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia with or without fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, A-G; Jani, J C; Cannie, M M; Rodó, C; Fabietti, I; Persico, N; Saada, J; Carreras, E; Senat, M-V; Benachi, A

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the value of fetal stomach position in predicting postnatal outcome in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with and without fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO). This was a retrospective review of CDH cases that were expectantly managed or treated with FETO, assessed from May 2008 to October 2013, in which we graded, on a scale of 1-4, stomach position on the four-chamber view of the heart with respect to thoracic structures. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of management center (Paris, Brussels, Barcelona, Milan), stomach grading, observed-to-expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (O/E-LHR), gestational age at delivery, birth weight in expectantly managed CDH, gestational ages at FETO and at removal and period of tracheal occlusion, on postnatal survival in CDH cases treated with FETO. We identified 67 expectantly managed CDH cases and 47 CDH cases that were treated with FETO. In expectantly managed CDH, stomach position and O/E-LHR predicted postnatal survival independently. In CDH treated with FETO, stomach position and gestational age at delivery predicted postnatal survival independently. In left-sided CDH with or without FETO, stomach position is predictive of postnatal survival. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  16. Relation of Tricuspid Regurgitation to Liver Stiffness Measured by Transient Elastography in Patients With Left-Sided Cardiac Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Seto, Wai-Kay; Ho, Lai-Ming; Fung, James; Jim, Man-Hong; Yip, Gabriel; Fan, Katherine; Zhen, Zhe; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yuen, Man-Fung; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yiu, Kai-Hang

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity and liver stiffness (LS) in patients with TR. A total of 131 patients with various degrees of TR secondary to left-sided heart valve disease were enrolled. Severity of TR was quantitatively assessed by proximal isovelocity surface area-derived effective regurgitant orifice (ERO). Patients were divided into 2 groups: 48 with mild-moderate TR (ERO 2.15 cm(2)) provided a high specificity of 78% for significant LS. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that TR-ERO, right atrial pressure, and IVC diameter are important parameters associated with LS in patients with TR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolated persistent left-sided superior vena cava, giant coronary sinus, atrial tachycardia and heart failure in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Moorthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistence of a left-sided superior vena cava (PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava (isolated PLSVC is a very rare venous malformation and commonly associated with congenital heart disease or alterations of the cardiac situs. We describe an unusual case of a young boy presenting with persistent atrial tachycardia and congestive heart failure. He was detected to have unexplained grossly dilated right atrium, right ventricle with systolic dysfunction and a giant coronary sinus (CS. The dilated CS closely mimicked a pseudo cor-triatriatum on echocardiography. Contrast echocardiography from both arms revealed opacification of the CS before the right atrium. Bilateral upper limb venography confirmed the presence of absent right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC draining into the giant coronary sinus.

  18. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Hol, Sandra; Poortmans, Philip M.; Essers, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. Materials and methods: For 13 patients, four treatment combinations were compared; 3D-conformal RT (i.e., forward IMRT) in free-breathing 3D-CRT(FB), 3D-CRT(vmDIBH), 2 partial arcs VMAT(FB), and VMAT(vmDIBH). Prescribed dose was 42.56 Gy in 16 fractions. For 10 additional patients, 3D-CRT and VMAT in vmDIBH only were also compared. Results: Dose conformity, PTV coverage, ipsilateral and total lung doses were significantly better for VMAT plans compared to 3D-CRT. Mean heart dose (D mean,heart ) reduction in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) was between 0.9 and 8.6 Gy, depending on initial D mean,heart (in 3D-CRT(FB) plans). VMAT(vmDIBH) reduced the D mean,heart further when D mean,heart was still >3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH). Mean contralateral breast dose was higher for VMAT plans (2.7 Gy) compared to 3DCRT plans (0.7 Gy). Conclusions: VMAT and 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) significantly reduced heart dose for patients treated with locoregional RT of left-sided breast cancer. When D mean,heart exceeded 3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) plans, VMAT(vmDIBH) resulted in a cumulative heart dose reduction. VMAT also provided better target coverage and reduced ipsilateral lung dose, at the expense of a small increase in the dose to the contralateral breast

  20. Myocardial perfusion changes in patients irradiated for left-sided breast cancer and correlation with coronary artery distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Pehr A.; Pagnanelli, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B.; Borges-Neto, Salvador; Hu, Caroline; Zhou, S.-M.; Light, Kim; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate postradiation regional heart perfusion changes with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging in 69 patients treated with tangential photon beams radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer. To correlate SPECT changes with percent irradiated left ventricle (LV) volume and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Materials: Rest SPECT of the LV was acquired pre-RT and at 6-month intervals post-RT. The extent of defects (%) with a severity > 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was quantitatively analyzed for the distributions of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left circumflex (LCX) artery, and right coronary artery (RCA) based on computer assisted polar map reconstruction (i.e., bull's-eye-view). Changes in perfusion were correlated with percent irradiated LV receiving > 25 Gy (range 0-32%). Data on patient- and treatment-related factors were collected prospectively (e.g., cardiac premorbidity, risk factors for CAD, chemotherapy, and hormonal treatment). Results: In the LAD distribution, there were increased perfusion defects at 6 months (median 11%; interquartile range 2-23) compared with baseline (median 5%; interquartile range 1-14) (p<0.001). There were no increases in perfusion defects in the LCX or RCA distributions. In multivariate analysis, the SPECT perfusion changes in the LAD distribution at 6 months were independently associated with percent irradiated LV (p<0.001), hormonal therapy (p=0.005), and pre-RT hypercholesterolemia (p=0.006). The SPECT defects in the LAD distribution at 12 and 18 months were not statistically different from those at 6 months. The perfusion defects in the LAD distribution were limited essentially to the regions of irradiated myocardium. Conclusion: Tangential photon beam RT in patients with left-sided breast cancer was associated with short-term SPECT defects in the vascular distribution corresponding to the radiation portals. Factors

  1. Emergency surgery for obstructing colonic cancer: a comparison between right-sided and left-sided lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, J-L; Paquette, B; Trilling, B; Heyd, B; Koch, S; Mantion, G

    2018-02-01

    Few studies compare management and outcomes of obstructive colonic cancer, depending on the tumor site. We aim to evaluate the differences in patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of emergency surgery for obstructive right-sided versus left-sided colonic cancers. Between 2000 and 2009, 71 consecutive patients had an emergency colectomy following strict and clear definition of obstruction in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed pre, per, and postoperative data that were prospectively collected. There were 31 and 40 patients in the right and left group, respectively. Patients aged over 80 were more frequent in the right group (p = 0.03). At operation, ileocecal valve was less often competent in the right group (p = 0.03). The one-stage strategy was more frequent in the right group (p = 0.008). Patients in the right group had a higher rate of nodes invasion (p = 0.04). One- and two-year mortality rate in the right group had a tendency to be higher. Patients presenting with a right obstructive colonic cancer are older, have a more advanced locoregional disease, and are more often treated in a one-stage strategy than patients with a left obstructive tumor.

  2. Considerations in cardio-oncology: Multiple mobile left-sided cardiac thrombi in chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamishima, Toshinori; Matsushita, Kenichi; Morikubo, Hiromu; Isaka, Aoi; Matsushita, Noriko; Endo, Hidehito; Kubota, Hiroshi; Sakata, Konomi; Satoh, Toru; Yoshino, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    With advances in cancer chemotherapy, the importance of the new clinical discipline of cardio-oncology, which is concerned with the cardiac effects of chemotherapy, is increasing. Herein we describe the case of a 48-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer who presented with symptoms of heart failure due to chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Treatment for the patient's breast cancer had included surgery and chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab. Echocardiography revealed multiple mobile thrombi in the left ventricle and atrium. In addition, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed small acute cerebral infarctions due to embolization. Given the high risk of re-embolization, surgical thrombectomy was performed. Thus far, there are no standardized therapeutic guidelines for left-sided cardiac thrombi and the optimal treatment remains contentious. Although this patient was managed successfully with surgical thrombectomy, patients should be managed individually, taking into consideration embolization, bleeding, and surgical risks. With further improvements in cancer chemotherapy, there may be an increase in the incidence of complications such as multiple cardiac thrombi. From the cardio-oncology standpoint, we propose close interactions between cardiologists and oncologists for the optimal care of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute resection versus bridge to surgery with diverting colostomy for patients with acute malignant left sided colonic obstruction : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, Femke J.; Mulder, C.L.J.; Verheijen, P.M.; Draaisma, W. A.; Siersema, P.D.; Consten, E. C J

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, no consensus exists on the best treatment strategy for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes following the two surgical treatment options; primary resection versus colostomy creation as bridge to

  4. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  5. Surgery versus conservative management for recurrent and ongoing left-sided diverticulitis (DIRECT trial): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, Bryan J. M.; Stam, Marguerite A. W.; Draaisma, Werner A.; Stellato, R.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.; Belgers, Eric J.; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R.; Prins, Hubert A.; Consten, Esther C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with recurrent or persisting complaints after an episode of left-sided diverticulitis are managed with either conservative measures or elective sigmoidectomy. To date, there are no data from randomised trials. We aimed to establish which treatment leads to a better quality of life for

  6. Surgery versus conservative management for recurrent and ongoing left-sided diverticulitis (DIRECT trial) : an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, Bryan J M; Stam, Marguerite A W; Draaisma, Werner A.; Stellato, R.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Broeders, Ivo A M J; Belgers, Eric J.; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R.; Prins, Hubert A.; Consten, Esther C J

    Background Patients with recurrent or persisting complaints after an episode of left-sided diverticulitis are managed with either conservative measures or elective sigmoidectomy. To date, there are no data from randomised trials. We aimed to establish which treatment leads to a better quality of

  7. Robot-Assisted Colectomy for Left-Sided Colon Cancer: Comparison of Reduced-Port and Conventional Multi-Port Robotic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Uk; Jeong, Woon Kyung; Baek, Seong Kyu

    2017-04-01

    The robotic single-port access plus one conventional robotic port, a reduced-port robotic surgery (RPRS) for left-sided colon cancer, can enable lymphovascular dissection using the wristed instrumentation and safe rectal transection through an additional port maintaining the cosmetic advantage of the single-port surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the clinicopathological outcomes between reduced-port and conventional multi-port robotic colectomy for left-sided colon cancer. The study group included 23 patients who underwent an RPRS and 16 patients who underwent a multi-PRS (MPRS) for left-sided colon cancer between August 2013 and January 2016. The operative time was significantly shorter in the RPRS group than in the MPRS group (mean time 258 ± 67 vs. 319 ± 66 minutes, P = .009). There were no apparent differences in tolerance of diet, postoperative pain score, length of hospital stay, the rate of postoperative complications, and the mean number of harvested lymph node, but the RPRS group had a significantly smaller total incision length (38 ± 12 mm vs. 83 ± 6 mm, P = .013). This study shows the feasibility and safety of the RPRS, with clinicopathological outcomes that is comparable with that of the MPRS for left-sided colon cancer.

  8. Tricuspid annuloplasty versus a conservative approach in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation undergoing left-sided heart valve surgery: A study-level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnesi, Matteo; Montalto, Claudio; Mangieri, Antonio; Agricola, Eustachio; Puri, Rishi; Chiarito, Mauro; Ancona, Marco B; Regazzoli, Damiano; Testa, Luca; De Bonis, Michele; Moat, Neil E; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Colombo, Antonio; Latib, Azeem

    2017-08-01

    Tricuspid valve (TV) repair at the time of left-sided valve surgery is indicated in patients with either severe functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or mild-to-moderate TR with coexistent tricuspid annular dilation or right heart failure. We assessed the benefits of a concomitant TV repair strategy during left-sided surgical valve interventions, focusing on mortality and echocardiographic TR-related outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed of studies reporting outcomes of patients who underwent left-sided (mitral and/or aortic) valve surgery with or without concomitant TV repair. Primary endpoints were all-cause and cardiac-related mortality; secondary endpoints were the presence of more-than-moderate TR, TR progression, and TR severity grade. All endpoints were evaluated at the longest available follow-up. Fifteen studies were included for a total of 2840 patients. TV repair at the time of left-sided valve surgery was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiac-related mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.58; pvalve surgery is associated with a reduction in cardiac-related mortality and improved echocardiographic TR outcomes at follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of life differences in patients with right- versus left-sided facial paralysis: Universal preference of right-sided human face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nam Gyu; Lim, Byung Woo; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether experiencing right- or left-sided facial paralysis would affect an individual's ability to recognize one side of the human face using hybrid hemi-facial photos by preliminary study. Further investigation looked at the relationship between facial recognition ability, stress, and quality of life. To investigate predominance of one side of the human face for face recognition, 100 normal participants (right-handed: n = 97, left-handed: n = 3, right brain dominance: n = 56, left brain dominance: n = 44) answered a questionnaire that included hybrid hemi-facial photos developed to determine decide superiority of one side for human face recognition. To determine differences of stress level and quality of life between individuals experiencing right- and left-sided facial paralysis, 100 patients (right side:50, left side:50, not including traumatic facial nerve paralysis) answered a questionnaire about facial disability index test and quality of life (SF-36 Korean version). Regardless of handedness or hemispheric dominance, the proportion of predominance of the right side in human face recognition was larger than the left side (71% versus 12%, neutral: 17%). Facial distress index of the patients with right-sided facial paralysis was lower than that of left-sided patients (68.8 ± 9.42 versus 76.4 ± 8.28), and the SF-36 scores of right-sided patients were lower than left-sided patients (119.07 ± 15.24 versus 123.25 ± 16.48, total score: 166). Universal preference for the right side in human face recognition showed worse psychological mood and social interaction in patients with right-side facial paralysis than left-sided paralysis. This information is helpful to clinicians in that psychological and social factors should be considered when treating patients with facial-paralysis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole exome sequencing in 342 congenital cardiac left sided lesion cases reveals extensive genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alexander H; Hanchard, Neil A; Furthner, Dieter; Fernbach, Susan; Azamian, Mahshid; Nicosia, Annarita; Rosenfeld, Jill; Muzny, Donna; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Morris, Shaine; Jhangiani, Shalini; Parekh, Dhaval R; Franklin, Wayne J; Lewin, Mark; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Penny, Daniel J; Fraser, Charles D; Martin, James F; Eng, Christine; Lupski, James R; Gibbs, Richard A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Belmont, John W

    2017-10-31

    Left-sided lesions (LSLs) account for an important fraction of severe congenital cardiovascular malformations (CVMs). The genetic contributions to LSLs are complex, and the mutations that cause these malformations span several diverse biological signaling pathways: TGFB, NOTCH, SHH, and more. Here, we use whole exome sequence data generated in 342 LSL cases to identify likely damaging variants in putative candidate CVM genes. Using a series of bioinformatics filters, we focused on genes harboring population-rare, putative loss-of-function (LOF), and predicted damaging variants in 1760 CVM candidate genes constructed a priori from the literature and model organism databases. Gene variants that were not observed in a comparably sequenced control dataset of 5492 samples without severe CVM were then subjected to targeted validation in cases and parents. Whole exome sequencing data from 4593 individuals referred for clinical sequencing were used to bolster evidence for the role of candidate genes in CVMs and LSLs. Our analyses revealed 28 candidate variants in 27 genes, including 17 genes not previously associated with a human CVM disorder, and revealed diverse patterns of inheritance among LOF carriers, including 9 confirmed de novo variants in both novel and newly described human CVM candidate genes (ACVR1, JARID2, NR2F2, PLRG1, SMURF1) as well as established syndromic CVM genes (KMT2D, NF1, TBX20, ZEB2). We also identified two genes (DNAH5, OFD1) with evidence of recessive and hemizygous inheritance patterns, respectively. Within our clinical cohort, we also observed heterozygous LOF variants in JARID2 and SMAD1 in individuals with cardiac phenotypes, and collectively, carriers of LOF variants in our candidate genes had a four times higher odds of having CVM (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval 2.5-6.5). Our analytical strategy highlights the utility of bioinformatic resources, including human disease records and model organism phenotyping, in novel gene

  11. Whole exome sequencing in 342 congenital cardiac left sided lesion cases reveals extensive genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left-sided lesions (LSLs account for an important fraction of severe congenital cardiovascular malformations (CVMs. The genetic contributions to LSLs are complex, and the mutations that cause these malformations span several diverse biological signaling pathways: TGFB, NOTCH, SHH, and more. Here, we use whole exome sequence data generated in 342 LSL cases to identify likely damaging variants in putative candidate CVM genes. Methods Using a series of bioinformatics filters, we focused on genes harboring population-rare, putative loss-of-function (LOF, and predicted damaging variants in 1760 CVM candidate genes constructed a priori from the literature and model organism databases. Gene variants that were not observed in a comparably sequenced control dataset of 5492 samples without severe CVM were then subjected to targeted validation in cases and parents. Whole exome sequencing data from 4593 individuals referred for clinical sequencing were used to bolster evidence for the role of candidate genes in CVMs and LSLs. Results Our analyses revealed 28 candidate variants in 27 genes, including 17 genes not previously associated with a human CVM disorder, and revealed diverse patterns of inheritance among LOF carriers, including 9 confirmed de novo variants in both novel and newly described human CVM candidate genes (ACVR1, JARID2, NR2F2, PLRG1, SMURF1 as well as established syndromic CVM genes (KMT2D, NF1, TBX20, ZEB2. We also identified two genes (DNAH5, OFD1 with evidence of recessive and hemizygous inheritance patterns, respectively. Within our clinical cohort, we also observed heterozygous LOF variants in JARID2 and SMAD1 in individuals with cardiac phenotypes, and collectively, carriers of LOF variants in our candidate genes had a four times higher odds of having CVM (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval 2.5–6.5. Conclusions Our analytical strategy highlights the utility of bioinformatic resources, including human

  12. Reduction of cardiac and coronary artery doses in irradiation of left-sided breast cancer during inspiration breath hold : A planning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönecker, S; Heinz, C; Söhn, M; Haimerl, W; Corradini, S; Pazos, M; Belka, C; Scheithauer, H

    2016-11-01

    The radiation dose received by the heart during adjuvant left-sided breast irradiation plays a crucial role in development of late toxicity. Although the absolute risk of cardiotoxicity can be reduced with modern irradiation techniques, cardiotoxic chemotherapy increases the risk of late damage. Thus, the radiation dose to the heart should be minimized. This study evaluated the influence of different amplitudes of inspiration breath hold (IBH) during simulated left-sided breast irradiation on cardiac doses compared to free breathing (FB). CT data of 11 lung cancer patients were retrospectively used as left-sided pseudo-breast cancer cases. Two CT scans were used, one during IBH and one during FB, and two treatment plans were generated. Relevant heart, lung, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) parameters were derived from dose-volume histograms. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for the heart were calculated based on the relative seriality model. Inspiration depth was quantified using chest volume and diameter, and correlated thereafter to a possible sparing of heart tissue. Mean reduction of heart dose for IBH compared to FB was 40 % (1.65 vs. 0.99 Gy; p = 0.007). Maximum dose to the heart and LAD could be decreased by 33 % (p = 0.011) and 43 % (p = 0.024), respectively. The mean anteroposterior shift was 5 mm (range 0.9-9.5 mm). Significant negative correlations between the relative change in LAD mean dose and the mean thoracic diameter and volume change, as well as with the absolute change in thoracic diameter were seen. The NTCP for cardiac mortality could be decreased by about 78 % (p = 0.017). For left-sided breast cancer patients, cardiac doses can be significantly decreased with tangential irradiation and IBH.

  13. Tricuspid Annuloplasty for Tricuspid Regurgitation Secondary to Left-Sided Heart Valve Disease: Immediate Outcomes and Risk Factors for Late Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Giuseppe; Dell'Angela, Luca; Morosin, Marco; Maschietto, Luca; Pinamonti, Bruno; Forti, Gabriella; Benussi, Bernardo; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pappalardo, Aniello

    2016-06-01

    Tricuspid valve annuloplasty is the treatment of choice for tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to left-sided heart valve disease (functional TR). Between 1999 and 2014, 527 consecutive patients (mean age, 69.6 ± 9.5 years) with grade ≥ 1+ functional TR (graded from 0-3+) underwent tricuspid annuloplasty in addition to left-sided heart valve operations at the authors' institution. The operative risk (by the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II [EuroSCORE II]) was 10.4% ± 12.2%. Clinical data and echocardiographic studies were reviewed retrospectively during a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 3.5 years. Risk factors for late repair failure were identified by multivariable analysis. Either suture (De Vega) or device annuloplasty was used in 14.8% and 85.2% of patients, respectively. Concomitant mitral or aortic valve surgery was performed in 92.6% and 35.9% of cases, respectively. There were 48 (9.1%) hospital deaths. The 10-year nonparametric estimates of freedom from all-cause death, cardiac and cerebrovascular deaths, and grade ≥ 2+ TR were 51.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.8%-54.6%) 69.9% (95% CI, 67%-72.8%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 74.2%-81.4%), respectively. A left ventricular ejection fraction tricuspid annular diameter > 40 mm (P = 0.001), and use of De Vega annuloplasty (P = 0.019) were predictors of grade ≥ 2+ TR during the follow-up period. There was a strong link between grade ≥ 2+ TR and new left-sided valvular lesions (odds ratio, 5.3; P tricuspid annular dilatation, functional TR is generally controlled within grade 1+ during the follow-up period. Recurrent TR is associated with new left-sided valvular lesions. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative irradiation of left-sided breast cancer patients and cardiac toxicity. Does deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique protect the heart?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzl, H.; Zurl, B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the impact of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique during postoperative left-sided tangential breast irradiation on minimizing irradiated heart amount compared to normal breathing. Patients and methods: in 22 patients with left-sided breast cancer, postoperative CT scanning was performed in different respiratory phases using the Varian Real-time Position Management System trademark for monitoring of respiratory chest wall motion. Each patient underwent two CT scans: during normal breathing and DIBH. For each scan, an optimized plan was designed with tangential photon fields encompassing the clinical target volume after breast-conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy. The resulting dose-volume histograms were compared between both breathing techniques for irradiated volume and dose to the heart. Results: the mean patient age was 51 years (range: 34-77 years). The DIBH-gated technique was well accepted by all patients. The significant reduction in dose to the irradiated heart volume for the DIBH technique compared to the normal breathing was 56% (mean heart dose: 2.3 Gy vs. 1.3 Gy; p = 0.01). Conclusion: this study demonstrates that irradiated cardiac volumes can significantly be reduced in left-sided breast cancer patients using DIBH technique for postoperative tangential radiotherapy. Moreover, the technique is safe and feasible in daily routine. (orig.)

  15. [Comparison of clinicopathological features and prognosis between left-sided colon cancer and right-sided colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianhua; Yu, Guanyu; Liu, Peng; Hao, Liqiang; Liu, Lianjie; Zhang, Wei

    2017-06-25

    To compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis between left-sided colon cancer (LC) and right-sided colon cancer (RC). Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 2 174 colon carcinoma cases undergoing resection at Shanghai Changhai Hospital of The Second Military Medical University from January 2000 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with transverse colon cancer, overlapping position, unknown location, recurrent cancer, multiple primary cancer, concomitant malignant tumors, preoperative chemotherapy, local resection, incomplete clinical data and missed follow up were excluded. Finally, a total of 1 036 patients, whose primary tumors were radically removed, were enrolled, with 563 patients in LC group (including carcinoma in cecum, ascending colon and hepatic flexure) and 473 in RC group (including carcinoma in splenic flexure, descending colon and sigmoid colon). The clinicopathological features and survival, including median overall survival, 5-year overall survival rate, tumor specific median overall survival, cancer specific 5-year overall survival rate, were compared between LC and RC groups. Tumor specific overall survival was defined as the period between operation date to the date of death caused by cancer progression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of survival. Propensity score matching was carried out to balance the clinicopathological factors between the two groups with the SAS 9.3, taking the following parameters into consideration (age, gender, gross appearance, tumor diameter, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM stages, differentiation, CEA and CA199-9). Patients in RC group and LC group were matched according to the propensity scores and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of two groups were compared again. No significant differences were identified between the two groups in age, distant metastasis and serum CEA level

  16. Long-term outcomes after resection of para-aortic lymph node metastasis from left-sided colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi; Numata, Masakatsu; Furutani, Akinobu

    2017-07-01

    Para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and often not suitable for surgery. However, in selected patients, radical resection may bring about longer survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of resection of left-sided colon or rectal cancer with simultaneous PALN metastasis. The study included 2122 patients with left-sided colon or rectal cancer (30 patients with and 2092 patients without PALN metastasis) who underwent resection with curative intent between 2002 and 2013. Clinicopathological characteristics, long-term outcomes of resection, and factors related to poor postoperative survival in patients with PALN metastasis were investigated. Of a total of 2122 total patients, 16 of 50 patients (32.0%) with lymph node metastasis at the root of the inferior mesenteric artery had PALN metastasis. The 5-year overall survival rates for 18 patients who underwent R0 resection and 12 patients who did not were 29.1 and 10.4%, respectively (p = 0.017). Factors associated with poor postoperative survival among patients who underwent R0 resection were presence of conversion therapy, lack of adjuvant chemotherapy, carcinoembryonic antigen >20 ng/mL, and lateral lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 14.8%. Although recurrence was frequent, R0 resection for left-sided colon or rectal cancer with PALN metastasis was associated with longer survival than R1/R2 resection. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival rate in the R0 group was relatively favorable for stage IV. Therefore, R0 resection may prolong survival compared with chemotherapy alone in selected patients.

