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Sample records for left-side turning bias

  1. Perceptual expertise: can sensorimotor experience change holistic processing and left-side bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ricky Van-yip; Au, Terry Kit-fong; Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen

    2014-09-01

    Holistic processing and left-side bias are both behavioral markers of expert face recognition. By contrast, expert recognition of characters in Chinese orthography involves left-side bias but reduced holistic processing, although faces and Chinese characters share many visual properties. Here, we examined whether this reduction in holistic processing of Chinese characters can be better explained by writing experience than by reading experience. Compared with Chinese nonreaders, Chinese readers who had limited writing experience showed increased holistic processing, whereas Chinese readers who could write characters fluently showed reduced holistic processing. This result suggests that writing and sensorimotor experience can modulate holistic-processing effects and that the reduced holistic processing observed in expert Chinese readers may depend mostly on writing experience. However, both expert writers and writers with limited experience showed similarly stronger left-side bias than novices did in processing mirror-symmetric Chinese characters; left-side bias may therefore be a robust expertise marker for object recognition that is uninfluenced by sensorimotor experience. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Mean size estimation yields left-side bias: Role of attention on perceptual averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuei-An; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The human visual system can estimate mean size of a set of items effectively; however, little is known about whether information on each visual field contributes equally to the mean size estimation. In this study, we examined whether a left-side bias (LSB)-perceptual judgment tends to depend more heavily on left visual field's inputs-affects mean size estimation. Participants were instructed to estimate the mean size of 16 spots. In half of the trials, the mean size of the spots on the left side was larger than that on the right side (the left-larger condition) and vice versa (the right-larger condition). Our results illustrated an LSB: A larger estimated mean size was found in the left-larger condition than in the right-larger condition (Experiment 1), and the LSB vanished when participants' attention was effectively cued to the right side (Experiment 2b). Furthermore, the magnitude of LSB increased with stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), when spots on the left side were presented earlier than the right side. In contrast, the LSB vanished and then induced a reversed effect with SOA when spots on the right side were presented earlier (Experiment 3). This study offers the first piece of evidence suggesting that LSB does have a significant influence on mean size estimation of a group of items, which is induced by a leftward attentional bias that enhances the prior entry effect on the left side.

  3. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal ultrasound scan showed multiple stones in the gallbladder with no evidence of acute cholecystitis and a common bile duct (CBD) diameter of 4 mm. Owing to the atypical nature of her pain, a computed tomography (CT) scan was requested which showed a left-sided gallbladder containing gallstones (Fig. 1).

  4. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  5. Anosognosia for hemiparesis after left-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vucurevic, Goran; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Glassl, Oliver; Geber, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2014-12-01

    In patients with left-sided lesions, anosognosia for hemiparesis (AHP) seems to be a rare phenomenon. It has been discussed whether this rareness might be due to an inevitable bias due to language dysfunction and whether the left hemisphere's role for our self-awareness of motor actions thus is underestimated. By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined whether patients with AHP following a left hemisphere stroke show a regular, left-sided or a reversed, right-sided lateralization of language functions. Only the former observation would argue for an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. In a consecutive series of 44 acute left-sided stroke patients, only one patient (=2%) was identified showing AHP. In this case, we could verify by using fMRI that lateralization of AHP and spatial neglect on the one hand and of language functions on the other hand were reversed. The present single case observation thus argues against an original role of the left hemisphere in self-awareness about limb function. We discuss the data in the context of previous observations in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A disappearing left-sided neck mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-07-04

    The patient was a 48-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with complaints of a left-sided painful neck mass, which changed in size relative to ingestion of meals. He denied voice change, fever, chills, weight loss, dysphagia and hoarseness. Physical examination was unremarkable. CT scan demonstrated a 3.9 mm calculus of the submandibular gland duct. Therapeutic sialendocopy was successfully performed.

  7. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  8. Left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, M.; Horlings, H. M.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Windhausen, A.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved diagnostic tools and expanded treatment options, left-sided native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection remains a serious and destructive disease. The high morbidity and mortality, however, can be reduced by early recognition, correct diagnosis, and

  9. Left Sided Amyand's Hernia, A Rare Occurance: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Mohan, G; Srinivasan, A; Ravindran, G; Ramalingam, A

    2013-06-01

    This is a case report about a 35 year old man admitted with complains of obstructed left sided inguinal hernia. On exploration of the left inguinal canal to our surprise a normal appendix was found in addition to a gangrenous omentum. Resection of the gangrenous omentum was done. Appendectomy was done. This case is reported for its rare occurance as only three such cases of left sided amyand's hernia has been reported so far in literature[4-6].

  10. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  11. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  12. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  13. Intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and benefits of antegrade intraoperative colonic irrigation (lavage) and primary anastomosis, after colonic resection, in the treatment of left sided large bowel emergencies. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Participants: Thirty ...

  14. A Friendly Turn: Advertising Bias in the News Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ruenzi, Stefan; Focke, Florens; Niessen-Ruenzi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether newspapers report more favorably about advertising corporate clients than about other firms. Our identification strategy based on high-dimensional fixed effects and high frequency advertising data shows that advertising leads to more positive press coverage. This advertising bias in reporting is found among local and national newspapers. Further results show that advertising bias manifests particularly in less negative reporting after bad news events such as ne...

  15. Family matters: Directionality of turning bias while kissing is modulated by context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Jennifer R; Elias, Lorin J

    2016-01-28

    When leaning forward to kiss to a romantic partner, individuals tend to direct their kiss to the right more often than the left. Studies have consistently demonstrated this kissing asymmetry, although other factors known to influence lateral biases, such as sex or situational context, had yet to be explored. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate if turning direction was consistent between a romantic (parent-parent) and parental (parent-child) kissing context, and secondly, to examine if sex differences influenced turning bias between parent-child kissing partners. An archival analysis coded the direction of turning bias for 161 images of romantic kissing (mothers kissing fathers) and 529 images of parental kissing (mothers or fathers kissing sons or daughters). The results indicated that the direction of turning bias differed between kissing contexts. As expected, a right-turn bias was observed for romantic kissing; however, a left-turn bias was exhibited for parental kissing. There was no significant difference of turning bias between any parent-child kissing partners. Interpretations for the left-turn bias discuss parental kissing as a learned lateral behaviour.

  16. Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha Tobias; Schoch, Otto D; Kleiner, Rebekka; Joerg, Lucas; Weilenmann, Daniel; Swiss Society For Pulmonary Hypertension

    2017-01-19

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left-sided heart disease, the presence of pulmonary hypertension is typically a marker of more advanced disease, more severe symptoms, and worse prognosis. In contrast to pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH-LHD is characterised by an elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure (postcapillary pulmonary hypertension) without or with an additional precapillary component (isolated postcapillary versus combined postcapillary and precapillary pulmonary hypertension). Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary nonin-vasive imaging tool to estimate the probability of pulmonary hypertension and to establish a working diagnosis on the mechanism of pulmonary hyperten-sion. However, right heart catheterisation is always required if significant pulmonary hypertension is sus-pected and exact knowledge of the haemodynamic constellation is necessary. The haemodynamic con-stellation (mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) in combination with clinical infor-mation and imaging findings (mainly echocardiog-raphy, coronary angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) will usually allow the exact mech-anism underlying PH-LHD to be defined, which is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment. The general principle for the management of PH-LHD is to treat the underlying left-sided heart disease in an optimal man-ner using drugs and/or interventional or surgical ther-apy. There is currently no established indication for pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies in PH-LHD, and specific therapies may even cause harm in patients with PH-LHD.

  17. A Left-Sided Prevalence of Lentigo Maligna: A UK Based Observational Study and Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer has been shown to present asymmetrically, prevalent on the left side of the body, more so in subtypes of cutaneous melanoma such as lentigo maligna. Biases have been linked to cumulative UV light exposure and automobile driving patterns. Though left-right ratios have previously correlated with the side men or women tend to position themselves or countries drive on, more recent trends indicate a consistent left-sided bias. To clarify reasons for changing trends, a review of the evidence base and LM’s laterality in a UK cohort (99 cases 2000–2011 was conducted for the first time. The strong correlation of left-sided excess, found in both genders (ratios 1.381–1.5, P<0.05  X2 0.841, is congruent with more recent findings. Though evidence indicates that driving position is no longer a risk factor for LM, due most likely to improved car window UV protection, it remains the most commonly attributed cause. Understanding phenomena such as UV lights “scatter effect” or that cumulative exposure may not be a significant risk factor helps rationalize older conclusions that would otherwise appear contradictory. The reasons for left-sided excess remain unclear but may be due to factors requiring further research such as the body’s anatomical/embryological asymmetry.

  18. Ants show a leftward turning bias when exploring unknown nest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Edmund R; O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas; Albery, Gregory F; Bridger, Tamsyn H; Gumn, Mike; Franks, Nigel R

    2014-12-01

    Behavioural lateralization in invertebrates is an important field of study because it may provide insights into the early origins of lateralization seen in a diversity of organisms. Here, we present evidence for a leftward turning bias in Temnothorax albipennis ants exploring nest cavities and in branching mazes, where the bias is initially obscured by thigmotaxis (wall-following) behaviour. Forward travel with a consistent turning bias in either direction is an effective nest exploration method, and a simple decision-making heuristic to employ when faced with multiple directional choices. Replication of the same bias at the colony level would also reduce individual predation risk through aggregation effects, and may lead to a faster attainment of a quorum threshold for nest migration. We suggest the turning bias may be the result of an evolutionary interplay between vision, exploration and migration factors, promoted by the ants' eusociality.

  19. Emergency Management of Malignant Acute Left-Sided Colonic Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetas, Vasileios

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of acute left-sided colonic obstruction still remains a challenging problem despite significant progress. METHODS A literature search was undertaken using PubMed and the Cochrane Library regarding the options in emergency management of left-sided colonic obstruction focusing on outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, long-term prognosis and cost effectiveness. DISCUSSION Colonic stenting is the best option either for palliation or as a bridge to surgery. It reduces morbidity and mortality rate and the need for colostomy formation. Stenting is likely to be cost effective, but data are variable depending on the individual healthcare system. Nevertheless, surgical management remains relevant as colonic stenting has a small rate of failure, and it is not always available. There are various surgical options. One-stage primary resection and anastomosis is the preferred choice for low-risk patients. Intra-operative colonic irrigation has no proven benefit. Subtotal colectomy is useful in cases of proximal bowel damage or synchronous tumours. Hartmann's procedure should be reserved for high-risk patients. Simple colostomy has no role other than for use in very ill patients who are not fit for any other procedure. PMID:18430330

  20. Left-sided congenital heart lesions in mosaic Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayed Abdelmoula, Nouha; Abdelmoula, Balkiss; Smaoui, Walid; Trabelsi, Imen; Louati, Rim; Aloulou, Samir; Aloulou, Wafa; Abid, Fatma; Kammoun, Senda; Trigui, Khaled; Bedoui, Olfa; Denguir, Hichem; Mallek, Souad; Ben Aziza, Mustapha; Dammak, Jamila; Kaabi, Oldez; Abdellaoui, Nawel; Turki, Fatma; Kaabi, Asma; Kamoun, Wafa; Jabeur, Jihen; Ltaif, Wided; Chaker, Kays; Fourati, Haytham; M'rabet, Samir; Ben Ameur, Hedi; Gouia, Naourez; Mhiri, Mohamed Nabil; Rebai, Tarek

    2018-04-01

    In the era of the diseasomes and interactome networks, linking genetics with phenotypic traits in Turner syndrome should be studied thoroughly. As a part of this stratagem, mosaicism of both X and Y chromosome which is a common finding in TS and an evaluation of congenital heart diseases in the different situations of mosaic TS types, can be helpful in the identification of disturbed sex chromosomes, genes and signaling pathway actors. Here we report the case of a mosaic TS associated to four left-sided CHD, including BAV, COA, aortic aneurysms and dissections at an early age. The mosaicism included two cell lines, well-defined at the cytogenetic and molecular levels: a cell line which is monosomic for Xp and Xq genes (45,X) and another which is trisomic for pseudoautosomal genes that are present on the X and Y chromosomes and escape X inactivation: 45,X[8]/46,X,idic(Y)(pter→q11.2::q11.2→pter)[42]. This case generates two hypotheses about the contribution of genes linked to the sex chromosomes and the signaling pathways involving these genes, in left-sided heart diseases. The first hypothesis suggests the interaction between X chromosome and autosomal genes or loci of aortic development, possibly dose-dependent, and which could be in the framework of TGF-β-SMAD signaling pathways. The second implies that left-sided congenital heart lesions involve sex chromosomes loci. The reduced dosage of X chromosome gene(s), escaping X inactivation during development, contributes to this type of CHD. Regarding our case, these X chromosome genes may have homologues at the Y chromosome, but the process of inactivation of the centromeres of the isodicentric Y spreads to the concerned Y chromosome genes. Therefore, this case emerges as an invitation to consider the mosaics of Turner syndrome and to study their phenotypes in correlation with their genotypes to discover the underlying developmental and genetic mechanisms, especially the ones related to sex chromosomes.

  1. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  2. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  3. Neglecting the Left Side of a City Square but Not the Left Side of Its Clock: Prevalence and Characteristics of Representational Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect. PMID:23874416

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and copy number variations in fetal left-sided congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Fenna A R; Hoffer, Mariette J V; van Velzen, Christine L; Plati, Stephani Klingeman; Rijlaarsdam, Marry E B; Clur, Sally-Ann B; Blom, Nico A; Pajkrt, Eva; Bhola, Shama L; Knegt, Alida C; de Boer, Marion A; Haak, Monique C

    2016-02-01

    To demonstrate the spectrum of copy number variants (CNVs) in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital heart defects (CHDs), and analyse genetic content. Between 2003 and 2012, 200 fetuses were identified with left-sided CHD. Exclusion criteria were chromosomal rearrangements, 22q11.2 microdeletion and/or extra-cardiac malformations (n = 64). We included cases with additional minor anomalies (n = 39), such as single umbilical artery. In 54 of 136 eligible cases, stored material was available for array analysis. CNVs were categorized as either (likely) benign, (likely) pathogenic or of unknown significance. In 18 of the 54 isolated left-sided CHDs we found 28 rare CNVs (prevalence 33%, average 1.6 CNV per person, size 10.6 kb-2.2 Mb). Our interpretation yielded clinically significant CNVs in two of 54 cases (4%) and variants of unknown significance in three other cases (6%). In left-sided CHDs that appear isolated, with normal chromosome analysis and 22q11.2 FISH analysis, array analysis detects clinically significant CNVs. When counselling parents of a fetus with a left-sided CHD it must be taken into consideration that aside from the cardiac characteristics, the presence of extra-cardiac malformations and chromosomal abnormalities influence the treatment plan and prognosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparison between the incidence of right and left sided congenital torticollis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, S.; Bashir, M.S.; Hussain, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital torticollis is an intriguing condition of unknown origin, characterized by unilateral shortening and tightness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Patients usually present with head tilt, facial asymmetry and plagiocephaly. A sternomastoid mass or tumor may or may not be clinically apparent. Untreated, cervical function and facial cosmesis may be severely compromised. Objective: My study is aimed at establishing a comparison between the incidence of right versus left sided congenital torticollis. Method: This observational study included 30 patients of congenital torticollis that completed the questionnaire. The data was collected from patients coming to the Physiotherapy and Orthopedic departments of Children Hospital, Lahore. Results: Results showed that right side was involved in 19 (63.3%) patients and left side was involved in 11 (36.7%) patients. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7%) were male, of which 8 had right sided congenital torticollis and 6 had left sided congenital torticollis, and 16 (53.3%) were female, of which right sided congenital torticollis and 5 had left sided congenital torticollis. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that incidence of right sided congenital torticollis is more common than left sided congenital torticollis. The incidence of con-genital torticollis is higher in females than in males. (author)

  6. Minimally invasive radical pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy has been regarded as a safe and effective treatment for benign and borderline malignant pancreatic lesions. However, its application for left-sided pancreatic cancer is still being debated. The clinical evidence for radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)-based minimally invasive approaches for left-sided pancreatic cancer was reviewed. Potential indications and surgical concepts for minimally invasive RAMPS were suggested. Despite the limited clinical evidence for minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy in left-sided pancreatic cancer, the currently available clinical evidence supports the use of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under oncologic principles in well-selected left sided pancreatic cancers. A pancreas-confined tumor with an intact fascia layer between the pancreas and left adrenal gland/kidney positioned more than 1 or 2 cm away from the celiac axis is thought to constitute a good condition for the use of margin-negative minimally invasive RAMPS. The use of minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) anterior RAMPS is feasible and safe for margin-negative resection in well-selected left-sided pancreatic cancer. The oncologic feasibility of the procedure remains to be determined; however, the currently available interim results indicate that even oncologic outcomes will not be inferior to those of open radical distal pancreatosplenectomy. PMID:24605031

  7. Incidence of Important Hemobilia Following Transhepatic Biliary Drainage: Left-Sided Versus Right-Sided Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Sanfeliz, G. M.; Assar, O. S. A.; LaBerge, J. M.; Wilson, M. W.; Gordon, R. L.; Ring, E. J.; Kerlan, R. K. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose here is to describe our experience with important hemobilia following PTBD and to determine whether left-sided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is associated with an increased incidence of important hemobilia compared to right-sided drainages. We reviewed 346 transhepatic biliary drainages over a four-year period and identified eight patients (2.3%) with important hemobilia requiring transcatheter embolization. The charts and radiographic files of these patients were reviewed. The side of the PTBD (left versus right), and the order of the biliary ductal branch entered (first, second, or third) were recorded. Of the 346 PTBDs, 269 were right-sided and 77 were left-sided. Of the eight cases of important hemobilia requiring transcatheter embolization, four followed right-sided and four followed left-sided PTBD, corresponding to a bleeding incidence of 1.5% (4/269) for right PTBD and 5.2% (4/77) for left PTBD. The higher incidence of hemobilia associated with left-sided PTBD approached, but did not reach the threshold of statistical significance (p = 0.077). In six of the eight patients requiring transcatheter embolization, first or second order biliary branches were accessed by catheter for PTBD. All patients with left-sided bleeding had first or proximal second order branches accessed by biliary drainage catheters. In conclusion, a higher incidence of hemobilia followed left- versus right-sided PTBD in this study, but the increased incidence did not reach statistical significance

  8. Left-side changes in thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, G.; Buecheler, E.; Grabbe, E.; Darup, J.

    1983-03-01

    In routine thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgical procedures, 93.2% of our patients (n=88) showed radiologically perceivable pathological changes, reduced ventilation being the most common phenomenon. 77.1% of the patients showed signs of reduced ventilation, mostly the left side. Limited motility of the diaphragm on the left side was visible in 69% of the cases studied. The defective motility of the left diaphragm is attributable to direct damage to the left nervus phrenicus caused by extracardial heart cooling during surgery.

  9. Left-side changes in thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, G.; Buecheler, E.; Grabbe, E.; Darup, J.

    1983-01-01

    In routine thoracic X-ray follow-ups after cardiosurgical procedures, 93.2% of our patients (n=88) showed radiologically perceivable pathological changes, reduced ventilation being the most common phenomenon. 77.1% of the patients showed signs of reduced ventilation, mostly the left side. Limited motility of the diaphragm on the left side was visible in 69% of the cases studied. The defective motility of the left diaphragm is attributable to direct damage to the left nervus phrenicus caused by extracardial heart cooling during surgery. (orig.) [de

  10. Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, İsmihan Selen; Sen, Onur; Gökalp, Selman; Onan, Burak

    2017-09-01

    Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with intact interatrial septum is a rare diagnosis in childhood. In these cases, a vertical vein drains the left upper pulmonary lobe into the brachiocephalic vein and finally to the right atrium. Surgical treatment is performed to prevent right ventricular failure and pulmonary artery disease in advanced age. In this report, the rare entity of isolated left-sided anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a 14-year-old girl and successful minimally invasive surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass are described.

  11. Incidence and factors associated with infective endocarditis in patients undergoing left-sided heart valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Patients with left-sided heart valve replacement are considered at high-risk of infective endocarditis (IE). However, data on the incidence and risk factors associated with IE are sparse. Methods and results: Through Danish administrative registries, we identified patients who underwent left.......35-2.15), and cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) (HR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.06) were among factors associated with an increased risk of IE. Conclusion: Infective endocarditis after left-sided heart valve replacement is not uncommon and occurs in about 1/20 over 10 years. Male, bioprosthetic valve, and heart...

  12. Guidelines of diagnostics and treatment of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, Caroline S.; Mulder, Irene M.; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J. F.; Verbon, Annelies; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; van Goor, Harry; Lange, Johan F.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.; Bleichrodt, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is increasing in the Western world. To improve the quality of patient care, a guideline for diagnosis and treatment of diverticulitis is needed. A multidisciplinary working group, representing experts of relevant specialties, was

  13. Left-sided approach for cardiac procedure and thoracoplasty in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, J; Kubota, H; Sudo, K

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of a 20-year-old female in whom we successfully performed a simultaneous Bentall procedure and thoracoplasty by initially removing only the left side of the costal cartilages. This modified sternal elevation technique offered chest stability and an excellent surgical view, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Dissecting aneurysm of arch and descending thoracic aorta presenting as a left sided hemorrhagic pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of massive hemorrhagic effusion is malignancy. Herein we present a case of dissecting aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta presenting initially with shortness of breath due to left sided massive pleural effusion. Effusion was hemorrhagic in nature with high hematocrit value. CT scan of thorax with CT angiogram was done and that revealed the diagnosis.

  15. Surgical management of colonic diverticular disease: discrepancy between right- and left-sided diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-08-07

    To compare the outcome of the surgical management of left-sided and right-sided diverticular disease. The medical records of 77 patients who were surgically treated for diverticular disease between 1999 and 2010 in a tertiary referral hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was limited to cases wherein the surgical specimen was confirmed as diverticulosis by pathology. Right-sided diverticula were classified as those arising from the cecum, ascending colon, and transverse colon, and those from the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum were classified as left-sided diverticulosis. To assess the changing trend of occurrence of diverticulosis, data were compared with two previous studies of 51 patients. The proportion of left-sided disease cases was significantly increased compared to the results of our previous studies in 1994 and 2001, (27.5% vs 48.1%, P disease. However, patients with right-sided disease were significantly younger (50.9 year vs 64.0 year, P disease was significantly associated with a higher incidence of complicated diverticulitis (89.2% vs 57.5%, P diverticular disease, the incidence of left-sided disease in Korea has increased since 2001 and is associated with worse surgical outcomes.

  16. Echocardiographic 3D-guided 2D planimetry in quantifying left-sided valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argulian, Edgar; Seetharam, Karthik

    2018-02-08

    Echocardiographic 3D-guided 2D planimetry can improve the accuracy of valvular disease assessment. Acquisition of 3D pyramidal dataset allows subsequent multiplanar reconstruction with accurate orthogonal plane alignment to obtain the correct borders of an anatomic orifice or flow area. Studies examining the 3D-guided 2D planimetry approach in left-sided valvular heart disease were identified and reviewed. The strongest evidence exists for estimating mitral valve area in patients with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis and vena contracta area in patients with mitral regurgitation (both primary and secondary). 3D-guided approach showed excellent feasibility and reproducibility in most studies, as well as time efficiency and good correlation with reference and comparator methods. Therefore, 3D-guided 2D planimetry can be used as an important clinical tool in quantifying left-sided valvular heart disease, especially mitral valve disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Anterior subcarinal node dissection on the left side using video thoracoscopy: an easier technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Jean-Marc; Haddad, Laura; Melki, Jean; Peillon, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Lobectomy for lung carcinoma is usually associated with complete node dissection, but it is often difficult to perform using video thoracoscopy, especially on the left side. In this case, our team uses an anterior technique for subcarinal lymphadenectomy. After left lobectomy, we lift the bronchial stump by its anterior face to open and dissect the subcarinal space. Exposure is difficult using the more usual technique of posterior subcarinal lymphadenectomy, and the different techniques (often requiring retractors) remain complex because some vessels might be injured. We recommend using anterior lymphadenectomy, which should facilitate video thoracoscopy for lymphadenectomy on the left side. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Riis, Lene B

    2014-01-01

    to identify potential biomarkers and transcripts of importance for the carcinogenic behavior of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 was applied on colonic biopsies from UC patients with left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Reverse transcription...... polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed for validating selected transcripts in the initial cohort and in 2 independent cohorts of patients with UC. Microarray data were analyzed by principal component analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...... and immunohistochemistry data by the Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. RESULTS: The principal component analysis results revealed separate clusters for left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Close clustering of dysplastic and pancolitic samples indicated similarities in gene expression. Indeed, 101 and 656 parallel...

  19. Left-Sided Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Right-Sided Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 31-year-old female with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF and right-sided aortic arch (RAA with left-sided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA originating from the left brachiocephalic artery. This is a rare finding but most common site for a PDA in TOF and a RAA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this rare finding on MRI in the literature.

  20. A missing link between RON expression and oncological outcomes in resected left-sided pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dai Hoon; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Whan; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-10-01

    Alteration and activation of recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) expression is known to be associated with cancer progression and decreased survival in various types of human cancer, including pancreatic cancer. Therefore, in the present study, RON expression levels were determined in resected left-sided pancreatic cancer to evaluate the potential oncological role of RON in the clinical setting of distal pancreatic cancer. From January 2005 to December 2011, a total of 57 patients underwent radical distal pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer. Ductal adenocarcinoma was confirmed in all patients. Among these patients, 17 patients who received preoperative neoadjuvant treatment and 7 patients without available paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were excluded from the present study. RON expression in a the pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1, BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-3 and Panc-1, as well as in resected left-sided pancreatic cancer specimens was determined by Western blot analysis. RON and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression in resected left-sided pancreatic cancer was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using pre-diluted anti-RON and anti-VEGF antibodies. An association was identified between the oncological outcome and RON overexpression. Increased levels of RON expression were observed in two pancreatic cancer cell lines, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3. RON overexpression was detected in specimens from 15/33 patients (45.5%) using immunohistochemistry. No significant association was identified between RON overexpression and VEGF overexpression (25.5 vs. 87.9%; P=0.667). No significant differences in disease-free survival or disease-specific survival associated with RON overexpression were identified. Although the results of previous studies have suggested that RON is a potential target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, in the present study no association between RON overexpression and any adverse oncological effect was identified.

  1. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  2. Guenther Tulip Filter Retrieval from a Left-sided Inferior Vena Cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brountzos, Elias N.; Kaufman, John A.; Lakin, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Optional (retrievable) inferior cava filters (IVC) may have advantages over permanent filters in a certain subset of patients, especially in view of recent concerns about the long-term thrombotic complications of the latter. Retrieval of the Guenther Tulip Filter (GTF), an optional filter, has been reported in a total of 76 patients. We present the first description of GTF retrieval from a left-sided IVC using the right internal jugular approach

  3. Complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis in adults: risk classification for mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Barakat, Lydia A; Buenconsejo, Joan; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2003-04-16

    Complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis causes significant morbidity and mortality in adults. Lack of valid data regarding estimation of prognosis makes management of this condition difficult. To derive and externally validate a prognostic classification system for adults with complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis. Retrospective observational cohort study conducted from January 1990 to January 2000 at 7 Connecticut hospitals among 513 patients older than 16 years who experienced complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis and who were divided into derivation (n = 259) and validation (n = 254) cohorts. All-cause mortality at 6 months after baseline. In the derivation and validation cohorts, the 6-month mortality rates were 25% and 26%, respectively. Five baseline features were independently associated with 6-month mortality (comorbidity [P =.03], abnormal mental status [P =.02], moderate to severe congestive heart failure [P =.01], bacterial etiology other than viridans streptococci [Pclassification system. In the derivation cohort, patients were classified into 4 groups with increasing risk for 6-month mortality: 5%, 15%, 31%, and 59% (Pendocarditis can be accurately risk stratified using baseline features into 4 groups of prognostic severity. This prognostic classification system might be useful for facilitating management decisions.

  4. Infection of the left sided gallbladder simulating liver abscess and gastric antral tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Ahn, Jae Sung [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    The left sided gallbladder, being a rare occurrence, may create diagnostic problem especially when it becomes infected. Recently, we have experienced 2 cases of infection of left sided gallbladder at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Case I was a 32-year-old housewife with dyspepsia, epigastric pain and recurring bouts of high fever of 2 months duration. Under the provisional diagnosis of liver abscess liver scan was performed which revealed well defined cold area in the left lobe supporting the provisional diagnosis. Tender cystic mass was aspirated and pus was drained. The injected air at the occasion of aspiration outlined well defined cystic structure. Because aspiration failed to control the symptoms, laparotomy was performed. Surgeon found a left sided gallbladder which was empyematous. Case II was a 38 year old business man admitted to the hospital because of tender ill defined mass in mid epigastrium. The patient was febrile (39.4 .deg. C) and anemic. An upper GI series disclosed an irregular filling defect involving the antrum of the stomach. The mass was primarily extrinsic but was closely fixed to the gastric wall. Surgical intervention revealed chronic cholecystitis and pericholecystitis with thick adhesion to the distal stomach.

  5. Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava: a case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wee Choen; Doyle, Terry; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava (IVC) are two major anatomical variants within the spectrum of IVC malformations, both of which are developmental abnormalities of the supracardinal veins. Four clinical cases are described to highlight the computed tomographic appearances of these vascular malformations and provide novel data on venous dimensions. A systematic review of the recent literature (2000-2011) was conducted focusing on the anatomy, demographics, and associated pathology (congenital and acquired) of isolated left-sided and duplicate IVC. A total of 73 relevant articles were retrieved, consisting of case reports and small case series. The prevalence of left-sided IVC is about 0.1-0.4% and that for duplicate IVC about 0.3-0.4%; both anomalies show a slight male preponderance. In each condition, there are documented variations in the course and tributaries of the IVC. The clinical importance of these anomalies lies in three principal areas: the potential for misdiagnosis on imaging; technical difficulties during retroperitoneal surgery (particularly abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and live donor nephrectomy); and their significance in relation to the etiology and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer in patient characteristics, cancer morphology and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Toru; Kato, Jun; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hisayuki; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the clinical and biological differences between right- and left-sided colon cancers have been widely debated. However, close analyses of these clinical differences, based on large-scale studies, have been scarcely reported. A total of 3552 consecutive Japanese colorectal cancer cases were examined and the clinical differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer cases were investigated. The proportion of right-sided colon cancer was relatively high in patients aged less than 40 years (33%) and more than 80 years (43%). The proportion of right-sided colon cancer in patients aged 40-59 years was relatively low (male 22% and female 29%). In male patients the proportion increased in the 70-79 years age group (30%), while in female patients the proportion increased in the 60-69 years age group (39%). Right-sided colon cancer was more likely to be detected at an advanced stage (T1 stage; left 22%, right 15%) (P cancer was dominant in the left colon (left 59%; right 40%) (P cancer in the right colon was significantly higher than that in the left colon (left 25%; right 44%) (P colon cancer was observed and the difference between male and female patients was highlighted. Other clinical features also differed between right- and left-sided colon cancer, suggesting that different mechanisms may be at work during right and left colon carcinogenesis.

  7. Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left-sided

  8. Did Buddha turn the other cheek too? A comparison of posing biases between Jesus and Buddha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-10-02

    People tend to exhibit a leftward bias in posing. Various studies suggest that posing to the left portrays a stronger emotion, whereas posing to the right portrays a more neutral emotion. Religions such as Christianity emphasize the role of strong emotions in religious experience, whereas religions such as Buddhism emphasize the calming of emotions as being important. In the present study, we investigated if the emphasis on emotionality of a religion influences the depiction of their religious figures. Specifically, we coded 484 paintings of Jesus and Buddha from online art databases for whether the deity exhibited a left bias, right bias, or central face presentation. The posing biases were analysed to discover whether paintings of Jesus would more frequently depict a leftward bias than paintings of Buddha. Jesus is more commonly depicted with a leftward bias than Buddha, and Buddha is more commonly depicted with a central face presentation than Jesus. These findings support the idea that the amount of emotionality that is to be conveyed in artwork influences the whether the subject is posed with a leftward bias.

  9. Characterization of the Left-Sided Substrate in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Benjamin; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Yamashita, Seigo; Komatsu, Yuki; Pillois, Xavier; Sacher, Frédéric; Mahida, Saagar; Wielandts, Jean-Yves; Sellal, Jean-Marc; Frontera, Antonio; Al Jefairi, Nora; Derval, Nicolas; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, François; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    The correlates of left ventricular (LV) substrate in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are largely unknown. Thirty-two patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (47±14 years; 6 women) were included. RV and LV dysplasia were defined from multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Arrhythmias were characterized as right-sided or left-sided on 12-lead ECG recordings at baseline and during isoproterenol testing. In 14 patients, the imaging substrate was compared with voltage mapping and local abnormal ventricular activity. Imaging abnormalities were found in 32 (100%) and 21 (66%) patients on the RV and LV, respectively, intramyocardial fat on multidetector computed tomography being the most sensitive feature. LV involvement related to none of the Task Force criteria. Right-sided arrhythmias were more frequent than left-sided arrhythmias (P=0.003) although the latter were more frequent in case of LV involvement (P=0.02). The agreement between low voltage and fat on multidetector computed tomography was high on the RV when using either endocardial unipolar or epicardial bipolar data (κ=0.82 and κ=0.78, respectively) but lower on the LV (κ=0.54 for epicardial bipolar). LV local abnormal ventricular activity was found in all patients with LV involvement, and none of the others. The density of local abnormal ventricular activity within fat areas was similar between the RV and LV (P=0.57). LV substrate is frequent in arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy, but poorly identified by current diagnostic strategies. Left-sided arrhythmias are more frequent in case of LV involvement. LV fat hosts the same density of local abnormal ventricular activity as RV fat, but is less efficiently detected by voltage mapping. These results support the need for alternative diagnostic strategies to identify LV dysplasia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. [Left-sided endocarditis due to gram-negative bacilli: epidemiology and clinical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Mariam; de la Torre, Javier; Ivanova, Radka; Martínez, Francisco José; Lomas, Jose María; Plata, Antonio; Gálvez, Juan; Reguera, Jose María; Ruiz, Josefa; Hidalgo, Carmen; Luque, Rafael; García-López, María Victoria; de Alarcón, Arístides

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with left-side endocarditis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Prospective multicenter study of left-sided infective endocarditis reported in the Andalusian Cohort for the Study of Cardiovascular Infections between 1984 and 2008. Among the 961 endocarditis, 24 (2.5%) were caused by gram-negative bacilli. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. Native valves (85.7%) were mainly affected, most of them with previous valve damage (57%). Comorbidity was greater (90% vs 39%; P=.05) than in endocarditis due to other microorganism, the most frequent being, diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis and neoplasm. A previous manipulation was found in 47.6% of the cases, and 37% were considered hospital-acquired. Renal failure (41%), central nervous system involvement (33%) and ventricular dysfunction (45%) were the most frequent complications. Five cases (21%) required cardiac surgery, mostly due to ventricular dysfunction. More than 50% of cases were treated with aminoglycosides, but this did not lead to a better outcome or prognosis. Mortality (10 patients) was higher than that reported with other microorganisms (41% vs 35%; P=.05). Left-sided endocarditis due to gram-negative bacilli is a rare disease, which affects patients with major morbidities and often with a previous history of hospital manipulations. Cardiac, neurological and renal complications are frequent and associated with a high mortality. The association of aminoglycosides in the antimicrobial treatment did not involve a better outcome or prognosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Early experience of the compression anastomosis ring (CARTM 27) in left-sided colon resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeon; Woo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hong-Jo; Park, Ki-Jae; Roh, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ki-Han; Lee, Hak-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate clinical validity of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) anastomosis in left-sided colonic resection. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27 between November 2009 and January 2011. Eligibility criteria of the use of the CAR™ 27 were anastomoses between the colon and at or above the intraperitoneal rectum. The primary short-term clinical endpoint, rate of anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes, including intra- and postoperative complications, length of operation time and hospital stay, and the ring elimination time were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 79 patients (male, 43; median age, 64 years) underwent an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27. Colectomy was performed laparoscopically in 70 patients, in whom two patients converted to open procedure (2.9%). There was no surgical mortality. As an intraoperative complication, total disruption of the anastomosis occurred by premature enforced tension on the proximal segment of the anastomosis in one patient. The ring was removed and another new CAR™ 27 anastomosis was constructed. One patient with sigmoid colon cancer showed postoperative anastomotic leakage after 6 d postoperatively and temporary diverting ileostomy was performed. Exact date of expulsion of the ring could not be recorded because most patients were not aware that the ring had been expelled. No patients manifested clinical symptoms of anastomotic stricture. CONCLUSION: Short-term evaluation of the CAR™ 27 anastomosis in elective left colectomy suggested it to be a safe and efficacious alternative to the standard hand-sewn or stapling technique. PMID:22147979

  12. Early experience of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) in left-sided colon resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeon; Woo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hong-Jo; Park, Ki-Jae; Roh, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ki-Han; Lee, Hak-Yoon

    2011-11-21

    To evaluate clinical validity of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR™ 27) anastomosis in left-sided colonic resection. A non-randomized prospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27 between November 2009 and January 2011. Eligibility criteria of the use of the CAR™ 27 were anastomoses between the colon and at or above the intraperitoneal rectum. The primary short-term clinical endpoint, rate of anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes, including intra- and postoperative complications, length of operation time and hospital stay, and the ring elimination time were evaluated. A total of 79 patients (male, 43; median age, 64 years) underwent an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR™ 27. Colectomy was performed laparoscopically in 70 patients, in whom two patients converted to open procedure (2.9%). There was no surgical mortality. As an intraoperative complication, total disruption of the anastomosis occurred by premature enforced tension on the proximal segment of the anastomosis in one patient. The ring was removed and another new CAR™ 27 anastomosis was constructed. One patient with sigmoid colon cancer showed postoperative anastomotic leakage after 6 d postoperatively and temporary diverting ileostomy was performed. Exact date of expulsion of the ring could not be recorded because most patients were not aware that the ring had been expelled. No patients manifested clinical symptoms of anastomotic stricture. Short-term evaluation of the CAR™ 27 anastomosis in elective left colectomy suggested it to be a safe and efficacious alternative to the standard hand-sewn or stapling technique.

