WorldWideScience

Sample records for left-right symmetric gauge

  1. Quark mass matrices in left-right symmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Konetschny, W.

    1981-01-01

    The most general left-right symmetry for SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1) gauge theories with any number of flavours and with at most two scalar multiplets transforming as anti qq bilinears is analyzed. In order to get additional constraints on the structure of quark mass matrices all possible horizontal groups (continuous or discrete) are investigated. A complete classification of physically inequivalent quark mass matrices is given for four and six flavours. It is argued that the methods and results are also applicable in the case of dynamical symmetry breaking. Parity invariance and horizontal symmetry are shown to imply CP conservation on the Lagrangian level. For all non-trivial three-generation models there is spontaneous CP violation which in most cases turns out to be naturally small. (Auth.)

  2. Searching for dark matter signals in the left-right symmetric gauge model with CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanlei; Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the singlet scalar dark matter (DM) candidate in a left-right symmetric gauge model with two Higgs bidoublets in which the stabilization of the DM particle is induced by the discrete symmetries P and CP. According to the observed DM abundance, we predict the DM direct and indirect detection cross sections for the DM mass range from 10 to 500 GeV. We show that the DM indirect detection cross section is not sensitive to the light Higgs mixing and Yukawa couplings except for the resonance regions. The predicted spin-independent DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section is found to be significantly dependent on the above two factors. Our results show that the future DM direct search experiments can cover the most parts of the allowed parameter space. The PAMELA antiproton data can only exclude two very narrow regions in the two Higgs bidoublets model. It is very difficult to detect the DM direct or indirect signals in the resonance regions due to the Breit-Wigner resonance effect.

  3. Left--right symmetric gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    We review the recent progress in spontaneously broken left-right symmetric gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Recently gauge theories based on the group SU(2)/Sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) have been proposed as serious candidates for a unified description of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. Such theories have a number of attractive features which are not shared by the standard SU(2) x U(1) theories. Parity violation as well as CP-violation are spontaneous in origin and, therefore, theories are parity conserving before spontaneous breakdown of the symmetry and also afterwards at asymptotic energies. The asymmetry in low energy charged current weak interaction, i.e., predominance of left-handed charged current interactions over the right-handed ones, is a consequence of the symmetry breaking thus leading to a conceptually different picture of weak interaction at low energies. Another appealing feature of these theories is the beauty and richness of the structure of weak neutral current interactions. One can have a parity conserving structure of the neutral currents (one neutral boson (Z/sub V/) has pure vector and the other (Z/sub A/) pure axial vector coupling to quarks and leptons) which is natural in the technical sense of the word. Models of this type provide the most elegant explanation of the failure to find parity violation in atoms at the level predicted on the basis of the Weinberg-Salam model. In spite of manifestly parity conserving neutral current interactions, ν/sub μ/N and anti ν/sub μ/N (also ν/sub μ/e and anti ν/sub μ/e) neutral current cross-sections have to be unequal in these theories because of the definite parity and charge conjugation of the Z-bosons

  4. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  5. Neutrino jets from high-mass WR gauge bosons in TeV-scale left-right symmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Manimala; Ruiz, Richard; Scott, Darren J.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We reexamine the discovery potential at hadron colliders of high-mass right-handed (RH) gauge bosons WR—an inherent ingredient of left-right symmetric models (LRSM). We focus on the regime where the WR is very heavy compared to the heavy Majorana neutrino N , and we investigate an alternative signature for WR→N decays. The produced neutrinos are highly boosted in this mass regime. Subsequently, their decays via off-shell WR bosons to jets, i.e., N →ℓ±jj, are highly collimated, forming a single neutrino jet (jN). The final-state collider signature is then ℓ±jN, instead of the widely studied ℓ±ℓ±j j . Present search strategies are not sensitive to this hierarchical mass regime due to the breakdown of the collider signature definition. We take into account QCD corrections beyond next-to-leading order (NLO) that are important for high-mass Drell-Yan processes at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For the first time, we evaluate WR production at NLO with threshold resummation at next-to-next-to-leading logarithm (NNLL) matched to the threshold-improved parton distributions. With these improvements, we find that a WR of mass MWR=3 (4 )[5 ] TeV and mass ratio of (mN/MWR)discovered with a 5 - 6 σ statistical significance at 13 TeV after 10 (100 )[2000 ] fb-1 of data. Extending the analysis to the hypothetical 100 TeV Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), 5 σ can be obtained for WR masses up to MW R=15 (30 ) with approximately 100 fb-1 (10 ab-1 ). Conversely, with 0.9 (10 )[150 ] fb-1 of 13 TeV data, MWR<3 (4 )[5 ] TeV and (mN/MWR)<0.1 can be excluded at 95% C.L.; with 100 fb-1 (2.5 ab-1 ) of 100 TeV data, MW R<22 (33 ) TeV can be excluded.

  6. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  7. Left-right symmetric superstring supergravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burova, M.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A left-right (L-R) symmetric model of four-dimensional supergravitation with a SO(10) gauge group obtained as the low-energy limit is superstring theory is considered. The spectrum of the gauge fields and their interactions are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam theory. In addition, the model includes heavy W R ± and Z μ ' bosons. Beside the N g =3 generations of the 16-plets the SO(10) model includes the fragments of such generations which play the role of Higgs particles and also scalar chiral filds, the number of which exceeds by one the number of generations. As a result the neutrinos of each generation obtain a stable small Majorana mass. It is shown that the scalar field potential leads to spontaneous violation of the SU(2) R group and L-R symmetry and at low energies the standard Weinberg-Salam theory appears. However, reasonable values of X bosons masses M x and sun 2 Θ W (Θ W is the Weinberg angle) can be obtained in the model only in the case of high mass scale M R ∼10 10 -10 12 GeV of the right group SU(2) R violation

  8. Exotic fermions in the left-right symmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.; Volkas, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study is made of non-standard fermion multiplets in left-right symmetric models with gauge group SU(3) x SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) BL . Constraints from gauge anomaly cancellation and invariance of Yukawa coupling terms are used to define interesting classes of exotic fermions. The standard quark lepton spectrum of left-right symmetric models was identified as the simplest member of an infinite class. Phenomenological implications of the next simplest member of this class are then studied. Classes of exotic fermions which may couple to the standard fermions through doublet Higgs bosons were also considered, then shown that some of these exotics may be used to induce a generalised universal see-saw mechanism. 12 refs., 1 tab

  9. Mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Fox, Patrick J. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Mohlabeng, Gopolang [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas,Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Motivated by the recently reported diboson and dijet excesses in Run 1 data at ATLAS and CMS, we explore models of mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric theories. In this study, we calculate the relic abundance and the elastic scattering cross section with nuclei for a number of dark matter candidates that appear within the fermionic multiplets of left-right symmetric models. In contrast to the case of pure multiplets, WIMP-nucleon scattering proceeds at tree-level, and hence the projected reach of future direct detection experiments such as LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T will cover large regions of parameter space for TeV-scale thermal dark matter. Decays of the heavy charged W{sup ′} boson to particles in the dark sector can potentially shift the right-handed gauge coupling to larger values when fixed to the rate of the Run 1 excesses, moving towards the theoretically attractive scenario, g{sub R}=g{sub L}. This region of parameter space may be probed by future collider searches for new Higgs bosons or electroweak fermions.

  10. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates—triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet—bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates—doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level—have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many features with the well-known candidates wino, Higgsino, inert doublet scalar, sneutrino, and Minimal Dark Matter. In particular, they all predict a large gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilations, which can be searched for with Cherenkov telescopes. We furthermore discuss models with unequal left-right gauge couplings, g R  ≠ g L , taking the recent experimental hints for a charged gauge boson with 2 TeV mass as a benchmark point. In this case, the dark matter mass is determined by the observed relic density

  11. Naturally light Dirac neutrino in Left-Right Symmetric Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: dborah@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: arnab.d@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, HBNI, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2017-06-01

    We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac masses of neutrinos in Left-Right Symmetric Model (LRSM) without requiring the existence of any additional symmetries. The charged fermions acquire masses through a universal seesaw mechanism due to the presence of additional vector like fermions. The neutrinos acquire a one-loop Dirac mass from the same additional vector like charged leptons without requiring any additional discrete symmetries. The model can also be extended by an additional Z {sub 2} symmetry in order to have a scotogenic version of this scenario predicting a stable dark matter candidate. We show that the latest Planck upper bound on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom N {sub eff}=3.15 ± 0.23 tightly constrains the right sector gauge boson masses to be heavier than 3.548 TeV . This bound on gauge boson mass also affects the allowed values of right scalar doublet dark matter mass from the requirement of satisfying the Planck bound on dark matter relic abundance. We also discuss the possible implications of such a scenario in charged lepton flavour violation and generating observable electric dipole moment of leptons.