  17. The impact of active breathing control on internal mammary lymph node coverage and normal tissue exposure in breast cancer patients planned for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Aisling; Rock, Kathy; Sole, Claudio; Rahman, Mohammad; Pintilie, Melania; Lee, Grace; Fyles, Anthony; Koch, C Anne

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the active breathing control (ABC) technique on IMN coverage and organs at risk in patients planned for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), with the inclusion of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs). The effect of body mass index (BMI) on recorded dosimetric parameters was examined in the same patient cohort. Fifty left-sided postmastectomy patients with breast cancer who underwent free-breathing (FB) and ABC-Elekta CT simulation scans were selected at random from an institutional breast cancer database between 2008 and 2014. The ABC plans were directly compared with FB plans from the same patient. The IMN planning target volume coverage met dosimetric criteria for coverage of receiving more than 90% of the prescribed dose (V90) >90%, although it decreased with ABC compared with FB (94.5% vs 98%, P < .001). Overall, ABC significantly reduced doses to all measured heart and left anterior descending coronary artery parameters, ipsilateral lung V20, and mean lung dose compared with FB (P < .001). There was no difference seen between the ABC and FB plans with respect to the dose to contralateral lung or contralateral breast. There was no correlation identified between BMI and any of the dosimetric parameters recorded from the ABC and FB plans. Our results suggest that ABC reduces IMN coverage in left-sided breast cancer patients planned for PMRT; however, dosimetric criteria for IMN coverage were still met, suggesting that this is not likely to be clinically significant. ABC led to significant sparing of organs at risk compared with FB conditions and was not affected by BMI. Collectively, the results support the use of ABC for breast cancer patients undergoing left-sided PMRT requiring regional nodal irradiation that includes the IMNs. Further prospective clinical studies are required to determine the impact of these results on late normal tissue effects. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. A case of left-sided unilateral spatial neglect owing to the cerebral infarction in the distribution of the right posterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagaki, Yuji; Oka, Iori; Kon, Yutaka; Asano, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    We report a case of left-sided unilateral spatial neglect (USN) induced by the cerebral infarction in the distribution of right posterior cerebral artery (PCA). A 69-year-old, right-handed man, who had had a sudden onset of left hemiparesis in August 1983, was admitted to our hospital on January 16, 1984, because of nocturnal delirium. He became alert a few days after admission, but was euphoric and sometimes irritable. Neurologic examination disclosed left homonymous hemianopsia, dysarthria, left central facial weakness, spastic left hemiparesis, hyperactive reflexes on the left with no Babinski sign, left hemisensory loss, and left thalamic pain. On neuropsychologic examination it was revealed that he had a tendency to neglect the left half of his extrapersonal space. When asked to locate cities on a blank map of Japan, he located most of them not only on the right side of the map but also incorrectly. He also had a severe acalculia. There was gradual improvement in these neuropsychologic symptoms. CT demonstrated an area of decreased density in the territory of the right PCA, posterolateral portion of the right thalamus, and the posterior limb of right internal capsule, sparing parietal and temporal lobes. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the Xenon-133 inhalation method showed, however, diminished regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT, including the right parieto-temporo-occipital junctional area, which has been considerd to be responsible for left-sided USN. The authors ascribed the patient's left-sided USN to the lesion of this area that was revealed not morphologically by CT but functionally by SPECT, although the possibility that the lesions of the medial portion of the right occipital lobe and/or subcortical lesions of such areas as the thalamus and the internal capsule more or less influenced the neuropsychologic symptoms could not be excluded. (author)

  19. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments

  20. Colonic stenting as bridge to surgery versus emergency surgery for management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicenter randomized trial (Stent-in 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Pieter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute left-sided colonic obstruction is most often caused by malignancy and the surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Moreover, these operated patients end up with a temporary or permanent stoma. Initial insertion of an enteral stent to decompress the obstructed colon, allowing for surgery to be performed electively, is gaining popularity. In uncontrolled studies stent placement before elective surgery has been suggested to decrease mortality, morbidity and number of colostomies. However stent perforation can lead to peritoneal tumor spill, changing a potentially curable disease in an incurable one. Therefore it is of paramount importance to compare the outcomes of colonic stenting followed by elective surgery with emergency surgery for the management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction in a randomized multicenter fashion. Methods/design Patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction eligible for this study will be randomized to either emergency surgery (current standard treatment or colonic stenting as bridge to elective surgery. Outcome measurements are effectiveness and costs of both strategies. Effectiveness will be evaluated in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Quality of life will be measured with standardized questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-CR38, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. Morbidity is defined as every event leading to hospital admission or prolonging hospital stay. Mortality will be analyzed as total mortality as well as procedure-related mortality. The total costs of treatment will be evaluated by counting volumes and calculating unit prices. Including 120 patients on a 1:1 basis will have 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 global health scale, using a two group t-test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level. Differences in quality of life and morbidity will be analyzed using mixed-models repeated measures

  1. CARDIAC COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATION IS A RISK FACTOR FOR HIGH-DOSE IRRADIATION TO THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERY IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT-SIDED BREAST CANCER WHO RECEIVING ADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    TANAKA, HIDEKAZU; HAYASHI, SHINYA; HOSHI, HIROAKI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients irradiated for left-sided breast cancer have higher incidence of cardiovascular disease than those receiving irradiation for right-sided breast cancer. Most abnormalities were in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery territory. We analyzed the relationships between preoperative examination results and irradiation dose to the LAD artery in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Seventy-one patients receiving breast radiotherapy were analyzed. The heart may rotat...

  2. Feasibility study of deep inspiration breath-hold based volumetric modulated arc therapy for locally advanced left sided breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Shanmugam Thirumalai; Radha, Chandrasekaran Anu; Kathirvel, Murugesan; Arun, Gandhi; Subramanian, Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for locally advanced left sided breast cancer patients undergoing radical mastectomy. DIBH immobilizes the tumor bed providing dosimetric benefits over free breathing (FB). Ten left sided post mastectomy patients were immobilized in a supine position with both the arms lifted above the head on a hemi-body vaclock. Two thermoplastic masks were prepared for each patient, one for normal free breathing and a second made with breath-hold to maintain reproducibility. DIBH CT scans were performed in the prospective mode of the Varian real time position management (RPM) system. The planning target volume (PTV) included the left chest wall and supraclavicular nodes and PTV prescription dose was 5000cGy in 25 fractions. DIBH-3DCRT planning was performed with the single iso-centre technique using a 6MV photon beam and the field-in-field technique. VMAT plans for FB and DIBH contained two partial arcs (179o-300oCCW/CW). Dose volume histograms of PTV and OAR's were analyzed for DIBH-VMAT, FB-VMAT and DIBH-3DCRT. In DIBH mode daily orthogonal (0o and 90o) KV images were taken to determine the setup variability and weekly twice CBCT to verify gating threshold level reproducibility. DIBH-VMAT reduced the lung and heart dose compared to FB-VMAT, while maintaining similar PTV coverage. The mean heart V30Gy was 2.3% ±2.7, 5.1% ±3.2 and 3.3% ±7.2 and for left lung V20Gy was 18.57% ±2.9, 21.7% ±3.9 and 23.5% ±5.1 for DIBH-VMAT, FB-VMAT and DIBH-3DCRT respectively. DIBH-VMAT significantly reduced the heart and lung dose for left side chest wall patients compared to FB-VMAT. PTV conformity index, homogeneity index, ipsilateral lung dose and heart dose were better for DIBH-VMAT compared to DIBH-3DCRT. However, contralateral lung and breast volumes exposed to low doses were increased with DIBH-VMAT.

  3. Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenyong; Liu Dong; Xue Chenbin; Xu Jiaozhen; Li Beihui; Chen Zhengwang; Hu Desheng; Wang Xionghong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose–volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3–21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9–29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3–24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose–volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast

  4. Three-dimensional assessment of umbilical vein deviation angle for prediction of liver herniation in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, N; Mazzone, E; Muto, B; Suprani, A; Fanelli, T; Kaihura, C T; Dall'Asta, A; Pedrazzi, G; Del Rossi, C; Silini, E M; Magnani, C; Volpe, P; Ghi, T; Frusca, T

    2018-02-01

    To introduce a new sonographic marker of intrathoracic liver herniation in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In a consecutive series of fetuses with isolated CDH, an ultrasound volume of the fetal abdomen was acquired. On this volume, offline calculation of the angle formed by the midline of the abdomen (joining the center of the vertebral body to the abdominal insertion of the umbilical cord) and a second line joining the center of the vertebral body to the intra-abdominal convexity of the umbilical vein was carried out to give the umbilical vein deviation angle (UVDA). The UVDA was measured in a group of normal fetuses selected as controls. At follow-up, the presence of liver herniation was investigated in all cases of CDH. UVDA values were compared between the CDH group and controls, and between CDH 'liver-up' vs 'liver-down' cases. A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed to identify a cut-off value of the UVDA with the highest accuracy in predicting liver herniation in the CDH group. Between 2009 and 2015, 22 cases of left-sided CDH were included in the study group, of which nine cases had liver herniation. Eighty-eight normal fetuses were recruited as controls. The UVDA was significantly higher in the cases vs controls (15.25 ± 7.91° vs 7.68 ± 1.55°; P CDH fetuses with liver-up vs liver-down (21.77 ± 8.79° vs 10.75 ± 2.10°; P CDH, umbilical vein bowing may be quantified by measuring the UVDA using three-dimensional ultrasound. This sonographic marker seems to be an accurate predictor of liver herniation in left-sided CDH. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Placement of the Left Side AED Pad is Poor: Training on the Left Compared to the Right Side of a Manikin Does Not Improve Pad Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Bødtker, Henrik; Rahbek, Søren

    2015-01-01

    participating in a first aid course were randomized to learn automated external defibrillation sitting on the left or right side of a manikin during AED training. After course completion participants operated a training AED (Lifepak® CR-T AED Trainer, PhysioControl) and placed AED pads according to instructions...... to reach the left mid-axillary line. In addition, the left arm of the victim may hamper access to the left lateral side of the thorax.Hypothesis: Training automated external defibrillation sitting on the left side of a manikin improves AED pad placement compared to sitting to the right.Methods: Laypeople...... from the AED. Pads were placed on an anatomically realistic male resuscitation torso with arms (AMBU® Man, AMBU). Participants were instructed to sit on the same side of the manikin as trained. The distance from the center of AED pads to the recommended pad position was measured.Results: In total, 30...

  6. Cardiac dose reduction with deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy patients with and without regional nodal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Rosanna; Conroy, Leigh; Long, Karen; Walrath, Daphne; Li, Haocheng; Smith, Wendy; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien

    2015-09-22

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) reduces heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) dose during left-sided breast radiation therapy (RT); however there is limited information about which patients derive the most benefit from DIBH. The primary objective of this study was to determine which patients benefit the most from DIBH by comparing percent reduction in mean cardiac dose conferred by DIBH for patients treated with whole breast RT ± boost (WBRT) versus those receiving breast/chest wall plus regional nodal irradiation, including internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes (B/CWRT + RNI) using a modified wide tangent technique. A secondary objective was to determine if DIBH was required to meet a proposed heart dose constraint of Dmean irradiation.

  7. Acute pancreatitis associated left-sided portal hypertension with severe gastrointestinal bleeding treated by transcatheter splenic artery embolization: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yu; Li, Bin; Wu, Yu-lian; Xie, Qiu-ping

    2013-06-01

    Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH) followed by acute pancreatitis is a rare condition with most patients being asymptomatic. In cases where gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is present, however, the condition is more complicated and the mortality is very high because of the difficulty in diagnosing and selecting optimal treatment. A successfully treated case with severe GI bleeding by transcatheter splenic artery embolization is reported in this article. The patient exhibited severe uncontrollable GI bleeding and was confirmed as gastric varices secondary to LSPH by enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography. After embolization, the bleeding stopped and stabilized for the entire follow-up period without any severe complications. In conclusion, embolization of the splenic artery is a simple, safe, and effective method of controlling gastric variceal bleeding caused by LSPH in acute pancreatitis.

  8. Reduction of cardiac and coronary artery doses in irradiation of left-sided breast cancer during inspiration breath hold. A planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenecker, S.; Heinz, C.; Soehn, M.; Haimerl, W.; Corradini, S.; Pazos, M.; Belka, C.; Scheithauer, H. [University Hospital of Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The radiation dose received by the heart during adjuvant left-sided breast irradiation plays a crucial role in development of late toxicity. Although the absolute risk of cardiotoxicity can be reduced with modern irradiation techniques, cardiotoxic chemotherapy increases the risk of late damage. Thus, the radiation dose to the heart should be minimized. This study evaluated the influence of different amplitudes of inspiration breath hold (IBH) during simulated left-sided breast irradiation on cardiac doses compared to free breathing (FB). CT data of 11 lung cancer patients were retrospectively used as left-sided pseudo-breast cancer cases. Two CT scans were used, one during IBH and one during FB, and two treatment plans were generated. Relevant heart, lung, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) parameters were derived from dose-volume histograms. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for the heart were calculated based on the relative seriality model. Inspiration depth was quantified using chest volume and diameter, and correlated thereafter to a possible sparing of heart tissue. Mean reduction of heart dose for IBH compared to FB was 40 % (1.65 vs. 0.99 Gy; p = 0.007). Maximum dose to the heart and LAD could be decreased by 33 % (p = 0.011) and 43 % (p = 0.024), respectively. The mean anteroposterior shift was 5 mm (range 0.9-9.5 mm). Significant negative correlations between the relative change in LAD mean dose and the mean thoracic diameter and volume change, as well as with the absolute change in thoracic diameter were seen. The NTCP for cardiac mortality could be decreased by about 78 % (p = 0.017). For left-sided breast cancer patients, cardiac doses can be significantly decreased with tangential irradiation and IBH. (orig.) [German] Die Herzdosisbelastung spielt eine entscheidende Rolle in der Entwicklung einer kardialen Spaettoxizitaet nach der adjuvanten Strahlentherapie von linksseitigem Brustkrebs. Obwohl moderne strahlentherapeutische

  9. Monitoring deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided localized breast cancer radiotherapy with an in-house developed laser distance meter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christer A; Abramova, Tatiana; Frengen, Jomar; Lund, Jo-Åsmund

    2017-09-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy is a technique to reduce cardiac and pulmonary doses while maintaining target coverage. This study aims at evaluating an in-house developed DIBH system. Free-breathing (FB) and DIBH plans were generated for 22 left-sided localized breast cancer patients who had radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery. All patients were treated utilizing an in-house laser distance measuring system. 50 Gy was prescribed, and parameters of interest were target coverage, left anterior descending coronary artery, (LAD) and heart doses. Portal images were acquired and the reproducibility and stability of DIBH treatment were compared to FB. The comparing result shows there is a significant reduction in all LAD and heart dose statistics for DIBH compared to FB plans without compromising the target coverage. The maximum LAD dose was reduced from 43.7 Gy to 29.0 Gy and the volume of the heart receiving >25 Gy was reduced from 3.3% to 1.0% using the in-house system, both statistically significant. The in-house system gave a reproducible and stable DIBH treatment where the systematic error ∑, and random error σ, were less than 2.2 mm in all directions, but were not significantly better than at FB. The system was well tolerated and all patients completed their treatment sessions with DIBH. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, F; Wu, S; Zhou, J; Li, F; Sun, J; Lin, Q; Lin, H; Guan, X; He, Z

    2015-05-01

    This study determined the dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold using active breathing control and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery for left-sided breast cancer. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. One free breathe and two moderate deep inspiration breath-hold images were obtained. A field-in-field-IMRT free-breathing plan and two field-in-field-IMRT moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans were compared in the dosimetry to target volume coverage of the glandular breast tissue and organs at risks for each patient. The breath-holding time under moderate deep inspiration extended significantly after breathing training (Pinspiration breath-holding in the target volume coverage. The volume of the ipsilateral lung in the free-breathing technique were significantly smaller than the moderate deep inspiration breath-holding techniques (Pinspiration breath-holding plans. There were no significant differences in target volume coverage between the three plans for the field-in-field-IMRT (all P>0.05). The dose to ipsilateral lung, coronary artery and heart in the field-in-field-IMRT were significantly lower for the free-breathing plan than for the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans (all Pinspiration breath-holding plans. The whole-breast field-in-field-IMRT under moderate deep inspiration breath-hold with active breathing control after breast-conserving surgery in left-sided breast cancer can reduce the irradiation volume and dose to organs at risks. There are no significant differences between various moderate deep inspiration breath-holding states in the dosimetry of irradiation to the field-in-field-IMRT target volume coverage and organs at risks. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. An estimation of right- and left-sided central venous catheter insertion depth using measurement of surface landmarks along the course of central veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Chun; Kim, Keon-Sik; Choi, Young-Kyoo; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kwon, Moo-Il; Sung, Joon-Kyung; Moon, Jee-Youn; Kang, Jong-Man

    2011-06-01

    In this study we sought to determine whether the topographical measurement along the course of the central veins can estimate the approximate insertion depths of central venous catheters (CVC). Two hundred central venous catheterizations were performed via the right and left internal jugular vein (IJV) or subclavian vein (SCV). The anterior approach, using the sternocleidomastoid muscle as a landmark, was used for IJV catheterization and the infraclavicular approach for SCV. Topographical measurement was performed by placing the catheter with its own curvature over the draped skin starting from the insertion point of the needle through the ipsilateral clavicular notch, and to the insertion point of the second right costal cartilage to the manubriosternal joint. The CVC was inserted and secured to a depth determined topographically. The distance between the CVC tip and the carina and the angle of the left-sided CVC tip to the vertical were measured on the postoperative chest radiograph. The mean (SD) tip position of 50 CVCs placed via the right IJV was 0.1 (1.1) cm above the carina; right SCV, 0.0 (0.9) cm; left IJV, 0.3 (1.0) cm above the carina, and left SCV, 0.2 (0.9) cm below the carina. CVC locations could be predicted with a margin of error between 2.2 cm below the carina and 2.3 cm above the carina in 95% of patients. There were steeper (≥ 40°) angles to the vertical in the left-sided CVCs whose tips were above the carina (17 out of 54) than below the carina (2 out of 46). The approximate insertion depth of a CVC can be estimated using measurement of surface landmarks along the pathway of central veins.

  12. Comparison of conventional inserts and an add-on electron MLC for chest wall irradiation of left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanen, Tero; Lahtinen, Tapani; Traneus, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background. Collimation of irregularly shaped clinical electron beams is currently based on electron inserts made of low melting point alloys. The present investigation compares a conventional electron applicator with insert and add-on eMLC-based dose distributions in the postoperative chest wall irradiation of left-sided breast cancer. Material and methods. Voxel Monte Carlo++ (VMC++) calculated dose distributions related to electron fields were compared with 10 left-sided breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. The prescription dose was 50 Gy at a build-up maximum. The same dose was prescribed for the ipsilateral axillary, parasternal and supraclavicular lymph nodes that were treated with photons and calculated with a pencil beam algorithm. The insert beams were shaped with 1.5 cm thick Wood's metal electron inserts in an electron applicator of a Varian 2100 C/D linac. Doses for the eMLC-shaped beams were calculated for an eMLC prototype with 2 cm thick and 5 mm wide steel leaves. The same collimator-to-surface distance (CSD) of 5.8 cm was used for both collimators. Results. The mean PTV dose was slightly higher for the eMLC plans (50.7 vs 49.5 Gy, p<0.001, respectively). The maximum doses assessed by D5% for the eMLC and insert were 60.9 and 59.1 Gy (p<0.001). The difference was due to the slightly higher doses near the field edges for the eMLC. The left lung V20 volumes were 34.5% and 34.0% (p<0.001). There was only a marginal difference in heart doses. Discussion: Despite a slight increase of maximum dose in PTV the add-on electron MLC for chest wall irradiation results in practically no differences in dose distributions compared with the present insert-based collimation

  13. Unusual cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis with fronto-temporal dementia phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyant-Marechal, L.; Verrips, A.; Girard, C.; Wevers, R.A.; Zijlstra, F.; Sistermans, E.A.; Vera, P.; Campion, D.; Hannequin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disease caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme 27-sterol hydroxylase (CYP27). We report a 53-year-old man, with an unusual phenotype of CTX. He had xanthomas since adolescence. He had no mental retardation and

  14. SU-E-T-532: Left-Sided Breast Cancer Irradiation Using Volumatric Modulated Arc Therapy: An Evaluation of Multiple Commercial Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R; Liu, T; Qi, S

    2015-01-01

    Purposes: There has been growing interest in treating breast cancer using VMAT technique. Our goal is to compare the dosimetry and treatment delivery parameters for the left-sided breast cancer treatment using various VMAT platforms from commercially available planning systems. Methods: Five consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients initially treated with conventional 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) were selected. Four VMAT plans using most popular treatment planning systems, including Eclipse (Version 11, Varian), Pinnacle (Version 9.8, Philips), Monaco (Version 2.03, Elekta) and helical Tomotherapy (V4.0, Accuray). The same structure set and same planning goals were used for all VMAT plans. The dosimetric parameters including target coverage and minimum/maximum/mean, dose-volume endpoints for the selected normal structures: the heart, ipsilateral-/contralateral lung and breast, were evaluated. Other dosimetric indices including heterogeneity index (HI) were evaluated. The treatment delivery parameters, such as monitor unit (MUs) and delivery time were also compared. Results: VMAT increases dose homogeneity to the treated volume and reduces the irradiated heart and left-lung volumes. Compared to the 3DCRT technique, all VMAT plans offer better heart and left-lung dose sparing; the mean heart doses were 4.5±1.6(Monaco), 1.2±0.4(Pinnacle), 1.3± (Eclipse) and 5.6±4.4(Tomo), the mean left-lung doses were 5.9±1.5(Monaco), 3.7±0.7(Pinnacle), 1.4± (Eclipse) and 5.2±1.6 (Tomo), while for the 3DCRT plan, the mean heart and left-Lung doses were 2.9±2.0, and 6.8±4.4 (Gy) respectively. The averaged contralateral-breast and lung mean doses were higher in VMAT plans than the 3DCRT plans but were not statistically significant. Among all the VMAT plans, the Pinnacle plans often yield the lowest right-lung/breast mean doses, and slightly better heterogeneity indices that are similar to Tomotherapy plans. Treatment delivery time of the VMAT plans (except helical

  15. Comparison of doses and NTCP to risk organs with enhanced inspiration gating and free breathing for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy using the AAA algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Anneli; Nilsson, Martin P; Amptoulach, Sousana; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential dose reduction to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and the ipsilateral lung for patients treated with tangential and locoregional radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer with enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) compared to free breathing (FB) using the AAA algorithm. The radiobiological implication of such dose sparing was also investigated. Thirty-two patients, who received tangential or locoregional adjuvant radiotherapy with EIG for left-sided breast cancer, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Each patient was CT-scanned during FB and EIG. Similar treatment plans, with comparable target coverage, were created in the two CT-sets using the AAA algorithm. Further, the probability of radiation induced cardiac mortality and pneumonitis were calculated using NTCP models. For tangential treatment, the median V25Gy for the heart and LAD was decreased for EIG from 2.2% to 0.2% and 40.2% to 0.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, whereas there was no significant difference in V20Gy for the ipsilateral lung (p = 0.109). For locoregional treatment, the median V25Gy for the heart and LAD was decreased for EIG from 3.3% to 0.2% and 51.4% to 5.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, and the median ipsilateral lung V20Gy decreased from 27.0% for FB to 21.5% (p = 0.020) for EIG. The median excess cardiac mortality probability decreased from 0.49% for FB to 0.02% for EIG (p < 0.001) for tangential treatment and from 0.75% to 0.02% (p < 0.001) for locoregional treatment. There was no significant difference in risk of radiation pneumonitis for tangential treatment (p = 0.179) whereas it decreased for locoregional treatment from 6.82% for FB to 3.17% for EIG (p = 0.004). In this study the AAA algorithm was used for dose calculation to the heart, LAD and left lung when comparing the EIG and FB techniques for tangential and locoregional radiotherapy of breast cancer patients. The results support the dose and