  13. Mapping of the left-sided phrenic nerve course in patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Martin; Wutzler, Alexander; Parwani, Abdul S; Attanasio, Philipp; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been associated with left-sided phrenic nerve palsy. Knowledge of the individual left phrenic nerve course therefore is essential to prevent nerve injury. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an intraprocedural pace mapping and reconstruction of the left phrenic nerve course and to characterize which anatomical areas are affected. In patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablation, a three-dimensional map of the left atrial anatomical structures was created. The left-sided phrenic nerve course was determined by high-output pace mapping and reconstructed in the map. In this study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardias were included. Left phrenic nerve capture was observed in 23 (57.5%) patients. Phrenic nerve was captured in 22 (55%) patients inside the left atrial appendage, in 22 (55%) in distal parts, in 21 (53%) in medial parts, and in two (5%) in ostial parts of the appendage. In three (7.5%) patients, capture was found in the distal coronary sinus and in one (2.5%) patient in the left atrium near the left atrial appendage ostium. Ablation target was changed due to direct spatial relationship to the phrenic nerve in three (7.5%) patients. No phrenic nerve palsy was observed. Left-sided phrenic nerve capture was found inside and around the left atrial appendage in the majority of patients and additionally in the distal coronary sinus. Phrenic nerve mapping and reconstruction can easily be performed and should be considered prior catheter ablations in potential affected areas. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chylous ascites as a complication of left sided robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pahouja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to present a case series of the sparsely reported complication of chylous ascites (CA after left sided robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN, identify possible risk factors for the development of postoperative CA, and explore current recommendations for identification, management and prevention of CA. Material and methods: A retrospective review of patients that were treated with a RALPN during a one year time period (August 2012 to August 2013 by one surgeon at our institution was conducted. A total of 12 patients were included in the study. Demographics, tumor characteristics, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. Results: Three patients in the study experienced postoperative CA. All three patients had left sided surgery. The initial clinical suspicion for CA was raised due to complaints of abdominal pain with increased milky appearance of JP fluid. JP triglycerides were elevated in all three patients. The patients responded to conservative measures, with two patients treated with medium chain triglyceride diets and one patient treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN. Among the patients treated with RALPN, the group that was diagnosed with postoperative CA (CA group was found to have a statistically significant lower average body mass index (BMI as compared to the group that did not have CA (non-CA group (24.67 kg/m2 in the CA group versus 31.77 kg/m2 in the non-CA group; P = 0.026. Other demographic data, tumor characteristics, and perioperative outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusions: CA as a result of RALPN is a newly reported and rare postoperative complication. As utilization of RALPN continues to increase, urologists should be aware of this possible complication and be adept at diagnosing and managing CA. We suggest that left sided retroperitoneal surgery and a lower BMI preoperatively be considered risk factors for developing this complication.

  15. Midgut malrotation presenting with left-sided acute appendicitis and CT inversion sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlar, Emrah; Arıbaş, Bilgin; Tiken, Ramazan; Keskin, Suat

    2014-01-01

    In patients presenting with abdominal pain, appendicitis is the most common surgical disorder. Appendicitis causing pain in the left lower quadrant is extremely rare and can occur with congenital abnormalities that include true left-sided appendix or as an atypical presentation of right-sided long appendix, which projects into the left lower quadrant. We report a case of a 69-year-old man showing midgut malrotation with acute appendicitis presenting as left lower quadrant abdominal pain. PMID:24682135

  16. Two Young Women with Left-sided Pneumothorax Due to Thoracic Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukumi, Shungo; Suzuki, Hideaki; Morimoto, Masamitsu; Shigematsu, Hisayuki; Okazaki, Mikio; Abe, Masahiro; Kitazawa, Sohei; Nakamura, Kenji; Sano, Yoshifumi

    Pneumothorax associated with thoracic endometriosis (TE) generally occurs in women around 30 years old and it usually affects the right pleural cavity. We herein report two cases of TE associated with left-sided pneumothorax in young women. The prevalence of TE in younger patients may be underestimated if these cases are treated as spontaneous pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurring in younger patients has not been reported to show laterality. TE-related or catamenial pneumothorax in young women must therefore represent a different clinical entity from the condition seen in older patients.

  17. Missed diagnosis of atresia of the right pulmonary artery in woman with left-sided pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnegård, Hanna; Ryom, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary atresia is an uncommon condition, which can go undiagnosed for a long time in asymptomatic patients. Sometimes, diagnosis can be made at pregnancy due to respiratory symptoms. There is no known increased risk of pneumothorax. We here present a case where a second-time pregnant...... woman with an unknown atresia of the right pulmonary artery received a left-sided pneumothorax. The diagnosis was initially missed in spite of adequate imaging and the condition progressed to respiratory stop. We describe the course of diagnostics and the chosen strategy of treatment....

  18. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, U; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, C

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective...... factors for CVC, while warfarin on admission (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94), history of congestive heart failure (adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1-0.52) and previous endocarditis (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.79) correlated with lower CVC frequency....

  19. Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tie-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Gang; Meng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    A best evidence topic in adult valvular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase the perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?' A total of 561 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, country, journal, date of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Among these 12 papers, there were nine retrospective studies, two cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, additional tricuspid valve (TV) repair takes more time during operations, particularly with a ring annuloplasty method. The mean aortic cross-clamping times were 57-83 min without associated tricuspid repair and 62-100 min with, and cardiopulmonary bypass times without and with repair were 82-124 and 90-174 min, respectively. A study of 624 patients who had undergone isolated mitral valve (MV) surgery and MV surgery plus TV repair showed more female and atrial fibrillation patients in the tricuspid valve plasty (TVP) group, but no increase in the 30-day mortality was found. One RCT, presenting similar patient baseline characteristics, also found no difference in the hospital mortality rates between the TVP group and the non-TVP group. Another 10 studies also demonstrated no statistically significant differences in perioperative mortality. In a cohort study of 311 patients undergoing MV repair with or without tricuspid annuloplasty, postoperative complications, such as bleeding, stroke, pacemaker, haemofiltration and myocardial infarction, all showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. One study retrospectively analysed a large number of patients undergoing either isolated left-sided valve surgery or a concomitant TV repair, and there were no statistically significant differences

  20. [Comparison of ablation of left-sided accessory pathway by atrial septal and retrograde arterial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J G; Bao, Z Y; Gu, X

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To compare the advantages and disadvantages of radiofrequency ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by via atrial septal approach with retrograde through aortic approach. Methods: A total of 184 patients of left-side accessory pathways were treated in Taizhou People's Hospital and the Subei People's Hospital from March 2012 to August 2015.A total of 103 cases were treated by aortic retrograde approach as through arterial group, 81 cases were treated by punctured atrial septal to left atrial for mapping and ablation as through atrial septal group.Comparison of ablation procedure time, total and pathways of different parts(subgroup) at instant success and relapse rates, safety (serious complications), and statistics other complications in operation and postoperative. Results: Through arterial group and through atrial septal group were no significant difference ( P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((25±18 ) vs (22±15)min ), instant success(98.1% vs 97.5%) and relapse rates(1.0% vs 1.2%), security(1 vs 0 case). There was no statistical difference in septal part subgroups (all P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((22±18)vs (25±19)min), instant success(91.7% vs 89.9 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 11.1%); posterior wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((18±15)vs (16±12)min), instant success(100% vs 100 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 0)(all P >0.05); side wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((29±20)vs (21±18) min), instant success (98.3% vs 98.1%)and relapse rates(1.7% vs 0%)(all P >0.05). Conclusion: Ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by transseptal approach and transaortic approach has no statistical difference in the procedure time, instant success and relapse rates, security.In a particular case, there is a certain complementarity between the two methods.

  1. [Left-sided native valve endocarditis by coagulase-negative staphylococci: an emerging disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Juan Luis; Lomas, José M; Plata, Antonio; Ruiz, Josefa; Gálvez, Juan; de la Torre, Javier; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Reguera, José M; Márquez, Manuel; Martínez-Marcos, Francisco; de Alarcón, Arístides

    2008-05-01

    To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of patients with left-sided native valve endocarditis (LNVE) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Prospective multicenter study of endocarditis cases reported in the Andalusian Cohort for the Study of Cardiovascular Infections between 1984 and 2005. Among 470 cases of LNVE, 39 (8.3%) were caused by CoNS, a number indicating a 30% increase in the incidence of this infection over the last decade. The mean age of affected patients was 58.32 +/- 15 years and 27 (69.2%) were men. Twenty-one patients (53.8%) had previous known valve disease and half the episodes were considered nosocomial (90% of them from vascular procedures). Median time interval from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 14 days (range: 1-120). Renal failure (21 cases, 53.8%), intracardiac damage (11 cases, 28.2%), and central nervous system involvement (10 cases, 25.6%) were the most frequent complications. There were only 3 cases (7.7%) of septic shock. Surgery was performed in 18 patients (46.2%). Nine patients (23.1%) died, overall. Factors associated with higher mortality in the univariate analysis were acute renal failure (P = 0.023), left-sided ventricular failure (P = 0.047), and time prior to diagnosis less than 21 days (P = 0.018). As compared to LNVE due to other microorganisms, the patients were older (P = 0.018), had experienced previous nosocomial manipulation as the source of bacteremia (P < 0.001), and developed acute renal failure more frequently (P = 0.001). Mortality of LNVE due to CoNS was lower than mortality in Staphylococcus aureus infection, but higher than in Streptococcus viridans infection. Left-sided native valve endocarditis due to CoNS is now increasing because of the ageing of the population. This implies more frequent invasive procedures (mainly vascular) as a consequence of the concomitant disease. Nonetheless, the mortality associated with LNVE due to CoNS does not seem to be

  2. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  3. Losing the left side of the world: rightward shift in human spatial attention with sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Manly, Tom; Pustovaya, Olga V; Scott, Sophie K; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2014-05-28

    Unilateral brain damage can lead to a striking deficit in awareness of stimuli on one side of space called Spatial Neglect. Patient studies show that neglect of the left is markedly more persistent than of the right and that its severity increases under states of low alertness. There have been suggestions that this alertness-spatial awareness link may be detectable in the general population. Here, healthy human volunteers performed an auditory spatial localisation task whilst transitioning in and out of sleep. We show, using independent electroencephalographic measures, that normal drowsiness is linked with a remarkable unidirectional tendency to mislocate left-sided stimuli to the right. The effect may form a useful healthy model of neglect and help in understanding why leftward inattention is disproportionately persistent after brain injury. The results also cast light on marked changes in conscious experience before full sleep onset.

  4. Isolated left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis with left lung hypoplasia: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Govindaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery or pulmonary artery agenesis (UAPA is a rare congenital malformation that can present as an isolated lesion or in association with other cardiac anomalies. Though congenital, presentation in adults are also reported. Most common presentation in adults is of exercise intolerance. The developing lung on the affected side is hypoplastic. Diagnosis of UAPA is established by imaging methods like CT and MRI . There is no specific treatment for this condition. Treatment depends on patients symptomatology, presence of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a bad prognosis. We present two adult patients with isolated left sided unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT chest and perfusion scan.

  5. Left-Sided Catamenial Pneumothorax with Thoracic Endometriosis and Bullae in the Alveolar Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Ebana, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Sumitaka

    2017-04-20

    Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is generally caused by intraperitoneal air leaking from the uterus into the thoracic cavity via a defect in the endometrial tissue of the diaphragm and is usually detected in the right thorax. We report a case of left-sided CP caused by endometriosis in the visceral pleura and with no abnormal findings in the diaphragm. A 33-year-old female patient presented at the end of a course of low-dose contraceptive pills for pelvic endometriosis, with spontaneous pneumothorax in the left chest. Chest CT revealed a bulla in the left upper lung lobe. The patient underwent partial resection of the lung. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of endometrial stromal tissue in the visceral pleura and confirmed this as the cause of pneumothorax since there were no observable abnormalities in the diaphragm. This case suggests that immunohistochemical examination of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax can detect alternative endometrial lesions.

  6. Rare combination of left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Yuet Yee; Wong, Siu Chun Mabel; Wong, Ming Sum Rosanna

    2017-08-07

    We reported a rare case of left-sided posterolateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and omphalocele, which is not associated with chromosomal abnormalities or other syndromes. Omphalocele was detected antenatally (CDH was not detected in antenatal ultrasound). The patient suffered from respiratory failure secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension. As the combination of CDH and omphalocele is rare and with the abdominal content herniating into the omphalocele instead of the thorax, antenatal diagnosis of such condition can be difficult. Unlike other reported cases in the literature, our patient's respiratory condition has been improving with time and is surviving beyond the infancy period. We believe this to be the first such survival case reported in the literature. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, Marlies; Lutterbach, Johannes; Bjoernsgard, Mari; Reichmann, Ursula; Bartelt, Susanne [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (D{sub mean}, D{sub 98%}, D{sub 2%} for target volumes, D{sub 2%}, D{sub mean} and V{sub x%} for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D{sub 2%} = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D{sub 2%} = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  8. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasler, Marlies; Lutterbach, Johannes; Bjoernsgard, Mari; Reichmann, Ursula; Bartelt, Susanne; Georg, Dietmar; Medical Univ. Vienna

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (D mean , D 98% , D 2% for target volumes, D 2% , D mean and V x% for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D 2% = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D 98% = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D 2% = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D 98% = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  9. Respiration Induced Heart Motion and Indications of Gated Delivery for Left-Sided Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Hu, Angela; Wang Kai; Newman, Francis; Crosby, Marcus; Hu Bin; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate respiration-induced heart motion for left-sided breast irradiation using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) technique and to determine novel indications to assess heart motion and identify breast patients who may benefit from a gated treatment. Methods and Materials: Images of 4DCT acquired during free breathing for 20 left-sided breast cancer patients, who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without regional nodal irradiation, were analyzed retrospectively. Dose distributions were reconstructed in the phases of 0%, 20%, and 50%. The intrafractional heart displacement was measured in three selected transverse CT slices using D LAD (the distance from left ascending aorta to a fixed line [connecting middle point of sternum and the body] drawn on each slice) and maximum heart depth (MHD, the distance of the forefront of the heart to the line). Linear regression analysis was used to correlate these indices with mean heart dose and heart dose volume at different breathing phases. Results: Respiration-induced heart displacement resulted in observable variations in dose delivered to the heart. During a normal free-breathing cycle, heart-induced motion D LAD and MHD changed up to 9 and 11 mm respectively, resulting in up to 38% and 39% increases of mean doses and V 25.2 for the heart. MHD and D LAD were positively correlated with mean heart dose and heart dose volume. Respiratory-adapted gated treatment may better spare heart and ipsilateral-lung compared with the conventional non-gated plan in a subset of patients with large D LAD or MHD variations. Conclusion: Proposed indices offer novel assessment of heart displacement based on 4DCT images. MHD and D LAD can be used independently or jointly as selection criteria for respiratory gating procedure before treatment planning. Patients with great intrafractional MHD variations or tumor(s) close to the diaphragm may particularly benefit from the gated treatment.

  10. Intraoperative colonic pulse oximetry in left-sided colorectal surgery: can it predict anastomotic leak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusjärvi, Johannes M; Carpelan-Holmström, Monika A; Louhimo, Johanna M; Kruuna, Olli; Scheinin, Tom M

    2018-03-01

    An anastomotic leak is a fairly common and a potentially lethal complication in colorectal surgery. Objective methods to assess the viability and blood circulation of the anastomosis could help in preventing leaks. Intraoperative pulse oximetry is a cheap, easy to use, fast, and readily available method to assess tissue viability. Our aim was to study whether intraoperative pulse oximetry can predict the development of an anastomotic leak. The study was a prospective single-arm study conducted between the years 2005 and 2011 in Helsinki University Hospital. Patient material consisted of 422 patients undergoing elective left-sided colorectal surgery. The patients were operated by one of the three surgeons. All of the operations were partial or total resections of the left side of the colon with a colorectal anastomosis. The intraoperative colonic oxygen saturation was measured with pulse oximetry from the colonic wall, and the values were analyzed with respect to post-operative complications. 2.3 times more operated anastomotic leaks occurred when the colonic StO 2 was ≤ 90% (11/129 vs 11/293). The mean colonic StO 2 was 91.1 in patients who developed an operated anastomotic leak and 93.0 in patients who did not. With logistic regression analysis, the risk of operated anastomotic leak was 4.2 times higher with StO 2 values ≤ 90%. Low intraoperative colonic StO 2 values are associated with the occurrence of anastomotic leak. Despite its handicaps, the method seems to be useful in assessing anastomotic viability.

  11. The differential effects of acute right- vs. left-sided vestibular failure on brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Bense, Sandra; Dieterich, Marianne; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bartenstein, Peter; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The human vestibular system is represented in the brain bilaterally, but it has functional asymmetries, i.e., a dominance of ipsilateral pathways and of the right hemisphere in right-handers. To determine if acute right- or left-sided unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN) is associated with differential patterns of brain metabolism in areas representing the vestibular network and the visual-vestibular interaction, patients with acute VN (right n = 9; left n = 13) underwent resting state (18)F-FDG PET once in the acute phase and once 3 months later after central vestibular compensation. The contrast acute vs. chronic phase showed signal differences in contralateral vestibular areas and the inverse contrast in visual cortex areas, both more pronounced in VN right. In VN left additional regions were found in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis bilaterally, accentuated in severe cases. In general, signal changes appeared more pronounced in patients with more severe vestibular deficits. Acute phase PET data of patients compared to that of age-matched healthy controls disclosed similarities to these patterns, thus permitting the interpretation that the signal changes in vestibular temporo-parietal areas reflect signal increases, and in visual areas, signal decreases. These data imply that brain activity in the acute phase of right- and left-sided VN exhibits different compensatory patterns, i.e., the dominant ascending input is shifted from the ipsilateral to the contralateral pathways, presumably due to the missing ipsilateral vestibular input. The visual-vestibular interaction patterns were preserved, but were of different prominence in each hemisphere and more pronounced in patients with right-sided failure and more severe vestibular deficits.

  12. Right- vs. Left-Sided Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Differences in Tumor Biology and Bevacizumab Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ulivi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence of a different response to treatment with regard to the primary tumor localization (right-sided or left-sided in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. We analyzed the different outcomes and biomolecular characteristics in relation to tumor localization in 122 of the 370 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled onto the phase III prospective multicenter “Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer (ITACa”, randomized to receive first-line chemotherapy (CT or CT plus bevacizumab (CT + B. RAS and BRAF mutations; baseline expression levels of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2, ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP; and inflammatory indexes such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte rate and systemic immune-inflammation index were evaluated. Patients with right-sided tumors showed a longer median progression-free survival in the CT + B arm than in the CT group (12.6 vs. 9.0 months, respectively, p = 0.017. Baseline inflammatory indexes were significantly higher in left-sided tumors, whereas eNOS and EPHB4 expression was significantly higher and BRAF mutation more frequent in right-sided tumors. Our data suggest a greater efficacy of the CT + B combination in right-sided mCRC, which might be attributable to the lower inflammatory status and higher expression of pro-angiogenic factors that appear to characterize these tumors.

  13. Odour-tracking capability of a silkmoth driving a mobile robot with turning bias and time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, N; Emoto, S; Kanzaki, R

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of mechanisms behind odour-tracking behaviours of animals is expected to enable the development of biomimetic robots capable of adaptive behaviour and effectively locating odour sources. However, because the behavioural mechanisms of animals have not been extensively studied, their behavioural capabilities cannot be verified. In this study, we have employed a mobile robot driven by a genuine insect (insect-controlled robot) to evaluate the behavioural capabilities of a biological system implemented in an artificial system. We used a male silkmoth as the ‘driver’ and investigated its behavioural capabilities to imposed perturbations during odour tracking. When we manipulated the robot to induce the turning bias, it located the odour source by compensatory turning of the on-board moth. Shifting of the orientation paths to the odour plume boundaries and decreased orientation ability caused by covering the visual field suggested that the moth steered with bilateral olfaction and vision to overcome the bias. An evaluation of the time delays of the moth and robot movements suggested an acceptable range for sensory-motor processing when the insect system was directly applied to artificial systems. Further evaluations of the insect-controlled robot will provide a ‘blueprint’ for biomimetic robots and strongly promote the field of biomimetics. (paper)

  14. Factors affecting colonoscope insertion time in patients with or without a colostomy after left-sided colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hui Won; Kim, Yoon Nam; Nam, Chung Mo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2012-12-01

    We examined whether the insertion time for colonoscopies performed after left-sided resection was different in patients with a colostomy from that in patients without a colostomy and identified factors that could impact colonoscopy performance. We included consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy between July 2005 and March 2011 after left-sided colorectal resection for colorectal cancer. We classified surgical methods according to the presence or absence of a colostomy and evaluated colonoscope insertion time retrospectively. Furthermore, we analyzed factors that might affect insertion time. A total of 1,041 patients underwent colonoscopy after left-sided colorectal resection during the study period. The colonoscopy completion rate was 98.6 %, and the mean insertion time was 6.1 ± 4.6 min (median 4.7 min, range 0.3-35.8 min). A shorter resection length of colon, the presence of a colostomy, and a lower endoscopist case volume were found to be independent factors associated with prolonged insertion time in patients with left-sided colorectal resection. Among experienced colonoscopists, no colonoscopy-associated or clinical factors were found to affect insertion time. However, a shorter resection length of colon, the presence of a colostomy, and poor bowel preparation were associated with prolonged insertion time among inexperienced endoscopists. We identified three factors that affect colonoscope insertion time after left-sided colorectal resection, including the presence of a colostomy. Inexperienced endoscopists were much more affected by the presence of a colostomy after left-sided colorectal resection. These findings have implications for the practice and teaching of colonoscopy after left-sided colorectal resection.

  15. Developing a Side Bias for Conspecific Faces during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2011-01-01

    Adults preferentially use information from the left side of face images to judge gender, emotion, and identity. In this study, we examined the development of this visual-field bias over middle childhood (5-10 years). Our goal was to both characterize the developmental trajectory of the left-side bias (should one exist) and examine the selectivity…

  16. Preliminary investigation of orally administered benazepril in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, T; Giguère, S; Brown, S A; Barton, M H; Rapoport, G; Barba, M; Dembek, K A; Toribio, R E; Coleman, A E

    2017-10-17

    Despite the paucity of data available, orally administered angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are empirically used in horses with valvular regurgitation. Evaluate the echocardiographic and hormonal changes in response to oral benazepril in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation. Prospective, randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Horses with mitral valve (MR) and/or aortic valve regurgitation (AR) received oral benazepril (n = 6) at a dosage of 1 mg/kg q 12 h or a placebo (n = 5) for 28 days. Echocardiography was performed before drug administration and after 28 days of treatment. Plasma renin activity, serum ACE activity, angiotensin II concentration, aldosterone concentration and biochemical variables were measured before drug administration and after 7 and 28 days of treatment. Relative to baseline, horses treated with benazepril had statistically significant reduction in left ventricular internal diameter in systole (mean difference between groups = -0.97 cm; 95% CI = -1.5 to -0.43 cm), aortic sinus diameter (-0.31 cm; -0.54 to -0.07 cm), and percentage of the aortic annulus diameter occupied by the base of the AR jet (-17.05%; -31.17 to -2.93%) compared with horses receiving a placebo. In addition, horses treated with benazepril had a significantly greater increase in cardiac output (11.95 L/min; 1.17-22.73 L/min) and fractional shortening (7.59%; 3.3-11.88%) compared with horses receiving a placebo. Despite profound serum ACE inhibition, renin activity and concentrations of angiotensin II and aldosterone were not significantly different between treatment groups or among time points. Very small sample size and short treatment period. Treatment with oral benazepril resulted in statistically significant echocardiographic changes that might indicate reduced cardiac afterload in horses with left-sided valvular regurgitation. Additional studies with a larger sample size will be necessary to determine if administration of benazepril is

  17. Respiration Induced Heart Motion and Indications of Gated Delivery for Left-Sided Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xiangrong.qi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Hu, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Wang Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Newman, Francis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Crosby, Marcus; Hu Bin; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate respiration-induced heart motion for left-sided breast irradiation using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) technique and to determine novel indications to assess heart motion and identify breast patients who may benefit from a gated treatment. Methods and Materials: Images of 4DCT acquired during free breathing for 20 left-sided breast cancer patients, who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without regional nodal irradiation, were analyzed retrospectively. Dose distributions were reconstructed in the phases of 0%, 20%, and 50%. The intrafractional heart displacement was measured in three selected transverse CT slices using D{sub LAD} (the distance from left ascending aorta to a fixed line [connecting middle point of sternum and the body] drawn on each slice) and maximum heart depth (MHD, the distance of the forefront of the heart to the line). Linear regression analysis was used to correlate these indices with mean heart dose and heart dose volume at different breathing phases. Results: Respiration-induced heart displacement resulted in observable variations in dose delivered to the heart. During a normal free-breathing cycle, heart-induced motion D{sub LAD} and MHD changed up to 9 and 11 mm respectively, resulting in up to 38% and 39% increases of mean doses and V{sub 25.2} for the heart. MHD and D{sub LAD} were positively correlated with mean heart dose and heart dose volume. Respiratory-adapted gated treatment may better spare heart and ipsilateral-lung compared with the conventional non-gated plan in a subset of patients with large D{sub LAD} or MHD variations. Conclusion: Proposed indices offer novel assessment of heart displacement based on 4DCT images. MHD and D{sub LAD} can be used independently or jointly as selection criteria for respiratory gating procedure before treatment planning. Patients with great intrafractional MHD variations or tumor(s) close to the diaphragm may particularly benefit from the gated

  18. Massive Left-sided Congestive Colitis Due to Idiopathic Inferior Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martí Gelonch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVM of the inferior mesenteric artery are rare. They may be primary (congenital or idiopathic or secondary (acquired after trauma or of iatrogenic origin. Of the abdominal AVM, the inferior mesenteric trunk is the least commonly involved. Most reported cases are of iatrogenic origin, resulting from colon surgery. Only 17 cases have been described and published in the literature. The objective of this work is to make known a case treated in our center. We present a case of 73-year old male, who came to the emergency service with symptoms of abdominal distension, pain lasting 48 hours along with months of diarrhoea. CT scan and an abdominal CT angiography showed a massive left-sided congestive colitis due to idiopathic inferior mesenteric arteriovenous malformation. In our case, the decision was to carry out the treatment in two stages. Embolisation was performed in the first stage in order to decrease the blood flow and the risk of intraoperative bleeding, followed by resective surgery of the affected colon.

  19. An unusual case of metastasis to the left side of the heart: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyars Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac metastases are found in six to 20% of autopsies of patients with malignant neoplasm. The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the heart are malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia, but the relative numbers are greater with breast and lung cancers, reflecting the most common incidence of these cancers. Case presentation A 60-year-old Hispanic man presented to our hospital after being transferred from an outside hospital for workup and evaluation of an adrenal mass of the abdomen and pelvis, found on computed tomography. His chief complaint upon admission was altered mental status. Physical examination was unremarkable. He was alert and oriented and had a dry and non-erythematous oropharynx, and bilateral diffuse wheezing on lung examination. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple hypodense lesions in the left ventricular myocardium, suggestive of metastases. There were also tiny sub-centimeter nodular densities in the right upper and lower lobes. Adrenal glands contained hypodense lesions, which showed characteristic adenocarcinomatous malignant cells. Conclusion Cancers which have metastasized to the heart are found in six to 20% of patients with malignant neoplasms. The right side of the heart is more commonly involved in metastasis. This study is unusual in that a tumor of an unknown primary origin had metastasized to the left side of the heart.

  20. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  1. Left-sided appendicitis: review of 95 published cases and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Ulku, Abdullah; Senol, Ayhan; Tas, Mahmut; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2010-11-28

    To give an overview of the literature on left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM). We present a new case of LSAA with SIT and a literature review of studies published in the English language on LSAA, accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Ninety-five published cases of LSAA were evaluated and a 25-year-old female, who presented to our clinic with left lower abdominal pain caused by LSAA, is reported. In the reviewed literature, fifty-seven patients were male and 38 were female with an age range of 8 to 82 years and a median age of 29.1 ± 15.9 years. Sixty-six patients had SIT, 23 had MM, three had cecal malrotation, and two had a previously unnoted congenital abnormality. Fifty-nine patients had presented to the hospital with left lower, 14 with right lower and seven with bilateral lower quadrant pain, and seven subjects complained of left upper quadrant pain. The diagnosis was established preoperatively in 49 patients, intraoperatively in 19, and during the postoperative period in five; 14 patients were aware of having this anomaly. The data of eight patients were not unavailable. Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, which was combined with cholecystectomy in two cases. Histopathological examination of the appendix specimens revealed adenocarcinoma in only two of 95 patients. The diagnosis of left lower quadrant pain is based on well-established clinical symptoms, physical examination and physician's experience.

  2. Quantitative assessment of left-sided valvular regurgitation using the fourier amplitude ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Jinsei; Yonahara, Yoshio; Asato, Tetsuyoshi; Naito, Masahito; Nishiguchi, Iku; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo.

    1985-01-01

    Since the amplitude value of a pixel is proportional to the stroke counts of the pixel, the total amplitude value of each ventricle would reflect its own stroke volume. Stroke count ratio (SCR) and ventricular amplitude ratio (VAR) values were simultaneously calculated and compared in 43 subjects, including 13 subjects with valvular regurgitation, after multigated equilibrium scintigraphy was performed. Mean values of SCR in 13 subjects with valvular regurgitation and 30 control subjects were 2.22+-1.11, 1.24+-0.41, respectively (p<0.005). Mean values of VAR were 2.52+-0.87, 1.36+-0.39, respectively (p<0.0005). The VAR method was independent of the tilting angles of the detector, and showed excellent intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibilities (r=0.95, r=0.91). The VAR method derived from the Fourier amplitude image is a noninvasive technique, is suitable for serial studies, and appears to be a relatively reliable means of assessing the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. (author)

  3. Insight into the da Vinci® Xi - technical notes for single-docking left-sided colorectal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Sim, Sarah; Yusof, Sulaiman; Ng, Chee-Yung; Wong, Andrew Siang-Yih

    2017-12-01

    The adoption of robot-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery has been hampered by issues with docking, operative duration, technical difficulties in multi-quadrant access, and cost. The da Vinci® Xi has been designed to overcome some of these limitations. We describe our experience with the system and offer technical insights to its application in left-sided colorectal procedures. Our initial series of left-sided robotic colorectal procedures was evaluated. Patient demographics and operative outcomes were recorded prospectively using a predefined database. Between March 2015 and April 2016, 54 cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic left-sided colorectal procedures were successfully completed with no cases of conversion. The majority were low anterior resections for colorectal malignancies. Using the da Vinci® Xi Surgical System, multi-quadrant surgery involving dissection from the splenic flexure to the pelvis was possible without redocking. The da Vinci® Xi simplifies the docking procedure and makes single-docking feasible for multi-quadrant left-sided colorectal procedures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Deviating colostomy construction versus stent placement as bridge to surgery for malignant left-sided colonic obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F.J.; Borg, F. ter; Consten, E.C.; Siersema, P.D.; Draaisma, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute colonic decompression using a deviating colostomy (DC) or a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has been shown to lead to fewer complications and permanent stomas compared to acute resection in elderly patients with malignant left-sided colonic obstruction (LSCO). However, no

  5. Is Diversion with Ileostomy Non-inferior to Hartmann Resection for Left-sided Colorectal Anastomotic Leak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Caitlin; Francone, Todd D; Marcello, Peter W; Roberts, Patricia L; Ricciardi, Rocco

    2018-03-01

    Treatment of left-sided colorectal anastomotic leaks often requires fecal stream diversion for prevention of further septic complications. To manage anastomotic leak, it is unclear if diverting ileostomy provides similar outcomes to Hartmann resection with colostomy. We identified all patients who developed anastomotic leak following left-sided colorectal resections from 1/2012 through 12/2014 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Then, we examined the risk of mortality and abdominal reoperation in patients treated with diverting ileostomy as compared to Hartmann resection. There were 1745 patients who experienced an anastomotic leak in a cohort of 63,748 patients (3.7%). Two hundred thirty-five patients had a reoperation for anastomotic leak involving the formation of a diverting ileostomy (n = 77) or Hartmann resection (n = 158). There was no difference in mortality or abdominal reoperation in patients treated with diverting ileostomy (3.9, 7.8%) versus Hartmann resection (3.8, 6.3%) (p = 0.8). There was no difference in the outcomes of mortality or need for second abdominal reoperation in patients treated with diverting ileostomy as compared to Hartmann resection for left-sided colorectal anastomotic leak. Thus, select patients with left-sided colorectal anastomotic leaks may be safely managed with diverting ileostomy.

  6. Combined atresia of one left-sided and one right-sided cardiac valve in a premature newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William C; Sing, Alan C; Guileyardo, Joseph M

    2017-10-01

    Described herein is the heart of a 2-day-old newborn, the product of a 25-week gestation, with atresia of two cardiac valves, one on the right side and one on the left side, apparently a previously undescribed entity.

  7. [Analysis of clinicopathologic and survival characteristics in patients with right-or left-sided colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junjie; Zhou, Zhixiang; Liang, Jianwei; Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xingmao; Zeng, Weigen

    2015-07-28

    This study aimed to clarify the clinical and histological parameters, and survival difference between right- and left-sided colon cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records (2006.1-2009.12) of 1 088 consecutive colon cancer patients who received surgery at our hospital. Right- and left-sided colon cancers were compared regarding the clinical and histological parameters. The survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences. Right-sided colon cancer was associated with older age, a more advanced state, and poorly differentiated and undifferentiated adenocarcinoma (25.2% vs 13.2%), mucinous adenocarcinoma (33.5% vs 17.3%) and vascular invasion (9.9% vs 3.9%) were more commonly seen in right-sided colon cancer compared with right-sided colon cancer, and all these differences were statistically significant. Median overall survival was right, 67 months; and left, 68 months. The five-years overall survival of right- and left-sided colon cancer was I/II stage, 91.4% vs 88.6% (P = 0.819); III stage, 66.1% vs 75.4% (P = 0.010); and IV stage, 27.8% vs 38.5% (P = 0.020) respectively. Right- and left-sided colon cancers are significantly different regarding clinical and histological parameters. Right-sided colon cancers in stage III and IV have a worse prognosis.

  8. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  9. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with fixed collimator jaws for locoregional left-sided breast cancer irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Yang, Zhaozhi; Hu, Weigang; Chen, Zhi; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao

    2017-05-16

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with the fixed collimator jaws technique (FJT) for the left breast and regional lymph node. The targeted breast tissue and the lymph nodes, and the normal tissues were contoured for 16 left-sided breast cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy after lumpectomy. For each patient, treatment plans using different planning techniques, i.e., volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), tangential IMRT (tangential-IMRT), and IMRT with FJT (FJT-IMRT) were developed for dosimetric comparisons. A dose of 50Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. The dose-volume histograms were generated, and the paired t-test was used to analyze the dose differences. FJT-IMRT had similar mean heart volume receiving 30Gy (V30 Gy) with tangential-IMRT (1.5% and 1.6%, p = 0.41), but inferior to the VMAT (0.8%, p < 0.001). In the average heart mean dose comparison, FJT-IMRT had the lowest value, and it was 0.6Gy lower than that for the VMAT plans (p < 0.01). A significant dose increase in the contralateral breast and lung was observed in VMAT plans. Compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT plans, FJT-IMRT reduced the mean dose of thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal by 47.6% (p < 0.01) and 45.7% (p < 0.01), 74.3% (p =< 0.01) and 73% (p =< 0.01), and 26.7% (p =< 0.01) and 29.2% (p =< 0.01). In conclusion, compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT, FJT-IMRT plan has the lowest thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal mean dose and it can be a reasonable treatment option for a certain subgroup of patients, such as young left-breast cancer patients and/or patients with previous thyroid disease.

  10. Positron emission tomographic localization of left-sided unilateral spatial agnosia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Nagata, Ken; Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to clarify the localization and the underlying mechanisms of left-sided unilateral spatial agnosia (LUSA). Eleven right-handed patients with cerebral infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery who had LUSA were included in this study. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were measured with PET using 15 O steady state method. Sixteen right-handed patients with cerebral infarction who did not exhibit LUSA served as a control group. The mean local values of CBF and CMRO 2 in the control group were 37.4 ml/100 ml tissue/min and 2.66 ml/100 ml tissue/min, respectively. By contrast, those values of CBF and CMRO 2 in the patients with LUSA were 21.7 ml/100 ml tissue/min and 1.43 ml/100 ml tissue/min, respectively. Both CBF and CMRO 2 in the right posterior parietal region were significantly lower in the patients with LUSA as compared with the control group (p 2 between 1.8 and 2.2 ml/100 ml tissue/min. These ranges of CBF and CMRO 2 in the right parietal region were considered to include the threshold level producing LUSA. The CMRO 2 values were more stabilized in the course of cerebral infarction as compared with the CBF values which may be variable on account of luxury perfusion syndrome. The right posterior parietal CMRO 2 values less than 2.0 ml/100 ml tissue/min was considered to be critical in causing LUSA. The above results may suggest that severe damages of CBF and metabolism in the posterior part of the right parietal lobe play an important role in the occurrence of LUSA. (J.P.N.)

  11. Efficacy of loop colostomy construction for acute left-sided colonic obstructions: a cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelung, Femke J; Mulder, Charlotte L J; Broeders, Ivo A M J; Consten, Esther C J; Draaisma, Werner A

    2017-03-01

    Acute primary resection as treatment for left-sided colonic obstruction (LSCO) is notorious for its high morbidity and mortality rates. Both stenting and loop colostomy construction can serve as a bridge to surgery, hereby avoiding the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with emergency resections. This study aims to investigate the safety of a loop colostomy in patients presenting with acute LSCO. Retrospective analysis of all patients that received a loop colostomy for LSCO between 2003 and 2015 was performed. Primary outcomes were mortality, major morbidity (Clavien-Dindo grades III-IV) and minor morbidity (Clavien-Dindo grades I-II). One hundred forty-six patients presenting with acute LSCO received a diverting colostomy. After colostomy construction, mortality occurred in four patients (2.7%) and major complications were reported in 20 patients (13.7%). In 61 patients, the diverting colostomy served as a palliative measure, because of metastatic disease or unfitness for major surgery. The remaining 85 patients all underwent delayed resection, resulting in an overall mortality, major morbidity and minor morbidity of 6.9% (n = 6), 14.0% (n = 12) and 26.7% (n = 23), respectively. Diverting colostomy construction is a minimally invasive and safe treatment option for LSCO. It can serve as a definite palliative measure, as well as a bridge to elective surgery. A diverting colostomy as a bridge to surgery might even be a valid alternative for emergency resections, since mortality and morbidity rates following colostomy construction and delayed resection appear lower than reported outcomes following primary resection.

  12. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.