  12. Continuons left-right symmetrical model of electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkin, O.M.

    1993-01-01

    The left-right model (LR) is suggested which is characterized by the orientation angle of the SU(2) R generator in the group space. This model reproduces all the known LR models. The production processes of gauge bosons at electron-positron and hardon colliders are investigated

  13. Duality in Left-Right Symmetric Seesaw Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Frigerio, M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider type I+II seesaw mechanism, where the exchanges of both right-handed neutrinos and isotriplet Higgs bosons contribute to the neutrino mass. Working in the left-right symmetric framework and assuming the mass matrix of light neutrinos m ν and the Dirac-type Yukawa couplings to be known, we find the triplet Yukawa coupling matrix f, which carries the information about the masses and mixing of the right-handed neutrinos. We show that in this case there exists a duality: for any solution f, there is a dual solution f-circumflex=m ν /v L -f, where v L is the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs boson. Thus, unlike in pure type I (II) seesaw, there is no unique allowed structure for the matrix f. For n lepton generations the number of solutions is 2 n . We develop an exact analytic method of solving the seesaw nonlinear matrix equation for f

  14. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, C.E.; Zahir, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is calculated via doubly charged Higgs, which occur naturally in left-right symmetric models. We find that the comparison with known half-lives yields values of phenomenological parameters which are compatible with earlier analyses of neutral current data. In particular, we obtain a right-handed gauge-boson mass lower bound of the order of 240 GeV. Using this result and expressions for neutrino masses derived in a parity non-conserving left-right symmetric model, we obtain msub(νsub(e)) < 1.5 eV, msub(νsub(μ)) < 0.05 MeV and msub(νsub(tau)) < 18 MeV

  15. Neutrino masses and leptogenesis in left-right symmetric models: a review from a model building perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Chandan; Patra, Sudhanwa; Pritimita, Prativa; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-03-01

    In this review, we present several variants of left-right symmetric models in the context of neutrino masses and leptogenesis. In particular, we discuss various low scale seesaw mechanisms like linear seesaw, inverse seesaw, extended seesaw and their implications to lepton number violating process like neutrinoless double beta decay. We also visit an alternative framework of left-right models with the inclusion of vector-like fermions to analyze the aspects of universal seesaw. The symmetry breaking of left-right symmetric model around few TeV scale predicts the existence of massive right-handed gauge bosons W_R and Z_R which might be detected at the LHC in near future. If such signals are detected at the LHC that can have severe implications for leptogenesis, a mechanism to explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We review the implications of TeV scale left-right symmetry breaking for leptogenesis.

  16. Decoupling of parity- and SU(2)/sub R/-breaking scales: A new approach to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Parida, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to left-right symmetric models is proposed, where the left-right discrete-symmetry- and SU(2)/sub R/-breaking scales are decoupled from each other. This changes the spectrum of physical Higgs bosons which leads to different patterns for gauge hierarchies in SU(2)/sub L/xSU(2)/sub R/xSU(4)/sub C/ and SO(10) models. Most interesting are two SO(10) symmetry-breaking chains with an intermediate U(1)/sub R/ symmetry. These are such as to provide new motivation to search for ΔB = 2 and right-handed current effects at low energies

  17. Universal seesaw and 0νββ in new 3331 left-right symmetric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Borah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of left-right symmetric model with enlarged gauge group SU(3c×SU(3L×SU(3R×U(1X without having scalar bitriplet. In the absence of scalar bitriplet, there is no Dirac mass term for fermions including usual quarks and leptons. We introduce new isosinglet vector-like fermions so that all the fermions get their masses through a universal seesaw mechanism. We extend our discussion to neutrino mass and its implications in neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ. We show that for TeV scale SU(3R gauge bosons, the heavy-light neutrino mixing contributes dominantly to 0νββ that can be observed at ongoing experiments. The new physics contributions arising from purely left-handed currents via exchange of keV scale right-handed neutrinos and the so called mixed helicity λ-diagram can saturate the KamLANDZen bound. We show that the right handed neutrinos in this model can have mass in the sub keV range and can be long lived compared to the age of the Universe. The contributions of these right handed neutrinos to flavour physics observables like μ→eγ and muon g−2 is also discussed. Towards the end we also comment on different possible symmetry breaking patterns of this enlarged gauge symmetry to that of the standard model.

  18. Production and detection at SSC of Higgs bosons in left-right symmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.; Kayser, B.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Deshpande, N.G.; Grifols, J.; Mendez, A.; Olness, F.; Pal, P.B.

    1986-12-01

    We discuss the production and detection at SSC of charged and neutral Higgs bosons of the left-right symmetric theories. The H + , which is largely a member of a left-right ''bidoublet,'' should be detectable. The H 2 0 , a more unusual Higgs particle which, apart from mixing, is in a right-handed triplet and does not couple to quarks, may be detectable too

  19. Detection of heavy neutrinos and right-handed bosons of the left-right symmetric model

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsanov, M

    2008-01-01

    The left-right symmetric model can explain the origin of parity violation in weak interactions and predicts the existence of additional $W_R$ and $Z'$ gauge bosons and heavy right-handed neutrino states $N_l$. $N_l$ can be partners of light neutrino states ($l=e,\\mu,\\tau$), related to their non-zero masses through the see-saw mechanism. This makes the searches of $W_R$, $Z'$ and $N_l$ interesting and important. We studied the potential of the CMS experiment to observe signals from the $N_l$ and $W_R$ production at the LHC. It is shown that their decay signals can be identified over a small background. The mass region up to $M_{W_R} = 2100$ GeV and $M_{N_l} = 1200$ GeV can be explored with an expected Gaussian significance of 5$\\sigma$ with an integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{int} = 100$ pb$^{-1}$ (at the collision energy $\\sqrt{s}=14$ TeV).

  20. The neutron electric dipole moment in left-right symmetric low energy supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Y.J.

    1984-01-01

    We compute the neutron electric dipole moment in low energy supergravity based on the gauge group SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L). We find the electric dipole moment dsub(n) -25 e cm x (CP violating phase) provided the left-right symmetry breaking scale > or approx. 10 3 GeV. (orig.)

  1. Dark Gauge U(1) symmetry for an alternative left-right model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    An alternative left-right model of quarks and leptons, where the SU(2)_R lepton doublet (ν ,l)_R is replaced with (n,l)_R so that n_R is not the Dirac mass partner of ν _L, has been known since 1987. Previous versions assumed a global U(1)_S symmetry to allow n to be identified as a dark-matter fermion. We propose here a gauge extension by the addition of extra fermions to render the model free of gauge anomalies, and just one singlet scalar to break U(1)_S. This results in two layers of dark matter, one hidden behind the other.

  2. Connecting Dirac and Majorana neutrino mass matrices in the minimal left-right symmetric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemevšek, Miha; Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2013-04-12

    Probing the origin of neutrino mass by disentangling the seesaw mechanism is one of the central issues of particle physics. We address it in the minimal left-right symmetric model and show how the knowledge of light and heavy neutrino masses and mixings suffices to determine their Dirac Yukawa couplings. This in turn allows one to make predictions for a number of high and low energy phenomena, such as decays of heavy neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, electric dipole moments of charged leptons, and neutrino transition moments. We also discuss a way of reconstructing the neutrino Dirac Yukawa couplings at colliders such as the LHC.

  3. Right-handed quark mixings in minimal left-right symmetric model with general CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Ji Xiangdong; An Haipeng; Mohapatra, R. N.

    2007-01-01

    We solve systematically for the right-handed quark mixings in the minimal left-right symmetric model which generally has both explicit and spontaneous CP violations. The leading-order result has the same hierarchical structure as the left-handed Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing, but with additional CP phases originating from a spontaneous CP-violating phase in the Higgs vacuum expectation values. We explore the phenomenology entailed by the new right-handed mixing matrix, particularly the bounds on the mass of W R and the CP phase of the Higgs vacuum expectation values

  4. Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, Cesar [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València,Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, C/Catedratico José Beltrán 2,E-46980 Paterna (València) (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ−e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.

  5. Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, Cesar; Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner

    2017-01-01

    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ−e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.

  6. Left-right gauge symmetry breaking by radiative corrections in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxhay, P.; Yamamoto, K.

    1984-01-01

    A supersymmetric SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L) gauge theory coupled to N = 1 supergravity is investigated. The scale of left-right gauge symmetry breaking is determined as Msub(R) proportional Msub(P) esup(-1/α) by radiative corrections through the logarithmic evolution of soft supersymmetry breakings. SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L) may be embedded in SO(10) grand unification. Cosmological implications intrinsic to the present model are also discussed, which may give a constraint Msub(R) approx.= 10 9-12 GeV. (orig.)

  7. Dark gauge U(1) symmetry for an alternative left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2018-02-15

    An alternative left-right model of quarks and leptons, where the SU(2){sub R} lepton doublet (ν, l){sub R} is replaced with (n, l){sub R} so that n{sub R} is not the Dirac mass partner of ν{sub L}, has been known since 1987. Previous versions assumed a global U(1){sub S} symmetry to allow n to be identified as a dark-matter fermion. We propose here a gauge extension by the addition of extra fermions to render the model free of gauge anomalies, and just one singlet scalar to break U(1){sub S}. This results in two layers of dark matter, one hidden behind the other. (orig.)

  8. Gauge theories of weak interactions with left-right symmetry and the structure of neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Sidhu, D.P.