  16. Clinical experience with 3-dimensional surface matching-based deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Zagar, Timothy M; Bair, Eric; Jones, Ellen L; Fried, David; Zhang, Longzhen; Tracton, Gregg; Xu, Zijie; Leach, Traci; Chang, Sha; Marks, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface matching is a novel method to administer deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer to reduce cardiac exposure. We analyzed port (x-ray) films to assess patient setup accuracy and treatment times to assess the practical workflow of this system. The data from 50 left-sided breast cancer patients treated with DIBH were studied. AlignRT (London, UK) was used. The distance between the field edge and the anterior pericardial shadow as seen on the routine port films (dPORT), and the corresponding distance seen on the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) from the planning (dDRR) were compared as a quantitative measure of setup accuracy. Variations of dPORT - dDRR over the treatment course were assessed. In a subset of 21 patients treated with tangential beams alone, the daily treatment durations were analyzed to assess the practical workflow of this system. Considering all 50 patients, the mean absolute systematic uncertainty between dPORT and dDRR was 0.20 cm (range, 0 to 1.22 cm), the mean systematic uncertainty was -0.07 cm (range, -1.22 to 0.67 cm), and their mean random uncertainty was 0.19 cm (range, 0 to 0.84 cm). There was no significant change in dPORT - dDRR during the course of treatment. The mean patient treatment duration for the 21 patients studied was 11 minutes 48 seconds. On intrapatient assessments, 15/21 had nonsignificant trends toward reduced treatment durations during their course of therapy. On interpatient comparisons, the mean treatment times declined as we gained more experience with this technique. The DIBH patient setup appears to provide a fairly reproducible degree of cardiac sparing with random uncertainties of ≈ 0.2 cm. The treatment durations are clinically acceptable and appear not to change significantly over time on an intrapatient basis, and to improve over time on an interpatient basis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  17. Surgery versus conservative management for recurrent and ongoing left-sided diverticulitis (DIRECT trial): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wall, Bryan J M; Stam, Marguerite A W; Draaisma, Werner A; Stellato, R; Bemelman, Willem A; Boermeester, Marja A; Broeders, Ivo A M J; Belgers, Eric J; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Prins, Hubert A; Consten, Esther C J

    2017-01-01

    Patients with recurrent or persisting complaints after an episode of left-sided diverticulitis are managed with either conservative measures or elective sigmoidectomy. To date, there are no data from randomised trials. We aimed to establish which treatment leads to a better quality of life for patients with diverticulitis. We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial (DIRECT trial) in 24 teaching and two academic hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients aged 18-75 years presenting with either recurrent (three or more presentations with clinical signs of acute diverticulitis within 2 years) or persistent abdominal complaints (ongoing lower left abdominal pain or persistent change in bowel habits for ≥3 months) after an episode of left-sided diverticulitis, confirmed by CT, ultrasound, or endoscopy, were included. Patients were excluded if they had previous elective or emergency surgery for acute sigmoid diverticulitis, an absolute operation indication, suspicion of a colorectal malignancy, with a preoperative or postoperative risk greater than III (on the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification), or were unable to complete questionnaire or follow-up. Patients were randomly assigned (3:3) to receive conservative management or elective (laparoscopic) sigmoidectomy using a digital randomisation system, stratified by type of disease and centre, with a block size of six. Patients, physicians, and researchers were not masked to treatment allocation. Our primary endpoint was health-related quality of life, measured by the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) at 6 months after inclusion or surgery, depending on randomisation group. This trial is registered with trialregister.nl, number NTR1478, and is closed for inclusion. Between July 1, 2010, and April 1, 2014, we randomly assigned 109 patients to receive surgical treatment (resection; n=53) or conservative management (n=56), after which the Data Safety and Monitoring Board

  18. TU-EF-304-12: Proton Radiation Therapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: LET and RBE Considerations for Cardiac Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, D; Jee, K; MacDonald, S; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rose, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Increased risk of coronary artery disease has been documented for patients treated with radiation for left-sided breast cancer. Proton therapy (PRT) has been shown to significantly decrease cardiac irradiation, however variations in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) have been ignored so far. In this study we evaluate the impact of accounting for RBE variations on sensitive structures located within high linear energy transfer (LET) areas (distal end) of the proton treatment fields, for this treatment site. Methods: Three patients treated in our institution with PRT for left-sided breast cancer were selected. All patients underwent reconstructive surgery after mastectomy and treated to a total dose of 50.4Gy with beam(s) vertical to the chest wall. Dose and LET distributions were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC-TOPAS - TOol for PArticle Simulation). The LET-based, variable-RBE-weighted dose was compared to the analytical calculation algorithm (ACA) and MC dose distributions for a constant RBE of 1.1, based on volume histograms and mean values for the target, heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Results: Assuming a constant RBE and compared to the ACA dose, MC predicted lower mean target and heart doses by 0.5% to 2.7% of the prescription dose. For variable RBE, plan evaluation showed increased mean target dose by up to 5%. Mean variable-RBE-weighted doses for the LAD ranged from 2.7 to 5.9Gy(RBE) among patients increased by 41%–64.2% compared to constant RBE ACA calculation (absolute dose: 1.7–3.9Gy(RBE)). Smaller increase in mean heart doses was noticed. Conclusion: ACA overestimates the target mean dose by up to 2.7%. However, disregarding variations in RBE may lead to significant underestimation of the dose to sensitive structures at the distal end of the proton treatment field and could thus impact outcome modeling for cardiac toxicities after proton therapy. These results are subject to RBE model and parameter

  19. A 58-Year-Old Woman with Left-Sided Weakness and a History of a Pediatric Brain Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaakir Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An uncommon but well-established complication of cranial irradiation is secondary neoplasm. This case presentation documents a radiation-induced malignant glioma 55 years after being diagnosed with “cerebral sarcoma,” now defined as atypical meningioma. This not only represents the longest reported latency period for a patient initially receiving over 30 Gy, but also provides a valuable historical perspective of neuro-oncology. Clinical Presentation: A 58-year-old female presenting with progressive left-sided upper and lower extremity weakness with a past medical history significant for “cerebral sarcoma” was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. This patient had previously been treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy via a 280-kVP orthovoltage machine and received 3,390 rad to the posterior three-quarters of the skull for “cerebral sarcoma.” Conclusion: A comprehensive investigation of the past medical history helped uncover a mysterious pediatric diagnosis, helped drive the management 5 decades later, and serves as a reminder that seemingly safe interventions may still cause harm.

  20. The Unilateral Urogenital Anomalies (UUA) Rat: A New Mutant Strain Associated with Unilateral Renal Agenesis, Cryptorchidism, and Malformations of Reproductive Organs Restricted to the Left Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakasu, Kohei; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2009-01-01

    We established an inbred rat strain with unilateral urogenital anomalies from an incidentally identified male rat with unilateral renal agenesis and an undescended left testis. These rats were characterized by unilateral renal agenesis in both sexes, undescended testes with agenesis and hypoplasia of the accessory sex organs in male rats, and complete and partial agenesis of the uterine horn in female rats. All of these urogenital anomalies were unilateral and restricted to the left side; we named this phenotype unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA). Breeding tests showed that these abnormalities were inherited as polygenic traits. The weight of right kidneys of affected rats was 1.7-fold higher than that of normal rats; histologically, glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilations, and tubular casts were detected at 30 wk of age. These alterations may have resulted from compensatory renal adaptation to the lack of 1 kidney. The cryptorchid left testes of affected male rats showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatocytes and spermatids. These results indicate that the UUA rat may be a good model to study the etiology of unilateral renal agenesis accompanied by agenesis of the reproductive tract and to study compensatory alterations resulting from the congenital loss of 1 kidney. PMID:19619415

  1. Multi-slice spiral CT in routine diagnosis of suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: a prospective study of 120 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.; Diehl, S.J.; Dueber, C.; Farag-Soliman, M.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the use of multi-slice CT (MSCT) for detection of clinically suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis with regard to diagnosis, complications and alternative diagnoses. One hundred twenty patients with clinically suspected acute left-colonic diverticulitis underwent MSCT of the lower abdomen with IV contrast after rectal application of iodic contrast. The MSCT results were compared with histopathological and intraoperative findings or other radiological or endoscopic methods and clinical outcome. Acute diverticulitis was proven in 67 of the 120 (55.8%) patients, which was detected by MSCT with an accuracy of 98% (sensitivity 97%, specificity 98%). Contained perforation or abscess formation were detected with an accuracy of 96% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91%) and 98% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 97%), respectively. In 31 of 120 (25.8%) patients diagnoses other than diverticulitis caused abdominal pain, which was correctly diagnosed by MSCT in 71%. The MSCT as well as other concurrently performed diagnostic methods showed normal findings and no causes for the patients symptoms in 22 of the 120 (18.4%) patients. Multi-slice CT is reliable in detecting diverticulitis, including extracolic complications, and often reveals other diagnoses; therefore, MSCT is recommended as standard diagnostic procedure in suspected acute diverticulitis. (orig.)

  2. Multi-slice spiral CT in routine diagnosis of suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: a prospective study of 120 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Diehl, S.J.; Dueber, C. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim (Germany); Farag-Soliman, M. [Chirurgische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    This prospective study evaluated the use of multi-slice CT (MSCT) for detection of clinically suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis with regard to diagnosis, complications and alternative diagnoses. One hundred twenty patients with clinically suspected acute left-colonic diverticulitis underwent MSCT of the lower abdomen with IV contrast after rectal application of iodic contrast. The MSCT results were compared with histopathological and intraoperative findings or other radiological or endoscopic methods and clinical outcome. Acute diverticulitis was proven in 67 of the 120 (55.8%) patients, which was detected by MSCT with an accuracy of 98% (sensitivity 97%, specificity 98%). Contained perforation or abscess formation were detected with an accuracy of 96% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91%) and 98% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 97%), respectively. In 31 of 120 (25.8%) patients diagnoses other than diverticulitis caused abdominal pain, which was correctly diagnosed by MSCT in 71%. The MSCT as well as other concurrently performed diagnostic methods showed normal findings and no causes for the patients symptoms in 22 of the 120 (18.4%) patients. Multi-slice CT is reliable in detecting diverticulitis, including extracolic complications, and often reveals other diagnoses; therefore, MSCT is recommended as standard diagnostic procedure in suspected acute diverticulitis. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of Short- and Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Surgically Treated Left-sided Infective Endocarditis: A 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, Oksana; Cole, Holy; Hiebert, Brett; Lo, Evelyn; Keynan, Yoav; Tam, James; Shaikh, Nasir; Menkis, Alan H; Arora, Rakesh C; Shah, Pallav

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze survival, repeat hospitalization, and risk factors for surgically treated left-sided endocarditis. Retrospective review of all 166 (114 native and 52 prosthetic) patients operated between January 2004 and March 2015 was performed. Long-term survival and repeat hospitalization data for 134 of 166 patients were obtained via linked clinical databases with the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival and hospital readmission and Cox multivariable regression analysis of factors influencing outcomes were performed. Survival at 1 and 5 years was 91% and 80%, respectively, and major adverse prosthesis-related event repeat hospitalization rates were 12% and 21%, respectively. Repeat hospitalization because of endocarditis was 7% and 11% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Survival and repeat hospitalization were similar for aortic and mitral valves. Survival after surgically treated endocarditis was similar to survival for age-, sex-, and valve-matched surgical valve replacements for noninfectious indications (P = 0.53). Viridans Streptococci was the most common organism in native valve endocarditis, and culture negative endocarditis was most common in prosthetic valves. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (P hospital mortality and major postoperative adverse events. Diabetes and renal dysfunction were associated with poor long-term survival, functional survival, and repeat hospitalization. This analysis suggests that surgery remains a very effective tool in management of these complex patients in terms of survival and major adverse prosthesis-related event repeat hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of oncological outcomes of right-sided colon cancer versus left-sided colon cancer after curative resection: Which side is better outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Ro; Kuk, Jung Kul; Kim, Taehyung; Shin, Eung Jin

    2017-10-01

    There are embryological origins, anatomical, histological, genetic, and immunological differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Many studies have sought to determine the survival and prognosis according to tumor location. This study aimed to analyze outcomes between RCC and LCC. Between January 2000 and December 2012, data on 414 patients who underwent curative resection for RCC and LCC were retrieved from a retrospective database. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed and RCC was identified in 207 and LCC in 207 patients. On average, RCC exhibited a more advanced N stage, increased tumor size, more frequently poorly differentiated tumors, more harvested lymph nodes, and more positivity of lymphovascular invasion than LCC. With a median follow-up of 66.7 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for RCC and LCC were 82.1% and 88.7%, respectively, (P cancers, the DFS rates were 61.1% (RCC) and 81.9% (LCC; P colon cancer is needed.

  5. Right upper limb bud triplication and polythelia, left sided hemihypertrophy and congenital hip dislocation, facial dysmorphism, congenital heart disease, and scoliosis: disorganisation-like spectrum or patterning gene defect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, M A; al-Saleh, Q; al-Saw'an, R; al-Awadi, S A; Farag, T I

    1995-07-01

    A Somali female baby with right upper limb triplication, polythelia, left sided hemihypertrophy, congenital hip dislocation, facial dysmorphism, congenital heart disease, and scoliosis is described. It seems that the above described pattern of anomalies has not been reported before. The possible developmental genetic mechanism responsible for this phenotype is briefly discussed.

  6. Deep inspiration breath hold with electromagnetic confirmation of chest wall position for adjuvant therapy of left-sided breast cancer: Technique and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpal, Madeera; Tinnel, Brent; Sun, Kelly; Ninneman, Stephanie; Malmer, Cynthia; Wendt, Stacie; Buff, Sheena; Valentich, David; Gossweiler, Marisa; Macdonald, Dusten

    2016-01-01

    With most patients now living long after their breast cancer diagnosis, minimizing long-term side effects of breast cancer treatment, such as reducing late cardiac and pulmonary side effects of radiation therapy (RT), is particularly important. It is now possible to use an electromagnetic tracking system to allow real-time tracking of chest wall (CW) position during the delivery of RT. Here, we report our experience using electromagnetic surface transponders as an added measure of CW position during deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). We conducted a single-institution institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 15 female left-sided breast cancer patients treated between July 2012 and June 2013 with conventional whole breast radiation. We compared daily port films with treatment planning digitally reconstructed radiographs to establish daily setup accuracy, then used Calypso tracings to compare the position of the CW during the daily port film with the position of the CW during that day's treatment to determine the reproducibility of the breath hold position. Finally, we created competing treatment plans not using DIBH and used a paired t test to compare mean heart (MH) and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery dose between the 2 techniques. Mean total error (inter- and intrafraction) was dominated by interfraction error and was greatest in the longitudinal direction with a mean of 2.13 mm and 2 standard deviations of 8.2 mm. DIBH significantly reduced MH and LAD dose versus free breathing plans (MH, 1.26 Gy vs 2.84 Gy, P ≤ .001; LAD, 5.49 Gy vs 18.15 Gy, P ≤ .001). This study demonstrates that DIBH with electromagnetic confirmation of CW position is feasible, and allows potential improvement in the accurate delivery of adjuvant RT therapy for breast cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Steven; Takita, Cristiane; Reis, Isildinha; Zhao, Wei; Amestoy, William; Wright, Jean

    2015-01-01

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3cm(3), p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9cm(3), p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V20 (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this "minimal benefit." Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer: Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Rodrigo; Ammerpohl, Mark; Morgenstern, Christina; Nielinger, Lisa; Erichsen, Patricia; Abdallah, Abdallah; Galalae, Razvan

    2015-09-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm(3) (D2 cm (3)), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V5), 10 Gy (V10), 15 Gy (V15) and 20 Gy (V20). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D2 cm (3) was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D2 cm (3) was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL.

  9. A new application of the four-arm standard da Vinci® surgical system: totally robotic-assisted left-sided colon or rectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dean Chi-Siong; Tsang, Charles Bih-Shou; Kim, Seon-Hahn

    2011-06-01

    The key to successful rectal cancer resection is to perform complete total mesorectal excision (TME). Laparoscopic TME can be challenging, especially in the narrow confines of the pelvis. Robotic-assisted surgery can overcome these limitations through superior three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and the increased range of movements provided by the endowrist function. To date, all totally robotic resections of the rectum have been described using da Vinci® S or Si systems. Due to the limitations of the standard system, only hybrid procedures have been described so far. To evaluate the feasibility and short-term outcomes of performing totally robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal resections using the standard da Vinci® system with a fourth arm extension. The standard system was docked from the patient's left hip. Four 8-mm robotic trocars were inserted. Upon completion of phase 1 (pedicle ligation, colonic mobilization, splenic flexure takedown), the two left-sided arms are repositioned to allow phase 2 (pelvic dissection), enabling the entire procedure except for the distal transection and anastomosis to be performed robotically. Twenty-one robotic procedures were performed from August 2008 to September 2009. The mean age of the patients was 61 years (13 males). The procedures performed included seven anterior resections, seven low anterior resections, five ultralow anterior resections, one abdominoperineal resection, and one resection rectopexy. The majority of the cases were performed in patients with colon or rectal cancer. Operative time ranged from 232 to 444 (mean 316) min. Postoperative morbidity occurred in three patients (14.3%) with no mortalities or conversions. Average hospital stay was 6.4 days. Mean lymph node yield for the cases with cancer was 17.8. The standard da Vinci® system with four arms can be used to perform totally robotic-assisted colorectal procedures for the left colon and rectum with short-term outcomes similar to those of

  10. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL; Yeung, R; Phan, T; Hudson, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  11. SU-G-BRC-13: Model Based Classification for Optimal Position Selection for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy: Free Breathing, DIBH, Or Prone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H; Liu, T; Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Shi, C [Saint Vincent Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Petillion, S; Kindts, I [University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Vlaams-Brabant (Belgium); Tang, X [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There are clinical decision challenges to select optimal treatment positions for left-sided breast cancer patients—supine free breathing (FB), supine Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) and prone free breathing (prone). Physicians often make the decision based on experiences and trials, which might not always result optimal OAR doses. We herein propose a mathematical model to predict the lowest OAR doses among these three positions, providing a quantitative tool for corresponding clinical decision. Methods: Patients were scanned in FB, DIBH, and prone positions under an IRB approved protocol. Tangential beam plans were generated for each position, and OAR doses were calculated. The position with least OAR doses is defined as the optimal position. The following features were extracted from each scan to build the model: heart, ipsilateral lung, breast volume, in-field heart, ipsilateral lung volume, distance between heart and target, laterality of heart, and dose to heart and ipsilateral lung. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to remove the co-linearity of the input data and also to lower the data dimensionality. Feature selection, another method to reduce dimensionality, was applied as a comparison. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was then used for classification. Thirtyseven patient data were acquired; up to now, five patient plans were available. K-fold cross validation was used to validate the accuracy of the classifier model with small training size. Results: The classification results and K-fold cross validation demonstrated the model is capable of predicting the optimal position for patients. The accuracy of K-fold cross validations has reached 80%. Compared to PCA, feature selection allows causal features of dose to be determined. This provides more clinical insights. Conclusion: The proposed classification system appeared to be feasible. We are generating plans for the rest of the 37 patient images, and more statistically significant

  12. Utility of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy in Preventing Early Cardiac Perfusion Defects: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagar, Timothy M., E-mail: zagar@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kaidar-Person, Orit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Tang, Xiaoli [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, New York (United States); Jones, Ellen E.; Matney, Jason; Das, Shiva K.; Green, Rebecca L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheikh, Arif [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Khandani, Amir H.; McCartney, William H.; Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Wong, Terence Z. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate early cardiac single photon computed tomography (SPECT) findings after left breast/chest wall postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective single-institution single-arm study of patients who were planned for tangential RT with DIBH to the left breast/chest wall (± internal mammary nodes). The DIBH was done by use of a controlled surface monitoring technique (AlignRT, Vision RT Ltd, London, UK). The RT was given with tangential fields and a heart block. Radiation-induced cardiac perfusion and wall motion changes were assessed by pre-RT and 6-month post-RT SPECT scans. A cumulative SPECT summed-rest score was used to quantify perfusion in predefined left ventricle segments. The incidence of wall motion abnormalities was assessed in each of these same segments. Results: A total of 20 patients with normal pre-RT scans were studied; their median age was 56 years (range, 39-72 years). Seven (35%) patients also received irradiation to the left internal mammary chain, and 5 (25%) received an additional RT field to supraclavicular nodes. The median heart dose was 94 cGy (range, 56-200 cGy), and the median V25{sub Gy} was zero (range, 0-0.1). None of the patients had post-RT perfusion or wall motion abnormalities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DIBH and conformal cardiac blocking for patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer is an effective means to avoid early RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects.

  13. Cardiac risk index as a simple geometric indicator to select patients for the heart-sparing radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, KiHoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Kyu Chan

    2017-01-01

    This is a dosimetric study to identify a simple geometric indicator to discriminate patients who meet the selection criterion for heart-sparing radiotherapy (RT). The authors proposed a cardiac risk index (CRI), directly measurable from the CT images at the time of scanning. Treatment plans were regenerated using the CT data of 312 consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetric analysis was performed to estimate the risk of cardiac mortality using cardiac dosimetric parameters, such as the relative heart volumes receiving ≥25 Gy (heart V 25 ). For each CT data set, in-field heart depth (HD) and in-field heart width (HW) were measured to generate the geometric parameters, including maximum HW (HW max ) and maximum HD (HD max ). Seven geometric parameters were evaluated as candidates for CRI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power of the geometric parameters to select high-risk patients (heart V 25 ≥ 10%). Seventy-one high-risk (22.8%) and 241 low-risk patients (77.2%) were identified by dosimetric analysis. The geometric and dosimetric parameters were significantly higher in the high-risk group. Heart V 25 showed the strong positive correlations with all geometric parameters examined (r > 0.8, p < 0.001). The product of HD max and HW max (CRI) revealed the largest area under the curve (AUC) value (0.969) and maintained 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity at the optimal cut-off value of 14.58 cm 2 . Cardiac risk index proposed as a simple geometric indicator to select high-risk patients provides useful guidance for clinicians considering optimal implementation of heart-sparing RT.

  14. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertl, Petra M; Pohl, Fabian; Weidner, Karin; Groeger, Christian; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D(15%) of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D(15%) was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D(10%) of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac dose reduction with deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy patients with and without regional nodal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Rosanna; Conroy, Leigh; Long, Karen; Walrath, Daphne; Li, Haocheng; Smith, Wendy; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien

    2015-01-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) reduces heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) dose during left-sided breast radiation therapy (RT); however there is limited information about which patients derive the most benefit from DIBH. The primary objective of this study was to determine which patients benefit the most from DIBH by comparing percent reduction in mean cardiac dose conferred by DIBH for patients treated with whole breast RT ± boost (WBRT) versus those receiving breast/chest wall plus regional nodal irradiation, including internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes (B/CWRT + RNI) using a modified wide tangent technique. A secondary objective was to determine if DIBH was required to meet a proposed heart dose constraint of D mean < 4 Gy in these two cohorts. Twenty consecutive patients underwent CT simulation both free breathing (FB) and DIBH. Patients were grouped into two cohorts: WBRT (n = 11) and B/CWRT + RNI (n = 9). 3D-conformal plans were developed and FB was compared to DIBH for each cohort using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for continuous variables and McNemar’s test for discrete variables. The percent relative reduction conferred by DIBH in mean heart and LAD dose, as well as lung V 20 were compared between the two cohorts using Wilcox rank-sum testing. The significance level was set at 0.05 with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. All patients had comparable target coverage on DIBH and FB. DIBH statistically significantly reduced mean heart and LAD dose for both cohorts. Percent reduction in mean heart and LAD dose with DIBH was significantly larger in the B/CWRT + RNI cohort compared to WBRT group (relative reduction in mean heart and LAD dose: 55.9 % and 72.1 % versus 29.2 % and 43.5 %, p < 0.02). All patients in the WBRT group and five patients (56 %) in the B/CWBRT + RNI group met heart D mean <4 Gy with FB. All patients met this constraint with DIBH. All patients receiving WBRT met D mean Heart < 4 Gy on FB, while only slightly over

  16. Disruption of structural covariance networks for language in autism is modulated by verbal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Megha; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Evans, Alan C; Singh, Nandini C

    2016-03-01

    The presence of widespread speech and language deficits is a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These impairments have often been attributed to altered connections between brain regions. Recent developments in anatomical correlation-based approaches to map structural covariance offer an effective way of studying such connections in vivo. In this study, we employed such a structural covariance network (SCN)-based approach to investigate the integrity of anatomical networks in fronto-temporal brain regions of twenty children with ASD compared to an age and gender-matched control group of twenty-two children. Our findings reflected large-scale disruption of inter and intrahemispheric covariance in left frontal SCNs in the ASD group compared to controls, but no differences in right fronto-temporal SCNs. Interhemispheric covariance in left-seeded networks was further found to be modulated by verbal ability of the participants irrespective of autism diagnosis, suggesting that language function might be related to the strength of interhemispheric structural covariance between frontal regions. Additionally, regional cortical thickening was observed in right frontal and left posterior regions, which was predicted by decreasing symptom severity and increasing verbal ability in ASD. These findings unify reports of regional differences in cortical morphology in ASD. They also suggest that reduced left hemisphere asymmetry and increased frontal growth may not only reflect neurodevelopmental aberrations but also compensatory mechanisms.