  13. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Liu, Tian X.; Liu, Arthur K.; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian; Hu, Y. Angie

    2014-01-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed

  14. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients: Geometrical Uncertainty of the Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, Rajko; Borst, Gerben R.; Nijkamp, Jasper; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the geometrical uncertainties for the heart during radiotherapy treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients and to determine and validate planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margins. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients treated in supine position in 28 fractions with regularly acquired cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans for offline setup correction were included. Retrospectively, the CBCT scans were reconstructed into 10-phase respiration correlated four-dimensional scans. The heart was registered in each breathing phase to the planning CT scan to establish the respiratory heart motion during the CBCT scan (σ resp ). The average of the respiratory motion was calculated as the heart displacement error for a fraction. Subsequently, the systematic (Σ), random (σ), and total random (σ tot =√(σ 2 +σ resp 2 )) errors of the heart position were calculated. Based on the errors a PRV margin for the heart was calculated to ensure that the maximum heart dose (D max ) is not underestimated in at least 90% of the cases (M heart = 1.3Σ-0.5σ tot ). All analysis were performed in left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions with respect to both online and offline bony anatomy setup corrections. The PRV margin was validated by accumulating the dose to the heart based on the heart registrations and comparing the planned PRV D max to the accumulated heart D max . Results: For online setup correction, the cardiac geometrical uncertainties and PRV margins were ∑ = 2.2/3.2/2.1 mm, σ = 2.1/2.9/1.4 mm, and M heart = 1.6/2.3/1.3 mm for LR/CC/AP, respectively. For offline setup correction these were ∑ = 2.4/3.7/2.2 mm, σ = 2.9/4.1/2.7 mm, and M heart = 1.6/2.1/1.4 mm. Cardiac motion induced by breathing was σ resp = 1.4/2.9/1.4 mm for LR/CC/AP. The PRV D max underestimated the accumulated heart D max for 9.1% patients using online and 13.6% patients using offline bony anatomy setup correction, which validated

  15. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS......: Consecutive patients with LNVIE, enrolled between January 2000 and September 2006, in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis were identified. Subjects without S aureus IE were matched to those with S aureus IE by the propensity of having S aureus. Survival differences were determined using log...

  16. Growth Patterns of Fetal Lung Volumes in Healthy Fetuses and Fetuses With Isolated Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Rodrigo; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sananes, Nicolas; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Deter, Russell L

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate fetal lung growth using 3-dimensional sonography in healthy fetuses and those with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Right and total lung volumes were serially evaluated by 3-dimensional sonography in 66 healthy fetuses and 52 fetuses with left-sided CDH between 20 and 37 weeks' menstrual age. Functions fitted to these parameters were compared for 2 groups: (1) healthy versus those with CDH; and (2) fetuses with CHD who survived versus those who died. Fetal right and total lung volumes as well as fetal observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were significantly lower in fetuses with CDH than healthy fetuses (Pvolume ratios did not vary with menstrual age in healthy fetuses or in those with CDH (independent of outcome). Lung volume rates were lower in fetuses with left-sided CDH compared to healthy fetuses, as well as in fetuses with CDH who died compared to those who survived. The observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were relatively constant throughout menstrual age in fetuses with left-sided CDH, suggesting that the origin of their lung growth abnormalities occurred before 20 weeks and did not progress. The observed-to-expected ratios may be useful in predicting the outcome in fetuses with CDH independent of menstrual age. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Long-term mortality from cardiac causes after adjuvant hypofractionated vs. conventional radiotherapy for localized left-sided breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elisa K; Woods, Ryan; Virani, Sean; Speers, Caroline; Wai, Elaine S; Nichol, Alan; McBride, Mary L; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing concern remains regarding cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole breast/chest-wall radiotherapy (HF-WBI) compared to conventional radiotherapy (CF-WBI) in left-sided breast cancer patients. The purpose was to determine if cardiac mortality increases with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women with early-stage breast cancer received post-operative radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor and treatment factors. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were identified from hospital administrative records. A propensity-score model balanced risk factors between radiotherapy groups. Cause of death was coded as breast cancer, cardiac or other cause. Cumulative mortality from each cause after radiotherapy was estimated using a competing risk approach. For left-sided cases, median follow-up was 14.2 years. 485 women received CF-WBI, 2221 women received HF-WBI. There was no difference in 15-year mortality from cardiac causes: 4.8% with HF-WBI and 4.2% with CF-WBI (p=0.74), even after propensity-score adjustment (p=0.45). There was no difference in breast cancer mortality or other cause mortality. For right-sided cases, there was no difference in mortality for the three causes of death. At 15-years follow-up, cardiac mortality is not statistically different among left-sided breast cancer patients treated with HF-WBI or CF-WBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Does VMAT improve treatment plan quality with respect to IMRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, M.; Bartelt, S.; Lutterbach, J. [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, D. [Medical University Vienna/AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to explore plan quality and dosimetric accuracy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Methods: VMAT and IMRT plans were generated with the Pinnacle{sup 3} V9.0 treatment planning system for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients. VMAT plans were created using a single arc and IMRT was performed with 4 beams using 6, 10, and 15 MV photon energy, respectively. Plans were evaluated both manually and automatically using ArtiView trademark. Dosimetric plan verification was performed with a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. Results: Photon energy had no significant influence on plan quality for both VMAT and IMRT. Large variability in low doses to the heart was found due to patient anatomy (range V{sub 5} {sub Gy} 26.5-95 %). Slightly more normal tissue dose was found for VMAT (e.g., V{sub Tissue30%} = 22 %) than in IMRT (V{sub Tissue30%} = 18 %). The manual and ArtiView trademark plan evaluation coincided very accurately for most dose metrics (difference < 1 %). In VMAT, 96.7 % of detector points passed the 3 %/3 mm gamma criterion; marginally better accuracy was found in IMRT (98.3 %). Conclusion: VMAT for node-positive left-sided breast cancer retains target homogeneity and coverage when compared to IMRT and allows maximum doses to organs at risk to be reduced. ArtiView trademark enables fast and accurate plan evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J.; Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique

  20. Long-term mortality from cardiac causes after adjuvant hypofractionated vs. conventional radiotherapy for localized left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Elisa K.; Woods, Ryan; Virani, Sean; Speers, Caroline; Wai, Elaine S.; Nichol, Alan; McBride, Mary L.; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Ongoing concern remains regarding cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole breast/chest-wall radiotherapy (HF-WBI) compared to conventional radiotherapy (CF-WBI) in left-sided breast cancer patients. The purpose was to determine if cardiac mortality increases with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Materials and methods: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women with early-stage breast cancer received post-operative radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor and treatment factors. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were identified from hospital administrative records. A propensity-score model balanced risk factors between radiotherapy groups. Cause of death was coded as breast cancer, cardiac or other cause. Cumulative mortality from each cause after radiotherapy was estimated using a competing risk approach. Results: For left-sided cases, median follow-up was 14.2 years. 485 women received CF-WBI, 2221 women received HF-WBI. There was no difference in 15-year mortality from cardiac causes: 4.8% with HF-WBI and 4.2% with CF-WBI (p = 0.74), even after propensity-score adjustment (p = 0.45). There was no difference in breast cancer mortality or other cause mortality. For right-sided cases, there was no difference in mortality for the three causes of death. Conclusions: At 15-years follow-up, cardiac mortality is not statistically different among left-sided breast cancer patients treated with HF-WBI or CF-WBI

  1. Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia with Multiple Congenital Cardiac Anomalies, Hernia Sac, and Microscopic Hepatic Heterotopia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arafah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a common congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology. Its association with multiple congenital anomalies in various organs is well recognized and antenatal radiological evidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia warrants thorough evaluation to detect other anomalies, some of which can be life threatening. Rarely, heterotopic hepatic tissue is identified in the hernia, a rare pathological finding, exhibiting more than one macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, and always associated with cardiac congenital anomalies. Herein, we report a case of left-sided microscopic heterotopic hepatic tissue in a congenital diaphragmatic hernia in an infant with multiple cardiac congenital anomalies, but with preserved pericardium.

  2. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: an unusual case of left-sided location with extension into the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foscolo, Sylvain; Mandry, Damien; Galloy, Marie-Agnes; Claudon, Michel; Champigneulles, Jacqueline; Miscault, Godefroy de

    2007-01-01

    Segmental omental infarction (OI) is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children. It generally occurs in the right lower and upper quadrants of the abdomen and only a few cases of other locations have been described in adults. We report a unique paediatric case of OI with an unusual left-sided location extending into the pelvis in a 6-year-old non-obese girl. The diagnosis was suspected on US and CT based on imaging patterns previously described in adults and children. Laparoscopic resection should be balanced with nonsurgical management. (orig.)

  3. Familial Screening for Left-Sided Congenital Heart Disease: What Is the Evidence? What Is the Cost?

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    Daniel J. Perry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the American Heart Association’s recommendation for familial screening of adults with congenital heart disease for bicuspid aortic valve, similar recommendations for other left-sided heart defects, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, have been proposed. However, defining at-risk populations for these heart defects based on genetics is less straightforward due to the wide variability of inheritance patterns and non-genetic influences such as environmental and lifestyle factors. We discuss whether there is sufficient evidence to standardize echocardiographic screening for first-degree relatives of children diagnosed with HLHS. Due to variations in the inclusion of cardiac anomalies linked to HLHS and the identification of asymptomatic individuals with cardiac malformations, published studies are open to interpretation. We conclude that familial aggregation of obstructive left-sided congenital heart lesions in families with history of HLHS is not supported and recommend that additional screening should adopt a more conservative definition of what truly constitutes this heart defect. More thorough consideration is needed before embracing familial screening recommendations of families of patients with HLHS, since this could inflict serious costs on healthcare infrastructure and further burden affected families both emotionally and financially.

  4. Imaging analysis of heart movement for improving the respiration-gated radiotherapy in patients with left sided breast cancer

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    Abdelhamid, Rania; Farrag, A.; Khalifa, A. [Clinical Oncology Department, Assiut University (Egypt); Block, Andreas [Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenschutz, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Respiration induced heart movement during radiotherapy exposes the heart to the inevitable risks of radio-exposure, and hence radiation injury, in cases of Lt. sided breast cancer. The impact of such a risk is additionally aggravated by the use of radiotherapy in combination with cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Radio-oncologists pay special attention to the coronary arteries that might be included in this small part of the heart exposed to radiation. The aim of this study was to include the internal heart movement for improving respiration-gated radiotherapy of left sided breast cancer. For 70 patients, all females left sided breast cancer, two planning CT's in inspiration and expiration, and one free breathing scan are performed. The heart motion was analyzed with the clinic-developed software ORAT in the simulator sequence for acquiring information of the cranio-caudal amplitude of heart movements in free breathing (respiration-induced amplitude) and a 15 seconds breath-hold phase (inherent amplitude). The role of inherent heart movement varies from one patient to another which should be taken in consideration during defining the parameters of respiration-gated radiotherapy. The inherent amplitude of the heart motion is the physiological lower limit of the respiration-gating window.

  5. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

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    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  6. Helical Tomotherapy Planning for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients With Positive Lymph Nodes: Comparison to Conventional Multiport Breast Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddu, S. Murty; Chaudhari, Summer; Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Pechenaya, Olga L.; Pratt, David; Mutic, Sasa; Zoberi, Imran; Jeswani, Sam; Powell, Simon N.; Low, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using helical tomotherapy for locally advanced left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes comparing a multiport breast (three-dimensional) technique with the tomotherapy treatment planning system. The planning target volumes, including the chest wall/breast, supraclavicular, axillary, and internal mammary lymph nodes, were contoured. The treatment plans were generated on the tomotherapy treatment planning system to deliver 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume. To spare the contralateral tissues, directional blocking was applied to the right breast and right lung. The optimization goals were to protect the lungs, heart, and right breast. Results: The tomotherapy plans increased the minimal dose to the planning target volume (minimal dose received by 99% of target volume = 46.2 ± 1.3 Gy vs. 27.9 ± 17.1 Gy) while improving the dose homogeneity (dose difference between the minimal dose received by 5% and 95% of the planning target volume = 7.5 ± 1.8 Gy vs. 37.5 ± 26.9 Gy). The mean percentage of the left lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy in the tomotherapy plans decreased from 32.6% ± 4.1% to 17.6% ± 3.5%, while restricting the right-lung mean dose to <5 Gy. However, the mean percentage of volume receiving ≥5 Gy for the total lung increased from 25.2% ± 4.2% for the three-dimensional technique to 46.9% ± 8.4% for the tomotherapy plan. The mean volume receiving ≥35 Gy for the heart decreased from 5.6% ± 4.8% to 2.2% ± 1.5% in the tomotherapy plans. However, the mean heart dose for tomotherapy delivery increased from 7.5 ± 3.4 Gy to 12.2 ± 1.8 Gy. Conclusion: The tomotherapy plans provided better dose conformity and homogeneity than did the three-dimensional plans for treatment of left-sided breast tumors with regional lymph node involvement, while allowing greater sparing of the heart and left lung from doses

  7. Isolated persistent left-sided superior vena cava, giant coronary sinus, atrial tachycardia and heart failure in a child

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    Nagaraja Moorthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistence of a left-sided superior vena cava (PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava (isolated PLSVC is a very rare venous malformation and commonly associated with congenital heart disease or alterations of the cardiac situs. We describe an unusual case of a young boy presenting with persistent atrial tachycardia and congestive heart failure. He was detected to have unexplained grossly dilated right atrium, right ventricle with systolic dysfunction and a giant coronary sinus (CS. The dilated CS closely mimicked a pseudo cor-triatriatum on echocardiography. Contrast echocardiography from both arms revealed opacification of the CS before the right atrium. Bilateral upper limb venography confirmed the presence of absent right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC draining into the giant coronary sinus.

  8. Assessment of Intrafraction Breathing Motion on Left Anterior Descending Artery Dose During Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, Omar, E-mail: Omar.ElSherif@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Xhaferllari, Ilma [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Gaede, Stewart [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) imaging to predict the level of uncertainty in cardiac dose estimates of the left anterior descending artery that arises due to breathing motion during radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The fast helical CT (FH-CT) and 4D-CT of 30 left-sided breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment plans were created on the FH-CT. The original treatment plan was then superimposed onto all 10 phases of the 4D-CT to quantify the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion through 4D dose accumulation (4D-dose). Dose-volume histograms for the heart, left ventricle (LV), and left anterior descending (LAD) artery obtained from the FH-CT were compared with those obtained from the 4D-dose. Results: The 95% confidence interval of 4D-dose and FH-CT differences in mean dose estimates for the heart, LV, and LAD were ±0.5 Gy, ±1.0 Gy, and ±8.7 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Fast helical CT is a good approximation for doses to the heart and LV; however, dose estimates for the LAD are susceptible to uncertainties that arise due to intrafraction breathing motion that cannot be ascertained without the additional information obtained from 4D-CT and dose accumulation. For future clinical studies, we suggest the use of 4D-CT–derived dose-volume histograms for estimating the dose to the LAD.

  9. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Hol, Sandra; Poortmans, Philip M.; Essers, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. Materials and methods: For 13 patients, four treatment combinations were compared; 3D-conformal RT (i.e., forward IMRT) in free-breathing 3D-CRT(FB), 3D-CRT(vmDIBH), 2 partial arcs VMAT(FB), and VMAT(vmDIBH). Prescribed dose was 42.56 Gy in 16 fractions. For 10 additional patients, 3D-CRT and VMAT in vmDIBH only were also compared. Results: Dose conformity, PTV coverage, ipsilateral and total lung doses were significantly better for VMAT plans compared to 3D-CRT. Mean heart dose (D mean,heart ) reduction in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) was between 0.9 and 8.6 Gy, depending on initial D mean,heart (in 3D-CRT(FB) plans). VMAT(vmDIBH) reduced the D mean,heart further when D mean,heart was still >3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH). Mean contralateral breast dose was higher for VMAT plans (2.7 Gy) compared to 3DCRT plans (0.7 Gy). Conclusions: VMAT and 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) significantly reduced heart dose for patients treated with locoregional RT of left-sided breast cancer. When D mean,heart exceeded 3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) plans, VMAT(vmDIBH) resulted in a cumulative heart dose reduction. VMAT also provided better target coverage and reduced ipsilateral lung dose, at the expense of a small increase in the dose to the contralateral breast

  11. Comparison of right and left side heart functions in patients with thalassemia major, patients with thalassemia intermedia, and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Noormohammad; Mohamadi, Mehdi; Keshavarz, Kambiz; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Mahjoubifard, Maziar; Mirmesdagh, Yalda

    2013-01-01

    Heart disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with beta thalassemia, rendering its early diagnosis vital. We studied and compared echocardiographic findings in patients with beta thalassemia major, patients with beta thalassemia intermedia, and a control group. Eighty asymptomatic patients with thalassemia major and 22 asymptomatic cases with thalassemia intermedia (8-25 years old) were selected from those referred to Ali Asghar Hospital (Zahedan-Iran) between June 2008 and June 2009. Additionally, 80 healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. All the individuals underwent echocardiography, the data of which were analyzed with the Student t-test. The mean value of the pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio of the left ventricle during systole, the diameter of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during diastole, the left and right isovolumic relaxation times, and the right myocardial performance index in the patients with beta thalassemia major and intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls, but the other parameters were similar between the two patient groups. The mean values of the left and right pre-ejection periods, left ventricular end systolic dimension, and left isovolumic contraction time in the patients with thalassemia intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls. In the left side, myocardial performance index, left ventricular mass index, isovolumic contraction time, and deceleration time exhibited significant changes between the patients with thalassemia major and those with thalassemia intermedia, whereas all the echocardiographic parameters of the right side were similar between these two groups. The results showed that the systolic and diastolic functions of the right and left sides of the heart would be impaired in patients with thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia. Consequently, serial echocardiography is suggested in

  12. Right- and left-sided colon cancer - clinical and pathological differences of the disease entity in one organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mik, Michal; Berut, Maciej; Dziki, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Radzislaw; Dziki, Adam

    2017-02-01

    Some researchers suggest that cancers located in the right vs. the left side of the colon are different and they can be regarded as distinct disease entities. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in clinical, epidemiological and pathological features of patients with right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) colon cancer. One thousand two hundred and twenty-four patients were operated on due to colorectal cancer. A group of 477 patients (254 women, mean age 65.5 ±11 for the whole group) with colon cancer was included (212 RCC vs. 265 LCC). Right colon cancer patients were older (67.8 ±11.3 vs. 63.2 ±11.2; p = 0.0087). Left colon cancer patients underwent surgery for urgent indications more often (17.0% vs. 8.5%; p = 0006). Tumor diameter was greater in the RCC group (55 ±60 mm vs. 38 ±21 mm; p = 0.0003). Total number of removed lymph nodes was higher in the RCC group (11.7 ±6 vs. 8.3 ±5; p = 0.0001). Lymph node ratio was higher in the LCC group (0.45 ±0.28 vs. 0.30 ±0.25; p = 0.0063). We found a strong positive correlation between tumor diameter and the number of removed lymph nodes in the LCC group ( r = 0.531). These differences may result from the fact that RCC patients are diagnosed at an older age. The smaller number of removed lymph nodes in LCC patients may result in incorrect staging. It is still necessary to find other biological dissimilarities of adenocarcinoma located on different sides of the colon.

  13. Acute resection versus bridge to surgery with diverting colostomy for patients with acute malignant left sided colonic obstruction: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelung, Femke J; Mulder, Charlotte L J; Verheijen, Paul M; Draaisma, Werner A; Siersema, Peter D; Consten, Esther C J

    2015-12-01

    Currently, no consensus exists on the best treatment strategy for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes following the two surgical treatment options; primary resection versus colostomy creation as bridge to surgery. This systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to minimize risk of bias. Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for all relevant literature. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the MINORS criteria. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using random effects models. Eight comparative studies were included, reporting on 2424 patients; 1973 patients were treated with primary resection and 451 patients with colostomy construction followed by elective resection. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between both treatment groups regarding 30-day mortality and morbidity (OR = 0.77, 95%CI 0.3-1.96 and OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.51-1.13, respectively). However, patients treated with a colostomy followed by elective resection had significantly more primary anastomoses constructed and were less likely to be left with a permanent colostomy (OR = 0.17, 95%CI 0.11-0.26 and OR = 0.22, 95%CI 0.11-0.46, respectively). This systematic review provides an overview of all available literature on primary resection versus colostomy creation as bridge to surgery in patients with acute LSCO. Keeping the limitations of this study in mind, we conclude that a diverting colostomy as bridge to surgery is a safe and valid alternative for primary resection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcitriol Supplementation Causes Decreases in Tumorigenic Proteins and Different Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures in Right versus Left-Sided Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroll, Monica M; Ludwig, Katelyn R; Bauer, Kerry M; Hummon, Amanda B

    2018-01-11

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem worldwide. In particular, it is an issue in the Northern Hemisphere where UVB radiation does not penetrate the atmosphere as readily. There is a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that cancer of the ascending (right side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left side) colon in terms of prognosis, tumor differentiation, and polyp type, as well as at the molecular level. Right-side tumors have elevated Wnt signaling and are more likely to relapse, whereas left-side tumors have reduced expression of tumor suppressor genes. This study seeks to understand both the proteomic and metabolomic changes resulting from treatment of the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol, in right-sided and left-sided colon cancer. Our results show that left-sided colon cancer treated with calcitriol has a substantially greater number of changes in both the proteome and the metabolome than right-sided colon cancer. We found that calcitriol treatment in both right-sided and left-sided colon cancer causes a downregulation of ribosomal protein L37 and protein S100A10. Both of these proteins are heavily involved in tumorigenesis, suggesting a possible mechanism for the correlation between low vitamin D levels and colon cancer.

  15. Calcitriol Supplementation Causes Decreases in Tumorigenic Proteins and Different Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures in Right versus Left-Sided Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Schroll

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem worldwide. In particular, it is an issue in the Northern Hemisphere where UVB radiation does not penetrate the atmosphere as readily. There is a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that cancer of the ascending (right side colon is different from cancer of the descending (left side colon in terms of prognosis, tumor differentiation, and polyp type, as well as at the molecular level. Right-side tumors have elevated Wnt signaling and are more likely to relapse, whereas left-side tumors have reduced expression of tumor suppressor genes. This study seeks to understand both the proteomic and metabolomic changes resulting from treatment of the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol, in right-sided and left-sided colon cancer. Our results show that left-sided colon cancer treated with calcitriol has a substantially greater number of changes in both the proteome and the metabolome than right-sided colon cancer. We found that calcitriol treatment in both right-sided and left-sided colon cancer causes a downregulation of ribosomal protein L37 and protein S100A10. Both of these proteins are heavily involved in tumorigenesis, suggesting a possible mechanism for the correlation between low vitamin D levels and colon cancer.

  16. Myocardial perfusion changes in patients irradiated for left-sided breast cancer and correlation with coronary artery distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Pehr A.; Pagnanelli, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B.; Borges-Neto, Salvador; Hu, Caroline; Zhou, S.-M.; Light, Kim; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate postradiation regional heart perfusion changes with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging in 69 patients treated with tangential photon beams radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer. To correlate SPECT changes with percent irradiated left ventricle (LV) volume and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Materials: Rest SPECT of the LV was acquired pre-RT and at 6-month intervals post-RT. The extent of defects (%) with a severity > 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was quantitatively analyzed for the distributions of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left circumflex (LCX) artery, and right coronary artery (RCA) based on computer assisted polar map reconstruction (i.e., bull's-eye-view). Changes in perfusion were correlated with percent irradiated LV receiving > 25 Gy (range 0-32%). Data on patient- and treatment-related factors were collected prospectively (e.g., cardiac premorbidity, risk factors for CAD, chemotherapy, and hormonal treatment). Results: In the LAD distribution, there were increased perfusion defects at 6 months (median 11%; interquartile range 2-23) compared with baseline (median 5%; interquartile range 1-14) (p<0.001). There were no increases in perfusion defects in the LCX or RCA distributions. In multivariate analysis, the SPECT perfusion changes in the LAD distribution at 6 months were independently associated with percent irradiated LV (p<0.001), hormonal therapy (p=0.005), and pre-RT hypercholesterolemia (p=0.006). The SPECT defects in the LAD distribution at 12 and 18 months were not statistically different from those at 6 months. The perfusion defects in the LAD distribution were limited essentially to the regions of irradiated myocardium. Conclusion: Tangential photon beam RT in patients with left-sided breast cancer was associated with short-term SPECT defects in the vascular distribution corresponding to the radiation portals. Factors

  17. Convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in patients with long-term left-sided and right-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyang; Mao, Zhiqi; Feng, Shiyu; Wang, Wenxin; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Xinguang

    2018-02-05

    Cortical reorganization may be induced in long-term single-sided deafness (SD); however, the influence of the deafness side on the functional changes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whole-brain functional connectivity patterns in long-term SD patients. The normalized voxel-based functional connectivity strength (FCS) was determined using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in 17 left-sided deafness (LD) patients, 21 right-sided deafness (RD) patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Relative to the HCs, both the LD and RD patients exhibited a reduction in the FCS in the ipsilateral visual cortex. However, compared to that in the HCs, a significantly higher FCS was observed in some regions in the salience and default-mode networks in the RD patients, but this FCS alternation pattern was not observed in the LD patients. A direct comparison of the two patient groups revealed a significantly increased FCS in the supplemental motor area in the LD group. Altogether, the long-term SD groups with LD and RD exhibited convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in whole-brain networks, providing promising evidence that the functional changes in long-term SD are highly deafness-side-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency surgery for obstructing colonic cancer: a comparison between right-sided and left-sided lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, J-L; Paquette, B; Trilling, B; Heyd, B; Koch, S; Mantion, G

    2018-02-01

    Few studies compare management and outcomes of obstructive colonic cancer, depending on the tumor site. We aim to evaluate the differences in patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of emergency surgery for obstructive right-sided versus left-sided colonic cancers. Between 2000 and 2009, 71 consecutive patients had an emergency colectomy following strict and clear definition of obstruction in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed pre, per, and postoperative data that were prospectively collected. There were 31 and 40 patients in the right and left group, respectively. Patients aged over 80 were more frequent in the right group (p = 0.03). At operation, ileocecal valve was less often competent in the right group (p = 0.03). The one-stage strategy was more frequent in the right group (p = 0.008). Patients in the right group had a higher rate of nodes invasion (p = 0.04). One- and two-year mortality rate in the right group had a tendency to be higher. Patients presenting with a right obstructive colonic cancer are older, have a more advanced locoregional disease, and are more often treated in a one-stage strategy than patients with a left obstructive tumor.

  19. Intraoperative bowel irrigation improves anastomotic collagen metabolism in the left-sided colonic obstruction but not covering colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraker, N; Bender, O; Memişoğlu, K; Yalçiner, A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intraoperative colonic irrigation and proximal diverting end colostomy after segmental bowel resection in experimental left-colonic obstruction on anastomotic healing. Simple obstruction of descending colon was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h we performed segmental colonic resection and anastomosis in the control group (n = 15); resection, anastomosis, and covering colostomy in the colostomy group (n = 14); resection and anastomosis after antegrade colonic lavage through cecum by using isotonic saline solution in the irrigation group (n = 13). In rats that were killed 7 days later anastomotic dehiscence and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration at the anastomosis were measured. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of anastomotic dehiscence, bursting site, or pressure. The hydroxyproline concentration was significantly higher in the irrigation group than the control group (P = 0.025) and the colostomy group (P = 0.029), but no difference was noted between the control group and the colostomy group. These findings suggest that intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation in the acute left-sided colonic obstruction positively affects collagen metabolism at the anastomotic site; if the anastomosis is performed without bowel cleansing, covering colostomy does not improve collagen metabolism.

  20. Clinical application of self-expanding metallic stent in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ben Fan; Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ni-Wei Chen; Hui-Min Xu; Zhe Yang; Yue Wang; Yu-Yao Huang; Qi Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our experience with the application of self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing placement of SEMS between April 2000 and January 2004 was performed.RESULTS: Insertion of SEMS was attempted in 26patients under fluoroscopic guidance with occasional endoscopic assistance. The sites of lesions were located in splenic flexure of two patients, left colon of seven patients, sigmoid colon of eight patients and rectum of nine patients. The intended uses of SEMS were for palliation in 7 patients and as a bridge to elective surgery in 19 patients. In the latter group, placement of SEMS allowed for preoperative systemic and bowel preparation and the following one-stage anastomosis. Successful stent placement was achieved in 22 (85%) of the 26patients. The clinical bowel obstruction resolved 24 hours after successful stent placement in 21 (95%) patients.Three SEMS-related minor complications occurred, two stents migrated and one caused anal pain.CONCLUSION: SEMS represents an effective and safe tool in the management of acute malignant colorectal obstruction. As a bridge to surgery, SEMS can provide time for systematic support and bowel preparation and obviate the need for fecal diversion or on-table lavage.As a palliative measure, SEMS can eliminate the need for emergent colostomy.

  1. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  2. Cardiovascular malformations caused by NOTCH1 mutations do not keep left : data on 428 probands with left-sided CHD and their families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Vos, Yvonne J.; Verhagen, Judith M. A.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S. Klein; van der Zwaag, Paul A.; Sarvaas, Gideon J. du Marchie; Bergman, Klasien A.; Bilardo, Catia M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Janssen, Johan H. P.; Frohn-Mulder, Ingrid M.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Melle, van Joost P.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Wessels, M. W.

    Purpose: We aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic spectrum of NOTCH1 mutations in left-sided congenital heart disease (LS-CHD). LS-CHD includes aortic valve stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Methods: NOTCH1 was screened for

  3. Acute resection versus bridge to surgery with diverting colostomy for patients with acute malignant left sided colonic obstruction : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, Femke J.; Mulder, C.L.J.; Verheijen, P.M.; Draaisma, W. A.; Siersema, P.D.; Consten, E. C J

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, no consensus exists on the best treatment strategy for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes following the two surgical treatment options; primary resection versus colostomy creation as bridge to

  4. Acute resection versus bridge to surgery with diverting colostomy for patients with acute malignant left sided colonic obstruction: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F.J.; Mulder, C.L.; Verheijen, P.M.; Draaisma, W.A.; Siersema, P.D.; Consten, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no consensus exists on the best treatment strategy for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes following the two surgical treatment options; primary resection versus colostomy creation as bridge to

  5. An Outflow Event on the Left Side of Harvey: Erosion of Barrier Sand and Seaward Transport Through Aransas Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Swartz, J. M.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide critical support and protection for coastal communities and ecosystems, but are potentially vulnerable to net losses of sand during major storms. Evidence from satellite imagery, ground observations and tide stations indicates that Hurricane Harvey in 2017 caused a large outflow event of waters moving from the bays out towards the sea in the Port Aransas, Texas region. Rather than just an ebb of a storm surge, this event may have been driven by seaward-directed winds on the left side of storm. Less than a month after landfall, we conducted a swath mapping and sampling survey in Lydia Ann Channel and Aransas Pass, where we had earlier mapped in 2009 and 2012 as part of the UT marine geology and geophysical field course. These waterways are important conduits linking Corpus Christi and Aransas bays to the Gulf of Mexico. This multi-year record allows us to gauge the impact of the outflow event on these waterways in the context of "normal" coastal processes. Both satellite imagery and sonar mapping reveal that the outflow event caused significant erosion, both on land and beneath the water, along the edges of Lydia Ann Channel and Corpus Christi ship channel. It also caused seaward-directed flow and erosion through breaches in the foredunes along southern San Jose Island, from waters that overtopped Lydia Ann Channel. Much of the sand that was transported seaward settled in Lydia Ann Channel and Aransas Pass (up to 6.5 m accumulation), possibly during the waning stages of the event. However, a likely large (but unknown) quantity of barrier and estuarine sand could have been transported well out to sea, beyond the jetties, at the peak of the event. If so, it would have resulted in a net loss of sand from the barrier island system.

  6. Quality of life differences in patients with right- versus left-sided facial paralysis: Universal preference of right-sided human face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nam Gyu; Lim, Byung Woo; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether experiencing right- or left-sided facial paralysis would affect an individual's ability to recognize one side of the human face using hybrid hemi-facial photos by preliminary study. Further investigation looked at the relationship between facial recognition ability, stress, and quality of life. To investigate predominance of one side of the human face for face recognition, 100 normal participants (right-handed: n = 97, left-handed: n = 3, right brain dominance: n = 56, left brain dominance: n = 44) answered a questionnaire that included hybrid hemi-facial photos developed to determine decide superiority of one side for human face recognition. To determine differences of stress level and quality of life between individuals experiencing right- and left-sided facial paralysis, 100 patients (right side:50, left side:50, not including traumatic facial nerve paralysis) answered a questionnaire about facial disability index test and quality of life (SF-36 Korean version). Regardless of handedness or hemispheric dominance, the proportion of predominance of the right side in human face recognition was larger than the left side (71% versus 12%, neutral: 17%). Facial distress index of the patients with right-sided facial paralysis was lower than that of left-sided patients (68.8 ± 9.42 versus 76.4 ± 8.28), and the SF-36 scores of right-sided patients were lower than left-sided patients (119.07 ± 15.24 versus 123.25 ± 16.48, total score: 166). Universal preference for the right side in human face recognition showed worse psychological mood and social interaction in patients with right-side facial paralysis than left-sided paralysis. This information is helpful to clinicians in that psychological and social factors should be considered when treating patients with facial-paralysis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  8. Whole exome sequencing in 342 congenital cardiac left sided lesion cases reveals extensive genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left-sided lesions (LSLs account for an important fraction of severe congenital cardiovascular malformations (CVMs. The genetic contributions to LSLs are complex, and the mutations that cause these malformations span several diverse biological signaling pathways: TGFB, NOTCH, SHH, and more. Here, we use whole exome sequence data generated in 342 LSL cases to identify likely damaging variants in putative candidate CVM genes. Methods Using a series of bioinformatics filters, we focused on genes harboring population-rare, putative loss-of-function (LOF, and predicted damaging variants in 1760 CVM candidate genes constructed a priori from the literature and model organism databases. Gene variants that were not observed in a comparably sequenced control dataset of 5492 samples without severe CVM were then subjected to targeted validation in cases and parents. Whole exome sequencing data from 4593 individuals referred for clinical sequencing were used to bolster evidence for the role of candidate genes in CVMs and LSLs. Results Our analyses revealed 28 candidate variants in 27 genes, including 17 genes not previously associated with a human CVM disorder, and revealed diverse patterns of inheritance among LOF carriers, including 9 confirmed de novo variants in both novel and newly described human CVM candidate genes (ACVR1, JARID2, NR2F2, PLRG1, SMURF1 as well as established syndromic CVM genes (KMT2D, NF1, TBX20, ZEB2. We also identified two genes (DNAH5, OFD1 with evidence of recessive and hemizygous inheritance patterns, respectively. Within our clinical cohort, we also observed heterozygous LOF variants in JARID2 and SMAD1 in individuals with cardiac phenotypes, and collectively, carriers of LOF variants in our candidate genes had a four times higher odds of having CVM (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval 2.5–6.5. Conclusions Our analytical strategy highlights the utility of bioinformatic resources, including human

  9. Deviating colostomy construction versus stent placement as bridge to surgery for malignant left-sided colonic obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelung, Femke J; Ter Borg, Frank; Consten, Esther C J; Siersema, Peter D; Draaisma, Werner A

    2016-12-01

    Acute colonic decompression using a deviating colostomy (DC) or a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has been shown to lead to fewer complications and permanent stomas compared to acute resection in elderly patients with malignant left-sided colonic obstruction (LSCO). However, no consensus exists on which decompression method is superior, especially in patients treated with curative intend. This retrospective study therefore aimed to compare both decompression methods in potentially curable LSCO patients. All LSCO patients treated with curative intent between 2004 and 2013 in two teaching hospitals were retrospectively identified. In one institution, a DC was the standard of care, whereas in the other all patients were treated with SEMS. In total, 88 eligible LSCO patients with limited disease and curative treatment options were included; 51 patients had a SEMS placed and 37 patients a DC constructed. All patients eventually underwent a subsequent elective resection. In sum, 235 patients were excluded due to benign or inoperable disease. No significant differences were found for hospital stay, morbidity, disease-free and overall survival and mortality. Major complications were seen in 13/51 (25.5 %) patients in the SEMS group and were mostly due to stent dysfunction (n = 7). Also, one stent-related perforation occurred. Major complications occurred in 4/37 (10.8 %) patients in the DC group, including abdominal sepsis (n = 3) and wound dehiscence (n = 1). Long-term complication rate was significantly higher in the DC group (29.7 vs. 9.8 %, p = 0.01), mainly due to a high incisional hernia rate. Fewer patients had a temporary colostomy following elective resection after SEMS placement (62.2 vs. 17.6 %, p colostomy rate was not significantly different. SEMS and DC are both effective decompression methods for curable LSCO patients with comparable short- and long-term oncological outcomes; however, more surgical procedures are performed after DC due to an

  10. Left-sided breast cancer and risks of secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease. Effects of modern radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Stefanie; Ballhausen, Hendrik; Weingandt, Helmut; Freislederer, Philipp; Schoenecker, Stephan; Niyazi, Maximilian; Belka, Claus [University Hospital, LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Simonetto, Cristoforo; Eidemueller, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Ganswindt, Ute [University Hospital, LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2018-03-15

    Modern breast cancer radiotherapy techniques, such as respiratory-gated radiotherapy in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) or volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) have been shown to reduce the high dose exposure of the heart in left-sided breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to comparatively estimate the excess relative and absolute risks of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease for different modern radiotherapy techniques. Four different treatment plans were generated for ten computed tomography data sets of patients with left-sided breast cancer, using either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or VMAT, in free-breathing (FB) or DIBH. Dose-volume histograms were used for organ equivalent dose (OED) calculations using linear, linear-exponential, and plateau models for the lung. A linear model was applied to estimate the long-term risk of ischemic heart disease as motivated by epidemiologic data. Excess relative risk (ERR) and 10-year excess absolute risk (EAR) for radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease were estimated for different representative baseline risks. The DIBH maneuver resulted in a significant reduction of the ERR and estimated 10-year excess absolute risk for major coronary events compared to FB in 3D-CRT plans (p = 0.04). In VMAT plans, the mean predicted risk reduction through DIBH was less pronounced and not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The risk of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer was mainly influenced by the radiotherapy technique, with no beneficial effect through DIBH. VMAT plans correlated with an increase in 10-year EAR for radiation-induced lung cancer as compared to 3D-CRT plans (DIBH p = 0.007; FB p = 0.005, respectively). However, the EARs were affected more strongly by nonradiation-associated risk factors, such as smoking, as compared to the choice of treatment technique. The results indicate that 3D-CRT plans in DIBH pose the lowest

  11. Patterns of intrafractional motion and uncertainties of treatment setup reference systems in accelerated partial breast irradiation for right- and left-sided breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ning J; Goyal, Sharad; Kim, Leonard H; Khan, Atif; Haffty, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of intrafractional motion and accuracy of treatment setup strategies in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for right- and left-sided breast cancers. Sixteen right-sided and 17 left-sided breast cancer patients were enrolled in an institutional APBI trial in which gold fiducial markers were strategically sutured to the surgical cavity walls. Daily pre- and postradiation therapy kV imaging were performed and were matched to digitally reconstructed radiographs based on bony anatomy and fiducial markers, respectively, to determine the intrafractional motion. The positioning differences of the laser-tattoo and the bony anatomy-based setups with respect to the marker-based setup (benchmark) were determined to evaluate their accuracy. Statistical differences were found between the right- and left-sided APBI treatments in vector directions of intrafractional motion and treatment setup errors in the reference systems, but less in their overall magnitudes. The directional difference was more pronounced in the lateral direction. It was found that the intrafractional motion and setup reference systems tended to deviate in the right direction for the right-sided breast treatments and in the left direction for the left-sided breast treatments. It appears that the fiducial markers placed in the seroma cavity exhibit side dependent directional intrafractional motion, although additional data may be needed to further validate the conclusion. The bony anatomy-based treatment setup improves the accuracy over laser-tattoo. But it is inadequate to rely on bony anatomy to assess intrafractional target motion in both magnitude and direction. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Model-based approach for quantitative estimates of skin, heart, and lung toxicity risk for left-side photon and proton irradiation after breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco; D'Avino, Vittoria; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Conson, Manuel; Farace, Paolo; Palma, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Marco; Cella, Laura; Pacelli, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Proton beam therapy represents a promising modality for left-side breast cancer (BC) treatment, but concerns have been raised about skin toxicity and poor cosmesis. The aim of this study is to apply skin normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization in left-side BC. Ten left-side BC patients undergoing photon irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were randomly selected from our clinical database. Intensity modulated photon (IMRT) and IMPT plans were calculated with iso-tumor-coverage criteria and according to RTOG 1005 guidelines. Proton plans were computed with and without skin optimization. Published NTCP models were employed to estimate the risk of different toxicity endpoints for skin, lung, heart and its substructures. Acute skin NTCP evaluation suggests a lower toxicity level with IMPT compared to IMRT when the skin is included in proton optimization strategy (0.1% versus 1.7%, p < 0.001). Dosimetric results show that, with the same level of tumor coverage, IMPT attains significant heart and lung dose sparing compared with IMRT. By NTCP model-based analysis, an overall reduction in the cardiopulmonary toxicity risk prediction can be observed for all IMPT compared to IMRT plans: the relative risk reduction from protons varies between 0.1 and 0.7 depending on the considered toxicity endpoint. Our analysis suggests that IMPT might be safely applied without increasing the risk of severe acute radiation induced skin toxicity. The quantitative risk estimates also support the potential clinical benefits of IMPT for left-side BC irradiation due to lower risk of cardiac and pulmonary morbidity. The applied approach might be relevant on the long term for the setup of cost-effectiveness evaluation strategies based on NTCP predictions.