    1977-01-01

    Failure to detect parity-violating effects in atomic transitions by Oxford and Washington groups would appear to rule out the Weinberg-Salam SU(2) x U(1) model as well as any variation of it that respects natural conservation laws for charm and strangeness to order a G/sub F/ (called ''natural'') and obeys quark-lepton symmetry. In this paper, a simple left-right--symmetric model based on the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) group with four and six quark flavors is analyzed and found to accomodate the results of the atomic experiments as well as the other features of neutral-current phenomena

  9. Low energy restrictions for a flipped left-right symmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeg, J.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1990-05-01

    I consider some low energy restrictions for a 'flipped' left-right symmetric model containing exotic fermions of E{sub 6} and a right-handed W-boson, all with odd R-parity. The new interactions due to W{sub R}-exchange have no significant impact on rare kaon decays, because the W{sub R} does not couple to d, s, b quarks. On the other hand, W{sub R} exchanges might induce rare processes like D-anti D mixing, D{sup 0}{yields}{mu}anti {mu}, D{sup 0}{yields}{mu}anti e, {mu}{yields}e{gamma}, {mu}{yields}3e, and {mu}N{yields}eN. It turns out that the strongest bound is obtained from D-anti D mixing. With reasonable extra assumptions, it is found that the exotic right-handed W-boson is likely to be heavier than 500 to 1500 GeV. (orig.).

  10. Scalar dark matter explanation of the DAMPE data in the minimal left-right symmetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junjie; Guo, Xiaofei; Shang, Liangliang; Wang, Fei; Wu, Peiwen; Zu, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The left-right symmetric model (LRSM) is an attractive extension of the Standard Model (SM) that can address the origin of parity violation in the SM electroweak interactions, generate tiny neutrino masses, accommodate dark matter (DM) candidates, and provide a natural framework for baryogenesis through leptogenesis. In this work, we utilize the minimal LRSM to study the recently reported DAMPE results of the cosmic e+e- spectrum, which exhibits a tentative peak around 1.4 TeV, while satisfying the current neutrino data. We propose to explain the DAMPE peak with a complex scalar DM χ in two scenarios: (1) χ χ*→H1++H1-→ℓi+ℓi+ℓj-ℓj- , and (2) χ χ*→Hk++Hk-→ℓi+ℓi+ℓj-ℓj- accompanied by χ χ*→H1+H1-→ℓi+νℓiℓj-νℓj , with ℓi,j=e , μ , τ and k =1 , 2. We fit the theoretical prediction of the e+e- spectrum to relevant experimental data to determine the scalar mass spectrum favored by the DAMPE excess. We also consider various constraints from theoretical principles and collider experiments, as well as DM relic density and direct search experiments. We find that there is ample parameter space to interpret the DAMPE data while also passing the constraints. On the other hand, our explanations usually imply the existence of other new physics at an energy scale ranging from 107 to 1011 GeV . Collider tests of our explanations are also discussed.

  11. Multi-component fermionic dark matter and IceCube PeV scale neutrinos in left-right model with gauge unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab; Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Patra, Sudhanwa; Tomar, Gaurav

    2017-09-01

    We consider a simple extension of the minimal left-right symmetric model (LRSM) in order to explain the PeV neutrino events seen at the IceCube experiment from a heavy decaying dark matter. The dark matter sector is composed of two fermions: one at PeV scale and the other at TeV scale such that the heavier one can decay into the lighter one and two neutrinos. The gauge annihilation cross sections of PeV dark matter are not large enough to generate its relic abundance within the observed limit. We include a pair of real scalar triplets Ω L,R which can bring the thermally overproduced PeV dark matter abundance into the observed range through late time decay and consequent entropy release thereby providing a consistent way to obtain the correct relic abundance without violating the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. Another scalar field, a bitriplet under left-right gauge group is added to assist the heavier dark matter decay. The presence of an approximate global U(1) X symmetry can naturally explain the origin of tiny couplings required for long-lived nature of these decaying particles. We also show, how such an extended LRSM can be incorporated within a non-supersymmetric SO(10) model where the gauge coupling unification at a very high scale naturally accommodate a PeV scale intermediate symmetry, required to explain the PeV events at IceCube.

  12. An Analysis of $B_{s}$ Decays in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model with Spontaneous CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Patricia; Ball, Patricia; Fleischer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Non-leptonic B_s decays into CP eigenstates that are caused by \\bar b -> \\bar cc\\bar s quark-level transitions, such as B_s -> D_s^+D^-_s, J/psi eta^(') or J/psi phi, provide a powerful tool to search for ``new physics'', as the CP-violating effects in these modes are tiny in the Standard Model. We explore these effects for a particular scenario of new physics, the left-right-symmetric model with spontaneous CP violation. In our analysis, we take into account all presently available experimental constraints on the parameters of this model, i.e. those implied by K- and B-decay observables; we find that CP asymmetries as large as O(40%) may arise in the B_s channels, whereas the left-right-symmetric model favours a small CP asymmetry in the ``gold-plated'' mode B_d -> J/psi K_S. Such a pattern would be in favour of B-physics experiments at hadron machines, where the B_s modes are very accessible.

  13. Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, Jamil

    2015-02-04

    The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R}. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model. We find that the trinification model predicts that several new scalar particles have masses in the O(100 GeV) range. Moreover, large regions of the parameter space lead to measurable deviations from Standard-Model predictions of the Higgs couplings. Hence the trinification model awaits crucial tests at the Large Hadron Collider in the coming years.

  14. Low-mass right-handed gauge bosons, manifest left-right symmetry, and the K/sub L/-K/sub s/ mass difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.; Raychaudhuri, A.

    1983-01-01

    We calculate the K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference in left-right-symmetric models with four quarks. It is found that a low right-handed mass scale requires strong deviations from manifest left-right symmetry

  15. Non-minimal flavored S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} left-right symmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Izquierdo, Juan Carlos [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2017-08-15

    We propose a non-minimal left-right symmetric model with parity symmetry where the fermion mixings arise as a result of imposing an S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} flavor symmetry, and an extra Z{sup e}{sub 2} symmetry is considered in the lepton sector. Then the neutrino mass matrix possesses approximately the μ-τ symmetry. The breaking of the μ-τ symmetry induces sizable non-zero θ{sub 13}, and the deviation of θ{sub 23} from 45 {sup circle} is strongly controlled by an ε free parameter and the neutrino masses. So, an analytic study of the CP parities in the neutrino masses is carried out to constrain the ε parameter and the lightest neutrino mass that accommodate the mixing angles. The results are: (a) the normal hierarchy is ruled out for any values of the Majorana phases; (b) for the inverted hierarchy the values of the reactor and atmospheric angles are compatible up to 2, 3 σ C.L.; (c) the degenerate ordering is the most favorable such that the reactor and atmospheric angle are compatible with the experimental data for a large set of values of the free parameters. The model predicts defined regions for the effective neutrino mass, the neutrino mass scale and the sum of the neutrino masses for the favored cases. Therefore, this model may be testable by the future experiments. (orig.)

  16. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  17. Three-family left-right symmetry with low-scale seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reig, Mario; Valle, José W.F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C.A. [AHEP Group, Institut de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C., Universitat de València,Parc Científic de Paterna, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2 E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-05-18

    We suggest a new left-right symmetric model implementing a low-scale seesaw mechanism in which quantum consistency requires three families of fermions. The symmetry breaking route to the Standard Model determines the profile of the “next” expected new physics, characterized either by the simplest left-right gauge symmetry or by the 3-3-1 scenario. The resulting Z{sup ′} gauge bosons can be probed at the LHC and provide a production portal for the right-handed neutrinos. On the other hand, its flavor changing interactions would affect the K, D and B neutral meson systems.

  18. Search for a Heavy Right-Handed W Boson and Heavy Right-Handed Neutrino of the Left-Right Symmetric Extension of the Standard Theory

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00345539

    A search for a heavy right-handed $W_{R}$ boson, and heavy right-handed neutrinos $N_{\\ell}$ ($\\ell = e, \\mu$) performed by the CMS experiment is summarized here. Using the 2.6 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the CMS experiment in 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, this search seeks evidence of a $W_{R}$ boson and $N_{\\ell}$ neutrinos in events with two leptons and two jets. The data do not significantly exceed expected backgrounds, and are consistent with expected results of the Standard Theory given uncertainties. For Standard Theory extensions with strict left-right symmetry, and assuming only one $N_{\\ell}$ flavor contributes significantly to the $W_{R}$ decay width, mass limits are set in the two-dimensional $(M_{W_{R}}, M_{N_{\\ell}})$ plane at 95\\% confidence level. The limits extend to a $W_{R}$ mass of 3.3 TeV in the electron channel and 3.5 TeV in the muon channel, and span a wide range of $M_{N_{\\ell}}$ masses below $M_{W_{R}}$.

  19. Extended gauge sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    Present and future prospects for the discovery of new gauge bosons, Z' and W', are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to hadron and e + e - collider searches for the W' of the Left-Right Symmetric Model

  20. Cancellation of leading divergences in left-right electroweak model and heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Romanenko, N.V.