  17. Lower mean heart dose with deep inspiration breath hold-whole breast irradiation compared with brachytherapy-based accelerated partial breast irradiation for women with left-sided tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Kirsner, Steve M; Thames, Howard D; Mason, Bryan E; Nelson, Christopher L; Bloom, Elizabeth S

    For left-sided breast cancer, radiation to the heart is a concern. We present a comparison of mean heart and coronary artery biologically effective dose (BED) between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and whole breast irradiation with deep inspiration breath-hold technique (DIBH-WBI). A total of 100 patients with left-sided, early-stage breast cancer were identified. Fifty underwent single-entry catheter-based APBI and 50 underwent DIBH-WBI. The heart, left anterior descending/interventricular branch, left main, and right coronary artery were delineated. BEDs were calculated from APBI treatment plans (34 Gy in 3.4 Gy twice daily fractions) and for 4 separate plans generated for each DIBH-WBI patient: 50 Gy in 25 fractions (50/25), 50/25 + 10/5 boost, 40/15, and 40/15 + 10/5 boost. BED to the heart and coronary vessels were statistically significantly higher with APBI than with any of the DIBH-WBI dose/fractionation schedules. For women with left-sided early-stage breast cancer, DIBH-WBI resulted in statistically significantly lower mean BED to the heart and coronary vessels compared with APBI. This is likely due to increased physical separation between the heart and tumor bed afforded by the DIBH-WBI technique. Long-term assessment of late effects in these tissues will be required to determine whether these differences are clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is it possible for knowledge-based planning to improve intensity modulated radiation therapy plan quality for planners with different planning experiences in left-sided breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Hu, Weigang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao; Lu, Saiquan; Li, Kaixuan; Yu, Gongyi

    2017-05-22

    Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost. The libraries were created on the RapidPlan TM . 6 planners with different planning experiences (2 beginner planners, 2 junior planners and 2 senior planners) generated manual and KBP optimized plans for additional 10 patients, similar to those included in the model libraries. The plan qualities were compared between manual and KBP plans. All plans were capable of achieving the prescription requirement. There were almost no statistically significant differences in terms of the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose conformality. It was demonstrated that the doses for most of organs-at-risk (OARs) were on average lower or equal in KBP plans compared to manual plans except for the senior planners, where the very small differences were not statistically significant. KBP data showed a systematic trend to have superior dose sparing at most parameters for the heart and ipsilateral lung. The observed decrease in the doses to these OARs could be achieved, particularly for the beginner and junior planners. Many differences were statistically significant. It is feasible to generate acceptable IMRT plans after implementing KBP for left-sided breast cancer. KBP helps to effectively improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of manual plans for less experienced planners without any manual intervention. KBP

  19. Cardiac counterclockwise rotation is a risk factor for high-dose irradiation to the left anterior descending coronary artery in patients with left-sided breast cancer who receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-08-01

    Patients irradiated for left-sided breast cancer have higher incidence of cardiovascular disease than those receiving irradiation for right-sided breast cancer. Most abnormalities were in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery territory. We analyzed the relationships between preoperative examination results and irradiation dose to the LAD artery in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Seventy-one patients receiving breast radiotherapy were analyzed. The heart may rotate around longitudinal axis, showing either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation (CCWR). On electrocardiography, the transition zone (TZ) was judged in precordial leads. CCWR was considered to be present if TZ was at or to the right of V3. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. The maximum (Dmax) and mean (Dmean) doses to the LAD artery and the volumes of the LAD artery receiving at least 20 Gy, 30 Gy and 40 Gy (V20Gy, V30Gy and V40Gy, respectively) were significantly higher in CCWR than in the non-CCWR patients. On multivariate analysis, TZ was significantly associated with Dmax, Dmean, V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy. CCWR is a risk factor for high-dose irradiation to the LAD artery. Electrocardiography is useful for evaluating the cardiovascular risk of high-dose irradiation to the LAD artery.

  20. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  1. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, and is defined as a gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres and the falciform ligament.1 LSGB was first described by Hochstetter in 1886, and its identification is important because of the numerous and potentially hazardous.

  2. SU-F-J-22: Lung VolumeVariability Assessed by Bh-CBCT in 3D Surface Image Guided Deep InspirationBreath Hold (DIBH) Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A; Stanley, D; Papanikolaou, N; Crownover, R [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With the increasing use of DIBH techniques for left-sided breast cancer, 3D surface-image guided DIBH techniques have improved patient setup and facilitated DIBH radiation delivery. However, quantification of the daily separation between the heart and left breast still presents a challenge. One method of assuring separation is to ensure consistent left lung filling. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to retrospectively quantify left lung volume from weekly breath hold-CBCTs (bh-CBCT) of left-sided breast patients treated using a 3D surface imaging system. Methods: Ten patients (n=10) previously treated to the left breast using the C-Rad CatalystHD system (C-RAD AG, Uppsala Sweden) were evaluated. Patients were positioned with CatalystHD and with bh-CBCT. bh-CBCTs were acquired at the validation date, first day of treatment and at subsequent weekly intervals. Total treatment courses spanned from 3 to 5 weeks. bh-CBCT images were exported to VelocityAI and the left lung volume was segmented. Volumes were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 41 bh-CBCTs were contoured in VelocityAI for the 10 patients. The mean left lung volume for all patients was 1657±295cc based on validation bh-CBCT. With the subsequent lung volumes normalized to the validation lung volume, the mean relative ratios for all patients were 1.02±0.11, 0.97±0.14, 0.98±0.11, 1.02±0.01, and 0.96±0.02 for week 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Overall, the mean left lung volume change was ≤4.0% over a 5-week course; however left lung volume variations of up to 28% were noted in a select patient. Conclusion: With the use of the C-RAD CatalystHD system, the mean lung volume variability over a 5-week course of DIBH treatments was ≤4.0%. By minimizing left lung volume variability, heart to left breast separation maybe more consistently maintained. AN Gutierrez has a research grant from C-RAD AG.

  3. Birth outcomes of cases with left-sided obstructive defects of the heart in the function of maternal socio-demographic factors: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the birth outcomes and maternal variables of cases with different types of left-sided obstructive defects (LSOD) of the heart. Live-born infants were selected from the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and 302 cases with LSOD, 469 matched controls and 38,151 all controls without any defect, and 20,750 malformed controls with other isolated defects were compared. The diagnosis of LSOD was based on autopsy report or the documents of surgical intervention. Four types of LSOD were differentiated: 56 cases with valvular aortic stenosis (VAS), 76 cases with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 113 cases with coarctation of the aorta (COA) and 57 cases with other congenital abnormalities of aorta (OCA). Cases with LSOD had male excess (64.6%) with a higher rate of preterm birth (14.2 vs. 6.6%) and low birthweight (15.6 vs. 4.3%) compared to matched controls. The high rate of preterm birth was particularly characteristic for HLHS (17.1%) while intrauterine fetal growth restriction was found in cases OCA (22.8%) and COA (13.3%). The mothers of cases with LSOD had higher birth order and lower socio-economic status than controls without any defect. The general pattern of birth outcomes and maternal variables were similar in the types of LSOD cases, but the higher rate of preterm birth and low birthweight indicated some association with their adverse fetal development.

  4. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer significantly reduces cardiac radiation exposure compared to inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Saglam, Yucel; Selek, Ugur; Topkan, Erkan; Kataria, Anglina; Unal, Zeynep; Alpan, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the objective utility of our clinical routine of reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation for left-sided breast cancer patients on reducing cardiac exposure. Free-breathing and reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold scans were evaluated for our 10 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients treated with reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold. The study was based on the adjuvant dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/fraction. Both inverse and forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated for each computed tomography dataset. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold plans with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly spared the heart and left anterior descending artery compared to generated free-breathing plans based on mean doses - free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold, left ventricle (296.1 vs 94.5 cGy, P = 0.005), right ventricle (158.3 vs 59.2 cGy, P = 0.005), left anterior descending artery (171.1 vs 78.1 cGy, P = 0.005), and whole heart (173.9 vs 66 cGy, P = 0.005), heart V20 (2.2% vs 0%, P = 0.007) and heart V10 (4.2% vs 0.3%, P = 0.007) - whereas they revealed no additional burden on the ipsilateral lung. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing plans with inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy provided similar organ at risk sparing by reducing the mean doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, V10-V20 of the heart and right ventricle. However, forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy showed significant reduction in doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, right ventricle, and contralateral breast (mean dose, 248.9 to 12.3 cGy, P = 0.005). The mean doses for free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold of the proximal left anterior descending artery were 1.78 vs 1.08 Gy and of the distal left anterior descending artery were 8.11 vs 3.89 Gy, whereas mean distances to the 50 Gy

  5. Is the Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique Superior to the Free Breathing Technique in Cardiac and Lung Sparing while Treating both Left-Sided Post-Mastectomy Chest Wall and Supraclavicular Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Darapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of the deep inspirational breath-hold (DIBH technique and its dosimetric advantages over the free breathing (FB technique in cardiac (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD] and ipsilateral lung sparing in left-sided post-mastectomy field-in-field conformal radiotherapy. DIBH is highly reproducible, and this study aims to find out its dosimetric benefits over FB. Materials and Methods: Nineteen left-sided mastectomy patients were immobilized using breast boards with both arms positioned above the head. All patients had 2 sets of planning CT images (one in FB and another in DIBH with a Biograph TruePoint HD CT scanner in the same setup. DIBH was performed by tracking the respiratory cycles using a Varian Real-Time Position Management system. The target (chest wall and supraclavicular region, organs at risk (OARs; ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, LAD, and contralateral breast, and other organs of interests were delineated as per the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring guidelines. The single-isocenter conformal fields in the field treatment plans were generated with the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Varian Medical Systems for both FB and DIBH images, and the doses to the target and OARs were compared. The standard fractionation regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over a period of 5 weeks was used for all patients in this study. Results and Discussion: The target coverage parameters (V95, V105, V107, and Dmean were found to be 97.8 ± 0.9, 6.1 ± 3.4, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.5% in the FB plans and 98.1 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 3.2, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.4% in the DIBH plans, respectively. The plan quality indices (conformity index and homogeneity index also showed 1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.1 for the FB plans and 1.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 for the DIBH plans, respectively. There was a significant reduction in dose to the heart in the DIBH plans compared to the FB plans, with p values of nearly 0 for the

  6. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans, With or Without Anterior Myocardial Territory and Left Ventricle as Organs at Risk, in Early-Stage Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenyong; Wang Xiaohong; Qiu Dasheng; Liu Dong; Jia Shaohui; Zeng Fanyu; Chen Zhengwang; Li Beihui; Xu Jiaozhen; Wei Lai; Hu Desheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated heart sparing using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with the left ventricle (LV) and/or the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as additional organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected for dosimetric planning. Both lungs, the right breast, heart, LV, and AMT were defined as OARs. We generated one tangential field plan and four IMRT plans for each patient. We examined the dose–volume histogram parameters of the planning target volume and OARs. Results: Compared with the tangential field plan, the mean dose to the heart in the IMRT plans did not show significant differences; however, the dose to the AMT and LV decreased by 18.7–45.4% and 10.8–37.4%, respectively. The maximal dose to the heart decreased by 18.6–35.3%, to the AMT by 22.0–45.1%, and to the LV by 23.5–45.0%, And the relative volumes of the heart (V ≥12 ), AMT (V >11 ) and LV (V >10 ) decreased significantly with different levels, respectively. The volume of the heart, AMT, LV, both lungs, and right breast receiving ≥5 Gy showed a significant increase. Compared with the IMRT (H) plan, the mean dose to the heart, AMT, and LV decreased by 17.5–21.5%, 25.2–29.8%, and 22.8–29.8% and the maximal dose by 13.6–20.6%, 23.1–29.6%, and 17.3–29.1%, respectively. The IMRT plans for both lungs and the right breast showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The IMRT plans with the addition of the AMT and/or LV as OARs considerably increased heart sparing. We recommend including the LV as an additional OAR in such plans.

  7. [Spontaneous speech prosody and discourse analysis in schizophrenia and Fronto Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Angela; Felizzola Donado, Carlos Alberto; Matallana Eslava, Diana Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) in their linguistic variants share some language characteristics such as the lexical access difficulties, disordered speech with disruptions, many pauses, interruptions and reformulations. For the schizophrenia patients it reflects a difficulty of affect expression, while for the FTD patients it reflects a linguistic issue. This study, through an analysis of a series of cases assessed Clinic both in memory and on the Mental Health Unit of HUSI-PUJ (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio), with additional language assessment (analysis speech and acoustic analysis), present distinctive features of the DFT in its linguistic variants and schizophrenia that will guide the specialist in finding early markers of a differential diagnosis. In patients with FTD language variants, in 100% of cases there is a difficulty understanding linguistic structure of complex type; and important speech fluency problems. In patients with schizophrenia, there are significant alterations in the expression of the suprasegmental elements of speech, as well as disruptions in discourse. We present how depth language assessment allows to reassess some of the rules for the speech and prosody analysis of patients with dementia and schizophrenia; we suggest how elements of speech are useful in guiding the diagnosis and correlate functional compromise in everyday psychiatrist's practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis Enemas de factor de crecimiento epidérmico para inducir la remisión de la colitis ulcerosa izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.Introducción: la colitis ulcerosa es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de etiología poco conocida, que afecta la mucosa del colon. El efecto positivo del factor de crecimiento epidérmico fue reportado en estudio previo con uso de

  9. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  10. Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: converging evidence for dissociable ventral and dorsal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J; Chafe, Chris H; Berger, Jonathan; Menon, Vinod

    2007-08-02

    The real world presents our sensory systems with a continuous stream of undifferentiated information. Segmentation of this stream at event boundaries is necessary for object identification and feature extraction. Here, we investigate the neural dynamics of event segmentation in entire musical symphonies under natural listening conditions. We isolated time-dependent sequences of brain responses in a 10 s window surrounding transitions between movements of symphonic works. A strikingly right-lateralized network of brain regions showed peak response during the movement transitions when, paradoxically, there was no physical stimulus. Model-dependent and model-free analysis techniques provided converging evidence for activity in two distinct functional networks at the movement transition: a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with detecting salient events, followed in time by a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with maintaining attention and updating working memory. Our study provides direct experimental evidence for dissociable and causally linked ventral and dorsal networks during event segmentation of ecologically valid auditory stimuli.

  11. Is Congenital Amusia a Disconnection Syndrome? A Study Combining Tract- and Network-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on congenital amusia mainly focused on the impaired fronto-temporal pathway. It is possible that neural pathways of amusia patients on a larger scale are affected. In this study, we investigated changes in structural connections by applying both tract-based and network-based analysis to DTI data of 12 subjects with congenital amusia and 20 demographic-matched normal controls. TBSS (tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect microstructural changes. The results showed that amusics had higher diffusivity indices in the corpus callosum, the right inferior/superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the right inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF. The axial diffusivity values of the right IFOF were negatively correlated with musical scores in the amusia group. Network-based analysis showed that the efficiency of the brain network was reduced in amusics. The impairments of WM tracts were also found to be correlated with reduced network efficiency in amusics. This suggests that impaired WM tracts may lead to the reduced network efficiency seen in amusics. Our findings suggest that congenital amusia is a disconnection syndrome.

  12. Is Congenital Amusia a Disconnection Syndrome? A Study Combining Tract- and Network-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Caicai; Wan, Shibiao; Peng, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on congenital amusia mainly focused on the impaired fronto-temporal pathway. It is possible that neural pathways of amusia patients on a larger scale are affected. In this study, we investigated changes in structural connections by applying both tract-based and network-based analysis to DTI data of 12 subjects with congenital amusia and 20 demographic-matched normal controls. TBSS (tract-based spatial statistics) was used to detect microstructural changes. The results showed that amusics had higher diffusivity indices in the corpus callosum, the right inferior/superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the right inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). The axial diffusivity values of the right IFOF were negatively correlated with musical scores in the amusia group. Network-based analysis showed that the efficiency of the brain network was reduced in amusics. The impairments of WM tracts were also found to be correlated with reduced network efficiency in amusics. This suggests that impaired WM tracts may lead to the reduced network efficiency seen in amusics. Our findings suggest that congenital amusia is a disconnection syndrome.

  13. Left Sided Trans-thoracic Esophagectomy for Resectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    patients with a lower third Esophageal and Gastro-Esophageal junction cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized .... augmenting the argument that radical lymphadenectomy doesn't add much to prognosis. Therefore, procedures with low morbidity and mortality such as the ...

  14. Linezolid as rescue treatment for left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Bruun, Louise E; Rasmussen, R V

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE...

  15. Left Side Appendicitis with Midgut Malrotation in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to now, surgical treatment has been guided by the experience from pediatric surgery and Ladd's procedure has been the treatment of choice in adults. However, a dilemma arises when patients are asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed with MMR during another abdominal affection such as appendicitis. Volvulus is ...

  16. intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-11-01

    Nov 1, 2000 ... our patients in Nigeria. This is because of poverty and low level of literacy. Furthermore, care of stoma is difficult and on account of ignorance and social taboo, our patients have a morbid aversion to colostomies(6,7). The performance of a one-stage operation, is therefore even more relevant in our society.

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of left-sided prosthetic heart valve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.; Symersky, Petr; van den Brink, Renee B.; de Mol, Bas A.; Mali, Willem P.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication. In clinical practice, PHV dysfunction poses a diagnostic dilemma. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques of choice and are routinely used in daily practice. However, these

  18. Diagnostic evaluation of left-sided prosthetic heart valve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.; Symersky, Petr; van den Brink, Renee B.; de Mol, Bas A.; Mali, Willem P.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication. In clinical practice, PHV dysfunction poses a diagnostic dilemma. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques of choice and are routinely used in daily practice. However, these

  19. How verbal and spatial manipulation networks contribute to calculation: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, L.; Petit, L.; Turbelin, M.R.; Anderson, F.; Vigneau, M.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Univ Paris 05, Univ Caen Basse Normandie, CEA, DSV, CNRS, CI NAPSUMR 6232, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The manipulation of numbers required during calculation is known to rely on working memory (WM) resources. Here, we investigated the respective contributions of verbal and/or spatial WM manipulation brain networks during the addition of four numbers performed by adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both manipulation and maintenance tasks were proposed with syllables, locations, or two-digit numbers. As compared to their maintenance, numbers manipulation (addition) elicited increased activation within a widespread cortical network including inferior temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions. Our results demonstrate that mastery of arithmetic calculation requires the cooperation of three WM manipulation systems: an executive manipulation system conjointly recruited by the three manipulation tasks, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the caudate nuclei; a left-lateralized, language-related, inferior fronto-temporal system elicited by numbers and syllables manipulation tasks required for retrieval, selection, and association of symbolic information; and a right superior and posterior fronto-parietal system elicited by numbers and locations manipulation tasks for spatial WM and attentional processes. Our results provide new information that the anterior intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) is involved in tasks requiring a magnitude processing with symbolic (numbers) and non-symbolic (locations) stimuli. Furthermore, the specificity of arithmetic processing is mediated by a left-hemispheric specialization of the anterior and posterior parts of the IPS as compared to a spatial task involving magnitude processing with non-symbolic material. (authors)

  20. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel triple repeat mutant tau transgenic model that mimics aspects of pick's disease and fronto-temporal tauopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rockenstein

    Full Text Available Tauopathies are a group of disorders leading to cognitive and behavioral impairment in the aging population. While four-repeat (4R Tau is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer's disease, three-repeat (3R Tau is the most abundant splice, in Pick's disease. A number of transgenic models expressing wild-type and mutant forms of the 4R Tau have been developed. However, few models of three-repeat Tau are available. A transgenic mouse model expressing three-repeat Tau was developed bearing the mutations associated with familial forms of Pick's disease (L266V and G272V mutations. Two lines expressing high (Line 13 and low (Line 2 levels of the three-repeat mutant Tau were analyzed. By Western blot, using antibodies specific to three-repeat Tau, Line 13 expressed 5-times more Tau than Line 2. The Tau expressed by these mice was most abundant in the frontal-temporal cortex and limbic system and was phosphorylated at residues detected by the PHF-1, AT8, CP9 and CP13 antibodies. The higher-expressing mice displayed hyperactivity, memory deficits in the water maze and alterations in the round beam. The behavioral deficits started at 6-8 months of age and were associated with a progressive increase in the accumulation of 3R Tau. By immunocytochemistry, mice from Line 13 displayed extensive accumulation of 3R Tau in neuronal cells bodies in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex, CA1-3 regions, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Aggregates in the granular cells had a globus appearance and mimic Pick's-like inclusions. There were abundant dystrophic neurites, astrogliosis and synapto-dendritic damage in the neocortex and hippocampus of the higher expresser line. The hippocampal lesions were moderately argyrophilic and Thioflavin-S negative. By electron microscopy, discrete straight filament aggregates were detected in some neurons in the hippocampus. This model holds promise for better understanding the natural history and progression of 3R tauopathies and their relationship with mitochondrial alterations and might be suitable for therapeutical testing.

  2. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-05-23

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia.