  13. Insights into Intrinsic Brain Networks based on Graph Theory and PET in right- compared to left-sided Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Vanicek; Andreas Hahn; Tatjana Traub-Weidinger; Eva Hilger; Marie Spies; Wolfgang Wadsak; Rupert Lanzenberger; Ekaterina Pataraia; Susanne Asenbaum-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [18F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [18F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n?=?30) and left-sided TL...

  14. [Comparison of clinicopathological features and prognosis between left-sided colon cancer and right-sided colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianhua; Yu, Guanyu; Liu, Peng; Hao, Liqiang; Liu, Lianjie; Zhang, Wei

    2017-06-25

    To compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis between left-sided colon cancer (LC) and right-sided colon cancer (RC). Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 2 174 colon carcinoma cases undergoing resection at Shanghai Changhai Hospital of The Second Military Medical University from January 2000 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with transverse colon cancer, overlapping position, unknown location, recurrent cancer, multiple primary cancer, concomitant malignant tumors, preoperative chemotherapy, local resection, incomplete clinical data and missed follow up were excluded. Finally, a total of 1 036 patients, whose primary tumors were radically removed, were enrolled, with 563 patients in LC group (including carcinoma in cecum, ascending colon and hepatic flexure) and 473 in RC group (including carcinoma in splenic flexure, descending colon and sigmoid colon). The clinicopathological features and survival, including median overall survival, 5-year overall survival rate, tumor specific median overall survival, cancer specific 5-year overall survival rate, were compared between LC and RC groups. Tumor specific overall survival was defined as the period between operation date to the date of death caused by cancer progression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of survival. Propensity score matching was carried out to balance the clinicopathological factors between the two groups with the SAS 9.3, taking the following parameters into consideration (age, gender, gross appearance, tumor diameter, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM stages, differentiation, CEA and CA199-9). Patients in RC group and LC group were matched according to the propensity scores and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of two groups were compared again. No significant differences were identified between the two groups in age, distant metastasis and serum CEA level

  15. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments

  16. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments.

  17. A case of left-sided unilateral spatial neglect owing to the cerebral infarction in the distribution of the right posterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagaki, Yuji; Oka, Iori; Kon, Yutaka; Asano, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    We report a case of left-sided unilateral spatial neglect (USN) induced by the cerebral infarction in the distribution of right posterior cerebral artery (PCA). A 69-year-old, right-handed man, who had had a sudden onset of left hemiparesis in August 1983, was admitted to our hospital on January 16, 1984, because of nocturnal delirium. He became alert a few days after admission, but was euphoric and sometimes irritable. Neurologic examination disclosed left homonymous hemianopsia, dysarthria, left central facial weakness, spastic left hemiparesis, hyperactive reflexes on the left with no Babinski sign, left hemisensory loss, and left thalamic pain. On neuropsychologic examination it was revealed that he had a tendency to neglect the left half of his extrapersonal space. When asked to locate cities on a blank map of Japan, he located most of them not only on the right side of the map but also incorrectly. He also had a severe acalculia. There was gradual improvement in these neuropsychologic symptoms. CT demonstrated an area of decreased density in the territory of the right PCA, posterolateral portion of the right thalamus, and the posterior limb of right internal capsule, sparing parietal and temporal lobes. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the Xenon-133 inhalation method showed, however, diminished regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT, including the right parieto-temporo-occipital junctional area, which has been considerd to be responsible for left-sided USN. The authors ascribed the patient's left-sided USN to the lesion of this area that was revealed not morphologically by CT but functionally by SPECT, although the possibility that the lesions of the medial portion of the right occipital lobe and/or subcortical lesions of such areas as the thalamus and the internal capsule more or less influenced the neuropsychologic symptoms could not be excluded. (author)

  18. Long-term outcomes after resection of para-aortic lymph node metastasis from left-sided colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi; Numata, Masakatsu; Furutani, Akinobu

    2017-07-01

    Para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and often not suitable for surgery. However, in selected patients, radical resection may bring about longer survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of resection of left-sided colon or rectal cancer with simultaneous PALN metastasis. The study included 2122 patients with left-sided colon or rectal cancer (30 patients with and 2092 patients without PALN metastasis) who underwent resection with curative intent between 2002 and 2013. Clinicopathological characteristics, long-term outcomes of resection, and factors related to poor postoperative survival in patients with PALN metastasis were investigated. Of a total of 2122 total patients, 16 of 50 patients (32.0%) with lymph node metastasis at the root of the inferior mesenteric artery had PALN metastasis. The 5-year overall survival rates for 18 patients who underwent R0 resection and 12 patients who did not were 29.1 and 10.4%, respectively (p = 0.017). Factors associated with poor postoperative survival among patients who underwent R0 resection were presence of conversion therapy, lack of adjuvant chemotherapy, carcinoembryonic antigen >20 ng/mL, and lateral lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 14.8%. Although recurrence was frequent, R0 resection for left-sided colon or rectal cancer with PALN metastasis was associated with longer survival than R1/R2 resection. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival rate in the R0 group was relatively favorable for stage IV. Therefore, R0 resection may prolong survival compared with chemotherapy alone in selected patients.

  19. Inverted Nutcracker Syndrome: A Case of Persistent Hematuria and Pain in the Presence of a Left-Sided Inferior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi Ekwenna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome is described as the symptomatic compression of left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, resulting in outflow congestion of the left kidney. We present the case of a 51-year-old male with a left-sided inferior vena cava, resulting in compression of the right renal vein by the superior mesenteric artery. Secondary to this anatomic anomaly, the patient experienced a many-year history of flank pain and intermittent gross hematuria. We have termed this unusual anatomic finding and its associated symptoms as the “inverted nutcracker syndrome”, and describe its successful management with nephrectomy and autotransplantation.

  20. Colonic stenting as bridge to surgery versus emergency surgery for management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicenter randomized trial (Stent-in 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Pieter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute left-sided colonic obstruction is most often caused by malignancy and the surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Moreover, these operated patients end up with a temporary or permanent stoma. Initial insertion of an enteral stent to decompress the obstructed colon, allowing for surgery to be performed electively, is gaining popularity. In uncontrolled studies stent placement before elective surgery has been suggested to decrease mortality, morbidity and number of colostomies. However stent perforation can lead to peritoneal tumor spill, changing a potentially curable disease in an incurable one. Therefore it is of paramount importance to compare the outcomes of colonic stenting followed by elective surgery with emergency surgery for the management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction in a randomized multicenter fashion. Methods/design Patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction eligible for this study will be randomized to either emergency surgery (current standard treatment or colonic stenting as bridge to elective surgery. Outcome measurements are effectiveness and costs of both strategies. Effectiveness will be evaluated in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Quality of life will be measured with standardized questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-CR38, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. Morbidity is defined as every event leading to hospital admission or prolonging hospital stay. Mortality will be analyzed as total mortality as well as procedure-related mortality. The total costs of treatment will be evaluated by counting volumes and calculating unit prices. Including 120 patients on a 1:1 basis will have 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 global health scale, using a two group t-test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level. Differences in quality of life and morbidity will be analyzed using mixed-models repeated measures

  1. Turns prediction : Turns prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Patrick; Etchebest, Catherine; De Brevern, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The description of protein 3D structure usually focuses on the repetitive local folds (alpha-helices and beta-sheets). The remaining class, sometimes called unordered region, has often been considered as random (one also calls it ‘random coil'). However, some interesting local folds are also highly recurrent and definitely more structured than a real random region. One of such particularly interesting motif is tight turn; this latter is characterized by few residues (3 to 5) and by the revers...

  2. Successful management of a complicated clinical crisis: A patient with left-sided endocarditis and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a rare case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peipei; Zeng, Hui; Zhou, Min; Ouyang, Jian; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Qiguo

    2017-12-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE)-related left-sided infectious endocarditis had never been reported before. In the last decade, daptomycin, a novel lipopeptide antibiotic, showed its excellent role in anti-Gram-positive bacteria, including soft tissue infection, bloodstream and deep tissueinfection. An Asian women under sever condition due to the cooccurrence of HLH and MRSE-related endocarditis while also be allergic to vancomycin. The patient was cured by high-dose daptomycin monotheraphy, HLH-2004 protocol and cardiothoracic surgery to remove the valve at last, and was obviously benefit from the endeavor of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) strategy. IE was made on March 27according to the modified Duke criteria. HLH was diagnosed too. The patient was cured by high-dose daptomycin monotheraphy, HLH-2004 protocol and cardiothoracic surgery to remove the valve at last, and was obviously benefit from the endeavor of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) strategy. The patient was healthy andstable when we published this case. This case proves high-dose daptomycin monotheraphy could be used as an effective alternative regimen for vancomycin in treating MRSE-related left-sided endocarditis and highlight the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate management for HLH. Furthermore, our work suggests an MDT model as a practical strategy in managing similar clinical situation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne [Dresden University of Technology, OncoRay - Molecular and Biological Imaging, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Goetzelt, Knut; Vogelberg, Christian [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatrics - Pediatric Pulmonology, Dresden (Germany); Hahn, Gabriele [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Institute and Policlinic for Radiology - Pediatric Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Fitze, Guido [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatric Surgery, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment. (orig.)

  4. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne; Götzelt, Knut; Hahn, Gabriele; Fitze, Guido; Vogelberg, Christian

    2010-07-01

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment.

  5. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne; Goetzelt, Knut; Vogelberg, Christian; Hahn, Gabriele; Fitze, Guido

    2010-01-01

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment. (orig.)

  6. SU-E-T-483: Treatment Planning Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Left-Sided Breast and Chestwall Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Cape Breton Cancer Centre, Sydney, NS (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform the comparison of dose distributions and dosevolume- histograms generated by VMAT and conventional field-in-field technique for left-sided breast and chestwall cancers; to determine whether VMAT offers more dosimetric benefits than does the field-in-field technique. Methods: All VMAT and field-in-filed plans were produced in Eclipse(version 10). Five plans were generated for left-sided breast and leftsided chestwall with supraclavicular nodes, respectively. A clockwise arc (CW) and a counter-clockwise arc (CCW) were used with start and stop angles being 310o±10o and 140o±10o. Collimator angles were 30o for CW and 330o for CCW. The conformity index (CI) is the ratio of V95% over PTV. The homogeneity index (HI) is the ratio of the difference between D2% and D98% over the prescribed dose. The V5, as an indicator of low dose bath to organs-at-risk, was used for ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and contralateral breast. The V20, as an indicator of radiation pneumonitis, was used for ipsilateral lung. Results: Breast/chestwall VMAT delivers much higher low dose bath to ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung and contralateral breast/chestwall for both intact breast and chestwall with nodes. V5 for heart is increased in VMAT plans. V20 for ipsilateral lung is lower in VMAT plans. PTV coverage is similar for both techniques. For one particular chestwall patient with supraclavicular and internal mammary nodes, VMAT offers superior dose coverage of PTVs with slightly more low-dose-wash to heart, contralateral lung and contralateral breast. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is generally no benefit using VMAT for left-sided intact breast, due to large low-dose-bath (5Gy) to normal tissues with insignificant improvement in PTV coverage. Dosimetric benefits will be seen in VMAT plans for some chestwall patients with large size, and/or internal mammary nodes, etc. Whether a chestwall patient is treated with VMAT should be carefully

  7. Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenyong; Liu Dong; Xue Chenbin; Xu Jiaozhen; Li Beihui; Chen Zhengwang; Hu Desheng; Wang Xionghong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose–volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3–21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9–29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3–24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose–volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast

  8. Cardiac dose reduction with deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy patients with and without regional nodal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Rosanna; Conroy, Leigh; Long, Karen; Walrath, Daphne; Li, Haocheng; Smith, Wendy; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien

    2015-09-22

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) reduces heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) dose during left-sided breast radiation therapy (RT); however there is limited information about which patients derive the most benefit from DIBH. The primary objective of this study was to determine which patients benefit the most from DIBH by comparing percent reduction in mean cardiac dose conferred by DIBH for patients treated with whole breast RT ± boost (WBRT) versus those receiving breast/chest wall plus regional nodal irradiation, including internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes (B/CWRT + RNI) using a modified wide tangent technique. A secondary objective was to determine if DIBH was required to meet a proposed heart dose constraint of Dmean irradiation.

  9. Reduction of cardiac and coronary artery doses in irradiation of left-sided breast cancer during inspiration breath hold. A planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenecker, S.; Heinz, C.; Soehn, M.; Haimerl, W.; Corradini, S.; Pazos, M.; Belka, C.; Scheithauer, H. [University Hospital of Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The radiation dose received by the heart during adjuvant left-sided breast irradiation plays a crucial role in development of late toxicity. Although the absolute risk of cardiotoxicity can be reduced with modern irradiation techniques, cardiotoxic chemotherapy increases the risk of late damage. Thus, the radiation dose to the heart should be minimized. This study evaluated the influence of different amplitudes of inspiration breath hold (IBH) during simulated left-sided breast irradiation on cardiac doses compared to free breathing (FB). CT data of 11 lung cancer patients were retrospectively used as left-sided pseudo-breast cancer cases. Two CT scans were used, one during IBH and one during FB, and two treatment plans were generated. Relevant heart, lung, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) parameters were derived from dose-volume histograms. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for the heart were calculated based on the relative seriality model. Inspiration depth was quantified using chest volume and diameter, and correlated thereafter to a possible sparing of heart tissue. Mean reduction of heart dose for IBH compared to FB was 40 % (1.65 vs. 0.99 Gy; p = 0.007). Maximum dose to the heart and LAD could be decreased by 33 % (p = 0.011) and 43 % (p = 0.024), respectively. The mean anteroposterior shift was 5 mm (range 0.9-9.5 mm). Significant negative correlations between the relative change in LAD mean dose and the mean thoracic diameter and volume change, as well as with the absolute change in thoracic diameter were seen. The NTCP for cardiac mortality could be decreased by about 78 % (p = 0.017). For left-sided breast cancer patients, cardiac doses can be significantly decreased with tangential irradiation and IBH. (orig.) [German] Die Herzdosisbelastung spielt eine entscheidende Rolle in der Entwicklung einer kardialen Spaettoxizitaet nach der adjuvanten Strahlentherapie von linksseitigem Brustkrebs. Obwohl moderne strahlentherapeutische

  10. Comparison of conventional inserts and an add-on electron MLC for chest wall irradiation of left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanen, Tero; Lahtinen, Tapani; Traneus, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background. Collimation of irregularly shaped clinical electron beams is currently based on electron inserts made of low melting point alloys. The present investigation compares a conventional electron applicator with insert and add-on eMLC-based dose distributions in the postoperative chest wall irradiation of left-sided breast cancer. Material and methods. Voxel Monte Carlo++ (VMC++) calculated dose distributions related to electron fields were compared with 10 left-sided breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. The prescription dose was 50 Gy at a build-up maximum. The same dose was prescribed for the ipsilateral axillary, parasternal and supraclavicular lymph nodes that were treated with photons and calculated with a pencil beam algorithm. The insert beams were shaped with 1.5 cm thick Wood's metal electron inserts in an electron applicator of a Varian 2100 C/D linac. Doses for the eMLC-shaped beams were calculated for an eMLC prototype with 2 cm thick and 5 mm wide steel leaves. The same collimator-to-surface distance (CSD) of 5.8 cm was used for both collimators. Results. The mean PTV dose was slightly higher for the eMLC plans (50.7 vs 49.5 Gy, p<0.001, respectively). The maximum doses assessed by D5% for the eMLC and insert were 60.9 and 59.1 Gy (p<0.001). The difference was due to the slightly higher doses near the field edges for the eMLC. The left lung V20 volumes were 34.5% and 34.0% (p<0.001). There was only a marginal difference in heart doses. Discussion: Despite a slight increase of maximum dose in PTV the add-on electron MLC for chest wall irradiation results in practically no differences in dose distributions compared with the present insert-based collimation

  11. Identification of Pulmonary Hypertension Caused by Left-Sided Heart Disease (World Health Organization Group 2) Based on Cardiac Chamber Volumes Derived From Chest CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Galit; Rozenbaum, Zach; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Berliner, Shlomo; Topilsky, Yan; Fleischmann, Dominik; Sung, Yon K; Zamanian, Roham T; Guo, Haiwei Henry

    2017-10-01

    Evaluations of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly include chest CT imaging. We hypothesized that cardiac chamber volumes calculated from the same CT scans can yield additional information to distinguish PH related to left-sided heart disease (World Health Organization group 2) from other PH subtypes. Patients who had PH confirmed by right heart catheterization and contrast-enhanced chest CT studies were enrolled in this retrospective multicenter study. Cardiac chamber volumes were calculated using automated segmentation software and compared between group 2 and non-group 2 patients with PH. This study included 114 patients with PH, 27 (24%) of whom were classified as group 2 based on their pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Patients with group 2 PH exhibited significantly larger median left atrial (LA) volumes (118 mL vs 63 mL; P volumes (90 mL vs 76 mL; P = .02), and smaller median right ventricular (RV) volumes (173 mL vs 210 mL; P = .005) than did non-group 2 patients. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure, group 2 PH was significantly associated with larger median LA and LV volumes (P volume ratios of RA/LA, RV/LV, and RV/LA (P = .001, P = .004, and P volumes demonstrated a high discriminatory ability for group 2 PH (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.870-0.968). Volumetric analysis of the cardiac chambers from nongated chest CT scans, particularly with findings of an enlarged left atrium, exhibited high discriminatory ability for identifying patients with PH due to left-sided heart disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Voluntary Deep Inspiration Breath-hold Reduces the Heart Dose Without Compromising the Target Volume Coverage During Radiotherapy for Left-sided Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammadi, Noora; Caparrotti, Palmira; Naim, Carole; Hayes, Jillian; Rebecca Benson, Katherine; Vasic, Ana; Al-Abdulla, Hissa; Hammoud, Rabih; Divakar, Saju; Petric, Primoz

    2018-03-01

    During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion. FB-computed tomography (CT) was obtained and dose-planning performed. Cases with cardiac V25Gy ≥ 5% or risk factors for heart disease were coached for V-DIBH. Compliant patients were included. They underwent additional CT in V-DIBH for planning, followed by V-DIBH radiotherapy. Dose volume histogram parameters for heart, lung and optimized planning target volume (OPTV) were compared between FB and BH. Treatment setup shifts and systematic and random errors for V-DIBH technique were compared with FB historic control. Sixty-three patients were considered for V-DIBH. Nine (14.3%) were non-compliant at coaching, leaving 54 cases for analysis. When compared with FB, V-DIBH resulted in a significant reduction of mean cardiac dose from 6.1 +/- 2.5 to 3.2 +/- 1.4 Gy (p FB and V-DIBH, respectively (p FB- and V-DIBH-derived mean lung dose (11.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 10.6 +/- 2.6 Gy), lung V20Gy (20.5 +/- 7 vs. 19.5 +/- 5.1 Gy) and V95% for the OPTV (95.6 +/- 4.1 vs. 95.2 +/- 6.3%) were non-significant. V-DIBH-derived mean shifts for initial patient setup were ≤ 2.7 mm. Random and systematic errors were ≤ 2.1 mm. These results did not differ significantly from historic FB controls. When compared with FB, V-DIBH demonstrated high setup accuracy and enabled significant reduction of cardiac doses without compromising the target volume coverage. Differences in lung doses were non-significant.

  13. SU-F-T-204: A Preliminary Approach of Reducing Contralateral Breast and Heart Dose in Left Sided Whole Breast Cancer Patients Utilizing Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M; Algan, O; Jin, H; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the plan quality and feasibility of a hybrid plan utilizing proton and photon fields for superior coverage in the internal mammary (IM) and supraclavicular (S/C) regions while minimizing heart and contralateral breast dose for the left-sided whole breast cancer patient treatment. Methods: This preliminary study carried out on single left-sided intact breast patient involved IM and S/C nodes. The IM and S/C node fields of the 5-Field 3DCRT photon-electron base plan were replaced by two proton fields. These two along with two Field-in-Field tangential photon fields were optimized for comparable dose coverage. The treatment plans were done using Eclipse TPS for the total dose of 46Gy in 23 fractions with 95% of the prescription dose covering 95% of the RTOG PTV. The 3DCRT photon-electron and 4-Field photon-proton hybrid plans were compared for the PTV dose coverage as well as dose to OARs. Results: The overall RTOG PTV coverage for proton-hybrid and 3DCRT plan was comparable (95% of prescription dose covers 95% PTV volume). In proton-hybrid plan, 99% of IM volume received 100% dose whereas in 3DCRT only 77% received 100% dose. For S/C regions, 97% and 77% volume received 100% prescription dose in proton-hybrid and 3DCRT plans, respectively. The heart mean dose, V3Gy(%), and V5Gy(%) was 2.2Gy, 14.4%, 9.8% for proton-hybrid vs. 4.20 Gy, 21.5%, and 39% for 3DCRT plan, respectively. The maximum dose to the contralateral breast was 39.75Gy for proton-hybrid while 56.87Gy for 3DCRT plan. The mean total lung dose, V20Gy(%), and V30Gy(%) was 5.68Gy, 11.3%, 10.5% for proton-hybrid vs. 5.90Gy, 9.8%, 7.2% for 3DCRT, respectively. Conclusion: The protonhybrid plan can offer better dose coverage to the involved lymphatic tissues while lower doses to the heart and contralateral breast. More treatment plans are currently in progress before being implemented clinically.

  14. SU-E-T-532: Left-Sided Breast Cancer Irradiation Using Volumatric Modulated Arc Therapy: An Evaluation of Multiple Commercial Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R; Liu, T; Qi, S

    2015-01-01

    Purposes: There has been growing interest in treating breast cancer using VMAT technique. Our goal is to compare the dosimetry and treatment delivery parameters for the left-sided breast cancer treatment using various VMAT platforms from commercially available planning systems. Methods: Five consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients initially treated with conventional 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) were selected. Four VMAT plans using most popular treatment planning systems, including Eclipse (Version 11, Varian), Pinnacle (Version 9.8, Philips), Monaco (Version 2.03, Elekta) and helical Tomotherapy (V4.0, Accuray). The same structure set and same planning goals were used for all VMAT plans. The dosimetric parameters including target coverage and minimum/maximum/mean, dose-volume endpoints for the selected normal structures: the heart, ipsilateral-/contralateral lung and breast, were evaluated. Other dosimetric indices including heterogeneity index (HI) were evaluated. The treatment delivery parameters, such as monitor unit (MUs) and delivery time were also compared. Results: VMAT increases dose homogeneity to the treated volume and reduces the irradiated heart and left-lung volumes. Compared to the 3DCRT technique, all VMAT plans offer better heart and left-lung dose sparing; the mean heart doses were 4.5±1.6(Monaco), 1.2±0.4(Pinnacle), 1.3± (Eclipse) and 5.6±4.4(Tomo), the mean left-lung doses were 5.9±1.5(Monaco), 3.7±0.7(Pinnacle), 1.4± (Eclipse) and 5.2±1.6 (Tomo), while for the 3DCRT plan, the mean heart and left-Lung doses were 2.9±2.0, and 6.8±4.4 (Gy) respectively. The averaged contralateral-breast and lung mean doses were higher in VMAT plans than the 3DCRT plans but were not statistically significant. Among all the VMAT plans, the Pinnacle plans often yield the lowest right-lung/breast mean doses, and slightly better heterogeneity indices that are similar to Tomotherapy plans. Treatment delivery time of the VMAT plans (except helical

  15. Preoperative intestinal stent decompression with primary laparoscopic surgery to treat left-sided colorectal cancer with obstruction: a report of 21 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chao; Wu, Yu-Lian; Li, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to study the safety and efficacy of preoperative intestinal stent decompression combined with laparoscopic surgery to treat left-sided colorectal cancer with obstruction (LCCO). Retrospective analysis was conducted on data obtained from 21 LCCO patients admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University during March 2008 and December 2011. To remove the intestinal obstruction, preoperative intestinal stent placement under colonoscopic guidance was performed. Approximately 7 to 10 days after the operation, laparoscopic radical surgery of colorectal cancer was conducted. Among the 21 cases studied, laparoscopic surgery was successful in 20 patients. Emergent laparotomy was conducted in one patient because of tumor invasion in the ureter. The duration of the operation ranged from 180 to 320 min, and the average time was 220 min. The recovery time for bowel function ranged from 2 to 5 days with an average time of 3 days. Postoperative infection of the incision occurred in one case. No anastomotic leakage was observed in any of the cases. Preoperative intestinal stent decompression, combined with primary stage laparoscopic surgery, is a safe and effective method for the treatment of LCCO

  16. A 58-Year-Old Woman with Left-Sided Weakness and a History of a Pediatric Brain Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaakir Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An uncommon but well-established complication of cranial irradiation is secondary neoplasm. This case presentation documents a radiation-induced malignant glioma 55 years after being diagnosed with “cerebral sarcoma,” now defined as atypical meningioma. This not only represents the longest reported latency period for a patient initially receiving over 30 Gy, but also provides a valuable historical perspective of neuro-oncology. Clinical Presentation: A 58-year-old female presenting with progressive left-sided upper and lower extremity weakness with a past medical history significant for “cerebral sarcoma” was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. This patient had previously been treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy via a 280-kVP orthovoltage machine and received 3,390 rad to the posterior three-quarters of the skull for “cerebral sarcoma.” Conclusion: A comprehensive investigation of the past medical history helped uncover a mysterious pediatric diagnosis, helped drive the management 5 decades later, and serves as a reminder that seemingly safe interventions may still cause harm.

  17. Comparison of oncological outcomes of right-sided colon cancer versus left-sided colon cancer after curative resection: Which side is better outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Ro; Kuk, Jung Kul; Kim, Taehyung; Shin, Eung Jin

    2017-10-01

    There are embryological origins, anatomical, histological, genetic, and immunological differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Many studies have sought to determine the survival and prognosis according to tumor location. This study aimed to analyze outcomes between RCC and LCC. Between January 2000 and December 2012, data on 414 patients who underwent curative resection for RCC and LCC were retrieved from a retrospective database. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed and RCC was identified in 207 and LCC in 207 patients. On average, RCC exhibited a more advanced N stage, increased tumor size, more frequently poorly differentiated tumors, more harvested lymph nodes, and more positivity of lymphovascular invasion than LCC. With a median follow-up of 66.7 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for RCC and LCC were 82.1% and 88.7%, respectively, (P cancers, the DFS rates were 61.1% (RCC) and 81.9% (LCC; P colon cancer is needed.

  18. Insights into Intrinsic Brain Networks based on Graph Theory and PET in right- compared to left-sided Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Hilger, Eva; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Asenbaum-Nan, Susanne

    2016-06-28

    The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [(18)F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [(18)F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis. Comparing LTLE and RTLE and patient groups separately to HC, we observed higher lobar connectivity weights in RTLE compared to LTLE for connections of the temporal and the parietal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere (CH). Moreover, especially in RTLE compared to LTLE higher local efficiency were found in the temporal cortices and other brain regions of the CH. The results of this investigation implicate altered metabolic networks in patients with TLE specific to the lateralization of seizure focus, and describe compensatory mechanisms especially in the CH of patients with RTLE. We propose that graph theoretical analysis of metabolic connectivity using [(18)F]FDG-PET offers an important additional modality to explore brain networks.

  19. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E.; Mebius, Mirthe J.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Objectives: Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation

  20. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  1. Does inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy have a role in the treatment of patients with left-sided breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillie, Alison L.; Chua, Boon; Kron, Tomas; Cramb, Jim; Herschtal, Alan; Hornby, Colin; Sullivan, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if multi-field inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves on the sparing of organs at risk (heart, lungs and contralateral breast) when compared with field-in-field forward-planned RT (FiF). The planning CT scans of 10 women with left-sided breast cancer previously treated with whole-breast RT on an inclined breast board with both arms supported above the head were retrieved. The whole breast planning target volume (PTV) was defined by clinical mark-up and contoured on all relevant CT slices as were the organs at risk. For each patient, three plans were generated using FiF, five- and nine-field inverse-planned IMRT, all to a total dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast. Mean and maximum doses to the organs at risk and the homogeneity index (HI) of the whole-breast PTV were compared. The mean heart dose for the FiF plans was 2.63 Gy compared with 4.04 Gy for the five-field and 4.30 Gy for the nine-field IMRT plans, with no significant differences in the HI of the whole-breast PTV in all plans. The FiF plans resulted in a mean contralateral breast dose of 0.58 Gy compared with 0.70 and 2.08 Gy for the five- and nine-field IMRT plans, respectively. FiF resulted in a lower mean heart and contralateral breast dose with comparable HI of the whole-breast PTV in comparison with inverse-planned IMRT using five or nine fields.

  2. Left atrial accessory appendages, diverticula, and left-sided septal pouch in multi-slice computed tomography. Association with atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołda, Mateusz K; Koziej, Mateusz; Wszołek, Karolina; Pawlik, Wiesław; Krawczyk-Ożóg, Agata; Sorysz, Danuta; Łoboda, Piotr; Kuźma, Katarzyna; Kuniewicz, Marcin; Lelakowski, Jacek; Dudek, Dariusz; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wiesława

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a morphometric description of the left-sided septal pouch (LSSP), left atrial accessory appendages, and diverticula using cardiac multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and to compare results between patient subgroups. Two hundred and ninety four patients (42.9% females) with a mean of 69.4±13.1years of age were investigated using MSCT. The presence of the LSSP, left atrial accessory appendages, and diverticula was evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to check whether the presence of additional left atrial structures is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular accidents. At least one additional left atrial structure was present in 51.7% of patients. A single LSSP, left atrial diverticulum, and accessory appendage were present in 35.7%, 16.0%, and 4.1% of patients, respectively. After adjusting for other risk factors via multiple logistic regression, patients with LSSP are more likely to have atrial fibrillation (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.14-3.48, p=0.01). The presence of a LSSP was found to be associated with an increased risk of transient ischemic attack using multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for other risk factors (OR=3.88, 95% CI=1.10-13.69, p=0.03). In conclusion LSSPs, accessory appendages, and diverticula are highly prevalent anatomic structures within the left atrium, which could be easily identified by MSCT. The presence of LSSP is associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation and transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SU-G-BRC-13: Model Based Classification for Optimal Position Selection for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy: Free Breathing, DIBH, Or Prone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H; Liu, T; Xu, X [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Shi, C [Saint Vincent Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Petillion, S; Kindts, I [University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Vlaams-Brabant (Belgium); Tang, X [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There are clinical decision challenges to select optimal treatment positions for left-sided breast cancer patients—supine free breathing (FB), supine Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) and prone free breathing (prone). Physicians often make the decision based on experiences and trials, which might not always result optimal OAR doses. We herein propose a mathematical model to predict the lowest OAR doses among these three positions, providing a quantitative tool for corresponding clinical decision. Methods: Patients were scanned in FB, DIBH, and prone positions under an IRB approved protocol. Tangential beam plans were generated for each position, and OAR doses were calculated. The position with least OAR doses is defined as the optimal position. The following features were extracted from each scan to build the model: heart, ipsilateral lung, breast volume, in-field heart, ipsilateral lung volume, distance between heart and target, laterality of heart, and dose to heart and ipsilateral lung. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to remove the co-linearity of the input data and also to lower the data dimensionality. Feature selection, another method to reduce dimensionality, was applied as a comparison. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was then used for classification. Thirtyseven patient data were acquired; up to now, five patient plans were available. K-fold cross validation was used to validate the accuracy of the classifier model with small training size. Results: The classification results and K-fold cross validation demonstrated the model is capable of predicting the optimal position for patients. The accuracy of K-fold cross validations has reached 80%. Compared to PCA, feature selection allows causal features of dose to be determined. This provides more clinical insights. Conclusion: The proposed classification system appeared to be feasible. We are generating plans for the rest of the 37 patient images, and more statistically significant

  4. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepp, Rodrigo; Ammerpohl, Mark; Morgenstern, Christina; Erichsen, Patricia; Nielinger, Lisa; Abdallah, Abdallah; Galalae, Razvan

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm 3 (D 2 cm 3 ), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V 5 ), 10 Gy (V 10 ), 15 Gy (V 15 ) and 20 Gy (V 20 ). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D 2 cm 3 was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D 2 cm 3 was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL. (orig.) [de

  5. Cardiac risk index as a simple geometric indicator to select patients for the heart-sparing radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, KiHoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Kyu Chan

    2017-01-01

    This is a dosimetric study to identify a simple geometric indicator to discriminate patients who meet the selection criterion for heart-sparing radiotherapy (RT). The authors proposed a cardiac risk index (CRI), directly measurable from the CT images at the time of scanning. Treatment plans were regenerated using the CT data of 312 consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetric analysis was performed to estimate the risk of cardiac mortality using cardiac dosimetric parameters, such as the relative heart volumes receiving ≥25 Gy (heart V 25 ). For each CT data set, in-field heart depth (HD) and in-field heart width (HW) were measured to generate the geometric parameters, including maximum HW (HW max ) and maximum HD (HD max ). Seven geometric parameters were evaluated as candidates for CRI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power of the geometric parameters to select high-risk patients (heart V 25 ≥ 10%). Seventy-one high-risk (22.8%) and 241 low-risk patients (77.2%) were identified by dosimetric analysis. The geometric and dosimetric parameters were significantly higher in the high-risk group. Heart V 25 showed the strong positive correlations with all geometric parameters examined (r > 0.8, p < 0.001). The product of HD max and HW max (CRI) revealed the largest area under the curve (AUC) value (0.969) and maintained 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity at the optimal cut-off value of 14.58 cm 2 . Cardiac risk index proposed as a simple geometric indicator to select high-risk patients provides useful guidance for clinicians considering optimal implementation of heart-sparing RT.

  6. Utility of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy in Preventing Early Cardiac Perfusion Defects: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagar, Timothy M., E-mail: zagar@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kaidar-Person, Orit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Tang, Xiaoli [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, New York (United States); Jones, Ellen E.; Matney, Jason; Das, Shiva K.; Green, Rebecca L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheikh, Arif [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Khandani, Amir H.; McCartney, William H.; Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Wong, Terence Z. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate early cardiac single photon computed tomography (SPECT) findings after left breast/chest wall postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective single-institution single-arm study of patients who were planned for tangential RT with DIBH to the left breast/chest wall (± internal mammary nodes). The DIBH was done by use of a controlled surface monitoring technique (AlignRT, Vision RT Ltd, London, UK). The RT was given with tangential fields and a heart block. Radiation-induced cardiac perfusion and wall motion changes were assessed by pre-RT and 6-month post-RT SPECT scans. A cumulative SPECT summed-rest score was used to quantify perfusion in predefined left ventricle segments. The incidence of wall motion abnormalities was assessed in each of these same segments. Results: A total of 20 patients with normal pre-RT scans were studied; their median age was 56 years (range, 39-72 years). Seven (35%) patients also received irradiation to the left internal mammary chain, and 5 (25%) received an additional RT field to supraclavicular nodes. The median heart dose was 94 cGy (range, 56-200 cGy), and the median V25{sub Gy} was zero (range, 0-0.1). None of the patients had post-RT perfusion or wall motion abnormalities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DIBH and conformal cardiac blocking for patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer is an effective means to avoid early RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects.