    1997-01-01

    The fine-tuning principles are analyzed in search for estimation of heavy-particle masses in the left-right symmetric model. The modification of Veltman condition based on the hypothesis of the compression between fermion and boson energies within the left-right model multiples is proposed. The hypothesis is supplied with the requirement of the stability under rescaling. With regard to these requirements the necessity of existence of right-handed Majorana neutrinos with masses of order of right-handed gauge bosons is shown and estimations on the top-quark which are in a good agreement with the experimental value are obtained

  1. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-02

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model’s capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  2. Mass mixing, CP violation and left-right symmetry for heavy neutral mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate M 0 - M-bar 0 mixing and CP violation in the minimal left-right symmetric gauge model with spontaneous P and CP violation. The dominant contributions to the mixing amplitude including QCD corrections are calculated explicitly for B 0 - B-bar 0 . While the amount of mixing is not much changed with respect to the standard model left-right symmetry can give rise to significantly larger CP violation in the B 0 sub(s) - B-bar 0 sub(s) system (up to two orders of magnitude for the dilepton charge asymmetry). Sizable CP violating effects require that the left-right contribution to the KsubLKsubS mass difference has the same sign as the standard model contribution. We also comment on D 0 - D-bar 0 mixing including a careful discussion of the standard model prediction. (Author)

  3. Why PeV scale left-right symmetry is a good thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Urjit A.

    2017-10-01

    Left-right symmetric gauge theory presents a minimal paradigm to accommodate massive neutrinos with all the known conserved symmetries duly gauged. The work presented here is based on the argument that the see-saw mechanism does not force the new right-handed symmetry scale to be very high, and as such some of the species from the spectrum of the new gauge and Higgs bosons can have masses within a few orders of magnitude of the TeV scale. The scale of the left-right parity breaking in turn can be sequestered from the Planck scale by supersymmetry. We have studied several formulations of such just beyond Standard Model (JBSM) theories for their consistency with cosmology. Specifically, the need to eliminate phenomenologically undesirable domain walls gives many useful clues. The possibility that the exact left-right symmetry breaks in conjunction with supersymmetry has been explored in the context of gauge mediation, placing restrictions on the available parameter space. Finally, we have also studied a left-right symmetric model in the context of metastable supersymmetric vacua and obtained constraints on the mass scale of right-handed symmetry. In all the cases studied, the mass scale of the right-handed neutrino M_R remains bounded from above, and in some of the cases the scale 10^9 GeV favourable for supersymmetric thermal leptogenesis is disallowed. On the other hand, PeV scale remains a viable option, and the results warrant a more detailed study of such models for their observability in collider and astroparticle experiments.

  4. Left-right subtraction of brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1986-01-01

    A new image-processing method to obtain a left-right subtraction image of CT was designed for the automated detection of abnormalities in brain CT. An original CT image was divided in two by a centerline. Then the right half of the image was subtracted from the left half by calculating the absorption value of the pixels on the symmetrical positions against the centerline. The mean and the standard deviation of the absorption value of the pixels in the subtraction image were used as parameters for analysis, and the detectability of abnormal CT findings was evaluated in 100 cases - 50 cases each with normal and abnormal CT. The presence of abnormalities could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 90 %, and an overall accuracy of 88 % when the borderline of these parameters between normal and abnormal CT was set at the mean + 2SD in the normal group. As a further analysis, the CT image was subdivided into several areas from a functional or anatomical viewpoint, such as cerebral vascular territories, and the left-right subtraction image of each area was obtained. The possibilities of diagnosing the location of an abnormality and of detecting smaller lesions with this method were shown. Left-right subtraction was considered to be a useful method for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities in the automated diagnosis of brain CT. (author)

  5. Infrared behavior of gluons and ghosts in ghost-antighost symmetric gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofer, R.; Fischer, C.S.; Reinhardt, H.; Smekal, L. von

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of a ghost-antighost condensate, the coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators in Yang-Mills theories are derived in general covariant gauges, including ghost-antighost symmetric gauges. The infrared behavior of these two-point functions is studied in a bare-vertex truncation scheme which has proven to be successful in the Landau gauge. In all linear covariant gauges the same infrared behavior as in the Landau gauge is found: The gluon propagator is infrared-suppressed whereas the ghost propagator is infrared-enhanced. This infrared singular behavior provides an indication against a ghost-antighost condensate. In the ghost-antighost symmetric gauges we find that the infrared behavior of the gluon and ghost propagators cannot be determined when replacing all dressed vertices by bare ones. The question of a BRS invariant dimension-2 condensate remains to be further studied

  6. Resonant slepton production and right sneutrino dark matter in left-right supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mariana; Fuks, Benjamin; Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Waltari, Harri

    2017-05-01

    Right-handed sneutrinos are natural components of left-right symmetric supersymmetric models where the gauge sector is extended to include right-handed weak interactions. Unlike in other models where right-handed sneutrinos are gauge singlets, here the right sneutrino is part of a doublet and could be a dark matter candidate whose annihilation proceeds via gauge interactions. We investigate this possibility, and find that relic density, low-energy observable and direct supersymmetry search constraints can be satisfied when the lightest supersymmetric particle is a right-handed sneutrino. We introduce benchmarks for left-right supersymmetric realizations where either a sneutrino or a neutralino is the lightest superpartner. We then study the LHC signals arising through resonant right-handed slepton production via a W R gauge-boson exchange that lead to final states enriched in leptons, additionally containing a large amount of missing transverse momentum, and featuring a low jet multiplicity. We find that such a resonant production would boost the chances of discovering these weakly interacting supersymmetric particles for a mass range extending beyond 1 TeV already with a luminosity of 100 fb-1. Finally, we compare sneutrino versus neutralino scenarios, and comment on differences with other sneutrino dark matter models.

  7. Resonant slepton production and right sneutrino dark matter in left-right supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Mariana; Fuks, Benjamin; Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Waltari, Harri

    2017-01-01

    Right-handed sneutrinos are natural components of left-right symmetric supersymmetric models where the gauge sector is extended to include right-handed weak interactions. Unlike in other models where right-handed sneutrinos are gauge singlets, here the right sneutrino is part of a doublet and could be a dark matter candidate whose annihilation proceeds via gauge interactions. We investigate this possibility, and find that relic density, low-energy observable and direct supersymmetry search constraints can be satisfied when the lightest supersymmetric particle is a right-handed sneutrino. We introduce benchmarks for left-right supersymmetric realizations where either a sneutrino or a neutralino is the lightest superpartner. We then study the LHC signals arising through resonant right-handed slepton production via a W R gauge-boson exchange that lead to final states enriched in leptons, additionally containing a large amount of missing transverse momentum, and featuring a low jet multiplicity. We find that such a resonant production would boost the chances of discovering these weakly interacting supersymmetric particles for a mass range extending beyond 1 TeV already with a luminosity of 100 fb −1 . Finally, we compare sneutrino versus neutralino scenarios, and comment on differences with other sneutrino dark matter models.

  8. Spherically symmetric star model in the gravitational gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, C [Peking Observatory, China; Ch' en, S; Ho, T; Kuo, H

    1976-12-01

    It is shown that a star model, which is black hole-free and singularity-free, can be obtained naturally in the gravitational gauge theory, provided the space-time is torsion-free and the matter is spinless. The conclusion in a sense shows that the discussions about the black hole and the singularity based on general relativity may not describe nature correctly.

  9. Left-right symmetry in weak interactions: present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1983-01-01

    The basic features of the left-right symmetric electroweak theory are reviewed. The experimental situation regarding the scale M/sub R/ of the breakdown of parity is summarized. I further discuss in detail the connection with weak and strong CP violation and especially, grand unification. Also covered are the issues of cosmological domain walls and the compositeness of quarks and leptons. 57 references

  10. Left-right symmetry, mixing and CP violation in B0 - B-bar0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss B 0 - B-bar 0 mixing and CP violation in the minimal left-right symmetric model. While the amount of mixing is not much changed with respect to the standard model, left-right symmtery can give rise to significantly larger CP violation in the B 0 sub(s) - B-bar 0 sub(s) system. (Author)

  11. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  12. Flat directions in left-right symmetric string derived models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, Gerald B.; Clements, David J.; Faraggi, Alon E.

    2002-01-01

    The only string models known to reproduce the minimal supersymmetric standard model in the low energy effective field theory are those constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We demonstrate the existence of quasirealistic free fermionic heterotic string models in which supersymmetric singlet flat directions do not exist. This raises the possibility that supersymmetry is broken perturbatively in such models by the one-loop Fayet-Iliopoulos term. We show, however, that supersymmetric flat directions that utilize vacuum expectation values of some non-Abelian fields in the massless string spectrum do exist in the model. We argue that hidden sector condensates lift the flat directions and break supersymmetry hierarchically

  13. Newton gauge cosmological perturbations for static spherically symmetric modifications of the de Sitter metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Vélez, Camilo; Enea Romano, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Static coordinates can be convenient to solve the vacuum Einstein's equations in presence of spherical symmetry, but for cosmological applications comoving coordinates are more suitable to describe an expanding Universe, especially in the framework of cosmological perturbation theory (CPT). Using CPT we develop a method to transform static spherically symmetric (SSS) modifications of the de Sitter solution from static coordinates to the Newton gauge. We test the method with the Schwarzschild de Sitter (SDS) metric and then derive general expressions for the Bardeen's potentials for a class of SSS metrics obtained by adding to the de Sitter metric a term linear in the mass and proportional to a general function of the radius. Using the gauge invariance of the Bardeen's potentials we then obtain a gauge invariant definition of the turn around radius. We apply the method to an SSS solution of the Brans-Dicke theory, confirming the results obtained independently by solving the perturbation equations in the Newton gauge. The Bardeen's potentials are then derived for new SSS metrics involving logarithmic, power law and exponential modifications of the de Sitter metric. We also apply the method to SSS metrics which give flat rotation curves, computing the radial energy density profile in comoving coordinates in presence of a cosmological constant.