  3. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  4. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  5. Interaction of language, auditory and memory brain networks in auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Ford, Judith M; Hubl, Daniela; Orlov, Natasza D; Sommer, Iris E; Waters, Flavie; Allen, Paul; Jardri, Renaud; Woodruff, Peter W; David, Olivier; Mulert, Christoph; Woodward, Todd S; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH. We distinguish between functional connectivity during an actual hallucination experience (symptom capture) and functional connectivity during either the resting state or a task comparing individuals who hallucinate with those who do not (symptom association studies). Symptom capture studies clearly reveal a pattern of increased coupling among the auditory, language and striatal regions. Anatomical and symptom association functional studies suggest that the interhemispheric connectivity between posterior auditory regions may depend on the phase of illness, with increases in non-psychotic individuals and first episode patients and decreases in chronic patients. Leading hypotheses involving concepts as unstable memories, source monitoring, top-down attention, and hybrid models of hallucinations are supported in part by the published connectivity data, although several caveats and inconsistencies remain. Specifically, possible changes in fronto-temporal connectivity are still under debate. Precise hypotheses concerning the directionality of connections deduced from current theoretical approaches should be tested using experimental approaches that allow for discrimination of competing hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Lateralization effects on functional connectivity of the auditory network in patients with unilateral pulsatile tinnitus as detected by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Liu, Xuehuan; Ding, Heyu; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Xie, Jing; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Yuchen; Yang, Zhenghan; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2018-02-02

    Unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT) was proved to be a kind of disease with brain functional abnormalities within and beyond the auditory network (AN). However, changes in patterns of the lateralization effects of PT are yet to be established. Relationship between the AN and other brain networks in PT patients is also a scientific question need to be answered. In this study, we recruited 23 left-sided, 23 right-sided PT (LSPT, RSPT) patients and 23 normal controls (NC). We combined applied independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to investigate alteration feature of the FC of the AN by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Compared with NC, LSPT patients demonstrated disconnected FC within the AN on both sides. Disrupted network integrity between AN and several brain functional networks, including executive control network, self-perceptual network and the limbic network, was also demonstrated in LSPT patient group bilaterally. In contrast, compared with NC, RSPT demonstrated decreased FC within the AN on the left side, but significant increased FC within the AN on the right side (symptomatic side). Enhanced FC between AN and executive control network, self-perceptual network and limbic network was also found mainly on the right side in patients with RSPT. Positive FC between the auditory network and the limbic network may be a reason to explain why RSPT patients are willing to be in the clinic. Briefly, LSPT exhibit disrupted network integrity in brain functional networks. But RSPT is featured by enhanced FC within AN and between networks, especially on the right (symptomatic) side. Corroboration of featured FC helps to reveal the pathophysiological changing process of the brain in patients with PT, providing imaging-based biomarker to distinguish PT from other kind of tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Semi-quantitative analysis of perfusion of Brodmann areas in the differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfaglia, Cristina; Palumbo, Barbara; Siepi, Donatella; Sinzinger, Helmut; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2009-01-01

    Different perfusion defects reflect neurological damage characteristics of different kinds of dementia. Our aim was to investigate the role of brain single photon emission tomography (SPET) with semiquantitative analysis of Brodmann areas in dementia, by technetium-99m - hexamethyl-propylenamine- oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET with semiquantitative analysis of Brodmann areas in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We studied 75 patients, 25 with AD (NiNCDS ADRDA criteria), 25 with FTD (Lund and Manchester criteria), 25 with MCI (EADC criteria). After i.v. injection of 740MBq of (99m)Tc-HMPAO, each patient underwent brain SPET. A software application was used able to map the SPET brain image to a stereotaxic atlas (Talairach), providing an affine co-registration by blocks of data defined in the Talairach space. A normal database calculating voxel by voxel the mean and the standard deviation of the measured values was built. Functional SPET data of 3D regions of interest (ROI) of predefined Brodmann's area templates were compared with those of a database of healthy subjects of the same age and gender. Mean values obtained in the Brodmann area ROI in the different groups of patients studied were evaluated. Our results showed that different Brodmann areas were significantly impaired in the different categories of dementia subjects. Both areas 37 (temporal gyrus) and 39 (angular gyrus) of AD patients (mean+/-SD: 37L= -1.6+/-1.0; 37R= -1.5+/-1.1; 39L= -2.3+/-1.3; 39R= -1.9+/-1.2) showed significant hypoperfusion (Pareas 40 (supramarginal gyrus) (40L= -2.6+/-1.0; 40R= -2.3+/-1.1) with respect to MCI patients (40L= -1.8+/-0.9; 40R= -1.7+/-1.2). Finally, FTD patients showed significant hypoperfusion (Pareas 47 (frontal association cortex) (47L= -1.8+/-0.8; 47R= -1.1+/-0.8) in comparison with MCI subjects (47L= -1.2+/-0.9; 47R= -0.9+/-0.9). In conclusion, our results suggest that semiquantitative analysis of single Brodmann areas identify frontal area hypoperfusion in FTD patients and also parietal and temporal impairment in AD patients. In MCI patients, no hypoperfusion pattern is identified.

  8. Accuracy of multidetector CT in detecting anastomotic leaks following stapled left-sided colonic anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, P.; Karandikar, S.S.; Roy-Choudhury, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To assess accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and individual radiological signs in the diagnosis of anastomotic leaks. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing anterior resection with a stapled anastomosis over a 2 year period were identified. Electronic and clinical records of these patients were reviewed. Unenhanced and/or enhanced MDCT was performed with intravenous and/or per-rectal contrast medium and read by a radiologist blinded to the patients' clinical details to determine the sensitivity and specificity of specific findings at MDCT for identifying leaks. Results: Seventeen percent (30/170) of the anterior resections were suspected to have an anastomotic leak. Ninety-three percent (28/30) of patients underwent MDCT. Seven point six percent (11+2/170) had a confirmed leak. Two patients underwent surgery without MDCT. A leak was confirmed by MDCT in 91% (10/11) of patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT in diagnosing a leak was 0.91, 1, 1, and 0.95, respectively. The sensitivity of peri-anastomotic air, peri-anastomotic collection, extravasation of rectal contrast medium, and staple line integrity was 0.81, 0.63, 0.54, and 0.72, respectively. Use of rectal contrast medium (8/11 cases) increased the subjective ease of diagnosis and was the only sign in one patient. Conclusions: Presence of peri-anastomotic air is a reliable marker of anastomotic leaks at MDCT. Leakage of rectal contrast medium is highly accurate and increases confidence of diagnosis. The appearance of the staple line itself is not accurate in assessing anastomotic integrity

  9. Acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: clinical expressions, therapeutic insights, and role of computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic approach of patients with suspected acute diverticulitis remains debated. On the one hand, a scoring system with the best predictive value in diagnosing acute diverticulitis has been developed in order to reduce the use of computed tomography (CT) scan, while, on the other hand, patients with a high probability of acute diverticulitis should benefit from CT scan from a clinical viewpoint, ensuring that they will receive the most appropriate treatment. The place and classification of CT scan for acute diverticulitis need to be reassessed. If the management of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis, abscess, and fecal peritonitis is now well codified, urgent surgical or medical treatment of hemodynamically stable patients presenting with intraperitoneal air or fluid without uncontrolled sepsis is still under discussion. Furthermore, the indications for laparoscopic lavage are not yet well established. It is known for years that episode(s) of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis may induce painful recurrent bowel symptoms, known as symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease and irritable bowel syndrome-like diverticular disease. These two clinical expressions of diverticular disease, that may darken quality of life, are treated medically aimed at symptom relief. The possible place of surgery should be discussed. Clinical and CT scan classifications should be separated entities. PMID:27574459

  10. Acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: clinical expressions, therapeutic insights, and role of computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosetti P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Ambrosetti Department of Surgery, Clinique Générale Beaulieu, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: The diagnostic approach of patients with suspected acute diverticulitis remains debated. On the one hand, a scoring system with the best predictive value in diagnosing acute diverticulitis has been developed in order to reduce the use of computed tomography (CT scan, while, on the other hand, patients with a high probability of acute diverticulitis should benefit from CT scan from a clinical viewpoint, ensuring that they will receive the most appropriate treatment. The place and classification of CT scan for acute diverticulitis need to be reassessed. If the management of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis, abscess, and fecal peritonitis is now well codified, urgent surgical or medical treatment of hemodynamically stable patients presenting with intraperitoneal air or fluid without uncontrolled sepsis is still under discussion. Furthermore, the indications for laparoscopic lavage are not yet well established. It is known for years that episode(s of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis may induce painful recurrent bowel symptoms, known as symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease and irritable bowel syndrome-like diverticular disease. These two clinical expressions of diverticular disease, that may darken quality of life, are treated medically aimed at symptom relief. The possible place of surgery should be discussed. Clinical and CT scan classifications should be separated entities. Keywords: diverticulitis, urgent treatment, chronic symptoms, clinical and CT scan classifications

  11. Is delayed surgery related to worse outcomes in native left-sided endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsuwan, Thitipong; Rimsukcharoenchai, Chartaroon; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Woragidpoonpol, Surin; Schuarattanapong, Suphachai; Nawarawong, Weerachai

    2016-05-01

    Timing of surgery in the management of infective endocarditis is controversial, and there is still no definite conclusion on how early the surgery should be performed. This study focuses on the outcomes of surgery during the active period of infective endocarditis in consideration of the duration after diagnosis. One hundred and thirty-four patients with active native valve infective endocarditis who underwent surgery from January 2006 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided in 2 groups based on timing of surgery: early group (first week after diagnosis, n = 37) and delayed group (2 to 6 weeks after diagnosis, n = 97). Compared to the delayed group, the early group had significantly more patients in New York Heart Association class IV (81% vs. 43.3%), more mechanically ventilated (54.1% vs. 18.6%), more on inotropic support (62.2% vs. 38.1%), and hence a worse EuroSCORE II (14.8% vs. 8.8%). Operative mortality was comparable (5.4% vs. 10.3%) and 7-year survival was similar (77.4% vs. 74.6%). On multivariable regression analysis, delayed surgery did not impact on short- and long-term outcomes. Preoperative cardiac arrest and infection with Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, or Kingella were risk factors for higher operative mortality. Predictors of poor 7-year survival were diabetes mellitus and acute renal failure. Delayed surgery is not associated with worse outcomes. Both early and delayed approaches are safe and provide acceptable results. Timing of surgery should be tailored to each patient's clinical status, not based on duration of endocarditis alone. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Pitx2 prevents susceptibility to atrial arrhythmias by inhibiting left-sided pacemaker specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Klysik, Elzbieta; Sood, Subeena; Johnson, Randy L; Wehrens, Xander H T; Martin, James F

    2010-05-25

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent sustained cardiac arrhythmia, often coexists with the related arrhythmia atrial flutter (AFL). Limitations in effectiveness and safety of current therapies make an understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying AF more urgent. Genome-wide association studies implicated a region of human chromosome 4q25 in familial AF and AFL, approximately 150 kb distal to the Pitx2 homeobox gene, a developmental left-right asymmetry (LRA) gene. To investigate the significance of the 4q25 variants, we used mouse models to investigate Pitx2 in atrial arrhythmogenesis directly. When challenged by programmed stimulation, Pitx2(null+/-) adult mice had atrial arrhythmias, including AFL and atrial tachycardia, indicating that Pitx2 haploinsufficiency predisposes to atrial arrhythmias. Microarray and in situ studies indicated that Pitx2 suppresses sinoatrial node (SAN)-specific gene expression, including Shox2, in the left atrium of embryos and young adults. In vivo ChIP and transfection experiments indicated that Pitx2 directly bound Shox2 in vivo, supporting the notion that Pitx2 directly inhibits the SAN-specific genetic program in left atrium. Our findings implicate Pitx2 and Pitx2-mediated LRA-signaling pathways in prevention of atrial arrhythmias.

  13. Multicentre observational study of the natural history of left-sided acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, G A; Arezzo, A; Serventi, A; Bonelli, L; Facchini, M; Prandi, M; Carraro, P S; Reitano, M C; Clerico, G; Garibotto, L; Aloesio, R; Sganzaroli, A; Zanoni, M; Zanandrea, G; Pellegrini, F; Mancini, S; Amato, A; Barisone, P; Bottini, C; Altomare, D F; Milito, G

    2012-02-01

    The natural history of acute diverticulitis (AD) is still unclear. This study investigated the recurrence rate, and the risks of emergency surgery, associated stoma and death following initial medical or surgical treatment of AD. The Italian Study Group on Complicated Diverticulosis conducted a 4-year multicentre retrospective and prospective database analysis of patients admitted to hospital for medical or surgical treatment of AD and then followed for a minimum of 9 years. The persistence of symptoms, recurrent episodes of AD, new hospital admissions, medical or surgical treatment, and their outcome were recorded during follow-up. Of 1046 patients enrolled at 17 centres, 743 were eligible for the study (407 recruited retrospectively and 336 prospectively); 242 patients (32·6 per cent) underwent emergency surgery at accrual. After a mean follow-up of 10·7 years, rates of recurrence (17·2 versus 5·8 per cent; P recurrence. There was no association between any of the investigated parameters and subsequent emergency surgery. The risk of stoma formation was below 1 per cent and disease-related mortality was zero in this group. The disease-related mortality rate was 0·6 per cent among patients who had surgical treatment. Long-term risks of recurrent AD or emergency surgery were limited and colectomy did not fully protect against recurrence. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Radiation induced cardiotoxicity in left sided breast cancer - Where do we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Alice Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women, with around a million new cases diagnosed each year worldwide. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT is an important component of therapy for many women with early-stage breast cancer. With improving survival rates following breast cancer, patients are increasingly likely to die of other causes. As a result, long-term adverse effects of treatment are of major concern. To determine which treatment is optimal, clinician need to be aware of long-term risks and benefits of adjuvant therapies. An awareness of the potential cardiotoxicity of RT led to the application of improved RT techniques that minimize the irradiation to the heart. Although new techniques, including intensity-modulated RT combined with free breathing gating and helical tomotherapy may further reduce radiation-induced cardiac toxicities, the most important factors in limiting cardiac radiation are associated with the techniques used and the skill of the radiation oncologist.

  15. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  16. Falciform ligament abscess from left sided portal pyaemia following malignant obstructive cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Leigh R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abscess formation of the falciform ligament is incredibly rare and perplexing when encountered for the first time. It is reported to occur in the setting of cholecystitis and cholangitis, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. In this case report, we present a 73-year-old man with falciform ligament abscess following cholangitis from an obstructive ampullary carcinoma. The patient was referred to the Royal Adelaide Hospital from a country hospital, with progressive jaundice, anorexia and nausea. Prior to transfer, he deteriorated with cholangitis, dehydration and renal failure. On arrival, his abdomen was exquisitely tender along the course of the falciform ligament. His blood tests revealed an elevated white cell count of 14.9 x 103/μl, bilirubin of 291μmol/l and creatinine of 347 μmol/l. His CA 19-9 was markedly elevated at 35,000 kU/l. A non-contrast computed tomography (CT demonstrated gross biliary dilatation and a collection tracking along the path of the falciform ligament to the umbilicus. The patient was commenced on intravenous antibiotics and underwent an urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP with sphincterotomy and biliary stent drainage. Cholangiogram revealed a grossly dilated biliary tree, with abrupt transition at the ampulla, which on biopsy confirmed an obstructing ampullary carcinoma. Following ERCP, his jaundice and abdominal tenderness resolved. He was optimized over 4 weeks for an elective pancreaticoduodenectomy. At operation, we found abscess transformation of the falciform ligament. Copious amounts of pus and necrotic material was drained. Part of the round ligament was resected along the undersurface of the liver. Histology showed that there was prominent histiocytic inflammation with granular acellular eosinophilic components. The patient recovered slowly but uneventfully. A contrast CT scan undertaken 2 weeks post-operatively (approximately 7 weeks after the initial CT revealed left portal venous thrombosis, which was likely to be a delayed discovery and was managed conservatively. We present this patient’s operative images and radiographic findings, which may explain the pathophysiology behind this rare complication. We hypothesize that cholangitis, with secondary portal pyaemia and tracking via the paraumbilical veins, can cause infectious seeding of the falciform ligament, with consequent abscess formation.

  17. Right or left? Side selection for a totally implantable vascular access device: a randomised observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ying; Lin, Chih-Peng; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Lee, Ying-Hui; Lin, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Meng-Chi; Shao, Yu-Yun

    2017-09-26

    Totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD)-related complications interfere in the anticancer treatment and increase medical expenses. We examined whether the implantation side of central line TIVADs is associated with the occurrence of thrombotic or occlusion events. We enrolled patients with cancer who required central line TIVADs and randomised them to receive the TIVAD implantation on either the left or right side. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of catheter-related thrombotic or occlusion events. We randomised 240 patients, of which 235 received TIVAD implantation according to the protocol. In the per-protocol cohort, 117 and 118 patients received implantation on the left and right sides, respectively. Catheter-related thrombotic or occlusion events occurred in 9 (4%) patients, accounting for 0.065 events per 1000 catheter-days. Between the patients with left- and right-sided implantations, the occurrence rates (P=0.333) and the time from catheter implantation to the occurrence of thrombotic or occlusion events (P=0.328) were both similar. In the multivariate analysis, the side of implantation remained unassociated with the occurrence of thrombotic or occlusion events. The side of central line TIVAD implantation was not associated with the occurrence of catheter-related thrombotic or occlusion events in patients with cancer.

  18. Colonoscopy after Hinchey I and II left-sided diverticulitis: utility or futility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Avery S; Bingham, Jason R; Janssen, Karmon M; Johnson, Eric K; Maykel, Justin A; Ocampo, Omar; Gonzalez, John P; Steele, Scott R

    2016-11-01

    Modern 64- to 128-slice computed tomography (CT) scanners have questioned the need for routine colonoscopy after hospital admission for presumed uncomplicated diverticulitis. This is a retrospective review of all patients (>18 years) who underwent planned colonoscopy after admission for Hinchey I or II acute diverticulitis (January 2009 to January 2014). The findings on the final radiologist report were then correlated with the colonoscopy results. In total, 110 patients (mean age, 55.2 ± 16; 46.4% female) underwent a subsequent colonoscopy (median, 60 days) after admission for diverticulitis. Overall, 102 patients (92.7%) had CT findings consistent with definitive diverticulitis, 6 patients had a diagnosis suggestive of diverticulitis on CT scan, and 2 patients had masses on their admission CT scans. Within the group with definitive diverticulitis, follow-up colonoscopy identified diverticulosis in 99 (97.0%), whereas the other 3 had normal findings. Of the patients with CT scans suggestive of diverticulitis, follow-up colonoscopy showed 3 with diverticulosis, 2 with malignancies, and 1 with nonspecific inflammation. The reliability of CT scans for diverticulitis compared with colonoscopy was found to have a kappa = .829 (P diverticulitis in the absence of other concerning or indeterminate findings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...

  20. Prevalence and Outcomes of Left-Sided Valvular Heart Disease Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Zainab; Sivak, Joseph A; Phelan, Matthew; Schulte, Phillip J; Patel, Uptal; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-10-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an adverse prognostic marker for valve intervention patients; however, the prevalence and related outcomes of valvular heart disease in CKD patients is unknown. Included patients underwent echocardiography (1999-2013), had serum creatinine values within 6 months before index echocardiogram, and had no history of valve surgery. CKD was defined as diagnosis based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . Qualitative assessment determined left heart stenotic and regurgitant valve lesions. Cox models assessed CKD and aortic stenosis (AS) interaction for subsequent mortality; analyses were repeated for mitral regurgitation (MR). Among 78 059 patients, 23 727 (30%) had CKD; of these, 1326 were on hemodialysis. CKD patients were older; female; had a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, history of coronary artery bypass grafting/percutaneous coronary intervention, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure ≥mild AS; and ≥mild MR (all P <0.001). Five-year survival estimates of mild, moderate, and severe AS for CKD patients were 40%, 34%, and 42%, respectively, and 69%, 54%, and 67% for non-CKD patients. Five-year survival estimates of mild, moderate, and severe MR for CKD patients were 51%, 38%, and 37%, respectively, and 75%, 66%, and 65% for non-CKD patients. Significant interaction occurred among CKD, AS/MR severity, and mortality in adjusted analyses; the CKD hazard ratio increased from 1.8 (non-AS patients) to 2.0 (severe AS) and from 1.7 (non-MR patients) to 2.6 (severe MR). Prevalence of at least mild AS and MR is substantially higher and is associated with significantly lower survival among patients with versus without CKD. There is significant interaction among CKD, AS/MR severity, and mortality, with increasingly worse outcomes for CKD patients with increasing AS/MR severity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. Absorption of wheat starch in patients resected for left-sided colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Rumessen, J J; Nielsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate in the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)--and especially butyrate--has been shown possibly to impede cell proliferation and regulate cell differentiation of colonocytes. In patients with diverticular disease or benign polyps in the colon...... a hyperabsorption of potato starch in the small intestine has been found. We have investigated the absorption of wheat starch in 15 patients radically resected for cancer in the descending or sigmoid colon, and the results were compared with those of 15 healthy controls. The starch malabsorption was quantified...... also similar in patients and controls. The results do not support the theory that hyperabsorption of starch is characteristic of patients with malignant disease in the large intestine....

  2. THE URBAN GENESIS IN THE WEST OF BAHIA, BRAZIL: CLUSTERS AND THE TOWN’S NETWORK IN NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iann Dellano da Silva Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analysis the process that defined the urban network’s spatial form in the west of Bahia, Brazil, in the past, demonstrating the function the center’s Barra, like a main center of commercial’s interchangeable in the region, from the colonial time. To understand the initial process of development any urban network, it’s necessary to verify elements like the genesis, geographic position, size and urban functions of the centers, beyond spatial interactions caused by these urban functions, like a interchangeable of the people, goods, capital and information, and urban network’s spatial form (CORRÊA, 2000. The discussion starts about the occupation on the left side of river São Francisco, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, occurred from second part sixteenth century (IBGE, 1958, and ends identifying the urban network genesis in the end nineteenth century (SANTOS FILHO, 1989.

  3. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  4. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  5. Lateralization of Brain Networks and Clinical Severity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A HARDI Diffusion MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Eugenia; Calderoni, Sara; Gaglianese, Anna; Pannek, Kerstin; Mazzotti, Sara; Rose, Stephen; Scelfo, Danilo; Tosetti, Michela; Muratori, Filippo; Cioni, Giovanni; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in adolescents and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have reported a loss or an inversion of the typical left-right lateralization in fronto-temporal regions crucial for sociocommunicative skills. No studies explored atypical lateralization in toddlers and its correlation with clinical severity of ASD. We recruited a cohort of 20 subjects aged 36 months or younger receiving a first clinical diagnosis of ASD (15 males; age range 20-36 months). Patients underwent diffusion MRI (High-Angular-Resolution Diffusion Imaging protocol). Data from cortical parcellation were combined with tractography to obtain a connection matrix and diffusion indexes (DI ) including mean fractional anisotropy (DFA ), number of tracts (DNUM ), and total tract length (DTTL ). A laterality index was generated for each measure, and then correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) total score. Laterality indexes of DFA were significantly correlated with ADOS-G total scores only in two intrafrontal connected areas (correlation was positive in one case and negative in the other). Laterality indexes of DTTL and DNUM showed significant negative correlations (P connected areas, mainly fronto-temporal. This study provides first evidence of a significant correlation between brain lateralization of diffusion indexes and clinical severity in toddlers with a first diagnosis of ASD. Significant correlations mainly involved regions within the fronto-temporal circuits, known to be crucial for sociocommunicative skills. It is of interest that all correlations but one were negative, suggesting an inversion of the typical left-right asymmetry in subjects with most severe clinical impairment. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparative study to determine the need for intraoperative colonic irrigation for primary anastomosis in left-sided colonic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, H; Biondo, S; Ciga, M A; Kreisler, E; Oteiza, F; Fraccalvieri, D

    2009-07-01

    To compare the outcome of resection and primary anastomoses in patients undergoing emergency surgery of the left colon with and without intraoperative colonic irrigation. From January 2004 to December 2006, 102 consecutive patients with acute occlusion or perforation of the left colon were operated on an emergency basis in two Coloproctology units. According to the sample size calculation, 61 patients from one unit underwent surgery with intraoperative colonic irrigation, whereas 41 patients from the second unit underwent surgery without intraoperative colonic irrigation. The endpoints were mortality and morbidity. Thirty (49.2%) patients with intraoperative colonic irrigation and 8 (19.5%) without colonic irrigation developed one or more complications postoperatively (odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-10.0, P = 0.002). An increased number of wound infections was seen in the group managed with colonic irrigation 15 vs 3 (P = 0.034). The postoperative mortality rate and the occurrence of dehiscence of the anastomoses were similar in both study groups. The present findings indicate that resection and primary anastomosis in patients undergoing emergency surgery of the left colon can be safely performed without intraoperative colonic irrigation.

  7. Does mean heart dose sufficiently reflect coronary artery exposure in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Influence of respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Stockhammer, Maxi; Franz, Heiko; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    With extensive use of systemic treatment, the issue of cardiac mortality after breast cancer radiation (RT) is still important. The aim of our analysis was to clarify whether the dose to one surrogate parameter (e. g., mean heart dose, as used in most studies) reflects the dose to the other cardiovascular structures especially the left anterior descending artery depending on breathing-adapted RT. A total of 130 patients who underwent adjuvant RT (50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy) were evaluated. In all, 71 patients were treated with free-breathing and 59 patients using respiratory monitoring (gated RT). Dosimetric associations were calculated. The mean dose to the heart (Dmean heart) was reduced from 2.7 (0.8-5.2) Gy to 2.4 (1.1-4.6) Gy, the Dmean LAD (left anterior descending artery) decreased from 11.1 (1.3-28.6) Gy to 9.3 (2.2-19.9) Gy with gated RT (p = 0.04). A significant relationship was shown for Dmean heart -Dmean LAD, V25heart-Dmean LAD and Dmax heart-Dmax LAD for gated patients only (p < 0.01). For every 1 Gy increase in Dmean heart, mean LAD doses rose by 3.6 Gy, without gating V25 ≤5 % did not assure a benefit and resulted in Dmean LAD between 1.3 and 28.6 Gy. A significant reduction and association of heart and coronary artery (LAD) doses using inspiratory gating was shown. However, in free-breathing plans commonly measured dose constraints do not allow precise estimation of the dose to the coronary arteries. (orig.) [de

  8. Neurohormones as markers of right- and left-sided cardiac dimensions and function in patients with untreated chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Per; Appel, Jon

    2005-01-01

    was normal in all subjects as well as right ventricular volumes. Likewise, on average, the lung transit time (LTT) was normal. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) significantly correlated with LVEF, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) and left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI......). Adrenaline correlated significantly with both right ventricular end-diastolic volume index and right ventricular end-systolic volume index. Lung transit time correlated with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and BNP (only ANP in multivariate analysis). CONCLUSIONS: (1) BNP reflects the LVEF as well...