  7. When Left Means Right: An Explanation of the Left Cradling Bias in Terms of Right Hemisphere Specializations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J.; Todd, Brenda K.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that 70-85% of women and girls show a bias to hold infants, or dolls, to the left side of their body. This bias is not matched in males (e.g. deChateau, Holmberg & Winberg, 1978; Todd, 1995). This study tests an explanation of cradling preferences in terms of hemispheric specialization for the perception of facial…

  8. Cardiac dose reduction with deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy patients with and without regional nodal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Rosanna; Conroy, Leigh; Long, Karen; Walrath, Daphne; Li, Haocheng; Smith, Wendy; Hudson, Alana; Phan, Tien

    2015-01-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) reduces heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) dose during left-sided breast radiation therapy (RT); however there is limited information about which patients derive the most benefit from DIBH. The primary objective of this study was to determine which patients benefit the most from DIBH by comparing percent reduction in mean cardiac dose conferred by DIBH for patients treated with whole breast RT ± boost (WBRT) versus those receiving breast/chest wall plus regional nodal irradiation, including internal mammary chain (IMC) nodes (B/CWRT + RNI) using a modified wide tangent technique. A secondary objective was to determine if DIBH was required to meet a proposed heart dose constraint of D mean < 4 Gy in these two cohorts. Twenty consecutive patients underwent CT simulation both free breathing (FB) and DIBH. Patients were grouped into two cohorts: WBRT (n = 11) and B/CWRT + RNI (n = 9). 3D-conformal plans were developed and FB was compared to DIBH for each cohort using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for continuous variables and McNemar’s test for discrete variables. The percent relative reduction conferred by DIBH in mean heart and LAD dose, as well as lung V 20 were compared between the two cohorts using Wilcox rank-sum testing. The significance level was set at 0.05 with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. All patients had comparable target coverage on DIBH and FB. DIBH statistically significantly reduced mean heart and LAD dose for both cohorts. Percent reduction in mean heart and LAD dose with DIBH was significantly larger in the B/CWRT + RNI cohort compared to WBRT group (relative reduction in mean heart and LAD dose: 55.9 % and 72.1 % versus 29.2 % and 43.5 %, p < 0.02). All patients in the WBRT group and five patients (56 %) in the B/CWBRT + RNI group met heart D mean <4 Gy with FB. All patients met this constraint with DIBH. All patients receiving WBRT met D mean Heart < 4 Gy on FB, while only slightly over

  9. A case report of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy left-side gastropexy to resolve a recurrent gastric dilatation in a dog previously treated with right-side gastropexy for gastric dilatation volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Giuseppe; Cinti, Filippo; Pietra, Marco; Capitani, Ombretta; Valentini, Simona

    2014-12-01

    A 6-year-old, large-breed, female dog was evaluated for gastric dilatation (GD). The dog was affected by GD volvulus, which had been surgically treated with gastric derotation and right incisional gastropexy. Recurrence of GD appeared 36 hours after surgery. The dilatation was immediately treated with an orogastric probe but still recurred 4 times. Therefore, a left-side gastropexy by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed to prevent intermittent GD. After PEG tube placement, the patient recovered rapidly without side effects. Several techniques of gastropexy have been described as a prophylactic method for gastric dilatation volvulus, but to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of left-sided PEG gastropexy performed in a case of canine GD recurrence after an incisional right gastropexy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepp, Rodrigo; Ammerpohl, Mark; Morgenstern, Christina; Erichsen, Patricia [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Nielinger, Lisa [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt, Lippstadt (Germany); Abdallah, Abdallah [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Senologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Galalae, Razvan [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Medizinische Fakultaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3}), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V{sub 5}), 10 Gy (V{sub 10}), 15 Gy (V{sub 15}) and 20 Gy (V{sub 20}). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL. (orig.) [German] Die adjuvante Strahlentherapie nach brusterhaltener Operation (BCS) bei Brustkrebs (BC) ist eine seit langem anerkannte Behandlungsform. Das postradiogene Risiko einer kardialen Ischaemie steigt linear ohne erkennbaren Schwellenwert mit der mittleren Herzdosis. Die Bestrahlung der linken Brust in tiefer Inspiration unter Anhalten der

  11. Turned on/turned off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eva Bendix

    2016-01-01

    position, it attempts to sense into the lived experience of being subject to, and of, turns in social theory. As a whole the paper seeks to work with and allow for multiplicity in tone, focus, researcher positioning, reader positioning, and more, to see what knowledge that does not seek confident closure......Through cacophonic story-telling, emerging from ethnographic observations from academic scenes in Australia and elsewhere, the article seeks to explore the timeliness and untimeliness of feminist knowledge production. Rather than arguing a particular point or making a claim for a particular...

  12. Re-evaluation of lung to thorax transverse area ratio immediately before birth in predicting postnatal short-term outcomes of fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Saki; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Sato, Yuka; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Miyoshi, Kina; Nagata, Kouji; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the lung-to-thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) immediately before birth is of diagnostic value for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in cases of isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of fetal isolated left-sided CDH managed at our institution between April 2008 and July 2016. We divided the patients into two groups based on LTR immediately before birth, using a cut-off value of 0.08. We compared the proportions of subjects within the two groups who survived until discharge using Fisher's exact test. Further, using Spearman's rank correlation, we assessed whether LTR was correlated with length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and supplemental oxygen. Twenty-nine subjects were included (five with LTR < 0.08, and 24 with LTR ≥ 0.08). The proportion of subjects surviving until discharge was 40% (2/5) for patients with LTR < 0.08, as compared with 96% (23/24) for those with LTR ≥ 0.08. LTR measured immediately before birth was negatively correlated with the postnatal length of stay (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, rs = -0.486), and the duration of supplemental oxygen (rs = -0.537). Further, the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with a lower LTR value. LTR immediately before birth is useful for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. In particular, patients with prenatal LTR value less than 0.08 are at increased risk of postnatal death. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  13. Is it possible for knowledge-based planning to improve intensity modulated radiation therapy plan quality for planners with different planning experiences in left-sided breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Hu, Weigang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao; Lu, Saiquan; Li, Kaixuan; Yu, Gongyi

    2017-05-22

    Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost. The libraries were created on the RapidPlan TM . 6 planners with different planning experiences (2 beginner planners, 2 junior planners and 2 senior planners) generated manual and KBP optimized plans for additional 10 patients, similar to those included in the model libraries. The plan qualities were compared between manual and KBP plans. All plans were capable of achieving the prescription requirement. There were almost no statistically significant differences in terms of the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose conformality. It was demonstrated that the doses for most of organs-at-risk (OARs) were on average lower or equal in KBP plans compared to manual plans except for the senior planners, where the very small differences were not statistically significant. KBP data showed a systematic trend to have superior dose sparing at most parameters for the heart and ipsilateral lung. The observed decrease in the doses to these OARs could be achieved, particularly for the beginner and junior planners. Many differences were statistically significant. It is feasible to generate acceptable IMRT plans after implementing KBP for left-sided breast cancer. KBP helps to effectively improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of manual plans for less experienced planners without any manual intervention. KBP

  14. Three-Catheter Technique for Ablation of Left-Sided Accessory Pathways in Wolff-Parkinson-White is Less Expensive and Equally Successful When Compared to a Five-Catheter Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Christine A; Ceresnak, Scott R; Nappo, Lynn; Gates, Gregory J; Schechter, Clyde B; Pass, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of a three-catheter approach with a conventional five-catheter approach for the mapping and ablation of supraventricular tachycardia in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW) and concealed accessory pathways (APs). A retrospective review from 2008 to 2012 of patients less than 21 years with WPW who underwent a three-catheter radiofrequency (RF) ablation of a left-sided AP (ablation, right ventricular [RV] apical, and coronary sinus [CS] decapolar catheters) was performed. The three-catheter group was compared to a control group who underwent a standard five-catheter (ablation, RV apical, CS decapolar, His catheter, and right atrial catheter) ablation for the treatment of left-sided WPW or concealed AP. Demographics, ablation outcomes, and costs were compared between groups. Twenty-eight patients met inclusion criteria with 28 control patients. The groups did not differ in gender, age, weight, or body surface area. Locations of the AP on the mitral annulus were similar between the groups. All patients were ablated via transseptal approach. Note that 28 of 28 in the three-catheter group (100%) and 27 of 28 (96%) controls were acutely successfully ablated (P = 0.31). No complications were encountered. There was no difference in procedural time, time to loss of AP conduction, or number of RF applications. Use of the three-catheter technique resulted in a total savings of $2,465/case, which includes the $680 savings from using fewer catheters as well as the savings from a shortened procedure time. Ablation in patients with WPW and a left-sided AP can be performed using three catheters with similar efficacy and safety while offering significant cost savings compared to a conventional five-catheter approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Numerical value biases sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-08

    Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9). The main finding was that for stimuli presented near the median plane there was a linear left-to-right bias for localizing smaller-to-larger numbers. At lateral locations there was a central-eccentric location bias in the pointing task, and either a bias restricted to the smaller numbers (left side) or no significant number bias (right side). Prior number location also biased subsequent number judgments towards the opposite side. Findings support a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception, with a linear mapping near midline and more complex relations at lateral locations. Results may reflect coding of dedicated spatial channels, with two representing lateral positions in each hemispace, and the midline area represented by either their overlap or a separate third channel.

  16. Positive pressure ventilation in a patient with a right upper lobar bronchocutaneous fistula: right upper bronchus occlusion using the cuff of a left-sided double lumen endobronchial tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Chieko; Toyama, Hiroaki; Takei, Yusuke; Ejima, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    In patients with a bronchocutaneous fistula, positive pressure ventilation leads to air leakage and potential hypoxemia. A male patient with a right upper bronchocutaneous fistula was scheduled for esophageal reconstruction. His preoperative chest computed tomography image revealed aeration in the right middle and lower lobe, a large bulla in the left upper lobe, and pleural effusion and pneumonia in the left lower lobe. Therefore, left one-lung ventilation was considered to result in hypoxemia. Before anesthesia induction, the bronchocutaneous fistula was covered with gauze and film to prevent air leakage. After anesthesia induction, mask ventilation was performed with a peak positive pressure of 10 cmH 2 O. A left-sided double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) was then inserted into the right main bronchus for occluding only the right superior bronchus, and two-lung ventilation was performed to minimize airway pressure and maintain oxygenation, which did not cause air leakage through the fistula. During anesthesia, no ventilation-related difficulty was faced. The method of inserting a left-sided DLT into the right main bronchus and occluding the right upper bronchus selectively by bronchial cuff is considered to be an option for mechanical ventilation in patients with a right upper bronchial fistula, as demonstrated in the present case.

  17. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Obstructing Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer under Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Comparison of the Clinical Results according to Stent Diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pyeong Guk; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Hae Won; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of self-expandable metallic stent for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer under fluoroscopic guidance, and to compare results according to the stent diameter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 31 self-expandable metallic stents were placed into 25 patients for palliative purposes. The rates of technical success, clinical success, complications associated with stent insertion, patient survival, and primary stent patency were evaluated. The results were also compared between two groups: 13 patients using stents with a diameter of 22 mm and 12 patients using stents with a diameter of 26 mm. The technical and clinical success rates were 93.5 and 90.3%, respectively. The complications included severe abdominal pain (6.5%), minor rectal bleeding (9.7%), stent migration (9.7%), and tumor ingrowth or overgrowth (9.7%). No statistical differences in technical were detected between the two groups for the clinical success rate and complication rates. The mean survival time was 5.5 +- 1.4 months. The primary stent patency rates were 91.3% at 5 months, 85.2% at 10 months, and 77.4% at 15 months. The mean period of stent patency was 12.4 +- 2.6 months. The mean period of primary stent patency was 16.4 +- 2.6 months in the 26 mm stent group, and significantly higher than 5.4 +- 1.4 months in the 22 mm stent group (p=0.031). A self-expandable metallic stent under fluoroscopic guidance, for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer, was feasible and effective, and yielded good clinical results. The period of primary stent patency of the 26 mm stent group was longer than the 22 mm stent group, and the complication rate was not significantly different between the two stent groups

  18. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Obstructing Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer under Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Comparison of the Clinical Results according to Stent Diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Pyeong Guk; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Hae Won; Chung, Eun Chul; Kim, Sam Soo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of self-expandable metallic stent for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer under fluoroscopic guidance, and to compare results according to the stent diameter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 31 self-expandable metallic stents were placed into 25 patients for palliative purposes. The rates of technical success, clinical success, complications associated with stent insertion, patient survival, and primary stent patency were evaluated. The results were also compared between two groups: 13 patients using stents with a diameter of 22 mm and 12 patients using stents with a diameter of 26 mm. The technical and clinical success rates were 93.5 and 90.3%, respectively. The complications included severe abdominal pain (6.5%), minor rectal bleeding (9.7%), stent migration (9.7%), and tumor ingrowth or overgrowth (9.7%). No statistical differences in technical were detected between the two groups for the clinical success rate and complication rates. The mean survival time was 5.5 ± 1.4 months. The primary stent patency rates were 91.3% at 5 months, 85.2% at 10 months, and 77.4% at 15 months. The mean period of stent patency was 12.4 ± 2.6 months. The mean period of primary stent patency was 16.4 ± 2.6 months in the 26 mm stent group, and significantly higher than 5.4 ± 1.4 months in the 22 mm stent group (p=0.031). A self-expandable metallic stent under fluoroscopic guidance, for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer, was feasible and effective, and yielded good clinical results. The period of primary stent patency of the 26 mm stent group was longer than the 22 mm stent group, and the complication rate was not significantly different between the two stent groups

  19. Impact of patient-specific factors, irradiated left ventricular volume, and treatment set-up errors on the development of myocardial perfusion defects after radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Elizabeth S.; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Yu Xiaoli; Zhou Sumin; Hollis, Donna R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Light, Kim L.; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient-specific factors, left ventricle (LV) volume, and treatment set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects 6 to 60 months post-radiation therapy (RT) in patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, a total of 153 patients were enrolled onto an institutional review board-approved prospective study and had pre- and serial post-RT (6-60 months) cardiac perfusion scans to assess for perfusion defects. Of the patients, 108 had normal pre-RT perfusion scans and available follow-up data. The impact of patient-specific factors on the rate of perfusion defects was assessed at various time points using univariate and multivariate analysis. The impact of set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects was also analyzed using a one-tailed Fisher's Exact test. Results: Consistent with our prior results, the volume of LV in the RT field was the most significant predictor of perfusion defects on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.0058) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0026 to 0.0029). Body mass index (BMI) was the only significant patient-specific factor on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.022) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0091 to 0.05). In patients with very small volumes of LV in the planned RT fields, the rate of perfusion defects was significantly higher when the fields set-up 'too deep' (83% vs. 30%, p = 0.059). The frequency of deep set-up errors was significantly higher among patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 compared with patients of normal weight (47% vs. 28%, p = 0.068). Conclusions: BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 may be a significant risk factor for cardiac toxicity after RT for left-sided breast cancer, possibly because of more frequent deep set-up errors resulting in the inclusion of additional heart in the RT fields. Further study is necessary to better understand the impact of patient-specific factors and set-up errors on the development of RT

  20. [Abnormal head turn in a patient with Brown's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waveren, M; Krzizok, T; Besch, D

    2008-08-01

    We report on an eight-year-old boy, who was presented in our clinic because of head turn. The cause of the tortecollis (ocular or general) in this case was and still cannot be explained. Only by applying extensive prism adaptation tests it was possible to prove the ocular character of the head turn. An eight-year-old boy with Brown's syndrome was referred to us because of a head tilt to the left side. Six months previously surgery on the M. obl. superior of the right eye was performed in another clinic. No improvement of the head tilt could be observed after the operation. In addition, an exotropia became decompensated. Under a 3-day occlusion of one eye, no change of the head turn and the squint could be measured. No other cause of the head turn could be found by an orthopaedist and a paediatrist. Under a prism of 20 cm/m basis in and 10 cm/m basis against the positive vertical deviation, the head tilt decreased, so that we decided to do a second surgery. The head tilting had not resumed at one year after the surgery. Although the initial diagnostic findings ruled out an ocular cause, it was possible to lessen the head tilting with the aid of the prism adaptation test. This case study emphasises the usefulness of a prism adaptation test of several days duration in order to validate an ocular cause of head turn and to determine an adequate indication for surgery.

  1. When advertising turns "cheeky"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal

    2006-05-01

    Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising.

  2. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Michelle E; Mebius, Mirthe J; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Bos, Arend F; Berger, Rolf M F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W

    2017-01-01

    In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) between infants with LSOL with antegrade and retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta and with and without diastolic backflow in the descending aorta. Based on 2 echocardiograms, the study group was categorized according to the direction of blood flow in the ascending and descending aorta. We measured cerebral and renal rSO2 using near-infrared spectroscopy and calculated fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE). Nineteen infants with LSOL, admitted to the NICU between 0 and 28 days after birth, were included. Infants with antegrade blood flow (n = 12) and infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta (n = 7) had similar cerebral rSO2 and FTOE during both echocardiograms. Only during the first echocardiogram, infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta had lower renal FTOE (0.14 vs. 0.32, p = 0.04) and tended to have higher renal rSO2 (80 vs. 65%, p = 0.09). The presence of diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with cerebral or renal rSO2 and FTOE during the first (n = 8) as well as the second echocardiogram (n = 10). Retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta was not associated with cerebral oxygenation, while diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with renal oxygenation in infants with LSOL. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans, With or Without Anterior Myocardial Territory and Left Ventricle as Organs at Risk, in Early-Stage Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenyong; Wang Xiaohong; Qiu Dasheng; Liu Dong; Jia Shaohui; Zeng Fanyu; Chen Zhengwang; Li Beihui; Xu Jiaozhen; Wei Lai; Hu Desheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated heart sparing using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with the left ventricle (LV) and/or the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as additional organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected for dosimetric planning. Both lungs, the right breast, heart, LV, and AMT were defined as OARs. We generated one tangential field plan and four IMRT plans for each patient. We examined the dose–volume histogram parameters of the planning target volume and OARs. Results: Compared with the tangential field plan, the mean dose to the heart in the IMRT plans did not show significant differences; however, the dose to the AMT and LV decreased by 18.7–45.4% and 10.8–37.4%, respectively. The maximal dose to the heart decreased by 18.6–35.3%, to the AMT by 22.0–45.1%, and to the LV by 23.5–45.0%, And the relative volumes of the heart (V ≥12 ), AMT (V >11 ) and LV (V >10 ) decreased significantly with different levels, respectively. The volume of the heart, AMT, LV, both lungs, and right breast receiving ≥5 Gy showed a significant increase. Compared with the IMRT (H) plan, the mean dose to the heart, AMT, and LV decreased by 17.5–21.5%, 25.2–29.8%, and 22.8–29.8% and the maximal dose by 13.6–20.6%, 23.1–29.6%, and 17.3–29.1%, respectively. The IMRT plans for both lungs and the right breast showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The IMRT plans with the addition of the AMT and/or LV as OARs considerably increased heart sparing. We recommend including the LV as an additional OAR in such plans.

  4. Projecting one’s own spatial bias onto others during a theory-of-mind task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio, Branden J.; Webb, Taylor W.; Graziano, Michael S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Many people show a left-right bias in visual processing. We measured spatial bias in neurotypical participants using a variant of the line bisection task. In the same participants, we measured performance in a social cognition task. This theory-of-mind task measured whether each participant had a processing-speed bias toward the right of, or left of, a cartoon agent about which the participant was thinking. Crucially, the cartoon was rotated such that what was left and right with respect to the cartoon was up and down with respect to the participant. Thus, a person’s own left-right bias could not align directly onto left and right with respect to the cartoon head. Performance on the two tasks was significantly correlated. People who had a natural bias toward processing their own left side of space were quicker to process how the cartoon might think about objects to the left side of its face, and likewise for a rightward bias. One possible interpretation of these results is that the act of processing one’s own personal space shares some of the same underlying mechanisms as the social cognitive act of reconstructing someone else’s processing of their space. PMID:29339513

  5. Can free-viewing perceptual asymmetries be explained by scanning, pre-motor or attentional biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Michael E R; Roberts, Georgina R

    2002-04-01

    Judgments of relative magnitude between the left and right sides of a stimulus are generally weighted toward the features contained on the left side. This leftward perceptual bias could be the result of, (a) left-to-right scanning biases, (b) pre-motor activation of the right hemisphere, or (c) a left hemispatial attentional bias. The relative merits of these explanations of perceptual asymmetry were investigated. In Experiment 1, English and Hebrew readers made luminance judgements for two left/right mirror-reversed luminance gradients (greyscales task). Despite different reading/scanning habits, both groups exhibited a leftward perceptual bias. English and Hebrew readers also performed a line bisection task. Scanning biases were controlled by asking participants to follow a marker as it moved left-to-right or right-to-left and then stop it as it reached the midpoint of the line. Despite controlling scanning, a leftward bias was observed in both groups. In Experiment 2, peripheral spatial cues were presented prior to the greyscales stimuli. English readers showed a reduction in the leftward bias for right-sided cues as compared to left-sided and neutral cues. Right-side cues presumably overcame a pre-existing leftward attentional bias. In both experiments, pre-motor activation was controlled using bimanual responses. Despite this control, a leftward bias was observed throughout the study. The data support the attentional bias account of leftward perceptual biases over the scanning and pre-motor activation accounts. Whether or not unilateral hemispheric activation provides an adequate account of this attentional bias is discussed.

  6. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  7. Dosimetric comparison for volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy on the left-sided chest wall and internal mammary nodes irradiation in treating post-mastectomy breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiao Li; Hu, Wei Gang; Chen, Jia Yi; Wang, Jia Zhou; Ye, Jin Song; Guo, Xiao Mao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric benefit of applying volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the post-mastectomy left-sided breast cancer patients, with the involvement of internal mammary nodes (IMN). The prescription dose was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions, and the clinical target volume included the left chest wall (CW) and IMN. VMAT plans were created and compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans on Pinnacle treatment planning system. Comparative endpoints were dose homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV), target dose coverage, doses to the critical structures including heart, lungs and the contralateral breast, number of monitor units and treatment delivery time. VMAT and IMRT plans showed similar PTV dose homogeneity, but, VMAT provided a better dose coverage for IMN than IMRT (p = 0.017). The mean dose (Gy), V 30 (%) and V 10 (%) for the heart were 13.5 ± 5.0 Gy, 9.9% ± 5.9% and 50.2% ± 29.0% by VMAT, and 14.0 ± 5.4 Gy, 10.6% ± 5.8% and 55.7% ± 29.6% by IMRT, respectively. The left lung mean dose (Gy), V 20 (%), V 10 (%) and the right lung V 5 (%) were significantly reduced from 14.1 ± 2.3 Gy, 24.2% ± 5.9%, 42.4% ± 11.9% and 41.2% ± 12.3% with IMRT to 12.8 ± 1.9 Gy, 21.0% ± 3.8%, 37.1% ± 8.4% and 32.1% ± 18.2% with VMAT, respectively. The mean dose to the contralateral breast was 1.7 ± 1.2 Gy with VMAT and 2.3 ± 1.6 Gy with IMRT. Finally, VMAT reduced the number of monitor units by 24% and the treatment time by 53%, as compared to IMRT. Compared to 5-be am step-and-shot IMRT, VMAT achieves similar or superior target coverage and a better normal tissue sparing, with fewer monitor units and shorter delivery time

  8. Sympathetic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J

    2008-06-01

    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation.

  9. Bias-field equalizer for bubble memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetoresistive Perm-alloy sensor monitors bias field required to maintain bubble memory. Sensor provides error signal that, in turn, corrects magnitude of bias field. Error signal from sensor can be used to control magnitude of bias field in either auxiliary set of bias-field coils around permanent magnet field, or current in small coils used to remagnetize permanent magnet by infrequent, short, high-current pulse or short sequence of pulses.

  10. Review Essay: Turn, Turn, Turn Around—Till Categories Blur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Allolio-Näcke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I begin this review by introducing the book and discussing its manifest content chapter by chapter (see 2.1, focusing particularly on the author's argumentation concerning the development of new orientations in cultural studies and on how, in relation to the turns discussed, the names of the researchers and central categories involved are collected. In a second step, I give a close reading of the book's latent content, which I consider to be more important (see 2.2. In this context I discuss several questions of scientific politics—especially the issue of hegemonic claims. Thirdly, I read the book from the critical standpoint of a psychologist, a sociologist and a theologian and show the shortcomings of BACHMANN-MEDICK's outsider perspective on these disciplines. In this regard I read the book again and provide a critique of the quality of the author's scientific performance (see 3. Finally, I state the reasons I do not recommend reading this book (see 4. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801266

  11. Turn-around improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, S.; Venturini Delsolaro, W.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient turn-around will be an important parameter for the integrated luminosity performance at LHC in 2012, when an operation with steady beam parameters and machine configuration will be achieved at the beginning of the run. Improvements of the operational cycle were already put successfully in place after the 2010 experience but additional ways to reduce the time required to setup collisions are possible. In this paper, the 2011 turn-around performance is reviewed and the benefits of the improvements from 2010 are presented. Phases of the operational cycle when further amelioration is possible are discussed and some proposal for a faster turn-around in 2012 are outlined. (authors)

  12. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis Enemas de factor de crecimiento epidérmico para inducir la remisión de la colitis ulcerosa izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.Introducción: la colitis ulcerosa es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de etiología poco conocida, que afecta la mucosa del colon. El efecto positivo del factor de crecimiento epidérmico fue reportado en estudio previo con uso de

  13. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  14. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  15. Journal bias or author bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics regarding bias and conflicts of interest in medical journals. Wilson targets one journal (the New England Journal of Medicine: NEJM) and one particular "scandal" to make his point that journals' decisions on publication are biased by commercial conflicts of interest (CoIs). It is interesting that he chooses the NEJM which, by his own admission, had one of the strictest CoI policies and had published widely on this topic. The feeling is that if the NEJM can be guilty, they can all be guilty.

  16. Biased Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Josse Delfgaauw; Michiel Souverijn

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When verifiable performance measures are imperfect, organizations often resort to subjective performance pay. This may give supervisors the power to direct employees towards tasks that mainly benefit the supervisor rather than the organization. We cast a principal-supervisor-agent model in a multitask setting, where the supervisor has an intrinsic preference towards specific tasks. We show that subjective performance pay based on evaluation by a biased supervisor ...

  17. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  18. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation o...

  19. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  20. Fermilab turns 50! Congratulations!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    This year Fermilab turns 50 and the celebrations are ongoing. The ties between CERN and Fermilab are numerous and have been ranging from competition between two labs at the forefront of their field, e.g. with the chase of the top quark, finally discovered by Fermilab, to outright collaboration, e.g. on LHC low-beta quadrupole magnet development and production and in the CMS collaboration. In June, in the name of the CERN staff and scientific community, the CERN Staff Association sent a message to the Fermilab staff and scientific community, through Dr. Nigel Lockyer, Fermilab Director. The letter, and the assurance from Nigel Lockyer that the message has been passed onto the Fermilab community can be found on our website. Congratulations to Fermilab on its fiftieth Anniversary, and to the staff and collaborators who made this laboratory through their hard work, dedication and vision!

  1. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  2. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseok Daniel Yang

    Full Text Available The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1 microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2 a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

  3. Turn by Turn Measurements at the KEK-ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Renier, Y; Tomas, R; Wendt, M; Eddy, N; Kubo, K; Kuroda, S; Naito, T; Okugi, T; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2013-01-01

    The ATF damping ring has been upgraded with new read-out electronics for the beam position monitors (BPM), capable to acquire the beam orbits on a turn-by-turn basis, as well as in a high resolution averaging mode. The new BPM system allows to improve optic corrections and to achieve an even smaller vertical emittance (<2pm). Experimental results are presented based on turn-by-turn beam orbit measurements in the ring, for estimating the β functions and dispersion along the lattice. A fast method to measure spectral line amplitude in a few turns is also presented, including the evaluation of chromaticity.

  4. Bias against research on gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislak, Aleksandra; Formanowicz, Magdalena; Saguy, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    The bias against women in academia is a documented phenomenon that has had detrimental consequences, not only for women, but also for the quality of science. First, gender bias in academia affects female scientists, resulting in their underrepresentation in academic institutions, particularly in higher ranks. The second type of gender bias in science relates to some findings applying only to male participants, which produces biased knowledge. Here, we identify a third potentially powerful source of gender bias in academia: the bias against research on gender bias. In a bibliometric investigation covering a broad range of social sciences, we analyzed published articles on gender bias and race bias and established that articles on gender bias are funded less often and published in journals with a lower Impact Factor than articles on comparable instances of social discrimination. This result suggests the possibility of an underappreciation of the phenomenon of gender bias and related research within the academic community. Addressing this meta-bias is crucial for the further examination of gender inequality, which severely affects many women across the world.

  5. Sandstone Turning by Abrasive Waterjet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Cárach, J.; Hloch, Sergej; Vasilko, K.; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 2489-2493 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : turning away from the jet * conventional turning towards the jet * sandstone * abrasive water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2015 http://www.springerprofessional.de/sandstone-turning-by-abrasive-waterjet/6038028.html

  6. Left Sided Trans-thoracic Esophagectomy for Resectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Surgery is the main stay of treatment for Esophageal Cancer but there is no .... patients and a nasogastric tube positioned in the gastric tube in all. .... infection, thorough drainage of the thoracic cavity, maintenance of nutrition and ...

  7. intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-11-01

    Nov 1, 2000 ... emergency resection of selected distal colonic lesions. INTRODUCTION ... constipation. Only five cases required further evaluation by plain x-rays to establish ... contamination and established peritonitis were lavaged with tetracycline ... The clinical course and post-operative complications were carefully ...

  8. Diagnostic evaluation of left-sided prosthetic heart valve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.; Symersky, Petr; van den Brink, Renee B.; de Mol, Bas A.; Mali, Willem P.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication. In clinical practice, PHV dysfunction poses a diagnostic dilemma. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques of choice and are routinely used in daily practice. However, these

  9. Diagnostic evaluation of left-sided prosthetic heart valve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.; Symersky, Petr; van den Brink, Renee B.; de Mol, Bas A.; Mali, Willem P.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication. In clinical practice, PHV dysfunction poses a diagnostic dilemma. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques of choice and are routinely used in daily practice. However, these

  10. Linezolid as rescue treatment for left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Bruun, Louise E; Rasmussen, R V

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE...

  11. The Philosophy of Turning Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    business and management field, the turning point is seen as a valuable unit of analysis within the research field. It is expected that this paper will encourage a dynamic scholarly conversation about the concept of turning point and how it can aid international business researchers in the development...

  12. Which Cheek did the Resurrected Jesus Turn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-06-01

    Secular portraits are likely to show more of the left than right side of the face (hemiface). Prior research has shown that emotions are more strongly expressed by the left hemiface. In addition, the valence theory of emotion proposes that the right hemisphere is dominant for mediating negative emotions, and the left hemisphere for positive emotions. Since religious art depicting a scene such as the Resurrection of Jesus is more likely to be associated with positive emotions, we postulated that there would be a significant smaller percentage number of artistic works of the Resurrection that reveal the left side of the face of Jesus than in those art works portraying the Crucifixion. Thus, we analyzed artistic portrayals of the Resurrection of Jesus and compared them to the artistic scenes of the Crucifixion. This analysis revealed that the left side of the face of Jesus is less commonly depicted in portraits of the Resurrection than the Crucifixion. In addition, both the right hemiface, and forward-facing faces were also more commonly portrayed in painting of the Resurrection than the Crucifixion. Whereas this right-left hemiface, Resurrection-Crucifixion dichotomy may be related to right-left hemispheric difference in the mediation of emotional valence other factors such as agency, action-intention, and biblical text may have influenced these differences.

  13. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  14. Leftward spatial bias in children's drawing placement: hemispheric activation versus directional hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine; Zarhbouch, Benaissa

    2014-01-01

    A leftward spatial bias in drawing placement was demonstrated by Heller (1991) using the draw-a-person test with right-handed American children. No such bias was observed in left-handed children who are assumed to be less lateralised than their right-handed peers. According to Heller the leftward spatial bias is primarily a reflection of the right hemisphere specialisation for spatial processing. However, an alternative explanation in terms of directional trends may be put forward. In the present study we first confirm Heller's findings of a handedness effect on drawing placement using the draw-a-tree task with a large sample of right- and left-handed French children aged 5-15 years (Exp. 1). We then provide evidence that a similar leftward bias occurs in right-handed Moroccan children aged 7-11 years with opposite script directionality and opposite preferred drawing movement directions (i.e., right-to-left directional trends) to the those of right-handed French children (Exp. 2). Taken together these findings suggest that directionality trends arising from learned cultural habits and motor preferences play little role in determining spatial bias in the centring of a single object drawn on a page. Rather there may be a cerebral origin for drawing single objects slightly on the left side of the graphic space.

  15. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  16. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  17. Dual-electrode biasing experiments in KT-5C device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yi; Lu Ronghua; Wang Chen; Pan Geshen; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Ma Jinxiu; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the single biasing electrode experiments to optimize the confinement of plasma in the device of KT-5C tokamak, dual-biasing electrodes were inserted into the KT5C plasma for the first time to explore the enhancement of the effects of biasing and the mechanisms of the biasing. By means of applying different combinations of biasing voltages to the dual electrodes, the changes in E r , which is the key factor for boosting up the Er x B flow shear, were observed. The time evolution showed the inner electrode played a major role in dual-biasing, for it always drew a larger current than the outer one. The outer electrode made little influence. It turned out that the dual-biasing electrodes were as effective as a single one, in improving plasma confinement, for the mechanism of biasing was essentially an edge effect. (author)

  18. Combination of biased forecasts: Bias correction or bias based weights?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Most of the literature on combination of forecasts deals with the assumption of unbiased individual forecasts. Here, we consider the case of biased forecasts and discuss two different combination techniques resulting in an unbiased forecast. On the one hand we correct the individual forecasts, and on the other we calculate bias based weights. A simulation study gives some insight in the situations where we should use the different methods.

  19. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  20. Heading Estimation of Robot Combine Harvesters during Turning Maneuveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mostafizar Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute heading is an important parameter for a robot combine harvester or a robot tracked combine harvester, especially while it is turning, but due to the rapid turning of robot combine harvesters, its inertial measurement unit gives a gyro measurement bias that causes heading drift. Our research goal is to estimate the absolute heading of robot combine harvesters by compensating this gyro measurement bias during non-linear turning maneuvers. A sensor fusion method like the extended Kalman filter combined with the tracked combine harvester dynamic model and sensor measurements was used to estimate the absolute heading of a robot combine harvester. Circular, sinusoidal and concave shapes were used to evaluate the estimated heading produced by the sensor fusion method. The results indicate that the estimated heading is better than measured heading which was calculated from the integration of yaw rate gyro measurements, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs for estimated headings are smaller than the measured headings. In practics, the target of this paper is thus the estimation of a heading or absolute heading that is bias compensated, and can be further used to calculate the exact crop periphery for automatic path planning of robot combine harvesters.

  1. Heading Estimation of Robot Combine Harvesters during Turning Maneuveres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizar; Ishii, Kazunobu

    2018-05-01

    Absolute heading is an important parameter for a robot combine harvester or a robot tracked combine harvester, especially while it is turning, but due to the rapid turning of robot combine harvesters, its inertial measurement unit gives a gyro measurement bias that causes heading drift. Our research goal is to estimate the absolute heading of robot combine harvesters by compensating this gyro measurement bias during non-linear turning maneuvers. A sensor fusion method like the extended Kalman filter combined with the tracked combine harvester dynamic model and sensor measurements was used to estimate the absolute heading of a robot combine harvester. Circular, sinusoidal and concave shapes were used to evaluate the estimated heading produced by the sensor fusion method. The results indicate that the estimated heading is better than measured heading which was calculated from the integration of yaw rate gyro measurements, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for estimated headings are smaller than the measured headings. In practics, the target of this paper is thus the estimation of a heading or absolute heading that is bias compensated, and can be further used to calculate the exact crop periphery for automatic path planning of robot combine harvesters.

  2. Turn Management or Impression Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maat, Mark; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Vilhjálmsson, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    We look at how some basic choices in the management of turns influence the impression that people get from an agent. We look at scales concerning personality, emotion and interpersonal stance. We do this by a person perception study, or rather an agent perception study, using simulated conversations

  3. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  4. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  5. Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits

  6. Attention, interpretation, and memory biases in subclinical depression: a proof-of-principle test of the combined cognitive biases hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Duyck, Wouter; Koster, Ernst H W

    2014-04-01

    Emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory are viewed as important cognitive processes underlying symptoms of depression. To date, there is a limited understanding of the interplay among these processing biases. This study tested the dependence of memory on depression-related biases in attention and interpretation. Subclinically depressed and nondepressed participants completed a computerized version of the scrambled sentences test (measuring interpretation bias) while their eye movements were recorded (measuring attention bias). This task was followed by an incidental free recall test of previously constructed interpretations (measuring memory bias). Path analysis revealed a good fit for the model in which selective orienting of attention was associated with interpretation bias, which in turn was associated with a congruent bias in memory. Also, a good fit was observed for a path model in which biases in the maintenance of attention and interpretation were associated with memory bias. Both path models attained a superior fit compared with path models without the theorized functional relations among processing biases. These findings enhance understanding of how mechanisms of attention and interpretation regulate what is remembered. As such, they offer support for the combined cognitive biases hypothesis or the notion that emotionally biased cognitive processes are not isolated mechanisms but instead influence each other. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation across the spectrum of depressive symptoms are discussed.

  7. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  8. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  9. Turning points in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  10. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  11. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be $11.05 or $16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be $453 daily for 3-hour or $686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be $286,420 or $433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to $104.5 million or $158.4 million per year. We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs.

  12. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  13. Matrilateral Bias in Human Grandmothering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Daly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Children receive more care and resources from their maternal grandmothers than from their paternal grandmothers. This asymmetry is the “matrilateral bias” in grandmaternal investment. Here, we synopsize the evolutionary theories that predict such a bias, and review evidence of its cross-cultural generality and magnitude. Evolutionists have long maintained that investing in a daughter’s child yields greater fitness returns, on average, than investing in a son’s child because of paternity uncertainty: the son’s putative progeny may have been sired by someone else. Recent theoretical work has identified an additional natural selective basis for the matrilateral bias that may be no less important: supporting grandchildren lightens the load on their mother, increasing her capacity to pursue her fitness in other ways, and if she invests those gains either in her natal relatives or in children of a former or future partner, fitness returns accrue to the maternal, but not the paternal, grandmother. In modern democracies, where kinship is reckoned bilaterally and no postmarital residence norms restrict grandmaternal access to grandchildren, many studies have found large matrilateral biases in contact, childcare, and emotional closeness. In other societies, patrilineal ideology and postmarital residence with the husband’s kin (virilocality might be expected to have produced a patrilateral bias instead, but the available evidence refutes this hypothesis. In hunter-gatherers, regardless of professed norms concerning kinship and residence, mothers get needed help at and after childbirth from their mothers, not their mothers-in-law. In traditional agricultural and pastoral societies, patrilineal and virilocal norms are common, but young mothers still turn to their natal families for crucial help, and several studies have documented benefits, including reduced child mortality, associated with access to maternal, but not paternal, grandmothers. Even

  14. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias

  15. Photovoltaic Bias Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an... Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing wrapped-wire side of circuit board...3 Fig. 4 Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing component side of circuit board

  16. Biases in categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    On what grounds can we conclude that an act of categorization is biased? In this chapter, it is contended that in the absence of objective norms of what categories actually are, biases in categorization can only be specified in relation to theoretical understandings of categorization. Therefore, the

  17. Approximate Bias Correction in Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    James G. MacKinnon; Anthony A. Smith Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses ways to reduce the bias of consistent estimators that are biased in finite samples. It is necessary that the bias function, which relates parameter values to bias, should be estimable by computer simulation or by some other method. If so, bias can be reduced or, in some cases that may not be unrealistic, even eliminated. In general, several evaluations of the bias function will be required to do this. Unfortunately, reducing bias may increase the variance, or even the mea...