  14. Higher dimensional maximally symmetric stationary manifold with pure gauge condition and codimension one flat submanifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiliardy, Abednego; Gunara, Bobby Eka

    2016-01-01

    An n dimensional flat manifold N is embedded into an n +1 dimensional stationary manifold M. The metric of M is derived from a general form of stationary manifold. By taking several assumption, such as 1) the ambient manifold M to be maximally symmetric space and satisfying a pure gauge condition, and 2) the submanifold is taken to be flat, then we find the solution that satisfies Ricci scalar of N . Moreover, we determine whether the solution is compatible with the Ricci and Riemann tensor of manifold N depending on the dimension. (paper)

  15. Roadmap of left-right models based on GUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Maji, Rinku; Patra, Sunando Kumar; Srivastava, Tripurari; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2018-05-01

    We perform a detailed study of the grand unified theories S O (10 ) and E (6 ) with left-right intermediate gauge symmetries of the form S U (N )L⊗S U (N )R⊗G . Proton decay lifetime constrains the unification scale to be ≳1016 GeV and, as discussed in this paper, unwanted cosmological relics can be evaded if the intermediate symmetry scale is ≳1012 GeV . With these conditions, we study the renormalization group evolution of the gauge couplings and do a comparative analysis of all possible left-right models where unification can occur. Both the D-parity conserved and broken scenarios as well as the supersymmetric (SUSY) and nonsupersymmetric (non-SUSY) versions are considered. In addition to the fermion and scalar representations at each stage of the symmetry breaking, contributing to the β functions, we list the intermediate left-right groups that successfully meet these requirements. We make use of the dimension-5 kinetic mixing effective operators for achieving unification and large intermediate scale. A significant result in the supersymmetric case is that to achieve successful unification for some breaking patterns, the scale of SUSY breaking needs to be at least a few TeV. In some of these cases, the intermediate scale can be as low as ˜1012 GeV , for the SUSY scale to be ˜30 TeV . This has important consequences in the collider searches for SUSY particles and phenomenology of the lightest neutralino as dark matter.

  16. Search for Heavy Neutrinos and WR Bosons with Right-Handed Couplings in a Left-Right Symmetric Model in pp Collisions at s=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Shreyber, I.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny Iii, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N[mu], and right-handed W[R] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W[R] mass, dependent on the value of M(W[R]). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W[R]), M(N[mu])) mass plane extends to M(W[R]) = 2.5 TeV.

  17. Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field Under the Symmetric Gauge: The Eigenfunctions and the Time Evolution of Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, P. E.; Nazareno, H. N.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use…

  18. Shaping the zebrafish heart: from left-right axis specification to epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, J.; Verhoeven, M.C.; Abdelilah-Seyfried, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although vertebrates appear bilaterally symmetric on the outside, various internal organs, including the heart, are asymmetric with respect to their position and/or their orientation based on the left/right (L/R) axis. The L/R axis is determined during embryo development. Determination of the L/R

  19. General study of ground states in gauged N=2 supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds in 5 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oegetbil, O.

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing the existing results we give an extensive analysis of the critical points of the potentials of the gauged N=2 Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories coupled to tensor multiplets and hypermultiplets. Our analysis includes all the possible gaugings of all N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories whose scalar manifolds are symmetric spaces. In general, the scalar potential gets contributions from R-symmetry gauging, tensor couplings, and hypercouplings. We show that the coupling of a hypermultiplet into a theory whose potential has a nonzero value at its critical point, and gauging a compact subgroup of the hyperscalar isometry group will only rescale the value of the potential at the critical point by a positive factor, and therefore will not change the nature of an existing critical point. However this is not the case for noncompact SO(1,1) gaugings. An SO(1,1) gauging of the hyperisometry will generally lead to de Sitter vacua, which is analogous to the ground states found by simultaneously gauging SO(1,1) symmetry of the real scalar manifold with U(1) R in earlier literature. SO(m,1) gaugings with m>1, which give contributions to the scalar potential only in the magical Jordan family theories, on the other hand, do not lead to de Sitter vacua. Anti-de Sitter vacua are generically obtained when the U(1) R symmetry is gauged. We also show that it is possible to embed certain generic Jordan family theories into the magical Jordan family preserving the nature of the ground states. However the magical Jordan family theories have additional ground states which are not found in the generic Jordan family theories

  20. Present and future K and B meson mixing constraints on TeV scale left-right symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Stefano; Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    We revisit the ΔF=2 transitions in the K and Bd ,s neutral meson systems in the context of the minimal left-right symmetric model. We take into account, in addition to up-to-date phenomenological data, the contributions related to the renormalization of the flavor-changing neutral Higgs tree-level amplitude. These contributions were neglected in recent discussions, albeit formally needed in order to obtain a gauge-independent result. Their impact on the minimal LR model is crucial and twofold. First, the effects are relevant in B meson oscillations, for both CP conserving and CP violating observables, so that for the first time these imply constraints on the LR scenario which compete with those of the K sector (plagued by long-distance uncertainties). Second, they sizably contribute to the indirect kaon CP violation parameter ɛ. We discuss the bounds from B and K mesons in both cases of LR symmetry: generalized parity (P) and charge conjugation (C). In the case of P, the interplay between the CP-violation parameters ɛ and ɛ' leads us to rule out the regime of very hierarchical bidoublet vacuum expectation values v2/v1handed currents, we find that a right-handed gauge boson WR as light as 3 TeV is allowed at the 95% C. L. This is well within the reach of direct detection at the next LHC run. If not discovered, within a decade the upgraded LHCb and Super B factories may reach an indirect sensitivity to a left-right scale of 8 TeV.

  1. Weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry is reviewed. The theoretical basis for asymptotic parity conservation, manifest left-right symmetry in charged current weak interactions, natural parity conservation in neutral currents and CP-violation in the context of SU(2)/sub L/ circled x SU (2)/sub R/ circled x U(1) models are outlined in detail. Various directions for further research in the theoretical and experimental side are indicated

  2. Z(3)-symmetric effective theory for pure gauge QCD at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We review the construction and basic properties of a three-dimensional effective field theory for high-temperature SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, which respects its center symmetry and was introduced in Ref. [A. Vuorinen, L.G. Yaffe, Z(3)-symmetric effective theory for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory at high, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 025011, hep-ph/0604100]. We explain why the phase diagram of the new theory is expected to closely resemble the one of the full theory and argue that this implies that it is applicable down to considerably lower temperatures than the usual non-Z(3)-symmetric 3d effective theory EQCD

  3. Chargino and neutralino production at the Large Hadron Collider in left-right supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Fuks, Benjamin; Rausch de Traubenberg, Michel

    2013-10-04

    We present a complete and extensive analysis of associated chargino and neutralino production in the framework of a supersymmetric theory augmented by left-right symmetry. This model provides additional gaugino and higgsino states in both the neutral and charged sectors, thus potentially enhancing new physics signals at the LHC. For a choice of benchmark scenarios, we calculate cross sections for 7, 8 and 14 TeV. We then simulate events expected to be produced at the LHC, and classify them according to the number of leptons in the final state. We devise methods to reduce the background and compare the signals with consistently simulated events for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We pinpoint promising scenarios where left-right symmetric supersymmetric signals can be distinguished both from background and from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model events.

  4. Neutrino masses and a low breaking scale of left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, Oleg; Perez, Gilad

    2002-01-01

    In left-right symmetric models (LRSMs) the light neutrino masses arise from two sources: the seesaw mechanism and a vacuum expectation value of an SU(2) L triplet. If the left-right symmetry breaking v R is low, v R (less-or-similar sign)15 TeV, the contributions to the light neutrino masses from both the seesaw mechanism and the triplet Yukawa couplings are expected to be well above the experimental bounds. We present a minimal LRSM with an additional U(1) symmetry in which the masses induced by the two sources are below the eV scale and the twofold problem is solved. We further show that, if the U(1) symmetry is also responsible for the lepton flavor structure, the model yields a small mixing angle within the first two lepton generations

  5. Identification of a horizontal gauge boson in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagneid, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    We compare distributions of leptons produced in hadronic collisions, by a horizontal neutral gauge boson, Z ' , suggested by the Sp(6) L x U(1) Y model, to those produced by other theoretically motivated neutral gauge bosons occurring in left-right symmetric models and in superstring-inspired E 6 models. Forward-backward asymmetries in the gauge boson leptonic decay are found to be sensitive to specific forms of the couplings. The asymmetries are expected to be maximal for Z ' , distinguishing it from the other Z's. (orig.)