  9. Descriptive Analysis of Right and Left-sided Traumatic Diaphragmatic Injuries; Case Series from a Single Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Hassan; Jabbour, Gaby; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presentation, management and outcomes of left and right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic injury (TDI) in a single level I trauma center. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 7-year period from 2008 to 2015 in a level I trauma center in Qatar. We included all the patients who presented with TDIs during the study period. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, initial vitals, emergency department disposition, length of ICU and hospital stay, ventilator days, management, and outcomes. The variables were analyzed and compared for patients with left (LTDI) and right (RTDI). Results: A total of 52 TDI cases (79% LTDI and 21% RTDI) were identified with a mean age of 31±11. LTDI patients were more likely to have higher Injury severity scores (p=0.50) and greater AAST organ injury scoring (p=0.661 for all) than RTDI patients. Surgical repair was performed for 85% LTDI vs. 73% RTDI (p=0.342). Recurrent DIs was reported only in LTDI (5.1% vs. 0.0%; p=0.911). Twelve patients died (9 LTDI and 3 RTDI), of them 5 had associated head injury. Conclusion: This single-institution study confirms that LTDI are more commonly diagnosed than RTDI. Exploratory laparotomy is the most frequent procedure considered for the management of diaphragmatic injuries in the emergency settings. To improve outcomes in patients presenting with TDI, large prospective multicenter studies are needed to standardize the TDI management protocols including the diagnostic workup, timing of surgical intervention, and the most appropriate approach of treatment.  PMID:29379805

  10. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo

    2002-01-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 ±3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 ±3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9±2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8±2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD

  11. US-guided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: comparative study of right-sided and left-sided approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Soon Joo [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    To compare the feasibility and safety of US-guided right and left percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Between March 1998 and May 1999, 32 patients underwent 36 US-guided right or left PTBD in referred order, alternatively. The causes of biliary obstruction were bile duct stone (n=2), bile duct carcinoma (n=10), carcinoma of the pancreas (n=9), GB carcinoma (n=7), metastasis to the porta hepatis (n=3), and carcinoma of the ampulla of vater (n=1). Technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopic time, and complications were evaluated. PTBD was successful in 94% of both right and left approach. The average procedure time was 9.7 {+-}3.8 min. in the right approach and 9.6 {+-}3.1 min. in the left approach, respectively (p=0.794). The average fluoroscopic time were 3.9{+-}2.4 min. in the right approach and 3.8{+-}2.2 min. in the left approach (p=0.892). A major complication, bile peritonitis, occurred in one of 16 patient with right-sided approach. Minor complications occurred in six right (2 hemobilia, 3 tube malfunction, 1 cholangitis) and three left (1 hemobilia, 1 fever, 1cholangitis) PTBD. There were no significant difference in the complication rates between right and left PTBD (p=0.729). There were no significant differences in feasibility and safety in US-guided right and left PTBD.

  12. The relationship between cerebrovascular complications and previously established use of antiplatelet therapy in left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate....

  13. Endoscopic stenting as bridge-to-surgery (BTS) in left-sided obstructing colorectal cancer: Experience with conformable stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Andrea; De Ceglie, Antonella; De Luca, Luca; Conigliaro, Rita; Naspetti, Riccardo; Arpe, Paola; Coccia, Gianni; Conio, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    Compared to emergency surgery, self-expandable metallic stents are effective and safe when used as bridge-to-surgery (BTS) in operable patients with acute colorectal cancer obstruction. In this study, we report data on the new conformable colonic stents. To evaluate clinical effectiveness of conformable stents as BTS in patients with acute colorectal cancer obstruction. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at six Italian Endoscopic Units. Data about patients with acute malignant colorectal obstruction were collected between 2007 and 2012. All patients were treated with conformable stents as BTS. Technical success, clinical success, rate of primary anastomosis and colostomy, early and late complications were evaluated. Data about 88 patients (62 males) were reviewed in this study. Conformable SEMS were correctly deployed in 86 out of 88 patients, with resolution of obstruction in all treated patients. Tumor resection with primary anastomosis was possible in all patients. A temporary colostomy was performed in 40. Early complications did not occur. Late complications occurred in 11 patients. Stent migration was significantly higher in patients treated with partially-covered stents compared to the uncovered group (35% vs. 0%, P<0.001). Endoscopical re-intervention was required in 12% of patients. One patient with rectal cancer had an anastomotic dehiscence after surgery and he was successfully treated with endoscopic clipping. One year after surgery, all patients were alive and local recurrence have not been documented. This was a retrospective and uncontrolled study. Preliminary data from this large case series are encouraging, with a high rate of technical and clinical success and low rate of clinically relevant complications. Partially-covered SEMS should be avoided in order to reduce the risk of endoscopic re-intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Does mean heart dose sufficiently reflect coronary artery exposure in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Influence of respiratory gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina [Klinikum Braunschweig, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Braunschweig (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Radiation Oncology, Hannover (Germany); Stockhammer, Maxi; Franz, Heiko [Klinikum Braunschweig, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Braunschweig (Germany); Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Fabian [Klinikum Braunschweig, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    With extensive use of systemic treatment, the issue of cardiac mortality after breast cancer radiation (RT) is still important. The aim of our analysis was to clarify whether the dose to one surrogate parameter (e. g., mean heart dose, as used in most studies) reflects the dose to the other cardiovascular structures especially the left anterior descending artery depending on breathing-adapted RT. A total of 130 patients who underwent adjuvant RT (50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy) were evaluated. In all, 71 patients were treated with free-breathing and 59 patients using respiratory monitoring (gated RT). Dosimetric associations were calculated. The mean dose to the heart (Dmean heart) was reduced from 2.7 (0.8-5.2) Gy to 2.4 (1.1-4.6) Gy, the Dmean LAD (left anterior descending artery) decreased from 11.1 (1.3-28.6) Gy to 9.3 (2.2-19.9) Gy with gated RT (p = 0.04). A significant relationship was shown for Dmean{sub heart}-Dmean LAD, V25heart-Dmean LAD and Dmax heart-Dmax LAD for gated patients only (p < 0.01). For every 1 Gy increase in Dmean heart, mean LAD doses rose by 3.6 Gy, without gating V25 ≤5 % did not assure a benefit and resulted in Dmean LAD between 1.3 and 28.6 Gy. A significant reduction and association of heart and coronary artery (LAD) doses using inspiratory gating was shown. However, in free-breathing plans commonly measured dose constraints do not allow precise estimation of the dose to the coronary arteries. (orig.) [German] Das Risiko kardialer Spaetfolgen nach Bestrahlung (RT) eines Mammakarzinoms spielt insbesondere auch aufgrund der zunehmenden systemischen Begleittherapien eine wichtige Rolle. Unklar ist, welche koronaren und/oder myokardialen Mechanismen hier entscheidend sind. Der Einfluss der Atemtriggerung und der daraus resultierenden geometrischen Lagevariabilitaet der Risikoorgane auf die Dosisverteilung am Herzen/Koronarien sollte geprueft werden, um zu klaeren, inwieweit die mittlere Herzdosis ein ausreichender Surrogatparameter fuer die Dosisbelastung der Koronarien ist. Ausgewertet wurden 130 Patientinnen mit Mammakarzinom, die mit einer adjuvanten RT (50,4 Gy + Boost 9-16 Gy) bestrahlt wurden. Hiervon wurden 71 Patientinnen in freier Atmung und 59 Patientinnen inspiratorisch atemgetriggert bestrahlt. Des Weiteren wurde die kardiale/koronare Dosisbelastung mit und ohne Atemtriggerung verglichen. Die mittlere Herdosis (Dmean Herz) wurde durch Atemtriggerung von 2,7 Gy (Spanne 0,8-5,2 Gy) auf 2,4 Gy (Spanne 1,1-4,6 Gy) reduziert. Die mittlere LAD-Dosis (''left anterior descending artery'', Ramus interventricularis anterior, RIVA) nahm mit Atemtriggerung von 11,1 Gy (Spanne 1,3-28,6 Gy) auf 9,3 Gy (Spanne 2,2-19,9 Gy) ab (p = 0,04). Die Dosisparameter Dmean Herz - Dmean LAD, V25 Herz - Dmean LAD und Dmax Herz - Dmax LAD waren nur fuer atemgetriggerte Faelle signifikant korrelierbar (p < 0,01), mit einem durchschnittlichen Anstieg der mittleren LAD-Dosis von 3,6 Gy pro 1 Gy mittlere Herzdosis. Bei einer nicht-atemgetriggerten RT lagen die mittleren LAD-Dosen zwischen 1,3 und 28,6 Gy trotz V25 ≤5 %. Unter Einsatz einer atemgetriggerten Bestrahlungstechnik lassen sich sowohl die mittlere Herz- als auch die LAD-Dosis senken und die kardialen Dosisparameter miteinander korrelieren. Fuer die RT ohne Atemtriggerung laesst sich die LAD-Belastung jedoch nicht sicher abschaetzen. (orig.)

  15. Gait COP trajectory of left side hip-dislocation and scoliotic patient using ankle-foot orthoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Albert K.; Alrikabi, Redha; Milburn, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Plantar pressure-sensing mats and insole plantar sensor pads are ideal low-cost alternatives to force plates for capturing plantar COP excursion during gait. The acquired COP traces, in the form of pedobarographic images are favored by many clinicians and allied health professionals for evaluation of foot loading and balance in relation to foot biomechanics, foot injury, foot deformation, and foot ulceration. Researchers have recommended the use of COP trace for the biomechanical study of the deformed foot and lower-limb to improve orthosis design and testing. A correctly designed orthoses improves mobility and reduces pain in the foot, lower limb and lower spine region during gait. The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of two types of orthosis, namely: a custom-molded orthosis and an over-the-counter molded orthosis to determine the quality of gait of an adult scoliotic patient. COP trace patterns were compared with those of a healthy adult and showed the design of the custom-molded orthosis resulted in an improved quality of movements and provided enhanced stability for the deformed left foot during gait.

  16. Left sided circumaortic and retroaortic left renal veins, renal artery arising from iliac common artery in L-shaped kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Renal ectopia is a congenital anomaly with variable clinical presentation. Kidneys are normally located in the retroperitoneal position, on either side of vertebral column, against the psoas muscles but when not at such position, it is called renal ectopia or ectopic kidney. Ectopic kidneys are thought to occur in approximately 1 in 1,000 births but only about 1 in 10 of these is ever diagnosed. In 90% of crossed ectopy, there is at least partial fusion of the kidneys. Left-to right ectopy is thought to be three times more common. Some of these are discovered incidentally, when a child or adult is having ultrasonography for a medical condition unrelated to renal ectopia. In a crossed fused renal ectopic kidney, complications such as nephrolithiasis, infection, and hydronephrosis approaches over 50%. Simple renal ectopia refers to kidney that is located on the proper side but abnormal in position. Crossed renal ectopia was first described by Pannorlus in 1964 and refer to kidney that has crossed from left to right or vice-versa, with moving of one kidney to the opposite side following ascent of the other kidney, so that both kidneys are located on the same side of the body, mostly fused called crossed fused ectopia. The fusion of the two kidneys is believed to result from (1) failure of the primitive nephrogenic cell masses to separate or (2) fusion of the two blastemas during their abdominal ascent. Discussion: A 57-year-old woman with a new found hematological disease. CT exam was performed with intravenous application of contrast media. Like an additional findings we visualized the presence of right to-left ectopy (L - shaped kidney) and the presence of left circumaortic renal vein emanating from a normally situated left kidney and retroaortic renal vein as having been located by the ectopic right kidney. Conclusion: By crossed renal ectopia is meant congenital displacement of one kidney to the opposite side. The conditional may present in any of three forms: 1) the two kidneys may be fused, as most of the cases are, 2) the two kidneys may lie of one side without fusion and 3) it may present as a solitary crossed renal ectopia - the rarest form. The abnormal kidney position and the anomalous kidney supply may impede drainage from the collecting system, creating a predisposition to urinary tract infection and calculus formation. The colic in this patient sometimes is misdiagnosed how abdominal disease. The usual method of detection was excretory urography but now ultrasonography and CT have showed more cases

  17. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  18. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  19. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  20. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi...

  1. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  2. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  3. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  4. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  5. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  6. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  7. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  8. Alliance networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sroka, Władzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of cooperation in network organizations. The structure of the text is divided into a couple of parts. Firstly, the increasing importance of alliance networks is described. Secondly, the concept of alliance networks as well as the essence of multinational corporations are presented. Beside theoretical deliberations, two practical cases are presented in the text too. First case relates to the Toyota keiretsu and the second one describes the network organizati...

  9. Network Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the

  10. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    message symbols downstream, network coding achieves vast performance gains by permitting intermediate nodes to carry out algebraic oper- ations on the incoming data. In this article we present a tutorial introduction to network coding as well as an application to the e±cient operation of distributed data-storage networks.

  11. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  12. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  13. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  14. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  15. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  16. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN......Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential...

  17. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  18. Innovation networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrweiler, Petra; Keane, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Ind...

  19. Overlay Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kronstrand, Alexander; Holmqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, optical fiber is widely used in several areas, especially in communication networking. The main reason is that optical fiber has low attenuation and high bandwidth. However, the switching functionality is performed in the electrical domain (inside the router), thus we have transmission delays in the network lanes. In this study we explore the possibility of developing a hardware “plug-in” that can be connected in parallel with routers of the network enabling the router with “plug-in...

  20. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  1. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  2. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...

  3. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  4. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  5. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  6. Bipartite Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Moser, C.; Barnett, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite networks refer to a specific kind of network in which the nodes (or actors) can be partitioned into two subsets based on the fact that no links exist between actors within each subset, but only between the two subsets. Due to the partition of actors in two sets and the absence of relations

  7. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  8. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...

  9. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  10. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...... elementsdistinguishing the types of network behaviour in relation to the business typology.The paper thus strives to argue how different business typologies develop anetwork identity on the basis of their network behaviour. Due to the correlationbetween a company's strategy, structure and processes and its pattern...

  11. Technological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  12. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  13. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  14. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  15. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  16. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    -Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network......It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...... architecture of ‘Hovering Ad-hoc Network (HANET)’ for the latter will be deployed to assist and manage the overloaded primary base stations enhancing the on-demand coverage and capacity of the entire system. Proposed modes can either operate independently or as a cascaded architecture to form a Heterodox...

  17. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...... the organizational forms discussed in the paper. It is asserted that the underlying organizational phenomena are not changing but that the manifestations and representations are shifting due to technological developments....

  18. Pintadas network

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria do Carmo Meirelles T.

    2006-01-01

    The Pintadas Network has been organized in Pintadas, a small municipality (11.254 inhabitants) in Bahia, located in the semi-arid region. It has been composed by civil society organizacions (social, productive, cultural and religious organizations and a credit cooperative), with support from the local town hall and from national and international institutions. The Network is a space for articulation, which intends to formulate, execute, follow-up, inspect and evaluate the municipal public pol...

  19. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  20. Network Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    n Vlog n ), which is a linear time algorithm for all but the sparsest classes of shortest path problems. 3.4. Label Correcting Algorithms Label...11962] (Programming , Games and Transportation Networks), Iri (1969] (Network Flows, Transportation and Scheduling), Hu [1969] (Integer Programming and...though the improvements are not as dramatic as they have been for E>inic’s and the FIFO preflow push algorithms. For example, the 0(nm + n^ Vlog U

  1. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  2. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  3. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  4. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  5. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...

  6. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  7. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  8. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...

  9. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control...

  10. Prospective assessment of deep inspiration breath-hold using 3-dimensional surface tracking for irradiation of left-sided breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguturi, Shyam K; Lyatskaya, Yulia; Chen, Yuhui; Catalano, Paul J; Chen, Ming Hui; Yeo, Wee-Pin; Marques, Alex; Truong, Linh; Yeh, Mary; Orlina, Lawrence; Wong, Julia S; Punglia, Rinaa S; Bellon, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) is used to decrease cardiac irradiation during radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. The patients most likely to benefit and the impact on treatment time remain largely unknown. We sought to identify predictors for the use of DIBH and to quantify differences in dosimetry and treatment time using a prospective registry. A total of 150 patients with left breast cancer were enrolled. All patients were simulated with both free breathing (FB) and DIBH. RT was delivered by either modality. Alternate scans were planned with use of deformable registration to include identical RT volumes. DIBH patients were monitored by a real-time surface tracking system, AlignRT (Vision RT, Ltd, London, United Kingdom). Baseline characteristics and treatment times were compared by Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Dosimetric endpoints were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test, and linear regression identified predictors for change in mean heart dose (∆MHD). We treated 38 patients with FB and 110 with DIBH. FB patients were older, more likely to have heart and lung disease, and less likely to receive chemotherapy or immediate reconstruction (all P 20 cGy improvement in MHD in 107 patients but a >20 cGy increase in MHD in 14. Both MHD and lung V20 were significantly lower in DIBH than in paired FB plans. On multivariate analysis, younger age (4.18 cGy per year; P < .0001), higher body mass index (6.06 cGy/kg/m(2); P = .0018), and greater change in lung volumes (130 cGy/L; P = .003) were associated with greater ∆MHD. DIBH improves cardiac dosimetry without significantly impacting treatment time in most patients. Greater inspiratory lung volumes augment this benefit. Because the improvement with DIBH was not uniform, patients should be scanned with both FB and DIBH. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of the an......BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring......-sided colonic resection. Time for evacuation of the anastomotic rings, perioperative compression pressure, and adverse effects were recorded. Postoperative blood samples were collected daily, and flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed 8-12 weeks after surgery to examine the anastomoses. RESULTS: Fourteen out...

  12. Arteriovenous renal replacement therapy in end-stage left-sided heart failure patients has a detrimental effect on patients with impaired right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasos, Evangelos; Kaldara, Elisabeth; Pantsios, Christos; Kapelios, Chris; Nana, Emmeleia; Vernadakis, Spiridon; Melexopoulou, Christina; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Boletis, John; Nanas, John N

    Chronic intermittent renal replacement therapy(RRT) is an alternate method of decongestion for patients presenting with diuretic-resistant, end-stage heart failure(HF) and cardiorenal syndrome. The optimal method of vascular access has not been confirmed. This study investigated the 6-month outcomes of patients with end-stage HF after the creation of arteriovenous communications (AVC) compared with other means of RRT. We treated 40 patients with chronic, intermittent, ambulatory RRT, of whom 15 (37.5%; Group A) underwent creation of AVC, and 25 (62.5%; Group B) received intraperitoneal (n=6) or internal jugular catheters (n=19) with the goal of achieving body weight stabilization and relief from congestion. The characteristics of the two groups were similar. According to Cox regression analysis, the 6-month rate of death or re-hospitalization for HF was significantly higher in Group A (73%) than in Group B (44%); hazard ratio (HR): 2.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.2; P=0.02. Over a 6-month follow-up, the cumulative survival was significantly shorter (P=0.03) in Group A (13.8±10 weeks) than in Group B (20.7±7 weeks). In the 15 patients who received AVC, the only independent predictor of adverse outcome at 6 months was serum total bilirubin concentration (HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.7, p=0.02), whereas in the 25 patients who underwent other means of RRT, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was identified as a risk factor for hospitalization or death at 1-year follow-up (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.1-1.57, p=0.04). In patients with end-stage HF, the creation of AVC for intermittent RRT was followed by a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in comparison to the safe and effective placement of permanent central venous catheters. Patients with elevated PVR seem to comprise a group at high risk for adverse outcomes after central catheter insertion. Copyright © 2016 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Arteriovenous renal replacement therapy in end-stage left-sided heart failure patients has a detrimental effect on patients with impaired right ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Repasos, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In patients with end-stage HF, the creation of AVC for intermittent RRT was followed by a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in comparison to the safe and effective placement of permanent central venous catheters. Patients with elevated PVR seem to comprise a group at high risk for adverse outcomes after central catheter insertion.

  14. Asymmetric oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia with right hemispatial neglect from a predominantly left-sided lesion of the parieto-occipital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Fujimoto, Masanori; Hamada, Kensuke; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Neuropsychological examination showed that oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia were more pronounced in the right hemi-space, probably due to the limited eye movement in the right visual field, whereas HSN was restricted to the right hemi-space. Diffusion-weighted MR images revealed hyperintensity in the left parieto-temporo-occipital region, and several spotty areas of the bilateral frontal and parietal subcortical regions. SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in the left parieto-occipital region and frontal operculum and small areas of the right superior parietal lobule. The case suggests that asymmetric (more pronounced in the right hemi-space) oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia occur in an extensive lesion of the left parieto-occipital cortices. Although HSN is not a prerequisite for simultanagnosia, the coexistence of HSN aggravates simultanagnosia in the hemi-space opposite the lesion.

  15. Efficiency, efficacy, and safety of EZ-blocker compared with left-sided double-lumen tube for one-lung ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourisse, J.M.; Liesveld, J.; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Rooij, G. van; Heide, S. van der; Schuurbiers, O.C.J.; Heijden, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) or bronchial blockers are commonly used for one-lung ventilation. DLTs are sometimes difficult or even impossible to introduce, and the incidence of postoperative hoarseness and airway injuries is higher. Bronchial blockers are more difficult to position and

  16. Cardiac-sparing radiation therapy using positioning breast shell for patients with left-sided breast cancer who are ineligible for breath-hold techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian Joseph, MD, FRCPC

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: A positioning breast shell offers significant benefit in terms of sparing the heart for patients with LSBC who are ineligible for BH techniques. It also can be used as a simple cardiac-sparing alternative in centers without BH capability.

  17. Relationship of the sinus anatomy to surface landmarks is a function of the sinus size difference between the right and left side: Anatomical study based on CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Roy S; Turner, Ryan C; Radwan, Walid; Singh, Rahul; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Tarabishy, Abdul; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Several cadaveric studies demonstrate reliable localization of the transverse sinus and the transverse sigmoid junction (TSJ). These studies use the line drawn from the inion to the posterior root of the zygoma (IZ) and the asterion, respectively. We investigated how the size difference between the right and left transverse sinuses (TS) and sigmoid sinuses (SS) affected the accuracy of their respective superficial landmarks, particularly with regards to where this relationship may result in unsafe and/or complicated surgical access. We utilized Vitrea software to render three-dimensional images based on computed tomographic angiography (CTA). We measured the relationship between the TS and SS to their respective superficial landmarks. We analyzed 50 patients in this study. The distal TS was found caudal to the inion-to-zygoma (IZ) line on average by 5.0 ± 4.3 mm on the right and 6.4 ± 9.3 mm on the left. The mid TS was found cranial on average 3.5 ± 5.7 mm on the right and 3.2 ± 6.0 mm cranial on the left to the superior nuchal line (SNL). The distance from the asterion to the SS was 11.5 ± 2.4 mm medial on the right and 12.1 ± 4.4 mm medial on the left. The average distance was greater on the left than the right when using the IZ landmark. This was directly proportional to the size difference of the sinuses ( r 2 = 0.15, P = 0.03). Statistically significant differences between the right and left TS and SS were seen in terms of size. This appeared to correlate nicely to the differences observed between the locations of the TSs' and their respective superficial landmarks.

  18. Clinical trial: Preliminary efficacy and safety study of a new Budesonide-MMX® 9 mg extended-release tablets in patients with active left-sided ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, G. R.; Kovács, A.; Vergauwe, P.; Nagy, F.; Molnár, T.; Bouhnik, Y.; Weiss, W.; Brunner, H.; Lavergne-Slove, A.; Binelli, D.; Di Stefano, A. F. D.; Marteau, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease with relapses. Many patients need systemic corticosteroids to induce clinical remission. Efficacy and safety of Budesonide-MMX® 9 mg tablets, a new oral, extended-release formulation, were evaluated in patients suffering from active,

  19. Successful repair for a giant coronary artery aneurysm with coronary arteriovenous fistula complicated by both right- and left-sided infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezu, Kentaro; Hanayama, Naoji; Toyama, Akihiko; Hobo, Kyoko; Takazawa, Arifumi

    2009-10-01

    We report a rare case of a 65-year-old woman who underwent an emergent lifesaving heart operation for an undiagnosed right coronary artery aneurysm with a coronary arteriovenous fistula complicated by active infective endocarditis, which affected the aortic valve, mitral valve, and coronary sinus. We performed direct closure of the coronary arteriovenous fistula, ligation of the right coronary artery aneurysm, double coronary artery bypass grafting, and double valvular replacement. Five years after the operation, she had no sign of congestive heart failure or infection, and was not receiving antibiotics.