  18. Turning nuclear communications inside out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenyei, Elisabeth; Czibolya, Laszlo

    2002-01-01

    Due to debates on the security of energy supply in the European Union, the international efforts on the implementation of Kyoto protocol and the forthcoming liberalization of the electrical energy market the attention of Hungarian decision-makers was focused on energy related problems. Discussions started on the future role of nuclear power and anti-nuclear environmentalists became more active in their criticism. Changes were needed in the approach and practice of communication on nuclear energy. Previous practice turned to be inefficient in dialogue with different social and influential groups. Public information could not be considered any more as an activity explaining measures to cope with incidents and accidents or giving technical answers to mostly superficial statements on allegedly unsafe features and solutions in nuclear industry. It was time to change the paradigm and to turn the communication into a powerful tool to put forward the arguments, to show the achievements and facts and to explain the efforts in addressing public concerns. The new paradigm turned the previous outside-in approach to a new inside-out type of behavior. Instead of reacting to the attacks coming from outside the new approach means first of all commitment to be open and pro-active in communication and to act in close cooperation with all interested organizations and institutions. The three pillars of the new paradigm, commitment, communication and co-operation are applicable not only for the nuclear industry, but also for the governmental agencies (regulatory bodies, health and emergency authorities etc.) and for the wide range of technical, scientific and civil organizations. Public information should be turned from a burden to a challenge for open, technically valid and honest dialogue. This active communication approach is illustrated by some new initiatives in public information in Hungary. Following the successful Nuclear Academy for Journalists formed new Section of Nuclear

  19. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Biases in casino betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sundali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the field are consistent with biased beliefs, although we observe significant individual heterogeneity in the population. A second contribution is to separately identify these biases within a given individual, then to examine their within-person correlation. We find a positive and significant correlation across individuals between hot hand and gambler's fallacy biases, suggesting a common (root cause of the two related errors. We speculate as to the source of this correlation (locus of control, and suggest future research which could test this speculation.

  1. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  2. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  3. Do the Big Five personality traits predict individual differences in the left cheek bias for emotion perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Samantha; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-01-01

    Like language, emotion is a lateralized function. Because the right hemisphere typically dominates emotion processing, people express stronger emotion on the left side of their face. This prompts a left cheek bias: we offer the left cheek to express emotion and rate left cheek portraits more emotionally expressive than right cheek portraits. Though the majority of the population show this left cheek bias (60-70%), individual differences exist but remain largely unexplained. Given that people with higher self-rated emotional expressivity show a stronger left cheek bias, personality variables associated with increased emotional expressivity and emotional intelligence, such as extraversion and openness, may help account for individual differences. The present study thus examined whether the Big Five traits predict left cheek preferences. Participants (M = 58, F = 116) completed the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and viewed pairs of left and right cheek images (half mirror-reversed); participants made forced-choice decisions, indicating which image in each pair looked happier. Hierarchical regression indicated that neither trait extraversion nor openness predicted left cheek selections, with NEO-FFI personality subscales accounting for negligible variance in preferences. As the Big Five traits have been discounted, exploration of other potential contributors to individual differences in the left cheek bias is clearly needed.

  4. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  5. 32 CFR 636.23 - Turning movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL... movements. (a) U-turns are prohibited on all streets in the cantonment area. (b) Right-turns will be made from a position as close to the right edge or right curb of the roadway as possible. (c) Left-turns...

  6. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

  7. Visuospatial biases in preschool children: Evidence from line bisection in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Katarzyna; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Brugger, Peter

    2018-04-09

    Spatial attention in adults is characterized by systematic asymmetries across all three spatial dimensions. These asymmetries are evident when participants bisect horizontal, vertical, or radial lines and misplace their midpoints to the left, the top, or far from the body, respectively. However, bisection errors are rarely examined during early childhood. In this study, we examined the development of spatial-attentional asymmetries in three-dimensional (3D) space by asking preschool children (aged 3-6 years) to bisect horizontal, vertical, and radial lines. Children erred to the left with horizontal lines and to the top with vertical lines, consistent with the pattern reported in adults. These biases got stronger with age and were absent in the youngest preschoolers. However, by controlling for a possible failure in hitting the line, we observed an additional unpredicted pattern: Children's pointing systematically deviated away from the line to an empty space on its left side (for vertical and radial lines) or above it (for horizontal lines). Notably, this task-irrelevant deviation was pronounced in children as young as 3 or 4 years. We conclude that asymmetries in spatial-attentional functions should be measured not only in task-relevant dimensions but also in task-irrelevant dimensions because the latter may reveal biases in very young children not typically observed in task-relevant measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulating publication bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    is censoring: selection by the size of estimate; SR3 selects the optimal combination of fit and size; and SR4 selects the first satisficing result. The last four SRs are steered by priors and result in bias. The MST and the FAT-PET have been developed for detection and correction of such bias. The simulations......Economic research typically runs J regressions for each selected for publication – it is often selected as the ‘best’ of the regressions. The paper examines five possible meanings of the word ‘best’: SR0 is ideal selection with no bias; SR1 is polishing: selection by statistical fit; SR2...... are made by data variation, while the model is the same. It appears that SR0 generates narrow funnels much at odds with observed funnels, while the other four funnels look more realistic. SR1 to SR4 give the mean a substantial bias that confirms the prior causing the bias. The FAT-PET MRA works well...

  9. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  10. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  11. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  12. Size Reduction of a DC Link Choke Using Saturation Gap and Biasing with Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Zuccherato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the design procedure of permanent magnet biased DC inductors using the Saturation-gap technique [1]. This biasing configuration can provide a 50% reduction in either the core volume or the number of turns, while meeting its current and inductance requirements. A design exa...

  13. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  14. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bosáková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

  15. Estimation bias and bias correction in reduced rank autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2017-01-01

    This paper characterizes the finite-sample bias of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in a reduced rank vector autoregression and suggests two simulation-based bias corrections. One is a simple bootstrap implementation that approximates the bias at the MLE. The other is an iterative root...

  16. The self-attribution bias and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the relation between paranormal beliefs, illusory control and the self-attribution bias, i.e., the motivated tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself while negative outcomes are externalized. Visitors of a psychic fair played a card guessing game and indicated their perceived control over randomly selected cards as a function of the congruency and valence of the card. A stronger self-attribution bias was observed for paranormal believers compared to skeptics and this bias was specifically related to traditional religious beliefs and belief in superstition. No relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory control was found. Self-report measures indicated that paranormal beliefs were associated to being raised in a spiritual family and to anomalous experiences during childhood. Thereby this study suggests that paranormal beliefs are related to specific cognitive biases that in turn are shaped by socio-cultural factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Q perpendicular-biased ferrite-tuned cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.D.; Thiessen, H.A.; Potter, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid-cycling proton synchrotrons, such as the proposed LAMPF II accelerator, require approximately 10 MV per turn rf with 17% tuning range near 50 MHz. The traditional approach to ferrite-tuned cavities uses a ferrite which is longitudinally biased (rf magnetic field parallel to bias field). This method leads to unacceptably high losses in the ferrite. At Los Alamos, we are developing a cavity with transverse bias (rf magnetic field perpendicular to the bias field) that makes use of the tensor permeability of the ferrite. Modest power tests of a small (10-cm-dia) quarter-wave singly re-entrant cavity tuned by nickel-zinc ferrites and aluminum-doped garnets indicate that the losses in the ferrite can be made negligible compared with the losses due to the surface resistivity of the copper cavity at power levels from 2 to 200 watts

  18. METHODICAL MODEL FOR TEACHING BASIC SKI TURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kuna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of forming an expert model of the most important operators for basic ski turn teaching in ski schools, an experiment was conducted on a sample of 20 ski experts from different countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. From the group of the most commonly used operators for teaching basic ski turn the experts picked the 6 most important: uphill turn and jumping into snowplough, basic turn with hand sideways, basic turn with clapping, ski poles in front, ski poles on neck, uphill turn with active ski guiding. Afterwards, ranking and selection of the most efficient operators was carried out. Due to the set aim of research, a Chi square test was used, as well as the differences between frequencies of chosen operators, differences between values of the most important operators and differences between experts due to their nationality. Statistically significant differences were noticed between frequencies of chosen operators (c2= 24.61; p=0.01, while differences between values of the most important operators were not obvious (c2= 1.94; p=0.91. Meanwhile, the differences between experts concerning thier nationality were only noticeable in the expert evaluation of ski poles on neck operator (c2=7.83; p=0.02. Results of current research are reflected in obtaining useful information about methodological priciples of learning basic ski turn organization in ski schools.

  19. Turning university professors into competent learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanova, Eliza; Ilieva, Miroslava; Nikolova, Nikolina; Stefanov, Krassen

    2008-01-01

    Stefanova, E., Ilieva, M., Nikolova, N, & Stefanov, K. (2008). Turning university professors into competent learners. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and

  20. Turning Technology into Business Using University Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an education paradigm that stimulates innovation and entrepreneurship through a master's-level university course: "Turning Technology into Business". The course was specifically designed to connect technological research with education using patented technologies developed at the research

  1. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  2. Derrida’s Turn to Franciscan Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Zlomislic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary French philosophers such as Levinas, Bataille, and Derrida, along with the existentialists Kierkegaard and Nietzsche have all made use of Franciscan insights in order to safeguard the ipseity that cannot be reduced or totalized. In keeping with the taste that concerns me, this paper will examine Derrida’s turn to the poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins and how such a turn may place Derrida within a catholic and Franciscan tradition.

  3. Turning breech babies after 34 weeks: the if, how, & when of turning breech babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (judyslome@hotmail.com).

  4. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  5. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Precision lens assembly with alignment turning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Lin, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The poker chip assembly with high precision lens barrels is widely applied to ultra-high performance optical system. ITRC applies the poker chip assembly technology to the high numerical aperture objective lenses and lithography projection lenses because of its high efficiency assembly process. In order to achieve high precision lens cell for poker chip assembly, an alignment turning system (ATS) is developed. The ATS includes measurement, alignment and turning modules. The measurement module is equipped with a non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) and an autocollimator (ACM). The NCDS and ACM are used to measure centration errors of the top and the bottom surface of a lens respectively; then the amount of adjustment of displacement and tilt with respect to the rotational axis of the turning machine for the alignment module can be determined. After measurement, alignment and turning processes on the ATS, the centration error of a lens cell with 200 mm in diameter can be controlled within 10 arcsec. Furthermore, a poker chip assembly lens cell with three sub-cells is demonstrated, each sub-cells are measured and accomplished with alignment and turning processes. The lens assembly test for five times by each three technicians; the average transmission centration error of assembly lens is 12.45 arcsec. The results show that ATS can achieve high assembly efficiency for precision optical systems.

  7. First turn around strategy for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a strategy for achieving the so-called first turn around in RHIC. The strategy is based on the same method proposed to correct a distorted closed orbit in RHIC, i.e. on a generalization of the local three-bump method. They found out that the method is very effective in passing the beam through a non-ideal, insufficiently known, machine. The perturbed lattice was generated by the code PATRIS, which was also adapted to control the newly developed software. In ten distributions of errors the software was capable of passing the beam through in 2-3 injection attempts, at full sextupole strength. It was also determined that once the beam makes the first turn around and all the correctors are energized, it stays in the machine for at least several hundred turns

  8. Turning points in the history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    This book explores some of the major turning points in the history of mathematics, ranging from ancient Greece to the present, demonstrating the drama that has often been a part of its evolution. Studying these breakthroughs, transitions, and revolutions, their stumbling-blocks and their triumphs, can help illuminate the importance of the history of mathematics for its teaching, learning, and appreciation. Some of the turning points considered are the rise of the axiomatic method (most famously in Euclid), and the subsequent major changes in it (for example, by David Hilbert); the “wedding,” via analytic geometry, of algebra and geometry; the “taming” of the infinitely small and the infinitely large; the passages from algebra to algebras, from geometry to geometries, and from arithmetic to arithmetics; and the revolutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that resulted from Georg Cantor’s creation of transfinite set theory. The origin of each turning point is discussed, along with...

  9. Religious Attitudes and Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    C. Reggiani; G. Rossini

    2008-01-01

    Home bias affects trade in goods, services and financial assets. It is mostly generated by "natural" trade barriers. Among these dividers we may list many behavioral and sociological factors, such as status quo biases and a few kind of ‘embeddedness’. Unfortunately these factors are difficult to measure. An important part of ‘embeddedness’ may be related to religious attitudes. Is there any relation between economic home bias and religious attitudes at the individual tier? Our aim is to provi...

  10. Bias in clinical intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2006-01-01

    Research on bias in clinical trials may help identify some of the reasons why investigators sometimes reach the wrong conclusions about intervention effects. Several quality components for the assessment of bias control have been suggested, but although they seem intrinsically valid, empirical...... evidence is needed to evaluate their effects on the extent and direction of bias. This narrative review summarizes the findings of methodological studies on the influence of bias in clinical trials. A number of methodological studies suggest that lack of adequate randomization in published trial reports...

  11. Application of digital lock-in detection to Hefei Light Source turn-by-turn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongliang; Wang Junhua; Sun Baogen; Chen Yuanbo; Zhou Zeran

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the digital lock-in detection theory and discusses its feasibility to obtain the damping rate in turn-by-turn measurement systems. Numerical simulations of this method were carried out with Matlab. Then principle presenting beam experiments were conducted on the Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring. The measured beta oscillation growth time is about 0.26 ms and the damping time is about 1.2 ms. Simulation and experimental results show that, the digital lock-in detection method is effective in damping rate measurement in turn-by-turn measurement systems. (authors)

  12. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty one students from the fifth grade of Elementary School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

  13. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts’...

  14. Threat bias, not negativity bias, underpins differences in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    Although disparities in political ideology are rooted partly in dispositional differences, Hibbing et al.'s analysis paints with an overly broad brush. Research on the personality correlates of liberal-conservative differences points not to global differences in negativity bias, but to differences in threat bias, probably emanating from differences in fearfulness. This distinction bears implications for etiological research and persuasion efforts.

  15. A Practice Turn for Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Within the Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education (RIPPLE) at Charles Sturt University, teacher education researchers have been quick to respond to the opportunities created by what is known as "the practice turn" that characterises contemporary theory around the globe and across disciplines. We are working,…

  16. The Dynamic Turn in Quantum Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the

  17. The dynamic turn in quantum logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the

  18. Primordial spectra from sudden turning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2013-12-01

    Effects of heavy fields on primordial spectra of curvature perturbations are discussed in inflationary models with a sudden turning trajectory. When heavy fields are excited after the sudden turn and oscillate around the bottom of the potential, the following two effects are generically induced: deformation of the inflationary background spacetime and conversion interactions between adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations, both of which can affect the primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we calculate primordial spectra in inflationary models with sudden turning potentials taking into account both of the two effects appropriately. We find that there are some non-trivial correlations between the two effects in the power spectrum and, as a consequence, the primordial scalar power spectrum has a peak around the scale exiting the horizon at the turn. Though both effects can induce parametric resonance amplifications, they are shown to be canceled out for the case with the canonical kinetic terms. The peak feature and the scale dependence of bispectra are also discussed.

  19. Train turn restrictions and line plan performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin

    In this paper we study the impact of the `turn conditions' in end stations on the performance of a line plan. If trains have to turn on their platform in an end station, the yoccupy the platform for several minutes. A more preferred option, from a timetabling point of view, would be that a train...... in a exible and large enough shunt. Starting from a given line plan, we compare two timetables, one where trains have to turn on their platform and one where trains can turn in a shunt. We evaluate the impact on the performance of the line plan by its feasibility for timetabling,the minimum overall buffer...... disappears from the platform in its end station after dwelling and only appears again when departing for a subsequent trip. In this case, the train will not interfere with other trains that dwell on the platform during the time between these events. However, this option is only possible if the train can stay...

  20. Business Intelligence: Turning Knowledge into Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Krista

    2009-01-01

    Today, many school districts are turning to business intelligence tools to retrieve, organize, and share knowledge for faster analysis and more effective, guided decision making. Business intelligence (BI) tools are the technologies and applications that gather and report information to help an organization's leaders make better decisions. BI…

  1. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The

  2. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  3. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel MOS-controlled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5 A/cm2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100 W/cm2 conduction and the 100 W/cm2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV and higher frequency (10 kHz are needed.

  4. Research of remote control system in turn by turn timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Zhifeng; Xiao Yanguo; Ma Kui; Yin Zejie; Wu Xiaoyi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a remote control system which is used in a frequency dividing and time-delay module. This control system is based on client/server architecture, and RS232 serial communication protocol. This control system is used in timing system of NSRL turn by turn beam position monitor

  5. Determination of linear optics functions from turn-by-turn data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexahin, Y; Gianfelice-Wendt, E, E-mail: alexahin@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A method for evaluation of coupled optics functions, detection of strong perturbing elements, determination of BPM calibration errors and tilts using turn-by-turn (TBT) data is presented as well as the new version of the Hamiltonian perturbation theory of betatron oscillations the method is based upon. An example of application of the considered method to the Tevatron is given.

  6. Electrical Machines: Turn-to-Turn Capacitance in Formed Windings with Rectangular Cross-Section Wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Nenad; Encica, L.; Paulides, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of turn-to-turn capacitance (Ctt) in electrical machines (EMs) with formed windings with rectangular cross-section wire is presented. Three calculation methods are used for the calculation of Ctt in case of rectangular conductors – finite element (FE) method and two previously published

  7. Heuristic Biases in Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the dual process account of reasoning, and explain the role of heuristic biases in human thought. Concentrating on the so-called matching bias effect, we describe a piece of research that indicates a correlation between success at advanced level mathematics and an ability to override innate and misleading…

  8. Gender bias affects forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlène Elias; Susan S Hummel; Bimbika S Basnett; Carol J.P. Colfer

    2017-01-01

    Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure,...

  9. Anti-Bias Education: Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman-Sparks, Louise

    2011-01-01

    It is 30 years since NAEYC published "Anti-Bias Curriculum Tools for Empowering Young Children" (Derman-Sparks & ABC Task Force, 1989). Since then, anti-bias education concepts have become part of the early childhood education (ECE) narrative in the United States and many other countries. It has brought a fresh way of thinking about…

  10. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli's Interacting Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Dilucca

    Full Text Available Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E.coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI, and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs. We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E.coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI. Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons.

  11. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  12. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  13. Immediate Effects of Clock-Turn Strategy on the Pattern and Performance of Narrow Turning in Persons With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Li; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Lin, Kwan-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Turning difficulty is common in people with Parkinson disease (PD). The clock-turn strategy is a cognitive movement strategy to improve turning performance in people with PD despite its effects are unverified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of the clock-turn strategy on the pattern of turning steps, turning performance, and freezing of gait during a narrow turning, and how these effects were influenced by concurrent performance of a cognitive task (dual task). Twenty-five people with PD were randomly assigned to the clock-turn or usual-turn group. Participants performed the Timed Up and Go test with and without concurrent cognitive task during the medication OFF period. The clock-turn group performed the Timed Up and Go test using the clock-turn strategy, whereas participants in the usual-turn group performed in their usual manner. Measurements were taken during the 180° turn of the Timed Up and Go test. The pattern of turning steps was evaluated by step time variability and step time asymmetry. Turning performance was evaluated by turning time and number of turning steps. The number and duration of freezing of gait were calculated by video review. The clock-turn group had lower step time variability and step time asymmetry than the usual-turn group. Furthermore, the clock-turn group turned faster with fewer freezing of gait episodes than the usual-turn group. Dual task increased the step time variability and step time asymmetry in both groups but did not affect turning performance and freezing severity. The clock-turn strategy reduces turning time and freezing of gait during turning, probably by lowering step time variability and asymmetry. Dual task compromises the effects of the clock-turn strategy, suggesting a competition for attentional resources.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A141).

  14. Crack turning in integrally stiffened aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener---a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation. Drawing upon these principles, two crack turning prediction approaches are extended to include fracture

  15. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice......-oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...... the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  16. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  17. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  18. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  19. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  20. FCC-hh turn-around cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Buffat, Xavier; Niemi, Arto; Schulte, Daniel; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Stoel, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The turn-around cycle time of a collider is defined as the time spent between the end of stable beams and the start of the next stable beams period, and its calculation is of fundamental importance. On one side it is a crucial ingredient for the computation of the optimal time spent in luminosity production, which defines the integrated luminosity per fill or store. On the other side, combined with the availability and reliability of the machine, it allows to perform a detailed breakdown of the operational performance of the collider over an operational season, i.e. percentage of time in stable beams and beam in the machine with respect to down time. This paper presents a preliminary operational cycle definition for the hadron-hadron Future Circular Collider, as a base line for estimating the corresponding turn-around time. The cycle definition is based on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operational cycle. Two turn-around times are presented, the theoretical one and a more realistic one based on the LHC exper...

  1. Beam Optics Measurements Through Turn by Turn Beam Position Data in the SLS

    CERN Document Server

    Zisopoulos, P; Streun, A; Ziemann, v

    2013-01-01

    Refined Fourier analysis of turn-by-turn (TBT) transverse position data measurements can be used for determining several beam properties of a ring, such as transverse tunes, optics functions, phases, chromatic properties and coupling. In particular, the Numerical Analysis of Fundamental Frequencies (NAFF) algorithm is used to analyse TBT data from the Swiss Light Source (SLS) storage ring in order to estimate on and off-momentum beam characteristics. Of particular interest is the potential of using the full position information within one turn in order to measure beam optics properties.

  2. Critical Thinking and Cognitive Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Maynes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching critical thinking skill is a central pedagogical aim in many courses. These skills, it is hoped, will be both portable (applicable in a wide range of contexts and durable (not forgotten quickly. Yet, both of these virtues are challenged by pervasive and potent cognitive biases, such as motivated reasoning, false consensus bias and hindsight bias. In this paper, I argue that a focus on the development of metacognitive skill shows promise as a means to inculcate debiasing habits in students. Such habits will help students become more critical reasoners. I close with suggestions for implementing this strategy.

  3. First turn around strategy for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1991-06-01

    We present a strategy for achieving the so-called first turn around in RHIC. The strategy is based on the same method we had proposed to correct a distorted closed orbit in RHIC, i.e., on a generalization of the local three-bump method. We found out that the method is very effective in passing the beam through a non-ideal, insufficiently known, machine. We tested that software on ten different Gaussian distributions of dominant orbit distorting lattice imperfections. The perturbed lattice was generated by the code PATRIS, which was also adapted to control the newly developed software. In all of the ten distributions the software was capable of passing the beam through in 2--3 injection attempts, at full sextupole strength. It was also determined that once the beam makes the first turn around and all the correctors are energized, it stays in the machine for at least several hundred turns that we had checked. The quality of the orbit, that was established in this way, was also found to be very good, i.e., the residual distortions at the places of large beta function were much less than one millimeter. With one or two monitors/correctors broken, the software established a first turn around without any extra difficulties. The quality of such orbit was, of course, somewhat degraded, especially around the broken devices. It was also observed that, in the process of actual closing, the beam develops free betatron oscillations in the amplitude range of 1--5 mm, which can be reduced either by changing the injection conditions to better match the actual closed orbit or by an appropriate damping device. The hardware proposed for RHIC is more than sufficient to meet the demands of the first turn controlling software. The maximum kick angle to be applied to the beam would require less than 2/3 of the corrector's top strength even at the top magnetic rigidity Bρ = 850 T·m, which means that the correctors will be performing an easy task at injection

  4. Lattice modeling and calibration with turn-by-turn orbit data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Huang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method that explores turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM data to calibrate lattice models of accelerators is proposed. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates at one location of the ring are first established using data from two BPMs separated by a simple section with a known transfer matrix, such as a drift space. The phase space coordinates are then tracked with the model to predict positions at other BPMs, which can be compared to measurements. The model is adjusted to minimize the difference between the measured and predicted orbit data. BPM gains and rolls are included as fitting variables. This technique can be applied to either the entire or a section of the ring. We have tested the method experimentally on a part of the SPEAR3 ring.

  5. Lattice modeling and calibration with turn-by-turn orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Sebek, Jim; Martin, Don

    2010-11-01

    A new method that explores turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data to calibrate lattice models of accelerators is proposed. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates at one location of the ring are first established using data from two BPMs separated by a simple section with a known transfer matrix, such as a drift space. The phase space coordinates are then tracked with the model to predict positions at other BPMs, which can be compared to measurements. The model is adjusted to minimize the difference between the measured and predicted orbit data. BPM gains and rolls are included as fitting variables. This technique can be applied to either the entire or a section of the ring. We have tested the method experimentally on a part of the SPEAR3 ring.

  6. CERN PS Optical Properties Measured with Turn-By-Turn Orbit Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, T; Giovannozzi, M; Hernalsteens, C; Lachaize, A; Sterbini, G; Tom´as, R; Wasef, R

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) has been constantly increasing over the years both in terms of beam parameters (intensity and brightness) and beam manipulations (transverse and longitudinal splitting). This implies a very good knowledge of the linear and non-linear model of the ring. In this paper we report on a detailed campaign of beam measurements based on turn-by-turn orbit data aimed at measuring the optics in several conditions as well as the resonance driving terms.

  7. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-03-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C

    2017-08-30

    Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Local sequence information in cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I: specific residue roles in beta-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2003-01-01

    We have recently shown that two of the beta-turns (III and IV) in the ten-stranded, beta-clam protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I (CRABP I), are favored in short peptide fragments, arguing that they are encoded by local interactions (K. S. Rotondi and L. M. Gierasch, Biochemistry, 2003, Vol. 42, pp. 7976-7985). In this paper we examine these turns in greater detail to dissect the specific local interactions responsible for their observed native conformational biases. Conformations of peptides corresponding to the turn III and IV fragments were examined under conditions designed to selectively disrupt stabilizing interactions, using pH variation, chaotrope addition, or mutagenesis to probe specific side-chain influences. We find that steric constraints imposed by excluded volume effects between near neighbor residues (i,i+2), favorable polar (i,i+2) interactions, and steric permissiveness of glycines are the principal factors accounting for the observed native bias in these turns. Longer-range stabilizing interactions across the beta-turns do not appear to play a significant role in turn stability in these short peptides, in contrast to their importance in hairpins. Additionally, our data add to a growing number of examples of the 3:5 type I turn with a beta-bulge as a class of turns with high propensity to form locally defined structure. Current work is directed at the interplay between the local sequence information in the turns and more long-range influences in the mechanism of folding of this predominantly beta-sheet protein. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  11. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field.

  12. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field

  13. Nippon Cinema at the digital turning point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bochniarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of a book written by Mitsuyo Wada Marciano – Japanese Cinema in the Digital Age. The author of this book examines the recent developments in the Japanese film industry at the turning point in the development of digital technologies. The book seeks to overcome the western approach to the subject, reinterprets classic films and explores new trends in transnational Japanese cinema (the term was proposed by the author to explain the situation of Japanese films in the context of Asian countries.

  14. Turning a page of Agency history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    Recent developments, and especially the new and critical interest of developing countries, have helped to mark the turning of a page in the Agency's history. If the present situation in the economics of nuclear power does not change there is a danger that developing countries will lag further and further behind the advanced countries in its use. Shortage of resources impose a brake on Agency efforts to promote benefits of nuclear techniques, especially by technical assistance. These were some of the points made by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, the Director General, when he presented the Agency's annual report to the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in July. (author)

  15. An elevator for lifting and turning pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, S.P.; Borchenkov, G.I.; Komarov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed for lifting and turning pipes, which includes a body and a bushing hinged to it with projections and a shank with a threaded adapter and cams which interact with the projections of the bushing. In order to increase the operational safety of the device through ensuring the capability of eliminating drops in the torque from the shank to the body when raising and extracting drill pipes, the body is equipped with eccentric cams rigidly connected to it, while the shank is equipped with a ring movable connected with it. The eccentric cams are installed between the bushing and the body with the capability of interacting with the shank ring.

  16. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of turning frequency of chicken eggs on hatchability in hurricane lantern incubator. There were four treatments in which eggs were not turned in treatment one (control), those in treatment two were turned once daily (morning), treatment three turned twice daily ...

  17. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Brake (2004) confirmed that absence of turning resulted in presentation of the head in the small end of the egg. Egg turning facilitated the transfer of yolk nutrients to the embryo via the sub-embryonic fluid (Deeming, 1989a). With modern incubators, automatic turning devices allow the eggs to be turned on ...

  18. Diamond Turning Of Infra-Red Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, B.; Lettington, A. H.; Stillwell, P. F. T. C.

    1986-05-01

    Single point diamond machining of infra-red optical components such as aluminium mirrors, germanium lenses and zinc sulphide domes is potentially the most cost effective method for their manufacture since components may be machined from the blanks to a high surface finish, requiring no subsequent polishing, in a few minutes. Machines for the production of flat surfaces are well established. Diamond turning lathes for curved surfaces however require a high capital investment which can be justified only for research purposes or high volume production. The present paper describes the development of a low cost production machine based on a Bryant Symons diamond turning lathe which is able to machine spherical components to the required form and finish. It employs two horizontal spindles one for the workpiece the other for the tool. The machined radius of curvature is set by the alignment of the axes and the radius of the tool motion, as in conventional generation. The diamond tool is always normal to the workpiece and does not need to be accurately profiled. There are two variants of this basic machine. For machining hemispherical domes the axes are at right angles while for lenses with positive or negative curvature these axes are adjustable. An aspherical machine is under development, based on the all mechanical spherical machine, but in which a ± 2 mm aspherecity may be imposed on the best fit sphere by moving the work spindle under numerical control.

  19. Turning the appliance market around towards A++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard, Joergen S.; Guldbrandsen, Tom [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Brange, Birgitte; Karbo, Peter [Elsparefonden (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    In an effort to exploit better the labelling schemes for appliances the Danish Electricity Saving Trust has run some campaigns on cold appliances. In 1999 focus was on getting people to choose A-rated models, the 2004 campaign focussed on A+, and in 2005 on A++. These campaigns and their results are described in the paper and some conclusions are drawn.The campaigns have consisted of various elements, namely 1) a general information about the campaigns, 2) a subsidy offered temporarily during some months to people buying the A, A+ and A++ models, 3) a website where people can easily find the most energy efficient model within their specification, and 4) in the website are also listed the shops, where consumers can get the appliances at lowest prices. The latter was the most innovative and maybe also the most effective measure in the package.Results showed up as a permanent U-turn of the market in the course of a few years. Where models C, D, E earlier dominated the market, the A, A+ and A++, came to dominate as the standard models in stock. Consequently, their prices dropped significantly. The theory of a rational market behavior is based on some assumptions, one being that full information is available to all actors. The website identifying to the consumers the shops with the lowest priced efficient models was a step in that direction, and the result did not fail to turn up.

  20. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  1. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  2. Falciform ligament abscess from left sided portal pyaemia following malignant obstructive cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Leigh R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abscess formation of the falciform ligament is incredibly rare and perplexing when encountered for the first time. It is reported to occur in the setting of cholecystitis and cholangitis, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. In this case report, we present a 73-year-old man with falciform ligament abscess following cholangitis from an obstructive ampullary carcinoma. The patient was referred to the Royal Adelaide Hospital from a country hospital, with progressive jaundice, anorexia and nausea. Prior to transfer, he deteriorated with cholangitis, dehydration and renal failure. On arrival, his abdomen was exquisitely tender along the course of the falciform ligament. His blood tests revealed an elevated white cell count of 14.9 x 103/μl, bilirubin of 291μmol/l and creatinine of 347 μmol/l. His CA 19-9 was markedly elevated at 35,000 kU/l. A non-contrast computed tomography (CT demonstrated gross biliary dilatation and a collection tracking along the path of the falciform ligament to the umbilicus. The patient was commenced on intravenous antibiotics and underwent an urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP with sphincterotomy and biliary stent drainage. Cholangiogram revealed a grossly dilated biliary tree, with abrupt transition at the ampulla, which on biopsy confirmed an obstructing ampullary carcinoma. Following ERCP, his jaundice and abdominal tenderness resolved. He was optimized over 4 weeks for an elective pancreaticoduodenectomy. At operation, we found abscess transformation of the falciform ligament. Copious amounts of pus and necrotic material was drained. Part of the round ligament was resected along the undersurface of the liver. Histology showed that there was prominent histiocytic inflammation with granular acellular eosinophilic components. The patient recovered slowly but uneventfully. A contrast CT scan undertaken 2 weeks post-operatively (approximately 7 weeks after the initial CT revealed left portal venous thrombosis, which was likely to be a delayed discovery and was managed conservatively. We present this patient’s operative images and radiographic findings, which may explain the pathophysiology behind this rare complication. We hypothesize that cholangitis, with secondary portal pyaemia and tracking via the paraumbilical veins, can cause infectious seeding of the falciform ligament, with consequent abscess formation.

  3. [Bilateral anophthalmia and left-sided orbital tumor : case of an eight-month-old infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundertmark, P; Dierks, P; Gottschalk, J; Kreusch, T; Wiegand, W

    2011-08-01

    An 8-month-old infant from Russia with bilateral anophthalmia presented with an expanding orbital tumor. The tumor was extirpated and the histological examination revealed a non-malignant pseudocystic process with residual neuro-ectodermal structures.

  4. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...

  5. Endoscopic Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of GastricVarices Secondary to Left-Sided Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastric varices that arise secondary to the splenic vein occlusion can result in gastrointestinal hemorrhaging. Endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS) was performed in 16 patients with gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. This study retrospectively evaluated the role of ECDUS in the diagnosis of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. Thirteen patients had co-existing pancreatic diseases: 8 with chronic pancreatitis, 4 with cancer of the pancreatic body or tail and 1 with severe acute pancreatitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 1 had myeloproliferative disease, 1 had advanced gastric cancer, and the third had splenic vein occlusion due to an obscure cause. The endoscopic findings of gastric varices were: variceal form (F) classified as enlarged tortuous (F2) in 12 cases and large, coil-shaped (F3) in 4 cases, and positive for erosion or red color sign of the variceal surface in 4 cases and negative in 12 cases. ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow clearly depicted a round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body in all 16 cases. The velocities of F3 type gastric varices were significantly higher than those of the F2 type. The wall thickness of varices positive for erosion or red color sign was significantly less than the negative cases. I conclude that ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow depicted specific findings of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion at the round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body. PMID:26852679

  6. Use of first-pass radionuclide angiography for evaluating left-sided heart regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantel, J.; Freidin, M.; Willens, H.; Rubenfire, M.; Bahl, R.; Ruskin, R.; Cascade, P.

    1986-01-01

    The first-pass radionuclide technique can be used to evaluate valvular regurgitation. Sixty-three patients were studied with cardiac catheterization and first-pass radionuclide angiography. The degree of regurgitation by cardiac catheterization was evaluated by using a ranking scale of 0-4, where 4 is severe regurgitation. The results were as follows: for nine patients, rank = 0, and percentage of regurgitation (mean +- SD) = 3.6 +- 5; for five patients, rank = 1 and percentage regurgitation = 15.8 +- 3; for 13 patients, rank = 2 and percentage regurgitation = 28.5 +- 14; for 16 patients, rank = 3 and percentage regurgitation = 41.5 +- 10; and for 19 patients, rank = 4 and percentage regurgitation 54.9 +- 13. A correlation coefficient of .90 between cardiac catheterization and the first-pass technique was calculated. The authors conclude that first-pass radionuclide angiography can quantitate valvular regurgitation and accurately differentiate between no, minimal, moderate, and severe valvular regurgitation

  7. Radiation induced cardiotoxicity in left sided breast cancer - Where do we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Alice Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women, with around a million new cases diagnosed each year worldwide. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT is an important component of therapy for many women with early-stage breast cancer. With improving survival rates following breast cancer, patients are increasingly likely to die of other causes. As a result, long-term adverse effects of treatment are of major concern. To determine which treatment is optimal, clinician need to be aware of long-term risks and benefits of adjuvant therapies. An awareness of the potential cardiotoxicity of RT led to the application of improved RT techniques that minimize the irradiation to the heart. Although new techniques, including intensity-modulated RT combined with free breathing gating and helical tomotherapy may further reduce radiation-induced cardiac toxicities, the most important factors in limiting cardiac radiation are associated with the techniques used and the skill of the radiation oncologist.

  8. Accuracy of multidetector CT in detecting anastomotic leaks following stapled left-sided colonic anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, P.; Karandikar, S.S.; Roy-Choudhury, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To assess accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and individual radiological signs in the diagnosis of anastomotic leaks. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing anterior resection with a stapled anastomosis over a 2 year period were identified. Electronic and clinical records of these patients were reviewed. Unenhanced and/or enhanced MDCT was performed with intravenous and/or per-rectal contrast medium and read by a radiologist blinded to the patients' clinical details to determine the sensitivity and specificity of specific findings at MDCT for identifying leaks. Results: Seventeen percent (30/170) of the anterior resections were suspected to have an anastomotic leak. Ninety-three percent (28/30) of patients underwent MDCT. Seven point six percent (11+2/170) had a confirmed leak. Two patients underwent surgery without MDCT. A leak was confirmed by MDCT in 91% (10/11) of patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT in diagnosing a leak was 0.91, 1, 1, and 0.95, respectively. The sensitivity of peri-anastomotic air, peri-anastomotic collection, extravasation of rectal contrast medium, and staple line integrity was 0.81, 0.63, 0.54, and 0.72, respectively. Use of rectal contrast medium (8/11 cases) increased the subjective ease of diagnosis and was the only sign in one patient. Conclusions: Presence of peri-anastomotic air is a reliable marker of anastomotic leaks at MDCT. Leakage of rectal contrast medium is highly accurate and increases confidence of diagnosis. The appearance of the staple line itself is not accurate in assessing anastomotic integrity

  9. Absorption of wheat starch in patients resected for left-sided colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Rumessen, J J; Nielsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate in the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)--and especially butyrate--has been shown possibly to impede cell proliferation and regulate cell differentiation of colonocytes. In patients with diverticular disease or benign polyps in the colon...... a hyperabsorption of potato starch in the small intestine has been found. We have investigated the absorption of wheat starch in 15 patients radically resected for cancer in the descending or sigmoid colon, and the results were compared with those of 15 healthy controls. The starch malabsorption was quantified...... also similar in patients and controls. The results do not support the theory that hyperabsorption of starch is characteristic of patients with malignant disease in the large intestine....