  6. Left-right correlation in coupled F-center defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2016-08-07

    This work explores how left-right correlation, a textbook problem in electronic structure theory, manifests in a textbook example of electrons trapped in crystal defects. I show that adjacent F-center defects in lithium fluoride display symptoms of "strong" left-right correlation, symptoms similar to those seen in stretched H2. Simulations of UV/visible absorption spectra qualitatively fail to reproduce experiment unless left-right correlation is taken into account. This is of interest to both the electronic structure theory and crystal-defect communities. Theorists have a new well-behaved system to test their methods. Crystal-defect groups are cautioned that the approximations that successfully model single F-centers may fail for adjacent F-centers.

  7. Left-right correlation in coupled F-center defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores how left-right correlation, a textbook problem in electronic structure theory, manifests in a textbook example of electrons trapped in crystal defects. I show that adjacent F-center defects in lithium fluoride display symptoms of “strong” left-right correlation, symptoms similar to those seen in stretched H 2 . Simulations of UV/visible absorption spectra qualitatively fail to reproduce experiment unless left-right correlation is taken into account. This is of interest to both the electronic structure theory and crystal-defect communities. Theorists have a new well-behaved system to test their methods. Crystal-defect groups are cautioned that the approximations that successfully model single F-centers may fail for adjacent F-centers.

  8. Spontaneous mirror left-right symmetry breaking for leptogenesis parametrized by Majorana neutrino mass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a mirror copy of the ordinary fermions and Higgs scalars for embedding the SU(2) L × U(1) Y electroweak gauge symmetry into an SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B-L left-right gauge symmetry. We then show the spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking can automatically break the parity symmetry motivated by solving the strong CP problem. Through the SU(2) R gauge interactions, a mirror Majorana neutrino can decay into a mirror charged lepton and two mirror quarks. Consequently we can obtain a lepton asymmetry stored in the mirror charged leptons. The Yukawa couplings of the mirror and ordinary charged fermions to a dark matter scalar then can transfer the mirror lepton asymmetry to an ordinary lepton asymmetry which provides a solution to the cosmic baryon asymmetry in association with the SU(2) L sphaleron processes. In this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be well described by the neutrino mass matrix up to an overall factor.

  9. The electric dipole moment of the neutron in the left-right supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) in the left-right supersymmetric model, including one-loop contributions from the chargino, the neutralino and the gluino diagrams. We discuss the dependence of the EDM on the phases of the model, as well as on the mass parameters in the left and right sectors. The neutron EDM imposes different conditions on the supersymmetric spectrum from either the electron EDM, or the neutron EDM in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The neutron EDM may be a clue to an extended gauge structure in supersymmetry. (author)

  10. Relations between the SU(2|4) symmetric theories and the gauge gravity correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Asato

    2008-01-01

    We study theories with SU(2|4) symmetry, which include N=4 SYM on R x S 3 /Z k , 2+1 SYM on R x S 2 and the plane wave matrix model. All these theories possess many vacua. From Lin-Maldacena's method which gives the gravity dual of each vacuum, it is suggested that the theory around each vacuum of N=4 SYM on R x S 3 /Z k and 2+1 SYM on R x S 2 is equivalent to the theory around a certain vacuum of the plane wave matrix model. We show this directly on the gauge theory side. We realize theories around multi-monopole backgrounds in matrix model, and extend Taylor's matrix T-duality to that on spheres. (author)

  11. Neurally Derived Tissues in Xenopus laevis Embryos Exhibit a Consistent Bioelectrical Left-Right Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent left-right asymmetry in organ morphogenesis is a fascinating aspect of bilaterian development. Although embryonic patterning of asymmetric viscera, heart, and brain is beginning to be understood, less is known about possible subtle asymmetries present in anatomically identical paired structures. We investigated two important developmental events: physiological controls of eye development and specification of neural crest derivatives, in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that the striking hyperpolarization of transmembrane potential (Vmem demarcating eye induction usually occurs in the right eye field first. This asymmetry is randomized by perturbing visceral left-right patterning, suggesting that eye asymmetry is linked to mechanisms establishing primary laterality. Bilateral misexpression of a depolarizing channel mRNA affects primarily the right eye, revealing an additional functional asymmetry in the control of eye patterning by Vmem. The ATP-sensitive K+ channel subunit transcript, SUR1, is asymmetrically expressed in the eye primordia, thus being a good candidate for the observed physiological asymmetries. Such subtle asymmetries are not only seen in the eye: consistent asymmetry was also observed in the migration of differentiated melanocytes on the left and right sides. These data suggest that even anatomically symmetrical structures may possess subtle but consistent laterality and interact with other developmental left-right patterning pathways.

  12. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Leptogenesis in the left-right supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the effects of the current neutrino data on thermal leptogenesis and 0νββ decay in a fully left-right extension of the minimal supersymmetric model. The model has several additional phases compared to the minimal supersymmetric model. These phases appear from both the heavy and light neutrino sectors: two CKM-type phases and four Majorana phases which give new contributions to CP-violating parameters and leptogenesis. We study observable effects of these phases on leptogenesis in most general neutrino mixing scenarios, with either hierarchical, inverse hierarchical, or quasidegenerate light and heavy neutrinos. We comment on the effects of these scenarios on the 0νββ decay. The CP-violating phases in both the heavy and light neutrino sectors of the left-right supersymmetric model have unique features, resulting in bounds on heavy neutrino masses different from the minimal scenario in leptogenesis, and which may distinguish the model from other supersymmetric scenarios

  14. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-11-04

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  15. Particle in a uniform magnetic field under the symmetric gauge: the eigenfunctions and the time evolution of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, P E de; Nazareno, H N

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use computer algebra systems in solving problems of quantum mechanics. We obtained the degeneracy of the spectrum of eigenvalues in a very clear way. Through the use of a computer algebra system we show graphs of the probability density associated with different eigenvalues as well as compare such functions for some degenerate states, which helps us to visualize the physics of the problem. We also present a semiclassical model which gives a physical insight regarding the paradoxical fact that eigenfunctions associated with opposite angular momenta and different energy eigenvalues have the same probability density. Finally, by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation we obtain the time evolution of a wave packet that at time zero was considered to be localized in a definite region of the lattice. The centroid of such a packet performs an orbit similar to that obtained in the classical treatment of a particle in a magnetic field

  16. Lepton number violating signals of the top quark partners in the left-right twin Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the collider signatures of the left-right twin Higgs model in the case that the right-handed neutrino mass is less than the mass of the right-handed gauge boson. In this scenario, new leptonic decay chains open up, allowing the particles which cancel the one-loop quadratic divergences of the Higgs, the right-handed gauge bosons and top-partners, to be discovered. Half of these events contain same-sign leptons without missing energy, which have no genuine standard model background and for which the backgrounds are purely instrumental. These signals may be used to complement other collider searches and, in certain regions of parameter space, may be the only way to observe the particles responsible for natural electroweak symmetry breaking in the left-right twin Higgs model.

  17. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  18. Chiral cell sliding drives left-right asymmetric organ twisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Hatori, Ryo; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Okumura, Takashi; Ishibashi, Tomoki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Polarized epithelial morphogenesis is an essential process in animal development. While this process is mostly attributed to directional cell intercalation, it can also be induced by other mechanisms. Using live-imaging analysis and a three-dimensional vertex model, we identified ‘cell sliding,’ a novel mechanism driving epithelial morphogenesis, in which cells directionally change their position relative to their subjacent (posterior) neighbors by sliding in one direction. In Drosophila embryonic hindgut, an initial left-right (LR) asymmetry of the cell shape (cell chirality in three dimensions), which occurs intrinsically before tissue deformation, is converted through LR asymmetric cell sliding into a directional axial twisting of the epithelial tube. In a Drosophila inversion mutant showing inverted cell chirality and hindgut rotation, cell sliding occurs in the opposite direction to that in wild-type. Unlike directional cell intercalation, cell sliding does not require junctional remodeling. Cell sliding may also be involved in other cases of LR-polarized epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:29891026

  19. Cell Chirality Drives Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Sasamura, Takeshi; Matsuno, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species. The actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the formation of cell chirality. In addition, Myosin31DF ( Myo31DF ), which encodes Drosophila Myosin ID, was identified as a molecular switch for cell chirality. In other invertebrate species, including snails and Caenorhabditis elegans , chirality of the blastomeres, another type of cell chirality, determines the LR asymmetry of structures in the body. Thus, chirality at the cellular level may broadly contribute to LR asymmetric development in various invertebrate species. Recently, cell chirality was also reported for various vertebrate cultured cells, and studies suggested that cell chirality is evolutionarily conserved, including the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton. Although the biological roles of cell chirality in vertebrates remain unknown, it may control LR asymmetric development or other morphogenetic events. The investigation of cell chirality has just begun, and this new field should provide valuable new insights in biology and medicine.

  20. Left-right asymmetry in neutrino-produced hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.; Lys, J.; Lynch, G.R.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stevenson, M.L.; Huson, F.R.; Schmidt, E.; Smart, W.; Treadwell, E.; Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.D.; Koide, A.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Lubatti, H.J.; Moriyasu, K.; Wolin, E.