  20. An Invasive Case of Left-Sided Endocarditis Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Patient with History of Intravenous Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ankit; Amer, Mohammad; Awan, Ahmad; Tiruneh, Fasil; Gandotra, Charu; Curry, Bryan

    2017-09-27

    Infective endocarditis, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is rarely seen in clinical practice. It has been reported mainly in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA). We present a case of a 63-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed splenic and renal infarct. The blood culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed aortic insufficiency with 13 mm mobile vegetation. The patient was started on ceftazidime and tobramycin and, later on, surgery was done for aortic valve replacement. His stay was complicated by multiple hemorrhagic emboli in the brain. This case highlights the importance of the early diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  1. Introduction to neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    James, Frederick E

    1994-02-02

    1. Introduction and overview of Artificial Neural Networks. 2,3. The Feed-forward Network as an inverse Problem, and results on the computational complexity of network training. 4.Physics applications of neural networks.

  2. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  3. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    and activities in Japan. One concrete example was the earthquake relief Japan received from alumni in 2011. The exchanges have also already inspired an explicit focus on private sector and middle income countries in the Japanese Development Cooperation Charter announced in February 2015.......Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...

  4. Loss Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes work on the stochastic modelling of loss networks. Such systems have long been of interest to telephone engineers and are becoming increasingly important as models of computer and information systems. Throughout the century problems from this field have provided an impetus to the development of probability theory, pure and applied. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  5. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  6. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  7. Networks of networks – An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Perc, Matjaž; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Interdependent network reciprocity. Only those blue cooperative domains that are initially present on both networks survive. Abstract: This is an introduction to the special issue titled “Networks of networks” that is in the making at Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. Recent research and reviews attest to the fact that networks of networks are the next frontier in network science [1–7]. Not only are interactions limited and thus inadequately described by well-mixed models, it is also a fact that the networks that should be an integral part of such models are often interconnected, thus making the processes that are unfolding on them interdependent. From the World economy and transportation systems to social media, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might significantly affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has a certain relevance and meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Networks of networks, interdependent networks, or multilayer networks are therefore a much better and realistic description of such systems, and this Special Issue is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, percolation, diffusion, synchronization, collective behavior, and evolutionary games on networks of networks. Interdisciplinary work on all aspects of networks of networks, regardless of background and motivation, is very welcome.

  8. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery: A Multicenter AOSpine Clinical Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Mohamad; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Baird, Evan O; Mroz, Thomas E; Fehlings, Michael; Arnold, Paul M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multicenter retrospective study. To investigate the risk of symptomatic recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) following cervical spine surgery, to examine risk factors for its development, and to report its treatment and outcomes. A multicenter study from 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was performed. Each center screened for rare complications following cervical spine surgery, including RLNP. Patients were included if they underwent cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. Data were analyzed with regard to complication treatment and outcome. Cases were compared to a control group from the AOSpine CSM and CSM-I studies. Three centers reported 19 cases of RLNP from a cohort of 1345 patients. The reported incidence of RLNP ranged from 0.6% to 2.9% between these 3 centers. Fifteen patients (79%) in the RLNP group were approached from the left side. Ten patients (52.6%) required treatment for RLNP-6 required medical therapy (steroids), 1 interventional treatment (injection laryngoplasty), and 3 conservative therapy (speech therapy). When examining outcomes, 73.7% (14/19) of cases resolved completely, 15.8% (3/19) resolved with residual effects, and in 10.5% (2/19) of cases this could not be determined. In this multicenter study examining rare complications following cervical spine surgery, the risk of RLNP after cervical spine surgery ranged from 0.6% to 2.9% between centers. Though rare, it was found that 16% of patients may experience partial resolution with residual effects, and 74% resolve completely.

  9. Green mobile networks a networking perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Nirwan

    2016-01-01

    Combines the hot topics of energy efficiency and next generation mobile networking, examining techniques and solutions. Green communications is a very hot topic. Ever increasing mobile network bandwidth rates significantly impacts on operating costs due to aggregate network energy consumption. As such, design on 4G networks and beyond has increasingly started to focus on 'energy efficiency' or so-called 'green' networks. Many techniques and solutions have been proposed to enhance the energy efficiency of mobile networks, yet no book has provided an in-depth analysis of the energy consumption issues in mobile networks nor offers detailed theories, tools and solutions for solving the energy efficiency problems.

  10. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  11. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century.......Strategic communication needs a thorough understanding of the social forms of interaction, organization and social structure, it works within and through. Success is a scarce resource, and organizations compete to fulfill their mission and advance toward specific goals. In this chapter, we present...

  12. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Strategic communication needs a thorough understanding of the social forms of interaction, organization and social structure, it works within and through. Success is a scarce resource, and organizations compete to fulfill their mission and advance toward specific goals. In this chapter, we present...... the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  13. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  14. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Strategic communication needs a thorough understanding of the social forms of interaction, organization and social structure, it works within and through. Success is a scarce resource, and organizations compete to fulfill their mission and advance toward specific goals. In this chapter, we present...... the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  15. Mesh network simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Ping; Petrenko, Y. N.

    2015-01-01

    A Mesh network simulation framework which provides a powerful and concise modeling chain for a network structure will be introduce in this report. Mesh networks has a special topologic structure. The paper investigates a message transfer in wireless mesh network simulation and how does it works in cellular network simulation. Finally the experimental result gave us the information that mesh networks have different principle in transmission way with cellular networks in transmission, and multi...

  16. Communication network exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seung Sul

    1988-05-01

    This book has two parts. The first parts is comprised of five chapters, which deals with communication network constitution with design of network and types, telephone network about outline and management of network, telephone network · data network · private network, international data telephone network about service and international data network and technical standards of quality of service, communication and data. The second parts handles exchange, which is about institution of switching, a manual exchange and step-by step exchange, a crossbar exchange, electronic exchange, international switching system, design of equipment of test and measurement.

  17. Network Visualization Project (NVP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Visualization Project (NVP) by Terry Wen American Society of Engineering Education, Washington, DC Lisa M Marvel Computational and Information Sciences...front-end presentation and construction of the application itself. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computer network traffic, computer network security, computer ...network visualization, network traffic analysis, network forensics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF

  18. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  19. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  20. Applied Learning Networks (ALN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bannister, Joseph; Shen, Wei-Min; Touch, Joseph; Hou, Feili; Pingali, Venkata

    2007-01-01

    Applied Learning Networks (ALN) demonstrates that a network protocol can learn to improve its performance over time, showing how to incorporate learning methods into a general class of network protocols...

  1. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  2. Introduction to computer networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.

  3. Tunable Sparse Network Coding for Multicast Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Soheil; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Sørensen, Chres Wiant

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential and key enabling mechanisms for tunable sparse network coding, a scheme in which the density of network coded packets varies during a transmission session. At the beginning of a transmission session, sparsely coded packets are transmitted, which benefits decoding...... complexity. At the end of a transmission, when receivers have accumulated degrees of freedom, coding density is increased. We propose a family of tunable sparse network codes (TSNCs) for multicast erasure networks with a controllable trade-off between completion time performance to decoding complexity....... Coding density tuning can be performed by designing time-dependent coding matrices. In multicast networks, this tuning can be performed within the network by designing time-dependent pre- coding and network coding matrices with mild conditions on the network structure for specific densities. We present...

  4. Reconfigurable Network of Networks for Multiscale Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    The Network of Networks (NoN) model, which is a neurobiologically motivated smart algorithm co-developed by the PI, is being applied for rapid and accurate image processing of forward and side scan sonar images in turbid environments...

  5. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  6. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  7. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  8. Common brain networks for distinct deficits in visual neglect. A combined structural and tractography MRI approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Monica N; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Bourlon, Clémence; Duret, Christophe; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Dubois, Bruno; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2017-10-18

    Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matter and in the white matter of the right hemisphere. These reported locations show various patterns of overlapping with the fronto-parietal attention networks demonstrated by functional neuroimaging. We explored the anatomical correlates of neglect patients' performance on distinct tests of neglect. For the first time in neglect anatomy studies, we individually assessed 25 patients with subacute strokes in the right hemisphere, by using a combined structural and diffusion tensor deterministic tractography approach, with separate analyses for each neglect test. The results revealed that lesions in nodes of the ventral attention network (angular and supramarginal gyri) were selectively associated with deficits in performance on all the tests used; damage to other structures correlated with impaired performance on specific tests, such as the bells test (middle and inferior frontal gyri), or the reading test (temporal regions). Importantly, however, white matter damage proved crucial in producing neglect-related deficits. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and tractography consistently revealed that damage to the ventral branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III) and to the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) predicted pathological scores on line bisection/drawing copy and on the bells test, respectively. Moreover, damage to distinct sectors of SLF III, or combined SLF/IFOF damage, gave rise to different performance profiles. Our results indicate that both grey and white matter lesion analysis must be taken into account to determine the neural correlates of neglect

  9. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off-the-shelf ha......Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off...

  10. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  11. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  12. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback.

  13. Convex Congestion Network Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes convex congestion network problems.It is shown that for network problems with convex congestion costs, an algorithm based on a shortest path algorithm, can be used to find an optimal network for any coalition. Furthermore an easy way of determining if a given network is optimal

  14. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For networks with time-varying topology we compare the synchronization properties of these networks with the corresponding time-average network. We find that if the different coupling matrices corresponding to the time-varying networks commute with each other then the stability of the synchronized state for both the ...

  15. Technologies for Home Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A broad overview of the home networking field, ranging from wireless technologies to practical applications. In the future, it is expected that private networks (e.g. home networks) will become part of the global network ecosystem, participating in sharing their own content, running IP...

  16. Hardening Software Defined Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    the layers to act upon each other in very distinct ways. Examining the literature, we selected bipartite and tripartite network models are those...identify characteristics of multilayered networks . Bipartite and tripartite models are potentially most promising (and somewhat underutilized) in the... tripartite models are particularly well-suited to a confluence of traditional networks and software defined networks where SDN components are

  17. Neural dynamics of morphological processing in spoken word comprehension: Laterality and automaticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Whiting

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and automatic processing of grammatical complexity is argued to take place during speech comprehension, engaging a left-lateralised fronto-temporal language network. Here we address how neural activity in these regions is modulated by the grammatical properties of spoken words. We used combined magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG to delineate the spatiotemporal patterns of activity that support the recognition of morphologically complex words in English with inflectional (-s and derivational (-er affixes (e.g. bakes, baker. The mismatch negativity (MMN, an index of linguistic memory traces elicited in a passive listening paradigm, was used to examine the neural dynamics elicited by morphologically complex words. Results revealed an initial peak 130-180 ms after the deviation point with a major source in left superior temporal cortex. The localisation of this early activation showed a sensitivity to two grammatical properties of the stimuli: 1 the presence of morphological complexity, with affixed words showing increased left-laterality compared to non-affixed words; and 2 the grammatical category, with affixed verbs showing greater left-lateralisation in inferior frontal gyrus compared to affixed nouns (bakes vs. beaks. This automatic brain response was additionally sensitive to semantic coherence (the meaning of the stem vs. the meaning of the whole form in fronto-temporal regions. These results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity in spoken word processing is modulated by the presence of morphological structure, predominantly engaging the left-hemisphere’s fronto-temporal language network, and does not require focused attention on the linguistic input.

  18. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  19. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  20. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context.......While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...

  1. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....... each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected......Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross/overtake...

  2. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  3. Network Coding Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Brian; Adjih , Cédric; Bilbao , Josu; Firoiu , Victor; Fitzek , Frank; Samah , Ghanem ,; Lochin , Emmanuel; Masucci , Antonia; Montpetit , Marie-Jose; Pedersen , Morten V.; Peralta , Goiuri; Roca , Vincent; Paresh , Saxena; Sivakumar , Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Internet Research Task Force - Working document of the Network Coding Research Group (NWCRG), draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy-05 (work in progress), https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy/; This document summarizes a recommended terminology for Network Coding concepts and constructs. It provides a comprehensive set of terms with unique names in order to avoid ambiguities in future Network Coding IRTF and IETF documents. This document is intended to ...

  4. Network of networks: Uncovering the secrets of entrepreneurs' networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a novel methodology to study entrepreneurship and online social networks. We suggest that online social network data can be used as behavioural data to study entrepreneurial processes. Furthermore, our simulation model can be used as an additional approach to predict the

  5. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  6. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  7. Computer network defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urias, Vincent; Stout, William M. S.; Loverro, Caleb

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus for protecting virtual machines. A computer system creates a copy of a group of the virtual machines in an operating network in a deception network to form a group of cloned virtual machines in the deception network when the group of the virtual machines is accessed by an adversary. The computer system creates an emulation of components from the operating network in the deception network. The components are accessible by the group of the cloned virtual machines as if the group of the cloned virtual machines was in the operating network. The computer system moves network connections for the group of the virtual machines in the operating network used by the adversary from the group of the virtual machines in the operating network to the group of the cloned virtual machines, enabling protecting the group of the virtual machines from actions performed by the adversary.

  8. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  9. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  10. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  11. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  12. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  13. Networks : Empowering Communities through Telecentre Networking

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study revealed that although there are no formal telecentre networking activities in the region, those countries in which telecentres are strongest - Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Morocco - have pulled together in loose networks for peer support. On the whole, however, telecentre programming is a lot weaker and more ...

  14. Do Policy Networks lead to Network Governing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper challenges the notion that creation of local policy networks necessarily leads to network governing. Through actor-centred case studies in the area of municipally implemented employment policy in Denmark it was found that the local governing mode is determined mainly by the municipality...

  15. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...

  16. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  17. Impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia: the deficit starts in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jérémie; Bouet, Romain; Maby, Emmanuel; Sanchez, Gaëtan; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Daligault, Sébastien; Delpuech, Claude; Bertrand, Olivier; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of music perception and production. The present study investigated the cerebral bases of impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia using behavioural measures, magnetoencephalography and voxel-based morphometry. Congenital amusics and matched control subjects performed two melodic tasks (a melodic contour task and an easier transposition task); they had to indicate whether sequences of six tones (presented in pairs) were the same or different. Behavioural data indicated that in comparison with control participants, amusics' short-term memory was impaired for the melodic contour task, but not for the transposition task. The major finding was that pitch processing and short-term memory deficits can be traced down to amusics' early brain responses during encoding of the melodic information. Temporal and frontal generators of the N100m evoked by each note of the melody were abnormally recruited in the amusic brain. Dynamic causal modelling of the N100m further revealed decreased intrinsic connectivity in both auditory cortices, increased lateral connectivity between auditory cortices as well as a decreased right fronto-temporal backward connectivity in amusics relative to control subjects. Abnormal functioning of this fronto-temporal network was also shown during the retention interval and the retrieval of melodic information. In particular, induced gamma oscillations in right frontal areas were decreased in amusics during the retention interval. Using voxel-based morphometry, we confirmed morphological brain anomalies in terms of white and grey matter concentration in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus in the amusic brain. The convergence between functional and structural brain differences strengthens the hypothesis of abnormalities in the fronto-temporal pathway of the amusic brain. Our data provide first evidence of altered functioning of the auditory cortices during pitch

  18. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...... research communities, leading to the development of several independent models and methods to deal with the same set of problems. This book unifies and consolidates existing practical and theoretical knowledge on multilayer networks including data collection and analysis, modeling, and mining of multilayer...... social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...

  19. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Sciences Network is the Department of Energy’s high-speed network that provides the high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link scientists at national...

  20. Wireshark network security

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    If you are network administrator or a security analyst with an interest in using Wireshark for security analysis, then this is the book for you. Basic familiarity with common network and application services terms and technologies is assumed.

  1. Fiber wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalathas, A.; Bakaul, M.; Lim, C.; Novak, D.; Waterhouse, R.

    2005-11-01

    Broadband wireless networks based on a number of new frequency windows at higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies have been actively pursued to provide ultra-high bandwidth services over a wireless networks. These networks will have a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput. Significant reductions in antenna base-station complexity can be achieved if most of the signal routing and switching functions centralized at a central office in the network. In such a network, fiber feed networks can be effectively deployed to provide high bandwidth interconnections between multiple antenna base-stations and the central office. With wavelength division multiplexing, efficient optical fiber feed network architectures could be realised to provide interconnection to a large number of antenna base-stations. In this paper, we present an over view of our recent research into system technologies for fiber wireless networks.

  2. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  3. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more......The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...

  4. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify......Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described...

  5. Virtualized Network Control (VNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Thomas [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The focus of this project was on the development of a "Network Service Plane" as an abstraction model for the control and provisioning of multi-layer networks. The primary motivation for this work were the requirements of next generation networked applications which will need to access advanced networking as a first class resource at the same level as compute and storage resources. A new class of "Intelligent Network Services" were defined in order to facilitate the integration of advanced network services into application specific workflows. This new class of network services are intended to enable real-time interaction between the application co-scheduling algorithms and the network for the purposes of workflow planning, real-time resource availability identification, scheduling, and provisioning actions.

  6. Network Memory Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, D

    1997-01-01

    This report presents initial research into the design of a new computer system local area network transport layer protocol, designated the network memory protocol, which provides clients with direct...

  7. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  8. Adaptive dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikov, O. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamical networks are systems of active elements (nodes) interacting with each other through links. Examples are power grids, neural structures, coupled chemical oscillators, and communications networks, all of which are characterized by a networked structure and intrinsic dynamics of their interacting components. If the coupling structure of a dynamical network can change over time due to nodal dynamics, then such a system is called an adaptive dynamical network. The term ‘adaptive’ implies that the coupling topology can be rewired; the term ‘dynamical’ implies the presence of internal node and link dynamics. The main results of research on adaptive dynamical networks are reviewed. Key notions and definitions of the theory of complex networks are given, and major collective effects that emerge in adaptive dynamical networks are described.

  9. Innovations, status, and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wang (Pengfei)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractTo obtain and maintain competitive advantage, firms need to implement appropriate innovation strategies (i.e. exploration or exploitation) and acquire status in external networks. In this dissertation, I investigate how innovation strategy, status, and network structure jointly

  10. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  11. Local network assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  12. Field Bus Communications Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Uk Hyeon; Kim, Hyeong Seok; Kim, Dong Seong

    2004-10-01

    This book is about field bus communications network, introducing data communications network, field bus for industry and standardization of communication protocol, basic of data communication about structure, local area network, introduction of field bus for industry like utility of field bus, profibus, foundation field bus, worldFIP, device net, inter bus, control net, P-net and SERCOS, evaluation of field bus performance including computer simulation tool, and network modeling, and field bus practice.

  13. Patent Licensing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Doh-Shin Jeon; Yassine Lefouili

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the patent licensing networks formed by competing firms. Assuming that licensing agreements can involve the payment of fixed fees only and that firms compete à la Cournot, we show that the complete network is always bilaterally efficient and that the monopoly network is bilaterally efficient if the patents are complementary enough. In the case of independent patents, we fully characterize the bilaterally efficient networks and find that when the cost reduction resultin...

  14. Linux Networking Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Carla

    2008-01-01

    If you want a book that lays out the steps for specific Linux networking tasks, one that clearly explains the commands and configurations, this is the book for you. Linux Networking Cookbook is a soup-to-nuts collection of recipes that covers everything you need to know to perform your job as a Linux network administrator. You'll dive straight into the gnarly hands-on work of building and maintaining a computer network

  15. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  16. Innovation and network collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    2011-01-01

    and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper, we propose that human resource management (HRM) practices may provide a means by which SMEs can increase their innovation capacity through network collaboration. Following a brief presentation of the relevant literature on networks, and innovation in networks...

  17. Managing Knowledge Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S.; Monge, Peter R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a multitheoretical, multilevel (MTML) model to study the management of knowledge networks. Considers theoretical mechanisms for emergence of knowledge networks and presents empirical findings about the emergence of knowledge networks. Concludes that it is necessary to utilize MTML models to integrate multiple social and communication…

  18. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  19. Securing Personal Network Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  20. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time. Both the number of nodes and the edges connecting the nodes can vary with time. Such a time-varying topology can occur in social networks, computer networks, WWW, biological systems, spread of epidemics etc. Here, we investigate the synchronization properties of networks with time-varying structure and compare.

  1. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew O. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  2. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and multi-cluster ...

  3. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  4. Network Profiling Using Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    many well-known services in use today to list in this report. Protocols such as NTP, RDP, LDAP , SMB, and sqlnet may show up on the network. At some...point, verify that these services are appropriate for the network. For example, NetBIOS, LDAP , and SMB traffic should not be crossing the network

  5. OSI Network Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ethan

    1990-01-01

    Management of heterogeneous networks is complicated by the persistence of proprietary management schemes. The need for integration of network management capabilities is pressing. The International Organization for Standardization is developing standards for managing networks as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) effort. OSI management…

  6. artificial neural network (ann)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-18

    Aug 18, 2004 ... forecasting models and artificial intelligence techniques and have become one of the major research fields (Kher and Joshin, 2003). (a) Artificial Neural Network and Electrical Load. Prediction. Neural network analysis is an Artificial Intelligence. (AI) approach to mathematical modeling. Neural. Networks ...

  7. Networks around entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurs are networking with others to get advice for their businesses. The networking differs between men and women; notably, men are more often networking in the public sphere and women are more often networking in the private sphere. The aim here is to account for how such gender......Purpose: Entrepreneurs are networking with others to get advice for their businesses. The networking differs between men and women; notably, men are more often networking in the public sphere and women are more often networking in the private sphere. The aim here is to account for how...... such gendering of entrepreneurs’ networks differ between societies and cultures. Research Design: Based on survey data from the Global Entrepreneurships Monitor, a sample of 16,365 entrepreneurs is used to compare the gendering of entrepreneurs’ networks in China, and five countries largely located around...... the Persian Gulf, namely Yemen, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates. Findings: Analyses show that female entrepreneurs tend to have slightly larger private sphere networks than male entrepreneurs. The differences between male and female entrepreneurs’ networking in the public sphere...

  8. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  9. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  10. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  11. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  12. Logistical networking: a global storage network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it

  13. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  14. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  15. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  16. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed......, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape...

  17. Next Generation Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to discussing the future of electronic communication, social networking is the buzzword. The Internet has become a platform where new social networks emerge and the Internet it itself support the more traditional computer supported communication. The way users build and verifies...... different online networks for communities of people who share interests or individuals who presents themselves through user produced content is what makes up the social networking of today. The purpose of this paper is to discuss perceived user requirements to the next generation social networks. The paper...

  18. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  19. Network Characterization Service (NCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Guojun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, George [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Crowley, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-06-06

    Distributed applications require information to effectively utilize the network. Some of the information they require is the current and maximum bandwidth, current and minimum latency, bottlenecks, burst frequency, and congestion extent. This type of information allows applications to determine parameters like optimal TCP buffer size. In this paper, we present a cooperative information-gathering tool called the network characterization service (NCS). NCS runs in user space and is used to acquire network information. Its protocol is designed for scalable and distributed deployment, similar to DNS. Its algorithms provide efficient, speedy and accurate detection of bottlenecks, especially dynamic bottlenecks. On current and future networks, dynamic bottlenecks do and will affect network performance dramatically.

  20. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  1. Computer-communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meditch, James S

    1983-01-01

    Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint

  2. Managing Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal Suyash; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Mudambi, Ram

    In this article, we treat innovation as a multidimensional construct spanning people, technologies, and geographies. We study how these dimensions interact and impact firms' inventor networks and the ultimate innovation performance. We identify five distinct planes in which inventor networks reside...... of the costs and benefits of being centrally located on multiplex network versus having an equal distribution of ties between the different network layers. Using patent data on the global wind power industry, we find evidence suggesting that being centrally positioned on a multiplex network with an equal...

  3. Network topology analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  4. Liner Service Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    with leased containers. Computational results are reported for seven instances based on real-life shipping networks. Solving the relaxed linear path flow model with a column generation algorithm outperforms solving the relaxed linear arc flow model with the CPLEX barrier solver even for very small instances...... a predefined subset of services, while maintaining a full view of the cargo flows in the network. This could prove a valuable decisions support tool for planners when the network is incrementally adjusted to new market situations and to evaluate the consequence of strategic decisions. The thesis contributes......This thesis concerns design of liner shipping networks using operations research to optimize liner shipping networks at the strategic, tactical and operational level. Liner shipping networks are often compared to public transit networks as they consist of a set of scheduled sailings connecting...