  10. Educational series in congenital heart disease:Congenital left-sided heart obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Michelle; Curtis, Stephanie; Marek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Congenital obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract remains a significant problem and multilevel obstruction can often coexist. Obstruction can take several morphological forms and may involve the subvalvar, valvar or supravalvar portion of the aortic valve complex. Congenital valvar stenosis presenting in the neonatal period represents a spectrum of disorders ranging from the hypoplastic left heart syndrome to almost normal hearts. Treatment options vary dependent on the severity of...

  11. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  12. Is delayed surgery related to worse outcomes in native left-sided endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsuwan, Thitipong; Rimsukcharoenchai, Chartaroon; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Woragidpoonpol, Surin; Schuarattanapong, Suphachai; Nawarawong, Weerachai

    2016-05-01

    Timing of surgery in the management of infective endocarditis is controversial, and there is still no definite conclusion on how early the surgery should be performed. This study focuses on the outcomes of surgery during the active period of infective endocarditis in consideration of the duration after diagnosis. One hundred and thirty-four patients with active native valve infective endocarditis who underwent surgery from January 2006 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided in 2 groups based on timing of surgery: early group (first week after diagnosis, n = 37) and delayed group (2 to 6 weeks after diagnosis, n = 97). Compared to the delayed group, the early group had significantly more patients in New York Heart Association class IV (81% vs. 43.3%), more mechanically ventilated (54.1% vs. 18.6%), more on inotropic support (62.2% vs. 38.1%), and hence a worse EuroSCORE II (14.8% vs. 8.8%). Operative mortality was comparable (5.4% vs. 10.3%) and 7-year survival was similar (77.4% vs. 74.6%). On multivariable regression analysis, delayed surgery did not impact on short- and long-term outcomes. Preoperative cardiac arrest and infection with Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, or Kingella were risk factors for higher operative mortality. Predictors of poor 7-year survival were diabetes mellitus and acute renal failure. Delayed surgery is not associated with worse outcomes. Both early and delayed approaches are safe and provide acceptable results. Timing of surgery should be tailored to each patient's clinical status, not based on duration of endocarditis alone. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Turning on gravity with the Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how a Higgs mechanism could be responsible for the emergence of gravity in extensions of Einstein theory, with a suitable low energy limit. In this scenario, at high energies, symmetry restoration could ‘turn off’ gravity, with dramatic implications for cosmology and quantum gravity. The sense in which gravity is muted depends on the details of the implementation. In the most extreme case gravity’s dynamical degrees of freedom would only be unleashed after the Higgs field acquires a non-trivial vacuum expectation value, with gravity reduced to a topological field theory in the symmetric phase. We might also identify the Higgs and the Brans–Dicke fields in such a way that in the unbroken phase Newton’s constant vanishes, decoupling matter and gravity. We discuss the broad implications of these scenarios. (letter)

  14. Autism genes keep turning up chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalle, Janine M

    2013-06-19

    Autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex genetic disorders collectively characterized by impaired social interactions and language as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviors. Of the hundreds of genes implicated in ASD, those encoding proteins acting at neuronal synapses have been most characterized by candidate gene studies. However, recent unbiased genome-wide analyses have turned up a multitude of novel candidate genes encoding nuclear factors implicated in chromatin remodeling, histone demethylation, histone variants, and the recognition of DNA methylation. Furthermore, the chromatin landscape of the human genome has been shown to influence the location of de novo mutations observed in ASD as well as the landscape of DNA methylation underlying neurodevelopmental and synaptic processes. Understanding the interactions of nuclear chromatin proteins and DNA with signal transduction pathways and environmental influences in the developing brain will be critical to understanding the relevance of these ASD candidate genes and continued uncovering of the "roots" of autism etiology.

  15. Scalets, wavelets and (complex) turning point quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, C. R.; Brooks, H. A.

    2001-05-01

    Despite the many successes of wavelet analysis in image and signal processing, the incorporation of continuous wavelet transform theory within quantum mechanics has lacked a compelling, first principles, motivating analytical framework, until now. For arbitrary one-dimensional rational fraction Hamiltonians, we develop a simple, unified formalism, which clearly underscores the complementary, and mutually interdependent, role played by moment quantization theory (i.e. via scalets, as defined herein) and wavelets. This analysis involves no approximation of the Hamiltonian within the (equivalent) wavelet space, and emphasizes the importance of (complex) multiple turning point contributions in the quantization process. We apply the method to three illustrative examples. These include the (double-well) quartic anharmonic oscillator potential problem, V(x) = Z2x2 + gx4, the quartic potential, V(x) = x4, and the very interesting and significant non-Hermitian potential V(x) = -(ix)3, recently studied by Bender and Boettcher.

  16. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  17. Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.

  18. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  19. The experience turn as ‘bandwagon’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Eide, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    further central processes, namely appropriation and narrowing the workspace. One Norwegian and one Danish network are studied using a case methodology. They are two rural networks of mainly small tourism firms. The empirical study confirms and illustrates how the bandwagon effect involves these three core......This paper uses the bandwagon metaphor to analyse, in two rural contexts, how small tourism firms become engaged in the idea of the experience economy and how the idea is turned into practice through network formation and innovation. In developing a practice-based approach we use the bandwagon...... metaphor to conceptualize network formation and innovation in terms of a ‘journey’. Following the practice-based literature on bandwagons, the journey starts by labelling an idea that is broad enough to give meaning to, and pull together, a number of diverse supporters. The journey also depends on two...

  20. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  1. MEDIACRACY TURNS INTO A SYNONYM OF MEDIOCRITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina CHIPER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between freedom of speech and democracy is based on ideological legitimacy report. A new phenomenon which is worth noticing is the conversion of the freedom of expression from a freedom seen in certain aspects as a solitary freedom into a communication of the masses. Another challenge is prompted by the change of the traditional communication system at the dawn of technology, Internet and its various applications, as well as of the channels used. A weak point is the change in the values scale. If a journalist or a book is deemed good or valuable in terms of competence and ideas, these values are now unfortunately inspired by what we watch on TV. In this train of thoughts, reliable opinion leaders are no longer the same. Mediacracy turns into a synonym of mediocrity with affectivity and emotion prevailing over reason and instead of the communication of thoughts and opinions.

  2. News Consumption and Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Xiang; Miklos Sarvary

    2007-01-01

    Bias in the market for news is well-documented. Recent research in economics explains the phenomenon by assuming that consumers want to read (watch) news that is consistent with their tastes or prior beliefs rather than the truth. The present paper builds on this idea but recognizes that (i) besides “biased” consumers, there are also “conscientious” consumers whose sole interest is in discovering the truth, and (ii) consistent with reality, media bias is constrained by the truth. These two fa...

  3. Biased limiter experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Durst, R.D.; McCool, S.C.; Richards, B.; Gentle, K.W.; Schoch, P.; Forster, J.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments using an electrically biased limiter have been performed on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). A small movable limiter is inserted past the main poloidal ring limiter (which is electrically connected to the vacuum vessel) and biased at V Lim with respect to it. The floating potential, plasma potential and shear layer position can be controlled. With vertical strokeV Lim vertical stroke ≥ 50 V the plasma density increases. For V Lim Lim > 0 the results obtained are inconclusive. Variation of V Lim changes the electrostatic turbulence which may explain the observed total flux changes. (orig.)

  4. The coalitional value theory of antigay bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winegard, Bo; Reynolds, Tania; Baumeister, Roy F.; Plant, E. Ashby

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that antigay bias follows a specific pattern (and probably has throughout written history, at least in the West): (a) men evince more antigay bias than women; (b) men who belong to traditionally male coalitions evince more antigay bias than those who do not; (c) antigay bias is

  5. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

    2006-12-18

    During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

  6. Assessing lexical, syntactic, and conceptual turn-by-turn alignment in conversations involving conflict and deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran, Nicholas; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Paxton, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    -based NLP tools, the procedure begins by taking conversational partners' turns and converting each into a lemmatized sequence of words, assigning part-of-speech tags and computing high-dimensional semantic vectors per each utterance. Words and part-of-speech tags are further sequenced into n-g! rams...

  7. Turning to Ontology in STS? Turning to STS through ‘Ontology’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heur, B.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wyatt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the claim of an ‘ontological turn’ in science and technology studies (STS). Despite an increase in references to ‘ontology’ in STS since 1989, we show that there has not so much been an ontological turn as multiple discussions deploying the language of ontology,

  8. Turn me on! Using the “Internet of Things” to turn things on and off

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available to the Internet. There are many examples of things posting their status on Twitter and allowing uni-directional access. TurnMeOn is an example of allowing bidirectional access between people and things using Internet protocols. Users can query the status of a...

  9. Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S

    2000-01-01

    An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampl...

  10. Mimicry by asx- and ST-turns of the four main types of beta-turn in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddy, William J; Nissink, J Willem M; Allen, Frank H; Milner-White, E James

    2004-11-01

    Hydrogen-bonded beta-turns in proteins occur in four categories: type I (the most common), type II, type II', and type I'. Asx-turns resemble beta-turns, in that both have an NH. . .OC hydrogen bond forming a ring of 10 atoms. Serine and threonine side chains also commonly form hydrogen-bonded turns, here called ST-turns. Asx-turns and ST-turns can be categorized into four classes, based on side chain rotamers and the conformation of the central turn residue, which are geometrically equivalent to the four types of beta-turns. We propose asx- and ST-turns be named using the type I, II, I', and II' beta-turn nomenclature. Using this, the frequency of occurrence of both asx- and ST-turns is: type II' > type I > type II > type I', whereas for beta-turns it is type I > type II > type I' > type II'. Almost all type II asx-turns occur as a recently described three residue feature named an asx-nest.

  11. Predicting turns in proteins with a unified model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Song

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. RESULTS: In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein based on structure homologies, (ii considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications.

  12. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  13. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  14. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  15. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  16. Gender bias in teaching evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengel, Friederike; Sauermann, Jan; Zölitz, Ulf Zoelitz

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on gender bias in teaching evaluations. We exploit a quasi-experimental dataset of 19,952 student evaluations of university faculty in a context where students are randomly allocated to female or male instructors. Despite the fact that neither students’ grades nor

  17. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  18. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  19. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  20. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  2. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  3. First turn simulations in the cooler synchrotron COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1991-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the first turn correction and related problems in particle accelerators of synchrotron type. The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a survey of the existing methods for first turn steering. The second part is entirely devoted to the first turn in the cooler synchrotron COSY which is under assembling in KFA-Julich, Germany. (orig.)

  4. Tomographic reconstruction of transverse phase space from turn-by-turn profile data

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    1999-01-01

    Tomographic methods have the potential for useful application in beam diagnostics. The tomographic reconstruction of transverse phase space density from turn-by-turn profile data has been studied with particular attention to the effects of dispersion and chromaticity. It is shown that the modified Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) that deals successfully with the problem of non-linear motion in the longitudinal plane cannot, in general, be extended to cover the transverse case. Instead, an approach is proposed in which the effect of dispersion is deconvoluted from the measured profiles before the phase space picture is reconstructed using either the modified ART algorithm or the inverse Radon Transform. This requires an accurate knowledge of the momentum distribution of the beam and the modified ART reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density yields just such information. The method has been tested extensively with simulated data.

  5. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A. V.; Valishev, A. A.; Lebedev, V. A.

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  6. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Petrenko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  7. Breaking New Ground with High Resolution Turn-By-Turn BPMs at the ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Farvacque, L; Scheidt, K

    2001-01-01

    This High-Resolution, Turn-by-Turn BPM system is a low-cost extension to the existing BPM system, based on the RF-multiplexing concept, used for slow Closed-Orbit measurements. With this extension Beam Position measurements in both planes, at all (224) BPMs in the 844 m ESRF Storage Ring, for up to 2048 Orbit Turns with 1 μm resolution are performed. The data acquisition is synchronised to a single, flat 1 μs, transverse deflection kick to the 1μs beamfill in the 2.8μs revolution period. The high quality of this synchronisation, together with the good reproducibility of the deflection kick and the overall stability of the Closed Orbit beam allows to repeat the kick and acquisition in many cycles. The subsequent averaging of the data obtained in these cycles yields the 1um resolution. The latter allows lattice measurements with high precision such as the localisation of very small focussing errors and modulation in Beta values and phase advances. It also finds an unique ...

  8. Turn-Based War Chess Model and Its Search Algorithm per Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available War chess gaming has so far received insufficient attention but is a significant component of turn-based strategy games (TBS and is studied in this paper. First, a common game model is proposed through various existing war chess types. Based on the model, we propose a theory frame involving combinational optimization on the one hand and game tree search on the other hand. We also discuss a key problem, namely, that the number of the branching factors of each turn in the game tree is huge. Then, we propose two algorithms for searching in one turn to solve the problem: (1 enumeration by order; (2 enumeration by recursion. The main difference between these two is the permutation method used: the former uses the dictionary sequence method, while the latter uses the recursive permutation method. Finally, we prove that both of these algorithms are optimal, and we analyze the difference between their efficiencies. An important factor is the total time taken for the unit to expand until it achieves its reachable position. The factor, which is the total number of expansions that each unit makes in its reachable position, is set. The conclusion proposed is in terms of this factor: Enumeration by recursion is better than enumeration by order in all situations.

  9. Variable-bias coin tossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT

  10. Probability biases as Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre; C. R. Martins

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will show how several observed biases in human probabilistic reasoning can be partially explained as good heuristics for making inferences in an environment where probabilities have uncertainties associated to them. Previous results show that the weight functions and the observed violations of coalescing and stochastic dominance can be understood from a Bayesian point of view. We will review those results and see that Bayesian methods should also be used as part of the explanation behind other known biases. That means that, although the observed errors are still errors under the be understood as adaptations to the solution of real life problems. Heuristics that allow fast evaluations and mimic a Bayesian inference would be an evolutionary advantage, since they would give us an efficient way of making decisions. %XX In that sense, it should be no surprise that humans reason with % probability as it has been observed.

  11. Variable-bias coin tossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2006-03-01

    Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT.

  12. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of γ-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has in- creased over seven times since the previous analysis. β-turns (7153) and γ-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and ...

  13. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for β-turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other.

  14. Girl child and gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  15. Competition and Commercial Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...

  16. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  17. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  18. Galaxy formation and physical bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    We have supplemented our code, which computes the evolution of the physical state of a representative piece of the universe to include, not only the dynamics of dark matter (with a standard PM code), and the hydrodynamics of the gaseous component (including detailed collisional and radiative processes), but also galaxy formation on a heuristic but plausible basis. If, within a cell the gas is Jeans' unstable, collapsing, and cooling rapidly, it is transformed to galaxy subunits, which are then followed with a collisionless code. After grouping them into galaxies, we estimate the relative distributions of galaxies and dark matter and the relative velocities of galaxies and dark matter. In a large scale CDM run of 80/h Mpc size with 8 x 10 exp 6 cells and dark matter particles, we find that physical bias b is on the 8/h Mpc scale is about 1.6 and increases towards smaller scales, and that velocity bias is about 0.8 on the same scale. The comparable HDM simulation is highly biased with b = 2.7 on the 8/h Mpc scale. Implications of these results are discussed in the light of the COBE observations which provide an accurate normalization for the initial power spectrum. CDM can be ruled out on the basis of too large a predicted small scale velocity dispersion at greater than 95 percent confidence level.

  19. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  20. Wittgenstein and the linguistic turn in social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    of Winch in social theory, the wider and more recent influence of Wittgenstein in areas such as technology and science studies, social theory, feminist and gender studies and conversation and discourse analysis is also considered. Historically, the readings of Wittgenstein in the social sciences have taken...... of the linguistic turn in social theory, the linguistic turn is a double-edged sword of both profound insights and limits; the claim is that the limits of the linguistic turn are the strengths of functionalist, structuralist and materialist approaches to the social sciences. The approach of the critical turn...... is to develop a more comprehensive social theory that is sensitive to these strengths and thus supersedes the limits of the linguistic turn. This paper suggests a different approach. Against the critical turn, the paper argues that the limits of the linguistic turn are identical with the very assumptions...

  1. German Atomic Energy Act turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act entered into force on January 1, 1960. It turns fifty at the beginning of 2010. Is this a reason to celebrate or rather the opposite? Lawyers, in principle, can view old pieces of legislation from 2 perspectives: On the one hand, aged laws are treated in a spirit of veneration and are celebrated as proven. On the other hand, an anniversary of this kind can be a welcome reason for demands to abolish or, at least, fundamentally renew that law. Over the past half century, the German Atomic Energy Act went through stormy and varied phases both of a legal and a political character. Its 50 th anniversary is likely to spark off very conflicting evaluations as well. A review of legal history shows that the German or, rather, the Federal German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was not a first-of-its-kind piece of legislation but stemmed from the 1957 EURATOM Treaty, in a way representing a latecomer of that treaty. The Atomic Energy Act experienced a number of important developments throughout its history: - In 1975, compulsory licensing of fuel element factories was introduced. - The back end of the fuel cycle, especially final storage, were incorporated in the Atomic Energy Act comprehensively first in 1976. - In 1985, legislators decided in favor of unlimited nuclear liability. - In 1994 and 1998, only some innovations in special items were introduced under the headings of environmental impact assessment and suitability for repository storage because the controversy about nuclear power did not permit a fundamental alignment towards a more comprehensive modern safety law. - The decision to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in 2002 drew the final line so far of decisions about directions of nuclear law in a major amendment. In parallel, the decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the late 1970s and, above all, the 1980s provided important assistance which has remained valid to this day. What is

  2. A selective emotional decision-making bias elicited by facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Furl

    Full Text Available Emotional and social information can sway otherwise rational decisions. For example, when participants decide between two faces that are probabilistically rewarded, they make biased choices that favor smiling relative to angry faces. This bias may arise because facial expressions evoke positive and negative emotional responses, which in turn may motivate social approach and avoidance. We tested a wide range of pictures that evoke emotions or convey social information, including animals, words, foods, a variety of scenes, and faces differing in trustworthiness or attractiveness, but we found only facial expressions biased decisions. Our results extend brain imaging and pharmacological findings, which suggest that a brain mechanism supporting social interaction may be involved. Facial expressions appear to exert special influence over this social interaction mechanism, one capable of biasing otherwise rational choices. These results illustrate that only specific types of emotional experiences can best sway our choices.

  3. A Selective Emotional Decision-Making Bias Elicited by Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Nicholas; Gallagher, Shannon; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional and social information can sway otherwise rational decisions. For example, when participants decide between two faces that are probabilistically rewarded, they make biased choices that favor smiling relative to angry faces. This bias may arise because facial expressions evoke positive and negative emotional responses, which in turn may motivate social approach and avoidance. We tested a wide range of pictures that evoke emotions or convey social information, including animals, words, foods, a variety of scenes, and faces differing in trustworthiness or attractiveness, but we found only facial expressions biased decisions. Our results extend brain imaging and pharmacological findings, which suggest that a brain mechanism supporting social interaction may be involved. Facial expressions appear to exert special influence over this social interaction mechanism, one capable of biasing otherwise rational choices. These results illustrate that only specific types of emotional experiences can best sway our choices. PMID:22438936

  4. A selective emotional decision-making bias elicited by facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Nicholas; Gallagher, Shannon; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-01-01

    Emotional and social information can sway otherwise rational decisions. For example, when participants decide between two faces that are probabilistically rewarded, they make biased choices that favor smiling relative to angry faces. This bias may arise because facial expressions evoke positive and negative emotional responses, which in turn may motivate social approach and avoidance. We tested a wide range of pictures that evoke emotions or convey social information, including animals, words, foods, a variety of scenes, and faces differing in trustworthiness or attractiveness, but we found only facial expressions biased decisions. Our results extend brain imaging and pharmacological findings, which suggest that a brain mechanism supporting social interaction may be involved. Facial expressions appear to exert special influence over this social interaction mechanism, one capable of biasing otherwise rational choices. These results illustrate that only specific types of emotional experiences can best sway our choices.

  5. Bias-correction in vector autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the properties of various methods for bias-correcting parameter estimates in both stationary and non-stationary vector autoregressive models. First, we show that two analytical bias formulas from the existing literature are in fact identical. Next, based on a detailed simulation study......, we show that when the model is stationary this simple bias formula compares very favorably to bootstrap bias-correction, both in terms of bias and mean squared error. In non-stationary models, the analytical bias formula performs noticeably worse than bootstrapping. Both methods yield a notable...... improvement over ordinary least squares. We pay special attention to the risk of pushing an otherwise stationary model into the non-stationary region of the parameter space when correcting for bias. Finally, we consider a recently proposed reduced-bias weighted least squares estimator, and we find...

  6. The Probability Distribution for a Biased Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article advocates biased spinners as an engaging context for statistics students. Calculating the probability of a biased spinner landing on a particular side makes valuable connections between probability and other areas of mathematics. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  7. Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against Women Living with ... In Ethiopia, HIV/AIDS is highly stigmatized due to the fact that sexual ... bias, socio-economic situations and traditional beliefs contribute, individually and in ...

  8. Is there bias in editorial choice? Yes

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Nature has recently published a Correspondence claiming the absence of fame biases in the editorial choice. The topic is interesting and deserves a deeper analysis than it was presented because the reported brief analysis and its conclusion are somewhat biased for many reasons, some of them are discussed here. Since the editorial assessment is a form of peer-review, the biases reported on external peer-reviews would, thus, apply to the editorial assessment, too. The biases would be proportion...

  9. The Accuracy Enhancing Effect of Biasing Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Vanhouche (Wouter); S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractExtrinsic cues such as price and irrelevant attributes have been shown to bias consumers’ product judgments. Results in this article replicate those findings in pretrial judgments but show that such biasing cues can improve quality judgments at a later point in time. Initially biasing

  10. Biased managers, organizational design, and incentive provision

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Humberto Ataíde; Costa, Cristiano Machado; Ferreira, Daniel Bernardo Soares

    2004-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro We model the tradeoff between the balance and the strength of incentives implicit in the choice between hierarchical and matrix organizational structures. We show that managerial biases determine which structure is optimal: hierarchical forms are preferred when biases are low, while matrix structures are preferred when biases are high.

  11. Transparent lattice characterization with gated turn-by-turn data of diagnostic bunch train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Cheng, Weixing; Ha, Kiman; Rainer, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Methods of characterization of a storage ring's lattice have traditionally been intrusive to routine operations. More importantly, the lattice seen by particles can drift with the beam current due to collective effects. To circumvent this, we have developed a novel approach for dynamically characterizing a storage ring's lattice that is transparent to operations. Our approach adopts a dedicated filling pattern which has a short, separate diagnostic bunch train (DBT). Through the use of a bunch-by-bunch feedback system, the DBT can be selectively excited on demand. Gated functionality of a beam position monitor system is capable of collecting turn-by-turn data of the DBT, from which the lattice can then be characterized after excitation. As the DBT comprises only about one percent of the total operational bunches, the effects of its excitation are negligible to users. This approach allows us to localize the distributed quadrupolar wakefields generated in the storage ring vacuum chamber during beam accumulation. While effectively transparent to operations, our approach enables us to dynamically control the beta beat and phase beat, and unobtrusively optimize performance of the National Synchrotron Light Source-II accelerator during routine operations.

  12. Prediction of beta-turns with learning machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yi-Xue; Xu, Xue-biao; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2003-05-01

    The support vector machine approach was introduced to predict the beta-turns in proteins. The overall self-consistency rate by the re-substitution test for the training or learning dataset reached 100%. Both the training dataset and independent testing dataset were taken from Chou [J. Pept. Res. 49 (1997) 120]. The success prediction rates by the jackknife test for the beta-turn subset of 455 tetrapeptides and non-beta-turn subset of 3807 tetrapeptides in the training dataset were 58.1 and 98.4%, respectively. The success rates with the independent dataset test for the beta-turn subset of 110 tetrapeptides and non-beta-turn subset of 30,231 tetrapeptides were 69.1 and 97.3%, respectively. The results obtained from this study support the conclusion that the residue-coupled effect along a tetrapeptide is important for the formation of a beta-turn.

  13. Individual differences in cognitive control over emotional material modulate cognitive biases linked to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Grahek, Ivan; Koster, Ernst H W

    2017-06-01

    Deficient cognitive control over emotional material and cognitive biases are important mechanisms underlying depression, but the interplay between these emotionally distorted cognitive processes in relation to depressive symptoms is not well understood. This study investigated the relations among deficient cognitive control of emotional information (i.e. inhibition, shifting, and updating difficulties), cognitive biases (i.e. negative attention and interpretation biases), and depressive symptoms. Theory-driven indirect effect models were constructed, hypothesising that deficient cognitive control over emotional material predicts depressive symptoms through negative attention and interpretation biases. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that deficient inhibitory control over negative material was related to negative attention bias which in turn predicted a congruent bias in interpretation and subsequently depressive symptoms. Both shifting and updating impairments in response to negative material had an indirect effect on depression severity through negative interpretation bias. No evidence was found for direct effects of deficient cognitive control over emotional material on depressive symptoms. These findings may help to formulate an integrated understanding of the cognitive foundations of depressive symptoms.

  14. Anticipation in turn-taking: mechanisms and information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Carina; Jorschick, Annett B; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    During conversations participants alternate smoothly between speaker and hearer roles with only brief pauses and overlaps. There are two competing types of accounts about how conversationalists accomplish this: (a) the signaling approach and (b) the anticipatory ('projection') approach. We wanted to investigate, first, the relative merits of these two accounts, and second, the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to the timing of next turn initiation. We performed three button-press experiments using turn fragments taken from natural conversations to address the following questions: (a) Is turn-taking predominantly based on anticipation or on reaction, and (b) what is the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to accurate turn-taking. In our first experiment we gradually manipulated the information available for anticipation of the turn end (providing information about the turn end in advance to completely removing linguistic information). The results of our first experiment show that the distribution of the participants' estimation of turn-endings for natural turns is very similar to the distribution for pure anticipation. We conclude that listeners are indeed able to anticipate a turn-end and that this strategy is predominantly used in turn-taking. In Experiment 2 we collected purely reacted responses. We used the distributions from Experiments 1 and 2 together to estimate a new dependent variable called Reaction Anticipation Proportion. We used this variable in our third experiment where we manipulated the presence vs. absence of semantic and syntactic information by low-pass filtering open-class and closed class words in the turn. The results suggest that for turn-end anticipation, both semantic and syntactic information are needed, but that the semantic information is a more important anticipation cue than syntactic information.

  15. [Study of beta-turns in globular proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirova, S R; Milchevskiĭ, Iu V; Filatov, I V; Esipova, N G; Tumanian, V G

    2005-01-01

    The formation of beta-turns in globular proteins has been studied by the method of molecular mechanics. Statistical method of discriminant analysis was applied to calculate energy components and sequences of oligopeptide segments, and after this prediction of I type beta-turns has been drawn. The accuracy of true positive prediction is 65%. Components of conformational energy considerably affecting beta-turn formation were delineated. There are torsional energy, energy of hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals energy.

  16. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.

  17. Laterality of the lower limbs and carving turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaverka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discover whether the lateral preference of the lower limbs influences the execution of successive carving turns or not. Six skilled skiers (men, right lower limb preference, age 26.5±1.61 years old, height 1.80±0.04 m, body weight 78.83±5.46 kg executed 30 (18 left, 12 right symmetrical carving turns. Kinetic analysis of the final vertical component of reaction force FZ(t measured dynamometrically provided the information about the time of initiation and steering phases of the turn and the maximum force, average force and force impulse. Differences between right and left turns are not statistically significant. Factual analyses of the magnitude of measured variables confirmed that left turns were found to have a longer duration, a shorter initiation and longer steering phase, and higher level of produced force and force impulse in comparison with right turns. Based on the results it can be concluded that the turns where the outer leg is the preferred limb are preferentially used to regulate the speed of the ride. The study of laterality in symmetrical carving turns has proven that lateral preference of lower extremities influences the execution of the turn also by expert skiers.

  18. The Effect of a Textured Insole on Symmetry of Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem Curuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turning while walking is a common daily activity. Individuals with unilateral impairment frequently perform turns asymmetrically. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a discomfort-inducing textured insole on symmetry of turning. Nine healthy individuals performed turns to the right while walking with no insole, immediately after the insole was inserted in the right shoe, and after walking for six minutes with the insole. The duration of turning, displacements of pelvic markers, and perceived level of discomfort were evaluated. Utilizing the insole was associated with the increased level of perceived discomfort (p<0.05. Moreover, using the insole was linked to changes in the displacement of two pelvic markers and larger asymmetry index while turning immediately after the insole was inserted in the right shoe as compared to no insole condition (p<0.05. The duration of right turning increased immediately after the insole was inserted (p<0.05 and after walking with the insole for six minutes. The results indicate that the textured insole creates asymmetry of turning in healthy individuals. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on using a textured insole to minimize the asymmetry of turning commonly seen in individuals with unilateral impairment.

  19. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  20. Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.

  1. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty students from the fourth grade of High School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

  2. Turn-taking cue delays in human-robot communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, R. H.; Van Den Goor, V. J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Fluent communication between a human and a robot relies on the use of effective turn-taking cues. In human speech staying silent after a sequence of utterances is usually accompanied by an explicit turnyielding cue to signal the end of a turn. Here we study the effect of the timing of four

  3. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselstijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond

  4. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truc...

  5. Fast Turn-off Mine Transient Electromagnetic Transmitter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiao-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For solving problems such as short turn-off time, high linear degree of falling edge, measurement of turn-off time and influence of primary signals for transient electromagnetic transmitter, and restrictions because of the environmental conditions of underground coal mine, this thesis aims at designing a new transient electromagnetic transmitter system suitable for coal mine. Supported by damping absorption circuit, such system applies small volume, sectional transmitting coil, with features of short turn-off time, high linear degree of current falling edge. It uses the transmitter monitoring circuit, which accurately measures turn-off time and simultaneously records the current value changes after turn-off, thus to eliminate the influence of primary field as well as to restore earlier secondary field signals for reference and finally to improve the ability to detect the shallow structure. It turns out that the new system has a shorter turn-off time, a higher linear degree of current falling and more accurate data record of turn-off current.

  6. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  7. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  8. Human Rights Education and the Post Secular Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This article questions whether human rights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…

  9. Turn over management and optimization of Shangdong nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Tong

    2014-01-01

    After the equipments' installation is completed, the system will carry out commissioning tests. After commissioning work is completed, the system will be transferred to temporary operation. The plant buildings and structures will be transferred to operation for management and maintenance after civil work. The turn over work is an important part of the transfer from construction to operation. The article describes the significance of the nuclear power plant turn over work, turn over organization and management mode, the workflow of system turn over from construction to commissioning (TOP), turn over form commissioning to operation (TOTO), house hand over (HHO), building hand over (BHO) of Shandong Haiyang nuclear power plant, and analyze the current lack and future improvements of turn over work. Shandong Haiyang nuclear power plant will usher in the peak period of turn over work in 2013, fully aware of the importance of the turn over work, will play a key role in the long-term stable operation of the unit. (author)

  10. An expert machine tools selection system for turning operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Khalil, S.N.; Karjanto, J.; Wahidin, L.S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The turning machining process is an important process in the manufacturing industry. It is important to select the right tool for the turning process so that the manufacturing cost will be decreased. The main objective of this research is to select the most suitable machine tools with respect to

  11. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  12. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  13. Head turning as a prominent motor symptom in status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gerhard; Broessner, Gregor; Unterberger, Iris; Walser, Gerald; Pfausler, Bettina; Trinka, Eugen

    2008-06-01

    Head and eye turning is frequently observed during seizures. Versions with tonic and/or clonic symptoms can be differentiated from smooth head deviations. Head turning as a prominent symptom of status epilepticus has not previously been reported. We present eight case reports, (7 women/1 man, mean age 41 years, median 41.5, range 10 to 74), of status epilepticus (SE), with head turning as a prominent motor symptom. Six were accompanied by continuous frontal, occipital and temporal ictal epileptiform discharges. Furthermore, two patients had absence status with rhythmic and clonic head versions. While the localizing significance of head turnings in SE is low, in our cases, the direction was away from the discharging hemisphere in all cases of focal SE regardless of whether the turning was classified as version (three cases) or deviation (three cases). In this small series of SE, the classical observation of a patient looking away from the discharging hemisphere is still valid.

  14. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa eStevanovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1 the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2 the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, then again, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.

  15. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics

  16. Good practices for quantitative bias analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy L; Fox, Matthew P; MacLehose, Richard F; Maldonado, George; McCandless, Lawrence C; Greenland, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative bias analysis serves several objectives in epidemiological research. First, it provides a quantitative estimate of the direction, magnitude and uncertainty arising from systematic errors. Second, the acts of identifying sources of systematic error, writing down models to quantify them, assigning values to the bias parameters and interpreting the results combat the human tendency towards overconfidence in research results, syntheses and critiques and the inferences that rest upon them. Finally, by suggesting aspects that dominate uncertainty in a particular research result or topic area, bias analysis can guide efficient allocation of sparse research resources. The fundamental methods of bias analyses have been known for decades, and there have been calls for more widespread use for nearly as long. There was a time when some believed that bias analyses were rarely undertaken because the methods were not widely known and because automated computing tools were not readily available to implement the methods. These shortcomings have been largely resolved. We must, therefore, contemplate other barriers to implementation. One possibility is that practitioners avoid the analyses because they lack confidence in the practice of bias analysis. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe what we view as good practices for applying quantitative bias analysis to epidemiological data, directed towards those familiar with the methods. We focus on answering questions often posed to those of us who advocate incorporation of bias analysis methods into teaching and research. These include the following. When is bias analysis practical and productive? How does one select the biases that ought to be addressed? How does one select a method to model biases? How does one assign values to the parameters of a bias model? How does one present and interpret a bias analysis?. We hope that our guide to good practices for conducting and presenting bias analyses will encourage

  17. Probing Biased Signaling in Chemokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptors...... of others has been termed signaling bias and can accordingly be grouped into ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue bias. Bias has so far been broadly overlooked in the process of drug development. The low number of currently approved drugs targeting the chemokine system, as well as the broad range...... of failed clinical trials, reflects the need for a better understanding of the chemokine system. Thus, understanding the character, direction, and consequence of biased signaling in the chemokine system may aid the development of new therapeutics. This review describes experiments to assess G protein...

  18. Symmetry as Bias: Rediscovering Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a rational reconstruction of Einstein's discovery of special relativity, validated through an implementation: the Erlanger program. Einstein's discovery of special relativity revolutionized both the content of physics and the research strategy used by theoretical physicists. This research strategy entails a mutual bootstrapping process between a hypothesis space for biases, defined through different postulated symmetries of the universe, and a hypothesis space for physical theories. The invariance principle mutually constrains these two spaces. The invariance principle enables detecting when an evolving physical theory becomes inconsistent with its bias, and also when the biases for theories describing different phenomena are inconsistent. Structural properties of the invariance principle facilitate generating a new bias when an inconsistency is detected. After a new bias is generated. this principle facilitates reformulating the old, inconsistent theory by treating the latter as a limiting approximation. The structural properties of the invariance principle can be suitably generalized to other types of biases to enable primal-dual learning.

  19. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

    2006-01-01

    TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

  20. Forecaster Behaviour and Bias in Macroeconomic Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Batchelor

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the presence of systematic bias in the real GDP and inflation forecasts of private sector forecasters in the G7 economies in the years 1990–2005. The data come from the monthly Consensus Economics forecasting service, and bias is measured and tested for significance using parametric fixed effect panel regressions and nonparametric tests on accuracy ranks. We examine patterns across countries and forecasters to establish whether the bias reflects the inefficient use of i...

  1. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    OpenAIRE

    David Peón; Manel Antelo; Anxo Calvo-Silvosa

    2017-01-01

    This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category,...

  2. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  3. Adaptable history biases in human perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, Arman; Silva, Laura Luz; Dakin, Steven C; Carandini, Matteo; Gardner, Justin L

    2016-06-21

    When making choices under conditions of perceptual uncertainty, past experience can play a vital role. However, it can also lead to biases that worsen decisions. Consistent with previous observations, we found that human choices are influenced by the success or failure of past choices even in a standard two-alternative detection task, where choice history is irrelevant. The typical bias was one that made the subject switch choices after a failure. These choice history biases led to poorer performance and were similar for observers in different countries. They were well captured by a simple logistic regression model that had been previously applied to describe psychophysical performance in mice. Such irrational biases seem at odds with the principles of reinforcement learning, which would predict exquisite adaptability to choice history. We therefore asked whether subjects could adapt their irrational biases following changes in trial order statistics. Adaptability was strong in the direction that confirmed a subject's default biases, but weaker in the opposite direction, so that existing biases could not be eradicated. We conclude that humans can adapt choice history biases, but cannot easily overcome existing biases even if irrational in the current context: adaptation is more sensitive to confirmatory than contradictory statistics.

  4. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  5. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  6. Recent developments in turning hardened steels - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, V.; Prakash, S.

    2017-05-01

    Hard materials ranging from HRC 45 - 68 such as hardened AISI H13, AISI 4340, AISI 52100, D2 STL, D3 STEEL Steel etc., need super hard tool materials to machine. Turning of these hard materials is termed as hard turning. Hard turning makes possible direct machining of the hard materials and also eliminates the lubricant requirement and thus favoring dry machining. Hard turning is a finish turning process and hence conventional grinding is not required. Development of the new advanced super hard tool materials such as ceramic inserts, Cubic Boron Nitride, Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride etc. enabled the turning of these materials. PVD and CVD methods of coating have made easier the production of single and multi layered coated tool inserts. Coatings of TiN, TiAlN, TiC, Al2O3, AlCrN over cemented carbide inserts has lead to the machining of difficult to machine materials. Advancement in the process of hard machining paved way for better surface finish, long tool life, reduced tool wear, cutting force and cutting temperatures. Micro and Nano coated carbide inserts, nanocomposite coated PCBN inserts, micro and nano CBN coated carbide inserts and similar developments have made machining of hardened steels much easier and economical. In this paper, broad literature review on turning of hardened steels including optimizing process parameters, cooling requirements, different tool materials etc., are done.