    1989-01-01

    In an experiment (E546) to study interactions of left-angle E right-angle=100 GeV and left-angle Q 2 right-angle=17 GeV 2 neutrinos in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber, we have looked for a left-right asymmetry in the azimuthal angle φ of individual hadrons about the direction of the lepton momentum transfer (q vector). Significant asymmetry is found for forward positive hadrons; for x F >0.10, we find left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.029±0.008, where x F is the Feynman x variable. Negative hadrons with x F >0.10 show no asymmetry, left-angle cosφ right-angle=0.004±0.011. A model which includes parton intrinsic transverse momentum k t reproduces the asymmetry of combined positive and negative hadrons with x F >0.10, left-angle cosφ right-angle=-0.018±0.0065, if left-angle k t 2 right-angle=0.065±0.024 GeV 2 /c 2 . But the model predicts almost equal asymmetries for positive and negative hadrons. The model also agrees poorly with the observed dependence on the kinematic variables x and Q 2 if the k t distribution is assumed to be independent of kinematic variables

  1. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  2. Left-right supersymmetry after the Higgs boson discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mariana; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Saha, Ipsita; Waltari, Harri

    2014-12-01

    We perform a thorough analysis of the parameter space of the minimal left-right supersymmetric model in agreement with the LHC data. The model contains left- and right-handed fermionic doublets, two Higgs bidoublets, two Higgs triplet representations, and one singlet, insuring a charge-conserving vacuum. We impose the condition that the model complies with the experimental constraints on supersymmetric particles masses and on the doubly charged Higgs bosons and require that the parameter space of the model satisfies the LHC data on neutral Higgs signal strengths at 2 σ . We choose benchmark scenarios by fixing some basic parameters and scanning over the rest. The lightest supersymmetric particle in our scenarios is always the lightest neutralino. We find that the signals for H →γ γ and H →V V⋆ are correlated, while H →b b ¯ is anticorrelated with all of the other decay modes, and also that the contribution from singly charged scalars dominates that of the doubly charged scalars in H →γ γ and H →Z γ loops, contrary to type II seesaw models. We also illustrate the range for mass spectrum of the LRSUSY model in light of planned measurements of the branching ratio of H →γ γ to 10% level.

  3. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...... to support for redistribution, and second consistent with theory, that a causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution exists which is stronger than previously shown....

  4. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  5. Higgs bosons in the left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkina, G.G.; Boyarkin, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The model with the SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L gauge group, containing one bidoublet and two triplets in the Higgs sector, is considered. The link between the constants determining the physical Higgs boson interactions and the neutrino oscillation parameters is found. It is shown that the observation of the ultrahigh-energy neutrinos with the help of the processes e - ν e →W - Z, e - ν e →μ - ν μ , gives us information on the singly charged Higgs bosons. The processes of the doubly charged Higgs boson production, e - μ - →Δ (--) 1 γ, e - μ - →Δ (--) 1 Z, are investigated. From the point of view of detecting the neutral Higgs bosons the process of the electron-muon recharge e - μ + →e + μ - is studied. (orig.)

  6. Higgs bosons and sleptons in an alternative left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenological structure of the combined Higgs-boson--slepton sector of the alternative left-right-supersymmetric model introduced by Ma is explored. Constraints upon and relations between Higgs-boson and slepton masses are derived and a tightly constrained mass spectrum is found. In general, one neutral Higgs boson is never heavier than 98 GeV, one neutral Higgs boson is always nearly degenerate in mass with the extra neutral gauge boson Z 2 0 , and the charged Higgs boson can in principle be as light as 22 GeV. Further constraints require large ratios of Higgs vacuum expectation values, strongly favor the W R mass above ∼423 GeV, predict one Higgs-boson mass to be always very close to 98 GeV, and masses of the other Higgs bosons and the sleptons to be bounded from above and preferably not much above the Z mass. In addition, the possibility of detecting light Higgs bosons at CERN LEP and the SLAC Linear Collider is briefly discussed

  7. Vertebrate Left-Right Asymmetry: What Can Nodal Cascade Gene Expression Patterns Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Axel; Ott, Tim; Kurz, Sabrina; Tingler, Melanie; Maerker, Markus; Fuhl, Franziska; Blum, Martin

    2017-12-29

    Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia). At the level of Nodal cascade gene activation, expression may be inverted, bilaterally induced, or absent. In a given genetic situation, patterns may be randomized or predominantly lacking laterality (absence or bilateral activation). We propose that the distributions of patterns observed may be indicative of the underlying molecular defects, with randomizations being primarily caused by defects in the flow-generating ciliary set-up, and symmetrical patterns being the result of impaired flow sensing, on the left, the right, or both sides. This prediction, the reasoning of which is detailed in this review, pinpoints functions of genes whose role in laterality determination have remained obscure.

  8. Four generations versus left-right symmetry. A comparative numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidsieck, Tillmann J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a comparative numerical analysis of the Standard Model (SM) with a sequential fourth generation (SM4) and the left-right symmetric Standard model (LRM). We focus on the constraints induced by flavour violating ΔF=2 processes in the K and B system while the results of studies of collider bounds and electroweak precision tests are taken into account as external inputs. In contrast to many previous studies of both models considered in this work, we do make not any ad-hoc assumptions on the structure of the relevant mixing matrices. Therefore, we employ powerful Monte Carlo methods in order to approximate the viable parameter space of the models. In preparation of our numerical analysis, we present all relevant formulae and review the different numerical methods used in this work. In order to better understand the patterns of new effects in ΔF=2 processes, we perform a fit including all relevant ΔF=2 constraints in the context of the Standard Model. The result of this fit is then used in a general discussion on new effects in ΔF=2 processes in the context of generic extensions of the Standard Model. Our numerical analysis of the SM4 and the LRM demonstrates that in both models the existing anomalies in Δ=2 processes can easily be resolved. We transparently show how the different observables are connected to each other by their dependence on combinations of mixing parameters. In our analysis of rare decays in the SM4, we establish patterns of flavour violation that could in principle be used to disprove this model on the basis of ΔF=1 processes alone. In the LRM, we discuss the importance of the contributions originating from the exchange of heavy, flavour changing, neutral Higgs bosons as well as the inability of the LRM to entirely solve the V ub problem.

  9. Four generations versus left-right symmetry. A comparative numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidsieck, Tillmann J.

    2012-06-18

    In this work, we present a comparative numerical analysis of the Standard Model (SM) with a sequential fourth generation (SM4) and the left-right symmetric Standard model (LRM). We focus on the constraints induced by flavour violating {Delta}F=2 processes in the K and B system while the results of studies of collider bounds and electroweak precision tests are taken into account as external inputs. In contrast to many previous studies of both models considered in this work, we do make not any ad-hoc assumptions on the structure of the relevant mixing matrices. Therefore, we employ powerful Monte Carlo methods in order to approximate the viable parameter space of the models. In preparation of our numerical analysis, we present all relevant formulae and review the different numerical methods used in this work. In order to better understand the patterns of new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes, we perform a fit including all relevant {Delta}F=2 constraints in the context of the Standard Model. The result of this fit is then used in a general discussion on new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes in the context of generic extensions of the Standard Model. Our numerical analysis of the SM4 and the LRM demonstrates that in both models the existing anomalies in {Delta}=2 processes can easily be resolved. We transparently show how the different observables are connected to each other by their dependence on combinations of mixing parameters. In our analysis of rare decays in the SM4, we establish patterns of flavour violation that could in principle be used to disprove this model on the basis of {Delta}F=1 processes alone. In the LRM, we discuss the importance of the contributions originating from the exchange of heavy, flavour changing, neutral Higgs bosons as well as the inability of the LRM to entirely solve the V{sub ub} problem.