  5. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  7. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  8. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  9. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  10. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  11. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  12. Network planning under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2008-11-01

    One of the main focuses for network planning is on the optimization of network resources required to build a network under certain traffic demand projection. Traditionally, the inputs to this type of network planning problems are treated as deterministic. In reality, the varying traffic requirements and fluctuations in network resources can cause uncertainties in the decision models. The failure to include the uncertainties in the network design process can severely affect the feasibility and economics of the network. Therefore, it is essential to find a solution that can be insensitive to the uncertain conditions during the network planning process. As early as in the 1960's, a network planning problem with varying traffic requirements over time had been studied. Up to now, this kind of network planning problems is still being active researched, especially for the VPN network design. Another kind of network planning problems under uncertainties that has been studied actively in the past decade addresses the fluctuations in network resources. One such hotly pursued research topic is survivable network planning. It considers the design of a network under uncertainties brought by the fluctuations in topology to meet the requirement that the network remains intact up to a certain number of faults occurring anywhere in the network. Recently, the authors proposed a new planning methodology called Generalized Survivable Network that tackles the network design problem under both varying traffic requirements and fluctuations of topology. Although all the above network planning problems handle various kinds of uncertainties, it is hard to find a generic framework under more general uncertainty conditions that allows a more systematic way to solve the problems. With a unified framework, the seemingly diverse models and algorithms can be intimately related and possibly more insights and improvements can be brought out for solving the problem. This motivates us to seek a

  13. Adverse Outcome Pathway Networks II: Network Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Angrish, Michelle M; Fortin, Marie C; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leonard, Marc; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Munn, Sharon; O'Brien, Jason M; Pollesch, Nathan L; Smith, L Cody; Zhang, Xiaowei; Knapen, Dries

    2018-02-28

    Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks. First, graph theory-based approaches for identifying important topological features are illustrated using two example AOP networks derived from existing AOP descriptions. Second, considerations for identifying the most significant path(s) through an AOP network from either a biological or risk assessment perspective are described. Finally, approaches for identifying interactions among AOPs that may result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic responses, or previously undefined emergent patterns of response, are introduced. Along with a companion article (Knapen et al. part I), these concepts set the stage for development of tools and case studies that will facilitate more rigorous analysis of AOP networks, and the utility of AOP network-based predictions, for use in research and regulatory decision-making. Collectively, this work addresses one of the major themes identified through a SETAC Horizon Scanning effort focused on advancing the AOP framework. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  15. Local dependency in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudĕlka Miloš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many real world data and processes have a network structure and can usefully be represented as graphs. Network analysis focuses on the relations among the nodes exploring the properties of each network. We introduce a method for measuring the strength of the relationship between two nodes of a network and for their ranking. This method is applicable to all kinds of networks, including directed and weighted networks. The approach extracts dependency relations among the network’s nodes from the structure in local surroundings of individual nodes. For the tasks we deal with in this article, the key technical parameter is locality. Since only the surroundings of the examined nodes are used in computations, there is no need to analyze the entire network. This allows the application of our approach in the area of large-scale networks. We present several experiments using small networks as well as large-scale artificial and real world networks. The results of the experiments show high effectiveness due to the locality of our approach and also high quality node ranking comparable to PageRank.

  16. A network security monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Multilayer Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiana, Michael; Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is facing an unprecedented expanse in the volume and diversity of available data. Traditionally, network models have provided key insights into the structure and function of the brain. With the advent of big data in neuroscience, both more sophisticated models capable of characterizing the increasing complexity of the data and novel methods of quantitative analysis are needed. Recently, multilayer networks, a mathematical extension of traditional networks, have gained increasing popularity in neuroscience due to their ability to capture the full information of multi-model, multi-scale, spatiotemporal data sets. Here, we review multilayer networks and their applications in neuroscience, showing how incorporating the multilayer framework into network neuroscience analysis has uncovered previously hidden features of brain networks. We specifically highlight the use of multilayer networks to model disease, structure-function relationships, network evolution, and link multi-scale data. Finally, we close with a discussion of promising new directions of multilayer network neuroscience research and propose a modified definition of multilayer networks designed to unite and clarify the use of the multilayer formalism in describing real-world systems.

  18. Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network Modelling Based on Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lin; Wu, Fahui; Yang, Dingcheng; Zhang, Tiankui; Zhu, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    The power consumption and energy efficiency of wireless sensor network are the significant problems in Internet of Things network. In this paper, we consider the network topology optimization based on complex network theory to solve the energy efficiency problem of WSN. We propose the energy efficient model of WSN according to the basic principle of small world from complex networks. Small world network has clustering features that are similar to that of the rules of the network but also has ...

  19. Software Defined Networking: an emerging paradigm to computer networking

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunjoye, Olanrewaju

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging paradigm in networking technology that enables innovation on how network systems are managed and designed. SDN plays a huge role in the effort to make computer networks programmable. This thesis discusses the history and efforts to programmable and active networks, the early practicesm towards separating the control plane and data plane. Highlighting the architectural concepts in networking that software defined networks emanated as well...

  20. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  1. Bridges in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ang-Kun; Tian, Liang; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    A bridge in a graph is an edge whose removal disconnects the graph and increases the number of connected components. We calculate the fraction of bridges in a wide range of real-world networks and their randomized counterparts. We find that real networks typically have more bridges than their completely randomized counterparts, but they have a fraction of bridges that is very similar to their degree-preserving randomizations. We define an edge centrality measure, called bridgeness, to quantify the importance of a bridge in damaging a network. We find that certain real networks have a very large average and variance of bridgeness compared to their degree-preserving randomizations and other real networks. Finally, we offer an analytical framework to calculate the bridge fraction and the average and variance of bridgeness for uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions.

  2. Professional social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  3. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  4. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  5. Macroecology of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2013-01-01

    towards the tropics, and that network topology would be affected by current climate. Location Global. Methods Each network was organized as a presence/absence matrix, consisting of P plant species, A pollinator species and their links. From these matrices, network parameters were estimated. Additionally...... peaked at mid-latitude whereas modularity decreased linearly. Both patterns are suggestive of a more specialized interaction structure towards the tropics. In particular, mean annual precipitation appeared influential on network topology as both nestedness and modularity varied significantly. Importantly......Aim Interacting communities of species are organized into complex networks, and network analysis is reckoned to be a strong tool for describing their architecture. Many species assemblies show strong macroecological patterns, e.g. increasing species richness with decreasing latitude, but whether...

  6. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  7. Managing Interorganizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jeppe

    bold enough to predict that networks will become the dominant organisation form in future. Several authors maintain that the shift from traditional hierarchical structures to networks involves dramatic changes for managers and employees (Champy 2002, Rohlin 1994, Kanter 2002). This article seeks...... to isolate some of the forthcoming changes and outlines a map for network management. We will try to avoid summarising the increasingly extensive literature about organisations which are characterised by networks and restrict our focus to management in inter-organisational networks. Inter......Management literature’s many descriptions of the current and future challenges and new trends within organisation and management forms depict a motley and kaleidoscopic picture of the future. However, one idea reoccurs throughout most of the literature – the organisational network. Some are even...

  8. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... networks are designed and managed. This thesis argues that SDN can greatly simplify QoS provisioning in communication networks, and even improve QoS in various ways. To this end, the impact of SDN on QoS is assessed from both a network performance perspective (e.g. bandwidth, delay), and also from a more...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  9. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  10. The Bastion Network Project

    OpenAIRE

    Fulp, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Workshop on Education in Computer Security (WECS) 6 The Naval Postgraduate School’s Center for Information Systems Security Studies and Research (CISR) has developed a small, but realistic network lab—the Bastion Network—that is dedicated to educating students in the myriad elements involved in the secure operation of a computer network. This paper describes the rationale for this network lab, and offers an overview of a simple framework that could accommodate educational netwo...

  11. Network Atached Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Griffee, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Digital distribution of media has grown increasingly important as an additional requirement is to have this media available to multiple users. Traditionally, servers have filled this role in companies by providing storage that can be accessed by other devices on a network, typically through file sharing or serving or via a storage area network, while providing other services as well. Network attached storage (NAS) systems expand upon traditional servers in that they are built specifically wit...

  12. Random acyclic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karrer, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Directed acyclic graphs are a fundamental class of networks that includes citation networks, food webs, and family trees, among others. Here we define a random graph model for directed acyclic graphs and give solutions for a number of the model's properties, including connection probabilities and component sizes, as well as a fast algorithm for simulating the model on a computer. We compare the predictions of the model to a real-world network of citations between physics papers and find surpr...

  13. GRANCONF: GRAphical Network CONFiguratione

    OpenAIRE

    Olstad, Thomas Sørgård; Torgersen, Magnus Omland

    2016-01-01

    GRANCONF is a framework for mass configuration of network equipment and related systems in a lab environment. The framework is built for complex networking scenarios with equipment from different vendors. The framework has modular support for configuring and resetting devices from various vendors and may be extended with additional functionality in modules. This project is part of automating practical assessments and labs for use in the networking courses at NTNU in Gjøvik. Our contributi...

  14. Personal Network (PN) Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, K.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  15. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  16. Affinity driven social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  17. Network operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  18. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    stages of intrusion, such as phishing, SQL injection , Botnets, network scanning, propagation, etc.) employing a variety of countermeasures, including...shim layers, network topology, and the load that is placed on the network • ELICIT capability to inject data at various nodes at various times...capability to inject data at various nodes at various times • ELICIT capability to vary the quality and quality of this data • ELICIT agent stand-ins

  19. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  20. Networks in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks. We will report on a number of networking initiatives in ATLAS including participation in the global perfSONAR network monitoring and measuring efforts of WLCG and OSG, the collaboration with the LHCOPN/LHCONE effort, the integration of network awareness into PanDA, the use of the evolving ATLAS analytics framework to better understand our networks and the changes in our DDM system to allow remote access to data. We will also discuss new efforts underway that are exploring the inclusion and use of software defined networks (SDN) and how ATLAS might benefit from: • Orchestration and optimization of distributed data access and data movement. • Better control of workflows, end to end. • Enabling prioritization of time-critical vs normal tasks • Improvements in the efficiency of resource usage

  1. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  2. Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos, and its structure and learning algorithm are designed. The multilayer feedforward neural network, diagonal recurrent neural network, and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map. The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Social network visualization in epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    James H. Fowler; Nicholas A. Christakis

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical...

  4. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Physical Layer Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli, Zhang; Liew, Soung-Chang; Lam, Patrick P. K.

    2007-01-01

    A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the b...

  6. Celestial data routing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetsky, Alex

    2000-11-01

    Imagine that information processing human-machine network is threatened in a particular part of the world. Suppose that an anticipated threat of physical attacks could lead to disruption of telecommunications network management infrastructure and access capabilities for small geographically distributed groups engaged in collaborative operations. Suppose that small group of astronauts are exploring the solar planet and need to quickly configure orbital information network to support their collaborative work and local communications. The critical need in both scenarios would be a set of low-cost means of small team celestial networking. To the geographically distributed mobile collaborating groups such means would allow to maintain collaborative multipoint work, set up orbital local area network, and provide orbital intranet communications. This would be accomplished by dynamically assembling the network enabling infrastructure of the small satellite based router, satellite based Codec, and set of satellite based intelligent management agents. Cooperating single function pico satellites, acting as agents and personal switching devices together would represent self-organizing intelligent orbital network of cooperating mobile management nodes. Cooperative behavior of the pico satellite based agents would be achieved by comprising a small orbital artificial neural network capable of learning and restructing the networking resources in response to the anticipated threat.

  7. Networks and Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Considine, Mark; Lewis, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The systemic reform of employment services in OECD countries was driven by New Public Management (NPM) and then post-NPM reforms, when first-phase changes such as privatization were amended with `joined up' processes to help manage fragmentation. This article examines the networking strategies...... of `street-level' employment services staff for the impacts of this. Contrary to expectations, networking has generally declined over the last decade. There are signs of path dependence in networking patterns within each country, but also a convergence of patterns for the UK and Australia......, but not The Netherlands. Networking appears to be mediated by policy and regulatory imperatives....

  8. Effective professional networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Mary Jo; Knestrick, Joyce M

    2017-08-01

    The reasons for nurse practitioners to develop a professional network are boundless and are likely to change over time. Networking opens doors and creates relationships that support new opportunities, personal development, collaborative research, policy activism, evidence-based practice, and more. Successful professional networking involves shared, mutually beneficial interactions between individuals and/or individuals and groups, regardless of whether it occurs face to face or electronically. This article combines nuggets from the literature with guidance based on the authors' combined experience in networking activities at the local, national, and international levels. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. Introduction to neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlopoulos, P.

    1996-01-01

    This lecture is a presentation of today's research in neural computation. Neural computation is inspired by knowledge from neuro-science. It draws its methods in large degree from statistical physics and its potential applications lie mainly in computer science and engineering. Neural networks models are algorithms for cognitive tasks, such as learning and optimization, which are based on concepts derived from research into the nature of the brain. The lecture first gives an historical presentation of neural networks development and interest in performing complex tasks. Then, an exhaustive overview of data management and networks computation methods is given: the supervised learning and the associative memory problem, the capacity of networks, the Perceptron networks, the functional link networks, the Madaline (Multiple Adalines) networks, the back-propagation networks, the reduced coulomb energy (RCE) networks, the unsupervised learning and the competitive learning and vector quantization. An example of application in high energy physics is given with the trigger systems and track recognition system (track parametrization, event selection and particle identification) developed for the CPLEAR experiment detectors from the LEAR at CERN. (J.S.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix

  10. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  11. International Rehabilitation Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, William

    2001-01-01

    The International Rehabilitation Network's goal is to improve the quality of services for land mine survivors and other amputee's through the dissemination of educational programs to rehabilitation professionals...

  12. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  13. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  14. Dynamic Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    ...: Declarative Languages and Execution Environment includes topographical soldier interface and a sensor network simulation environment for algorithm development, deployment planning, and operational support. Finally, Task 3...

  15. Mobile networks architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

  16. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  17. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  18. Heterogeneous broadband network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Lars

    1995-11-01

    Although the vision for the future Integrated Broadband Communication Network (IBCN) is an all optical network, it is certain that for a long period to come, the network will remain very heterogeneous, with a mixture of different physical media (fiber, coax and twisted pair), transmission systems (PDH, SDH, ADSL) and transport protocols (TCP/IP, AAL/ATM, frame relay). In the current work towards the IBCN, the ATM concept is considered the generic network protocol for both public and private network, with the ability to use different underlying transmission protocols and, through adaptation protocols, provide the appropriate services (old as well as new) to the customer. One of the major difficulties of heterogeneous network is the restriction that is usually given by the lowest common denominator, e.g. in terms of single channel capacity. A possible way to overcome these limitations is by extending the ATM concept with a multilink capability, that allows us to use separate resources as one common. The improved flexibility obtained by this protocol extension further allows a real time optimization of network and call configuration, without any impact on the quality of service seen from the user. This paper describes an example of an ATM based multilink protocol that has been experimentally implemented within the RACE project 'STRATOSPHERIC'. The paper outlines the complexity of introducing an extra network functionality compared with the added value, such as an improved ability to recover an error due to a malfunctioning network component.

  19. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  20. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  1. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: An integrated network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Dan J. Isaak; Jeffrey A. Falke; Marie-Josee Fortin; Chris E. Jordan; Kristina McNyset; Pascal Monestiez; Aaron S. Ruesch; Aritra Sengupta; Nicholas Som; E. Ashley Steel; David M. Theobald; Christian E. Torgersen; Seth J. Wenger

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of...

  3. Entangled Networks, Synchronization, and Optimal Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donetti, Luca; Hurtado, Pablo I.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2005-10-01

    A new family of graphs, entangled networks, with optimal properties in many respects, is introduced. By definition, their topology is such that it optimizes synchronizability for many dynamical processes. These networks are shown to have an extremely homogeneous structure: degree, node distance, betweenness, and loop distributions are all very narrow. Also, they are characterized by a very interwoven (entangled) structure with short average distances, large loops, and no well-defined community structure. This family of nets exhibits an excellent performance with respect to other flow properties such as robustness against errors and attacks, minimal first-passage time of random walks, efficient communication, etc. These remarkable features convert entangled networks in a useful concept, optimal or almost optimal in many senses, and with plenty of potential applications in computer science or neuroscience.

  4. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  5. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along with the ...

  6. Nestedness in mutualistic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rohr, Rudolf P.; Fortuna, Miguel A.; Luque, Bartolo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    James et al. (2012) presented simulations that apparently falsify the analytical result by Bastolla et al. (2009), who showed that nested mutualistic interactions decrease interspecific competition and increase biodiversity in model ecosystems. This contradiction, however, mainly stems from the incorrect application of formulas derived for fully connected networks to empirical, sparse networks.

  7. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  8. On Heterogeneous Covert Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindelauf, Roy; Borm, Peter; Hamers, Herbert

    Covert organizations are constantly faced with a tradeoff between secrecy and operational efficiency. Lindelauf, Borm and Hamers [13] developed a theoretical framework to determine optimal homogeneous networks taking the above mentioned considerations explicitly into account. In this paper this framework is put to the test by applying it to the 2002 Jemaah Islamiyah Bali bombing. It is found that most aspects of this covert network can be explained by the theoretical framework. Some interactions however provide a higher risk to the network than others. The theoretical framework on covert networks is extended to accommodate for such heterogeneous interactions. Given a network structure the optimal location of one risky interaction is established. It is shown that the pair of individuals in the organization that should conduct the interaction that presents the highest risk to the organization, is the pair that is the least connected to the remainder of the network. Furthermore, optimal networks given a single risky interaction are approximated and compared. When choosing among a path, star and ring graph it is found that for low order graphs the path graph is best. When increasing the order of graphs under consideration a transition occurs such that the star graph becomes best. It is found that the higher the risk a single interaction presents to the covert network the later this transition from path to star graph occurs.

  9. Beyond the networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    through applications, co-financing of network extensions as well as lobbying efforts towards urban authorities and service providers. The formal service providers primarily take a reactive role, responding to demand, requests and political pressure from residents. Post-settlement network extensions...

  10. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  11. Network-Oblivious Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilardi, Gianfranco; Pietracaprina, Andrea; Pucci, Geppino

    2016-01-01

    A framework is proposed for the design and analysis of network-oblivious algorithms, namely algorithms that can run unchanged, yet efficiently, on a variety of machines characterized by different degrees of parallelism and communication capabilities. The framework prescribes that a network-oblivi...

  12. Home Network Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Hans; van Dijk, Hylke

    2008-01-01

    Service discovery and secure and safe service usage are essential elements in the deployment of home and personal networks. Because no system administrator is present, setup and daily operation of such a network has to be automated as much as possible with a high degree of user friendliness. To

  13. CRCHD Integrated Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    INB supports two network-based programs—the National Outreach Network (NON) and the Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP)—as well as advising on women’s health and sexual and gender minority opportunities within and across the NCI.

  14. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER THROUGH NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYÖRGY ATTILA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a vital intangible asset for any organization and cannot be valued exactly due its special form of materialization. Although we have this drawback, a scientifically established value should be used in order to measure the performance of knowledge holders. A correct valuation helps to know the worth of assets offered in exploitation. Exploitation of this resource could be done in several different ways, but integration in knowledge networks seems to generate best efficiency ratio. Networks offer the possibility to change information, to obtain new information, to build further ideas arose from network partners or to develop together new ideas. Thus, networks assure conditions to optimize the members’ knowledge portfolios. Optimization of knowledge usage creates benefits for network members. These benefits could be profits (if members are private companies or social welfare (if members are looking after collective purposes. Taxonomy of knowledge networks is diverse, permitting an adaptation to the needs of members. Networks permit a large scale of heterogeneity. Since an important part of new knowledge creating costs is covered from public budgetary resources, a special development is recorded at those networks which are exclusively or partly organized in the public sector or benefit by participation from the public sector.

  15. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  16. Networking: OFFLU example

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for the United Nations Influenza Network (OFFLU) is the joint OIE-FAO global network of expertise on animal influenzas: equine, swine, poultry and wild birds. OFFLU aims to reduce negative impacts of animal influ...

  17. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.

  18. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  19. FTS2000 network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  20. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  1. Deep Spiking Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, P.; Welling, M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to do backpropagation on a spiking network. Our network is "spiking" in the sense that our neurons accumulate their activation into a potential over time, and only send out a signal (a "spike") when this potential crosses a threshold and the neuron is reset. Neurons only

  2. Innovation in Virtual Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore and highlight the particular innovation characteristics and modes of the chinese game industry from a networking perspective......The purpose of this article is to explore and highlight the particular innovation characteristics and modes of the chinese game industry from a networking perspective...

  3. Classroom Computer Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John

    1984-01-01

    This article describes a computer network system that connects several microcomputers to a single disk drive and one copy of software. Many schools are switching to networks as a cheaper and more efficient means of computer instruction. Teachers may be faced with copywriting problems when reproducing programs. (DF)

  4. Network SCADA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, Dragan R.; Tasic, Visa; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    Copper Institute, Industrial Informatics department, is developing and applying network real time process monitoring and control systems. Some of these systems are already in use. The paper presents some hardware and software general remarks and performances, with special regard to communication sub-systems and network possibilities. (Author)

  5. Online Social Network Interactions:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jung Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-cultural comparison of social networking structure on McDonald’s Facebook fan sites between Taiwan and the USA was conducted utilizing the individualism/collectivism dimension proposed by Hofstede. Four network indicators are used to describe the network structure of McDonald’s Facebook fan sites: size, density, clique and centralization. Individuals who post on both Facebook sites for the year of 2012 were considered as network participants for the purpose of the study. Due to the huge amount of data, only one thread of postings was sampled from each month of the year of 2012. The final data consists of 1002 postings written by 896 individuals and 5962 postings written by 5532 individuals from Taiwan and the USA respectively. The results indicated that the USA McDonald’s Facebook fan network has more fans, while Taiwan’s McDonald’s Facebook fan network is more densely connected. Cliques did form among the overall multiplex and within the individual uniplex networks in two countries, yet no significant differences were found between them. All the fan networks in both countries are relatively centralized, mostly on the site operators.

  6. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate...... to evaluate multiple epidemic scenarios in various network types....

  7. Personalized Home-Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José; Gandy, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides details of a home-networking architecture based on an enhanced residential gateway. Initially the need for mechanisms allowing user-dependent network behavior is described and afterwards details of an initial implementation are provided in terms of architectural description...

  8. Untangle network security

    CERN Document Server

    El-Bawab, Abd El-Monem A

    2014-01-01

    If you are a security engineer or a system administrator and want to secure your server infrastructure with the feature-rich Untangle, this book is for you. For individuals who want to start their career in the network security field, this book would serve as a perfect companion to learn the basics of network security and how to implement it using Untangle NGFW.

  9. Trends in Optical Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integrated TDM/IP Service Network: Built using next-generation SDH · Case 2: ISP Backbone over SONET/SDH · Solution for the PoPs · Solution for the Gateway site · Case 3: Ethernet Leased Line Services over Existing Infrastructure · Transport for Mobile Voice/Data Networks · Functions needed for mapping Ethernet to ...

  10. Weaponizing Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios; Tassos, Dimitriou; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    of a sensor network. Results show that our tool can be flexibly applied to different sensor network operating systems and protocol stacks giving an adversary privileges to which she is not entitled to. We hope that our tool will be used proactively, to study the weaknesses of new security protocols, and......, hopefully, to enhance the level of security provided by these solutions even further....

  11. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    /receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  12. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  13. CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

  14. Understanding telecommunications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Valdar, Andy

    2017-01-01

    A telecommunications network is an electronic system of links, nodes and the controls that govern their operations to allow voice and data transfer among users and devices. This fully revised, updated and expanded second edition covers all aspects of today's networks, including how they are planned, formed and operated.

  15. Integrating networks with Mathematica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meijer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a concept that considers network behavior as a collection of software objects, which can be used or modified in computer programs. The interfaces of these software objects are exposed as web services and enable applications to analyze and manipulate networks, e.g. to find

  16. Trends in Optical Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traditional Solution: Building an overlay network with SDH and IP elements · Integrated TDM/IP Service Network: Built using next-generation SDH · Case 2: ISP Backbone over SONET/SDH · Solution for the PoPs ... Bandwidth Allocation Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) · Cost-Reducing EoS: Partial Protection.

  17. Knowledge in Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Naumov, Pavel; Tao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates epistemic properties of information flow under communication protocols with a given topological structure of the communication network. The main result is a sound and complete logical system that describes all such properties. The system consists of a variation of the multi-agent epistemic logic S5 extended by a new network-specific Gateway axiom.

  18. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  19. Online social support networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish

    2015-04-01

    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.

  20. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...