  7. Turn stability in beta-hairpin peptides: Investigation of peptides containing 3:5 type I G1 bulge turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandl, Tamas; Cochran, Andrea G; Skelton, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    The turn-forming ability of a series of three-residue sequences was investigated by substituting them into a well-characterized beta-hairpin peptide. The starting scaffold, bhpW, is a disulfide-cyclized 10-residue peptide that folds into a stable beta-hairpin with two antiparallel strands connected by a two-residue reverse turn. Substitution of the central two residues with the three-residue test sequences leads to less stable hairpins, as judged by thiol-disulfide equilibrium measurements. However, analysis of NMR parameters indicated that each molecule retains a significant folded population, and that the type of turn adopted by the three-residue sequence is the same in all cases. The solution structure of a selected peptide with a PDG turn contained an antiparallel beta-hairpin with a 3:5 type I + G1 bulge turn. Analysis of the energetic contributions of individual turn residues in the series of peptides indicates that substitution effects have significant context dependence, limiting the predictive power of individual amino acid propensities for turn formation. The most stable and least stable sequences were also substituted into a more stable disulfide-cyclized scaffold and a linear beta-hairpin scaffold. The relative stabilities remained the same, suggesting that experimental measurements in the bhpW context are a useful way to evaluate turn stability for use in protein design projects. Moreover, these scaffolds are capable of displaying a diverse set of turns, which can be exploited for the mimicry of protein loops or for generating libraries of reverse turns.

  8. Effects of habitat features on size-biased predation on salmon by bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Luke C; Reynolds, John D

    2017-05-01

    Predators can drive trait divergence among populations of prey by imposing differential selection on prey traits. Habitat characteristics can mediate predator selectivity by providing refuge for prey. We quantified the effects of stream characteristics on biases in the sizes of spawning salmon caught by bears (Ursus arctos and U. americanus) on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada by measuring size-biased predation on spawning chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in 12 streams with varying habitat characteristics. We tested the hypotheses that bears would catch larger than average salmon (size-biased predation) and that this bias toward larger fish would be higher in streams that provide less protection to spawning salmon from predation (e.g., less pools, wood, undercut banks). We then we tested for how such size biases in turn translate into differences among populations in the sizes of the fish. Bears caught larger-than-average salmon as the spawning season progressed and as predicted, this was most pronounced in streams with fewer refugia for the fish (i.e., wood and undercut banks). Salmon were marginally smaller in streams with more pronounced size-biased predation but this predictor was less reliable than physical characteristics of streams, with larger fish in wider, deeper streams. These results support the hypothesis that selective forces imposed by predators can be mediated by habitat characteristics, with potential consequences for physical traits of prey.

  9. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C; de Dreu, Carsten K W; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases.

  11. Think Leader, Think White? Capturing and Weakening an Implicit Pro-White Leadership Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündemir, Seval; Homan, Astrid C.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; van Vugt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1) or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3) were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT) rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3). Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4). This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4). This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases. PMID:24416181

  12. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Gündemir

    Full Text Available Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles (e.g., manager; Study 1 or leadership traits (e.g., decisiveness; Study 2 & 3 were paired in an Implicit Association Test (IAT rather than when ethnic minority names and leadership traits were paired. Moreover, the implicit pro-White leadership bias showed discriminant validity with the conventional implicit bias measures (Study 3. Importantly, results showed that the pro-White leadership bias can be weakened when situational cues increase the salience of a dual identity (Study 4. This, in turn, can diminish the explicit pro-White bias in promotion related decision making processes (Study 4. This research offers a new tool to measure the implicit psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions and proposes interventions to weaken such biases.

  13. Increasing protein stability by improving beta-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hailong; Grimsley, Gerald R; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J Martin; Pace, C Nick

    2009-11-15

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of how protein stability can be increased by improving beta-turns. We studied 22 beta-turns in nine proteins with 66-370 residues by replacing other residues with proline and glycine and measuring the stability. These two residues are statistically preferred in some beta-turn positions. We studied: Cold shock protein B (CspB), Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Ubiquitin, Ribonucleases Sa2, Sa3, T1, and HI, Tryptophan synthetase alpha-subunit, and Maltose binding protein. Of the 15 single proline mutations, 11 increased stability (Average = 0.8 +/- 0.3; Range = 0.3-1.5 kcal/mol), and the stabilizing effect of double proline mutants was additive. On the basis of this and our previous work, we conclude that proteins can generally be stabilized by replacing nonproline residues with proline residues at the i + 1 position of Type I and II beta-turns and at the i position in Type II beta-turns. Other turn positions can sometimes be used if the phi angle is near -60 degrees for the residue replaced. It is important that the side chain of the residue replaced is less than 50% buried. Identical substitutions in beta-turns in related proteins give similar results. Proline substitutions increase stability mainly by decreasing the entropy of the denatured state. In contrast, the large, diverse group of proteins considered here had almost no residues in beta-turns that could be replaced by Gly to increase protein stability. Improving beta-turns by substituting Pro residues is a generally useful way of increasing protein stability. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer Gγ

  15. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  16. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  17. The ontological turn meets the certainty of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Maryon

    2017-08-01

    The 'ontological turn' involves some anthropological points of long standing but the approaches recently coordinated into this turn have been presented as a 'call to arms', as shaking up 'mono-realist singularities' and as inherently political. This fighting talk has no doubt made important contributions to anthropology and insights from the ontological turn can help in anthropological understandings of medical practices. However, this paper contends that this helpfulness is also limited and that a call to arms may be inappropriate. This point is made through an ethnographic understanding of medical concern about the diagnosis of death.

  18. Dipole-induced exchange bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel

    2017-11-09

    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  19. Remaking "Nature". the Ecological Turn in Dutch Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disco, Nil/Cornelis

    2002-01-01

    The ecological turn in water management has usually been interpreted as a political andcultural rather than technical and professional accomplishment. The dynamics of theuptake of ecological expertise into hydraulic engineering bureaucracies have not beenwell described. Focusing on the controversy

  20. ANALYSIS OF CHIP FORMATION DURING HARD TURNING THROUGH ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Neslušan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of chip formation and related aspects of the chip formation during turning hardened steel 100Cr6. The paper draws a comparison of some aspects of the chip formation between turning annealed and hardened roll bearing steel. The results of the analysis show that there is the formation of a segmented chip in the case of hard turning. Frequency of segmentation is very high. A conventional piezoelectric dynamometer limits the frequency response to about 3.5 kHz. On the other hand, the frequency of process fluctuation may by obtained by using accelerometers or acoustic emission. This paper reports about the dynamic character of cutting process when hard turning and correlation among the calculated segmentation frequencies and the experimental analysis.

  1. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

  2. Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning Process using Response Surface Methodology. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  3. The Extended HANDS Characterization and Analysis of Metric Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecy, T.; Knox, R.; Cognion, R.

    The Extended High Accuracy Network Determination System (Extended HANDS) consists of a network of low cost, high accuracy optical telescopes designed to support space surveillance and development of space object characterization technologies. Comprising off-the-shelf components, the telescopes are designed to provide sub arc-second astrometric accuracy. The design and analysis team are in the process of characterizing the system through development of an error allocation tree whose assessment is supported by simulation, data analysis, and calibration tests. The metric calibration process has revealed 1-2 arc-second biases in the right ascension and declination measurements of reference satellite position, and these have been observed to have fairly distinct characteristics that appear to have some dependence on orbit geometry and tracking rates. The work presented here outlines error models developed to aid in development of the system error budget, and examines characteristic errors (biases, time dependence, etc.) that might be present in each of the relevant system elements used in the data collection and processing, including the metric calibration processing. The relevant reference frames are identified, and include the sensor (CCD camera) reference frame, Earth-fixed topocentric frame, topocentric inertial reference frame, and the geocentric inertial reference frame. The errors modeled in each of these reference frames, when mapped into the topocentric inertial measurement frame, reveal how errors might manifest themselves through the calibration process. The error analysis results that are presented use satellite-sensor geometries taken from periods where actual measurements were collected, and reveal how modeled errors manifest themselves over those specific time periods. These results are compared to the real calibration metric data (right ascension and declination residuals), and sources of the bias are hypothesized. In turn, the actual right ascension and

  4. Media bias under direct and indirect government control: when is the bias smaller?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhra Roy

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical framework to compare media bias under direct and indirect government control. In this context, we show that direct control can lead to a smaller bias and higher welfare than indirect control. We further show that the size of the advertising market affects media bias only under direct control. Media bias, under indirect control, is not affected by the size of the advertising market.

  5. Treatment of uranium turning with the controllable oxidizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bingyi; Zhang Yonggang; Zhen Huikuan

    1989-02-01

    The concept, procedure and safety measures of the controllable oxidizing for uranium turning is described. The feasibility study on technological process has been made. The process provided several advantages such as: simplicity of operation, no pollution environment, safety, high efficiency and low energy consumption. The process can yield nuclear pure uranium dioxide under making no use of a great number of chemical reagent. It may supply raw material for fluoration and provide a simply method of treatment for safe store of uranium turning

  6. Learning, Teaching, and Turn Taking in the Repeated Assignment Game

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy N. Cason; Sau-Him Paul Lau; Vai-Lam Mui

    2011-01-01

    History-dependent strategies are often used to support cooperation in repeated game models. Using the indefinitely repeated common-pool resource assignment game and a perfect stranger experimental design, this paper reports novel evidence that players who have successfully used an efficiency-enhancing turn-taking strategy will teach other players in subsequent supergames to adopt this strategy. We find that subjects engage in turn taking frequently in both the Low Conflict and the High Confli...

  7. Ignition experiment in a single-turn-coil tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.; Driga, M.; Gully, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel concept for a fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX proposed along the lines of previous ideas for a compact thermonuclear device is analyzed. A single-turn-coil tokamak is analyzed. A single-turn-coil tokamak supplied by homopolar generators can ohmically heat a DT plasma to ignition conditions and maintain a thermally stable ignited phase for about ten energy confinement times. The IGNITEX experiment can provide a simple and relatively inexpensive way to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study

  8. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  9. 3D characterisation of tool wear whilst diamond turning silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo-Cardenas, Isidro Sergio; Shore, Paul; Luo, X.; Jacklin, T.; Impey, S. A.; Cox, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanometrically smooth infrared silicon optics can be manufactured by the diamond turning process. Due to its relatively low density, silicon is an ideal optical material for weight sensitive infrared (IR) applications. However, rapid diamond tool edge degradation and the effect on the achieved surface have prevented significant exploitation. With the aim of developing a process model to optimise the diamond turning of silicon optics, a series of experimental trials were devi...

  10. Development of a Low Cost MQL Setup for Turning Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Sumaiya; Khandoker Noman; Izham Mohamad; Azizi Tengku; Debnath Sujan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of MQL application on the tool wear, surface roughness and chip formation in turning Aluminum alloy 6061 is investigated. Experiments were carried out by plain turning of an Aluminum bar with varying depth of cut, cutting speeds (spindle speed) and cutting environments (Dry, Wet and MQL). A newly designed, cost efficient and portable MQL setup was developed for this study. For each experimental trial, five passes were carried out in order to promote the formation of ...

  11. Developmental Changes in the Whole Number Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    Many students' knowledge of fractions is adversely affected by whole number bias, the tendency to focus on the separate whole number components (numerator and denominator) of a fraction rather than on the fraction's magnitude (ratio of numerator to denominator). Although whole number bias appears early in the fraction learning process and under…

  12. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  13. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  14. Dialogue Games for Inconsistent and Biased Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, H.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, a dialogue game is presented in which coherent conversational sequences with inconsistent and biased information are described at the speech act level. Inconsistent and biased information is represented with bilattice structures, and based on these bilattice structures, a

  15. Gender Bias: Inequities in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Reeve

    1993-01-01

    This article explores sex bias in curricular materials for elementary and secondary schools. Sex bias is defined as a set of unconscious behaviors that, in themselves, are often trivial and generally favorable. Although these behaviors do not hurt if they happen only once, they can cause a great deal of harm if a pattern develops that serves to…

  16. The Battle over Studies of Faculty Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravois, John

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) recently commissioned a study to review the research that finds liberal bias run amok in academe. Believing that the AFT is not a dispassionate observer of this debate, this article provides "The Chronicle of Higher Education's" survey of the genre. The studies reviewed include: (1) "Political Bias in the…

  17. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-02-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or 'braking' forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior-posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions.

  18. Effect of stern hull shape on turning circle of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

  19. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is considered......-field approach. The production bias approach, on the other hand, is based on the physical features of the cascade damage and is therefore considered to be more appropriate for describing the damage accumulation under cascade damage conditions. However, production bias can not produce high a swelling rate when....... It is found that the production bias and cluster annihilation are necessary to explain these observations, with, in many cases, the explicit consideration of the annihilation of the primary interstitial clusters....

  20. Gender bias in cardiovascular advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sofia B; Grace, Sherry L; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Tomlinson, George; Cheung, Angela M

    2004-11-01

    Women with cardiovascular disease are treated less aggressively than men. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. Pharmaceutical advertisements may influence physician practices and patient care. To determine if female and male patients are equally likely to be featured in cardiovascular advertisements. We examined all cardiovascular advertisements from US editions of general medical and cardiovascular journals published between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1998. For each unique advertisement, we recorded the total number of journal appearances and the number of appearances in journals' premium positions. We noted the gender, age, race and role of both the primary figure and the majority of people featured in the advertisement. Nine hundred and nineteen unique cardiovascular advertisements were identified of which 254 depicted a patient as the primary figure. A total of 20%[95% confidence interval (CI) 15.3-25.5%] of these advertisements portrayed a female patient, while 80% (95% CI 74.5-84.7%) depicted a male patient, P advertisements appeared 249 times (13.3%; 95% CI 8.6-18.9%) while male patient advertisements appeared 1618 times (86.7%; 95% CI 81.1-91.4%), P advertisements also had significantly fewer mean appearances than male patient advertisements in journals' premium positions (0.82 vs. 1.99, P=0.02). Similar results were seen when the advertisements were analysed according to predominant gender. Despite increasing emphasis on cardiovascular disease in women, significant under-representation of female patients exists in cardiovascular advertisements. Physicians should be cognizant of this gender bias.

  1. The (neurocognitive mechanisms behind attention bias modification in anxiety: Proposals based on theoretical accounts of attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eHeeren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have investigated the causal nature of attentional bias for threat (AB in the maintenance of anxiety disorders by experimentally manipulating it. They found that training anxious individuals to attend to nonthreat stimuli reduces AB, which, in turn, reduces anxiety. This effect supports the hypothesis that AB can causally impact the maintenance of anxiety. At a fundamental level, however, uncertainty still abounds regarding the nature of the processes that mediate this effect. In the present paper, we propose that two contrasting approaches may be derived from theoretical accounts of AB. According to a first class of models, called the valence-specific bias models, modifying AB requires the modification of valence-specific attentional selectivity. According to a second class of models, called the attention control models, modifying AB requires the modification of attention control, driven by the recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We formulate a series of specific predictions, to provide suggestions to trial these two approaches one against the other. This knowledge is critical for understanding the mechanisms of AB in anxiety disorders, which bares important clinical implications.

  2. A Collaborator's Reputation Can Bias Decisions and Anxiety under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Song; Footer, Owen; Camerer, Colin F; Mobbs, Dean

    2018-02-28

    Informational social influence theory posits that under conditions of uncertainty, we are inclined to look to others for advice. This leaves us remarkably vulnerable to being influenced by others' opinions or advice. Rational agents, however, do not blindly seek and act on arbitrary information, but often consider the quality of its source before committing to a course of action. Here, we ask the question of whether a collaborator's reputation can increase their social influence and, in turn, bias perception and anxiety under changing levels of uncertainty. Human male and female participants were asked to provide estimations of dot direction using the random dot motion (RDM) perceptual discrimination task and were paired with transient collaborators of high or low reputation whom provided their own estimations. The RDM varied in degrees of uncertainty and joint performance accuracy was linked to risk of an electric shock. Despite providing identical information, we show that collaborating with a high reputation compared with a low reputation partner, led to significantly more conformity during the RDM task for uncertain perceptual decisions. Consequently, high reputation partners decreased the subjects' anxiety during the anticipatory shock periods. fMRI data showed that parametric changes in conformity resulted in increased activity in the ventromedial PFC, whereas dissent was associated with increased in activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Furthermore, the dACC and insula, regions involved in anticipatory pain, were significantly more active when collaborating with a low reputation partner. These results suggest that information about reputation can influence both cognitive and affective processes and in turn alter the neural circuits that underlie decision-making and emotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans look to others for advice when making decisions under uncertainty. Rational agents, however, do not blindly seek information, but often

  3. Automation bias in electronic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, David; Magrabi, Farah; Raban, Magdalena Z; Pont, L G; Baysari, Melissa T; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-03-16

    Clinical decision support (CDS) in e-prescribing can improve safety by alerting potential errors, but introduces new sources of risk. Automation bias (AB) occurs when users over-rely on CDS, reducing vigilance in information seeking and processing. Evidence of AB has been found in other clinical tasks, but has not yet been tested with e-prescribing. This study tests for the presence of AB in e-prescribing and the impact of task complexity and interruptions on AB. One hundred and twenty students in the final two years of a medical degree prescribed medicines for nine clinical scenarios using a simulated e-prescribing system. Quality of CDS (correct, incorrect and no CDS) and task complexity (low, low + interruption and high) were varied between conditions. Omission errors (failure to detect prescribing errors) and commission errors (acceptance of false positive alerts) were measured. Compared to scenarios with no CDS, correct CDS reduced omission errors by 38.3% (p < .0001, n = 120), 46.6% (p < .0001, n = 70), and 39.2% (p < .0001, n = 120) for low, low + interrupt and high complexity scenarios respectively. Incorrect CDS increased omission errors by 33.3% (p < .0001, n = 120), 24.5% (p < .009, n = 82), and 26.7% (p < .0001, n = 120). Participants made commission errors, 65.8% (p < .0001, n = 120), 53.5% (p < .0001, n = 82), and 51.7% (p < .0001, n = 120). Task complexity and interruptions had no impact on AB. This study found evidence of AB omission and commission errors in e-prescribing. Verification of CDS alerts is key to avoiding AB errors. However, interventions focused on this have had limited success to date. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the risks of CDS failures and verify CDS.

  4. Biases in GNSS-Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, S. C.; Dach, R.; Lutz, S.; Meindl, M.; Beutler, G.

    2010-12-01

    Within the Global Positioning System (GPS) traditionally different types of pseudo-range measurements (P-code, C/A-code) are available on the first frequency that are tracked by the receivers with different technologies. For that reason, P1-C1 and P1-P2 Differential Code Biases (DCB) need to be considered in a GPS data processing with a mix of different receiver types. Since the Block IIR-M series of GPS satellites also provide C/A-code on the second frequency, P2-C2 DCB need to be added to the list of biases for maintenance. Potential quarter-cycle biases between different phase observables (specifically L2P and L2C) are another issue. When combining GNSS (currently GPS and GLONASS), careful consideration of inter-system biases (ISB) is indispensable, in particular when an adequate combination of individual GLONASS clock correction results from different sources (using, e.g., different software packages) is intended. Facing the GPS and GLONASS modernization programs and the upcoming GNSS, like the European Galileo and the Chinese Compass, an increasing number of types of biases is expected. The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is monitoring these GPS and GLONASS related biases for a long time based on RINEX files of the tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and in the frame of the data processing as one of the global analysis centers of the IGS. Within the presentation we give an overview on the stability of the biases based on the monitoring. Biases derived from different sources are compared. Finally, we give an outlook on the potential handling of such biases with the big variety of signals and systems expected in the future.

  5. Semiautomatic machine for turning inside out industrial leather gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-Gonzalez, G; Cano-Blanco, M; León-Galicia, A; Medrano-Sierra, L F; Morales-Gómez, J R

    2015-01-01

    The last step in the industrial leather gloves manufacturing is to turn the inside out so that the sewing be in the inside of the glove. This work presents the design and testing of a machine for that purpose. In order to quantify the relevant variables, testing was performed with a prototype glove. The employed devices and the testing proceeding were developed experimentally. The obtained information was used to build the turning inside out machine. This machine works with pneumatic power to carry the inside out turning by means of double effect lineal actuators. It has two independent work stations that could be operated simultaneously by two persons, one in each station or in single mode operating one station by one person. The turning inside out cycle is started by means of directional control valves operated with pedals. The velocity and developed force by the actuators is controlled with typical pneumatic resources. The geometrical dimensions of the machine are: 1.15 m length; 0.71 m width and 2.15 m high. Its approximated weight is 120 kg. The air consumption is 5.4 fps by each working station with 60 psig work pressure. The turning inside out operation is 40 s for each industrial leather glove

  6. Postural hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Віталійович Лизогуб

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background of study. Prone position is one of the most complex positions for anesthesiologist as it is accompanied by several physiological changes that can lead to specific complications. Hemodynamic changes are most controversial.Aim of study was to establish hemodynamic changes in non-anaesthetized patients in prone position depending on body mass index.Material and methods. We examined central hemodynamics in 40 patients the day before surgery using thoracic rheography in supine position, in prone position 5 min after turning and in prone position 20 min after turning. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to body mass index (18-25 and 26-35.Results. Patients with normal body weight did not have any hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position. Patients with increased body weight had higher cardiac index. After turning to prone position obese patients’ cardiac output and cardiac index reduced 22% comparing with supine position. After 20 min in prone position these hemodynamic parameters were found to be reduced to the same level.Conclusion. Significant hemodynamic changes after turning from supine to prone position were revealed only in patients with increased body mass index. In these patients cardiac index in prone position was reduced by 22% comparing to supine position

  7. The Mechanical and Tribology Properties of Sputtered Titanium Aluminum Nitride Coating on the Tungsten Carbide Insert Tool in the Dry Turning of Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmar Budi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the sputtering parameters on the mechanical tribology properties of Titanium Aluminum Nitride coating on the tungsten cabide insert tool in the dry turning of tool steel has been investigated. The coating was deposited using a Direct Current magnetron sputtering system with various substrate biases (-79 to -221 V and nitrogen flow rates (30 to 72 sccm. The dry turning test was carried out on a Computer Numeric Code machine using an optimum cutting parameter setting. The results show that the lowest flank wear (~0.4 mm was achieved using a Titanium Aluminum Nitride-coated tool that was deposited at a high substrate bias (-200 V and a high nitrogen flow rate (70 sccm. The lowest flank wear was attributed to high coating hardness.

  8. On the Limitations of Variational Bias Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Isaac; Mccarty, Will; Gelaro, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Satellite radiances are the largest dataset assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, however the data are subject to errors and uncertainties that need to be accounted for before assimilating into the NWP models. Variational bias correction uses the time series of observation minus background to estimate the observations bias. This technique does not distinguish between the background error, forward operator error, and observations error so that all these errors are summed up together and counted as observation error. We identify some sources of observations errors (e.g., antenna emissivity, non-linearity in the calibration, and antenna pattern) and show the limitations of variational bias corrections on estimating these errors.

  9. Cognitive biases and decision making in gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chóliz, Mariano

    2010-08-01

    Heuristics and cognitive biases can occur in reasoning and decision making. Some of them are very common in gamblers (illusion of control, representativeness, availability, etc.). Structural characteristics and functioning of games of chance favor the appearance of these biases. Two experiments were conducted with nonpathological gamblers. The first experiment was a game of dice with wagers. In the second experiment, the participants played two bingo games. Specific rules of the games favored the appearance of cognitive bias (illusion of control) and heuristics (representativeness and availability) and influence on the bets. Results and implications for gambling are discussed.

  10. Removing Malmquist bias from linear regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verter, Frances

    1993-01-01

    Malmquist bias is present in all astronomical surveys where sources are observed above an apparent brightness threshold. Those sources which can be detected at progressively larger distances are progressively more limited to the intrinsically luminous portion of the true distribution. This bias does not distort any of the measurements, but distorts the sample composition. We have developed the first treatment to correct for Malmquist bias in linear regressions of astronomical data. A demonstration of the corrected linear regression that is computed in four steps is presented.

  11. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    In stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In Choice Experiments, status quo bias is found to be strongly correlated with protest attitudes...... toward the cost attribute. If economic values are to be elicited, this problem is difficult to remedy. In a split sample framework we test a novel ex-ante entreaty aimed specifically at the cost attribute and find that it effectively reduces status quo bias and improves the internal validity...

  12. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...

  13. A study on investors’ personality characteristics and behavioral biases: Conservatism bias and availability bias in the Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Moradi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most economic and finance theories are based on the assumption that during economic decision making, people would act totally rational and consider all available information. Nevertheless, behavioral finance focuses on studying of the role of psychological factors on economic participants’ behavior. The study shows that in real-world environment, people are influenced by emotional and cognitive errors and may make irrational financial decisions. In many cases, the participants of financial markets are not aware of their talents for error in decision making, so they are dissatisfied with their investments by considering some behavioral biases decisions. These decisions may often yield undesirable outcomes, which could influence economy, significantly. This paper presents a survey on the relationship between personality dimensions with behavioral biases and availability bias among investment managers in the Tehran Stock Exchange using SPSS software, descriptive and inferential statistics. The necessary data are collected through questionnaire and they are analyzed using some statistical tests. The preliminary results indicate that there is a relationship between personality dimensions and behavioral biases like conservatism bias and availability bias among the investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange.

  14. Modeling of residual stress state in turning of 304L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiorgue, F.; Rech, J.; Bergheau, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research presented in this paper aims to link machining parameters to residual stress state and helps understanding mechanisms responsible of machined surface properties modifications. The first presented works are based on an experimental campaign. They reproduce the finishing turning operation of 304L and allow observing the residual stress state evolution at the work piece surface and for an affected depth of 0.2 mm for such processes. Then, the finishing turning operation is simulated numerically in order to realize the same sensitivity study to cutting parameters. This simulation is based on an hybrid approach mixing experimental data and numerical simulation. This method allows getting round the classical difficulties of turning simulation by applying equivalent thermo mechanical loadings onto the work piece surface without modeling the material separation phenomena. Moreover the numerical model uses an hardening law taking into account dynamic recrystallization phenomena. (authors)

  15. Negotiating behavioural change: therapists' proposal turns in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Katie; Lecouteur, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an internationally recognised method for treating depression. However, many of the techniques involved in CBT are accomplished within the therapy interaction in diverse ways, and with varying consequences for the trajectory of therapy session. This paper uses conversation analysis to examine some standard ways in which therapists propose suggestions for behavioural change to clients attending CBT sessions for depression in Australia. Therapists' proposal turns displayed their subordinate epistemic authority over the matter at hand, and emphasised a high degree of optionality on behalf of the client in accepting their suggestions. This practice was routinely accomplished via three standard proposal turns: (1) hedged recommendations; (2) interrogatives; and (3) information-giving. These proposal turns will be examined in relation to the negotiation of behavioural change, and the implications for CBT interactions between therapist and client will be discussed.

  16. Conformational interconversions in peptide beta-turns: analysis of turns in proteins and computational estimates of barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, K; Gomathi, L; Ramakrishnan, C; Chandrasekhar, J; Balaram, P

    1998-12-18

    The two most important beta-turn features in peptides and proteins are the type I and type II turns, which differ mainly in the orientation of the central peptide unit. Facile conformational interconversion is possible, in principle, by a flip of the central peptide unit. Homologous crystal structures afford an opportunity to structurally characterize both possible conformational states, thus allowing identification of sites that are potentially stereochemically mobile. A representative data set of 250 high-resolution (turns that are assigned different conformational types (type I/type II) in related structures. A total of 55 examples of beta-turns were identified as possible candidates for a stereochemically mobile site. Of the 55 examples, 45 could be classified as a potential site for interconversion between type I and type II beta-turns, while ten correspond to flips from type I' to type II' structures. As a further check, the temperature factors of the central peptide unit carbonyl oxygen atom of the 55 examples were examined. The analysis reveals that the turn assignments are indeed reliable. Examination of the secondary structures at the flanking positions of the flippable beta-turns reveals that seven examples occur in the loop region of beta-hairpins, indicating that the formation of ordered secondary structures on either side of the beta-turn does not preclude local conformational variations. In these beta-turns, Pro (11 examples), Lys (nine examples) and Ser (seven examples) were most often found at the i+1 position. Glycine was found to occur overwhelmingly at position i+2 (28 examples), while Ser (seven examples) and Asn (six examples) were amongst the most frequent residues. Activation energy barriers for the interconversion between type I and type II beta-turns were computed using the peptide models Ac-Pro-Aib-NHMe and Ac-Pro-Gly-NHMe within the framework of the AM1 semi-empirical molecular orbital procedure. In order to have a uniform basis for

  17. A survey report for the turning of biped locomotion robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ichiro; Takanishi, Atsuo; Kume, Etsuo.

    1992-12-01

    A mechanical design study of biped locomotion robots is going on at JAERI within the scope of the Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP). The design study at JAERI is of an arbitrarily mobile robot for inspection of nuclear facilities. A survey has been performed for collecting useful information from already existing biped locomotion robots. This is a survey report for the turning of biped locomotion robot: the WL-10R designed and developed at Waseda University. This report includes the control method of turning, machine model and control system. (author)

  18. The turning points of world history : financial and methodological interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Kukliński, Antoni (ed.); Pawłowski, Krzysztof (ed.); Swianiewicz, Jan (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    Volumes VI and VII of the REUPUS Series “The Atlantic Community. The Titanic of the XXI Century?” and “The Turning Points of World History” can be seen as twin volumes trying to find new empirical observations, new methodological approaches and new value judgements to face the enigma of the XXI Century. Those volumes try to present some new interpretations of one of the greatest turning points of human history which is the essential feature of our times... Volume VII is the ...

  19. Spatial turn and animation practices inspired by cultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wieszaczewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial turn is one of the cultural turns, which have recently occurred in the humanities. It stresses the importance of issues such as space and place and can be successfully used as a theoretical perspective gaining use in thought over issues such as globalisation, transnationality, mapping but also education. In the discourses of pedagogical science space and place are considered through their multidimensional impact on education and learning. As significant concepts rooting pedagogy or pedagogy of borderland. The pedagogical reflection on space could be also used in the field of animation practices, especially in activities, which are related to place somehow colonised.

  20. Abolishment of Spontaneous Flight Turns in Visually Responsive Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Bennett Drew; Green, Jonathan; Maimon, Gaby

    2018-01-22

    Animals react rapidly to external stimuli, such as an approaching predator, but in other circumstances, they seem to act spontaneously, without any obvious external trigger. How do the neural processes mediating the execution of reflexive and spontaneous actions differ? We studied this question in tethered, flying Drosophila. We found that silencing a large but genetically defined set of non-motor neurons virtually eliminates spontaneous flight turns while preserving the tethered flies' ability to perform two types of visually evoked turns, demonstrating that, at least in flies, these two modes of action are almost completely dissociable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of cutting force uncertainty components in turning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the evaluation of those uncertainty components of a single cutting force measurement in turning that are related to the contributions of the dynamometer calibration and the cutting process itself. Based on an empirical model including errors form both sources......, the uncertainty for a single measurement of cutting force is presented, and expressions for the expected uncertainty vs. cutting parameters are proposed. This approach gives the possibility of evaluating cutting force uncertainty components in turning, for a defined range of cutting parameters, based on few...

  2. Students' gender bias in teaching evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narissra Punyanunt-Carter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate if there is gender bias in student evaluations. Researchers administered a modified version of the teacher evaluation forms to 58 students (male=30; female=28 in a basic introductory communications class. Half the class was instructed to fill out the survey about a male professor, and the other half a female professor. Researchers broke down the evaluation results question by question in order to give a detailed account of the findings. Results revealed that there is certainly some gender bias at work when students evaluate their instructors. It was also found that gender bias does not significantly affect the evaluations. The results align with other findings in the available literature, which point to some sort of pattern regarding gender bias in evaluations, but it still seems to be inconsequential.  DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i3.234

  3. Cognitive bias in symptomatic and recovered agoraphobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, L S; McNally, R J

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic agoraphobics, recovered agoraphobics, and normal control subjects completed a series of sentence stems that had either ambiguous or unambiguous meanings, and had either a potentially threatening or a nonthreatening connotation. The written completions made by subjects to these stems were classified as indicating either a biased (i.e. threat-related) or unbiased interpretation of the meaning of the stem, and if a biased interpretation was made, whether the subject indicated efforts at adaptive coping with the perceived threat. Results indicated that symptomatic agoraphobics exhibited strong biases for interpreting information as threatening, relative to normal control subjects. Moreover, recovered agoraphobics resembled symptomatic agoraphobics more than normal control subjects, thus indicating that cognitive biases may persist following cessation of panic attacks and reductions in avoidance behavior. However, recovered agoraphobics also exhibited tendencies to cope adaptively with perceived threats whereas symptomatic agoraphobics did not.

  4. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel [DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: assassi@ias.edu, E-mail: D.D.Baumann@uva.nl, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation.

  5. Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias Wh...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias When Using Medicare Prescription Drug Data Unobservable exposure time is common among Medicare Part D beneficiaries,...

  6. Galaxy bias and primordial non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation

  7. Exchange bias studied with polarized neutron reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velthuis, S. G. E. te

    2000-01-01

    The role of Polarized Neutron Reflectivity (PNR) for studying natural and synthetic exchange biased systems is illustrated. For a partially oxidized thin film of Co, cycling of the magnetic field causes a considerable reduction of the bias, which the onset of diffuse neutron scattering shows to be due to the loosening of the ferromagnetic domains. On the other hand, PNR measurements of a model exchange bias junction consisting of an n-layered Fe/Cr antiferromagnetic (AF) superlattice coupled with an m-layered Fe/Cr ferromagnetic (F) superlattice confirm the predicted collinear magnetization in the two superlattices. The two magnetized states of the F (along or opposite to the bias field) differ only in the relative orientation of the F and adjacent AF layer. The possibility of reading clearly the magnetic state at the interface pinpoints the commanding role that PNR is having in solving this intriguing problem

  8. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1), 181-190 (2011)] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011)]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract....

  9. The Local Bias of Individual Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhu

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates individual investors' bias towards nearby companies. Using data from a large U.S. discount brokerage, we find that individual investors tend to invest in companies closer to them relative to the market portfolio. Unlike Coval and Moskowitz's (1999) findings on institutional investors, however, we find that advantageous information cannot explain individual investors' local bias. Accounting numbers and information asymmetry matter less to individual investors' local bia...

  10. GENDER DIFFERENCES AND BIASES IN THE WORKPLACE

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Srivastava*1 & Dr. Shweta S. Kulshrestha2

    2018-01-01

    Gender equality in the workplace has been a major concern for almost all the organizations and countries. Even in most developed countries we cannot find complete gender equality in true sense. This paper aims to discuss whether there is gender biasness in organizations or not? Gender biasness is considered as a major constraint towards the development process in any of the country and thus we have made an attempt to determine the root causes for gender gap that persists in our society. A...

  11. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  12. Domain wall engineering through exchange bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The control of the structure and position of magnetic domain walls is at the basis of the development of different magnetic devices and architectures. Several nanofabrication techniques have been proposed to geometrically confine and shape domain wall structures; however, a fine tuning of the position and micromagnetic configuration is hardly achieved, especially in continuous films. This work shows that, by controlling the unidirectional anisotropy of a continuous ferromagnetic film through exchange bias, domain walls whose spin arrangement is generally not favored by dipolar and exchange interactions can be created. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the domain wall width, position and profile can be tuned by establishing an abrupt change in the direction and magnitude of the exchange bias field set in the system. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic simulations study domain walls in exchange biased thin films. • Novel domain wall configurations can be stabilized via exchange bias. • Domain walls nucleate at the boundary of regions with different exchange bias. • Domain wall width and spin profile are controlled by tuning the exchange bias.

  13. Influences of general self-efficacy and weight bias internalization on physical activity in bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Zenger, Markus; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Dietrich, Arne; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) seems to be important for long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, studies provide evidence for insufficient PA levels in bariatric patients. Research found self-efficacy to be associated with PA and weight bias internalization, for which an influence on mental and physical health has been shown in recent studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of general self-efficacy on PA, mediated by weight bias internalization. In 179 bariatric surgery candidates, general self-efficacy, weight bias internalization, and different intensities of PA were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, weight bias internalization fully mediated the association between general self-efficacy and moderate-intense as well as vigorous-intense PA. Lower general self-efficacy predicted greater weight bias internalization, which in turn predicted lower levels of moderate-intense and vigorous-intense PA. The results suggest an influence of weight bias internalization on preoperative PA in bariatric surgery candidates. Subsequently, implementation of interventions addressing weight bias internalization in the usual treatment of bariatric surgery candidates might enhance patients' preoperative PA, while longitudinal analyses are needed to further examine its predictive value on PA after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. OpenTURNS, an open source uncertainty engineering software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popelin, A.L.; Dufoy, A.

    2013-01-01

    The needs to assess robust performances for complex systems have lead to the emergence of a new industrial simulation challenge: to take into account uncertainties when dealing with complex numerical simulation frameworks. EDF has taken part in the development of an Open Source software platform dedicated to uncertainty propagation by probabilistic methods, named OpenTURNS for Open source Treatment of Uncertainty, Risk and Statistics. OpenTURNS includes a large variety of qualified algorithms in order to manage uncertainties in industrial studies, from the uncertainty quantification step (with possibilities to model stochastic dependence thanks to the copula theory and stochastic processes), to the uncertainty propagation step (with some innovative simulation algorithms as the ziggurat method for normal variables) and the sensitivity analysis one (with some sensitivity index based on the evaluation of means conditioned to the realization of a particular event). It also enables to build some response surfaces that can include the stochastic modeling (with the chaos polynomial method for example). Generic wrappers to link OpenTURNS to the modeling software are proposed. At last, OpenTURNS is largely documented to provide rules to help use and contribution

  15. Understanding the Linguistic Turn and the Quest for Meaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from Dilthey the linguistic turn penetrated also the thought of thinkers such as Freud, Wittgenstein, Frankl, Heidegger, Habermas, Dooyeweerd and Gadamer, all of them (implicitly or explicitly) elaborated the initial criticism raised by Herder, Jacobi, Hamann, Heidegger and Gadamer against Kant's Critique of Pure ...

  16. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Mineral oil - RM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RM. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  17. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  18. Turn me on 100 easy ways to use solar energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kodis, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    HERE COMES THE SUN! With page after page of creative and innovative ideas for using this limitless form of energy, as well as thoughtfully compiled lists of useful resources, Turn Me On is an introductory guide to understanding the exciting advances in a progressing technology that harnesses the boundless power of the sun to bring us clean, renewable energy.

  19. A Rhetoric of Turns: Signs and Symbols in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In our research and teaching we explore the value and the place of rhetoric in education. From a theoretical perspective we situate our work in different disciplines, inspired by major "turns": linguistic, cultural, anthropological/ethnographic, interpretive, semiotic, narrative, literary, rhetorical etc. In this article we engage in the…

  20. Turning of materials with high-speed abrasive waterjet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Hlaváček, Petr

    -, October 2016 (2016), s. 1160-1165 ISSN 1805-0476 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet machining * turning * steel * rock * wood Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.mmscience.eu/content/file/archives/MM_Science_201692.pdf