  10. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Stephan; Klar, Amar J. S., E-mail: sauers@mail.nih.gov, E-mail: klara@mail.nih.gov [Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2012-11-16

    Ever since cloning the classic iv (inversedviscerum) mutation identified the “left-right dynein” (lrd) gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old “Watson” versus old “Crick” strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical “left-right axis development 1” (“lra1”) gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  11. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSauer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  12. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, Stephan; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since cloning the classic iv (inversedviscerum) mutation identified the “left-right dynein” (lrd) gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old “Watson” versus old “Crick” strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical “left-right axis development 1” (“lra1”) gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  13. Klf8 regulates left-right asymmetric patterning through modulation of Kupffer's vesicle morphogenesis and spaw expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Hsiu; Lu, Yu-Fen; Chen, Yi-Chung; Lai, Yun-Ren; Liao, Hsin-Chi; Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Huang, Chang-Jen; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L

    2017-07-17

    Although vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric organisms, their internal organs are distributed asymmetrically along a left-right axis. Disruption of left-right axis asymmetric patterning often occurs in human genetic disorders. In zebrafish embryos, Kupffer's vesicle, like the mouse node, breaks symmetry by inducing asymmetric expression of the Nodal-related gene, spaw, in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Spaw then stimulates transcription of itself and downstream genes, including lft1, lft2, and pitx2, specifically in the left side of the diencephalon, heart and LPM. This developmental step is essential to establish subsequent asymmetric organ positioning. In this study, we evaluated the role of krüppel-like factor 8 (klf8) in regulating left-right asymmetric patterning in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish klf8 expression was disrupted by both morpholino antisense oligomer-mediated knockdown and a CRISPR-Cas9 system. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was conducted to evaluate gene expression patterns of Nodal signalling components and the positions of heart and visceral organs. Dorsal forerunner cell number was evaluated in Tg(sox17:gfp) embryos and the length and number of cilia in Kupffer's vesicle were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using an acetylated tubulin antibody. Heart jogging, looping and visceral organ positioning were all defective in zebrafish klf8 morphants. At the 18-22 s stages, klf8 morphants showed reduced expression of genes encoding Nodal signalling components (spaw, lft1, lft2, and pitx2) in the left LPM, diencephalon, and heart. Co-injection of klf8 mRNA with klf8 morpholino partially rescued spaw expression. Furthermore, klf8 but not klf8△zf overexpressing embryos showed dysregulated bilateral expression of Nodal signalling components at late somite stages. At the 10s stage, klf8 morphants exhibited reductions in length and number of cilia in Kupffer's vesicle, while at 75% epiboly, fewer dorsal forerunner cells were observed

  14. Reciprocal Signaling between the Ectoderm and a Mesendodermal Left-Right Organizer Directs Left-Right Determination in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessodes, Nathalie; Haillot, Emmanuel; Duboc, Véronique; Röttinger, Eric; Lahaye, François; Lepage, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    During echinoderm development, expression of nodal on the right side plays a crucial role in positioning of the rudiment on the left side, but the mechanisms that restrict nodal expression to the right side are not known. Here we show that establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo relies on reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a left-right organizer located in the endomesoderm. FGF/ERK and BMP2/4 signaling are required to initiate nodal expression in this organizer, while Delta/Notch signaling is required to suppress formation of this organizer on the left side of the archenteron. Furthermore, we report that the H+/K+-ATPase is critically required in the Notch signaling pathway upstream of the S3 cleavage of Notch. Our results identify several novel players and key early steps responsible for initiation, restriction, and propagation of left-right asymmetry during embryogenesis of a non-chordate deuterostome and uncover a functional link between the H+/K+-ATPase and the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:23271979

  15. An octonionic gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassig, C.C.; Joshi, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nonassociativity of the octonion algebra makes necessitates a bimodule representation, in which each element is represented by a left and a right multiplier. This representation can then be used to generate gauge transformations for the purpose of constructing a field theory symmetric under a gauged octonion algebra, the nonassociativity of which appears as a failure of the representation to close, and hence produces new interactions in the gauge field kinetic term of the symmetric Lagrangian. 5 refs., 1 tab

  16. Adventures in Coulomb Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.

  17. The determination factors of left-right asymmetry disorders- a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Andreea; Apostu, Adina Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Laterality defects in humans, situs inversus and heterotaxy, are rare disorders, with an incidence of 1:8000 to 1:10 000 in the general population, and a multifactorial etiology. It has been proved that 1.44/10 000 of all cardiac problems are associated with malformations of left-right asymmetry and heterotaxy accounts for 3% of all congenital heart defects. It is considered that defects of situs appear due to genetic and environmental factors. Also, there is evidence that the ciliopathies (defects of structure or function) are involved in development abnormalities. Over 100 genes have been reported to be involved in left-right patterning in model organisms, but only a few are likely to candidate for left-right asymmetry defects in humans. Left-right asymmetry disorders are genetically heterogeneous and have variable manifestations (from asymptomatic to serious clinical problems). The discovery of the right mechanism of left-right development will help explain the clinical complexity and may contribute to a therapy of these disorders.

  18. Neutral currents and the gauge group of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1977-12-01

    In considering the question of neutral current parity conversation, models of weak and electromagnetic interactions based on the gauge sub group SU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R)x(U) 1 are examined. The thesis is presented in the following sections: (1) Introduction. (2) Natural left-right symmetric theory and its neutral current phenomenology. (3) Effects of neutral weak currents in electron-positron annihilation. (4) Dilepton production in pp and anti pp collisions as a probe to the nature of the neutral current interaction. (U.K.)

  19. Contribution of hedgehog signaling to the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob F; Miranda, Esther L; McClay, David R

    2016-03-15

    Most bilaterians exhibit a left-right asymmetric distribution of their internal organs. The sea urchin larva is notable in this regard since most adult structures are generated from left sided embryonic structures. The gene regulatory network governing this larval asymmetry is still a work in progress but involves several conserved signaling pathways including Nodal, and BMP. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of Hedgehog signaling and it's contribution to left-right asymmetry. We report that Hh signaling plays a conserved role to regulate late asymmetric expression of Nodal and that this regulation occurs after Nodal breaks left-right symmetry in the mesoderm. Thus, while Hh functions to maintain late Nodal expression, the molecular asymmetry of the future coelomic pouches is locked in. Furthermore we report that cilia play a role only insofar as to transduce Hh signaling and do not have an independent effect on the asymmetry of the mesoderm. From this, we are able to construct a more complete regulatory network governing the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Left-right asymmetry in plants and animals: a gold mine for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Gravendeel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Left-right asymmetry patterns in the body shapes of animals and plants have been a continuous source of interest among biologists. Recently, inroads have been made to developing a coherent research programme that makes use of the unique fact that chiral patterns may be studied (and generalities

  1. Modelling genetic reorganization in the mouse spinal cord affecting left-right coordination during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybak, Ilya A.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Kiehn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    glutamatergic interneurons, whose axon guidance involves the EphA4 receptor. In EphA4 knockout (KO) and Netrin-1 KO mice, the normal left-right alternating pattern is replaced with a synchronized hopping gait, and the cord of DCC KO mice exhibits uncoordinated left and right oscillations. To investigate...

  2. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  3. Comment on "Polarized window for left-right symmetry and a right-handed neutrino at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-06-01

    Reference [1 S. Mondal and S. K. Rai, Phys. Rev. D 93, 011702 (2016).] recently argued that the projected Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) presents a unique opportunity to discover a left-right symmetry since the LHeC has availability for polarized electrons. In particular, the authors apply some basic pT cuts on the jets and claim that the on-shell production of right-handed neutrinos at the LHeC, which violates lepton number in two units, has practically no standard model background and, therefore, that the right-handed nature of WR interactions that are intrinsic to left-right symmetric models can be confirmed by using colliding beams consisting of an 80% polarized electron and a 7 TeV proton. In this Comment, we show that their findings, as presented, have vastly underestimated the SM background which prevents a Left-Right symmetry signal from being seen at the LHeC.

  4. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  5. Organization of left-right coordination in the mammalian locomotor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lebret, James M.; Kiehn, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the spinal cords of a number of aquatic vertebrates including the Xenopus tadpole and the lamprey. However, their function in left-right coordination of limb movements in mammals is poorly understood. In this review we describe the present understanding of commissural pathways in the functioning of spinal......Neuronal circuits involved in left-right coordination are a fundamental feature of rhythmic locomotor movements. These circuits necessarily include commissural interneurons (CINs) that have axons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. The properties of CINs have been described in some detail....... Spinal CINs play an important role in the generation of locomotor output. Increased knowledge as to their function in producing locomotion is likely to provide valuable insights into the spinal networks required for postural control and walking....

  6. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  7. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, Ab is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is Ab = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of Ab = 0.935.

  8. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A b , is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, A b is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z's is A b = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of A b = 0.935

  9. e+e- collisions at the SLC--the left-right asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Recent progress with the SLC as a prototype linear collider for high energy e + e - collisions is reviewed. Recent advances in the production of high intensity beams of polarized e -s are also discussed. The SLD Collaboration has embarked on a precision measurement of the left-right polarization asymmetry A LR at the Z pole with polarized electrons. Results and future plans are presented

  10. Left-right asymmetry of maturation rates in human embryonic neural development

    OpenAIRE

    De Kovel, C.; Lisgo, S.; Karlebach, G.; Ju, J.; Cheng, G.; Fisher, S.; Francks, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuro-psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks post conception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fibre tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. Methods We used RNA seq...

  11. Mechanisms of Left-Right Coordination in Mammalian Locomotor Pattern Generation Circuits: A Mathematical Modeling View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Rybak, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor gait in limbed animals is defined by the left-right leg coordination and locomotor speed. Coordination between left and right neural activities in the spinal cord controlling left and right legs is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs). Several CIN types have been genetically identified, including the excitatory V3 and excitatory and inhibitory V0 types. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic elimination of all V0 CINs caused switching from a normal left-right alternating activity to a left-right synchronized “hopping” pattern. Furthermore, ablation of only the inhibitory V0 CINs (V0D subtype) resulted in a lack of left-right alternation at low locomotor frequencies and retaining this alternation at high frequencies, whereas selective ablation of the excitatory V0 neurons (V0V subtype) maintained the left–right alternation at low frequencies and switched to a hopping pattern at high frequencies. To analyze these findings, we developed a simplified mathematical model of neural circuits consisting of four pacemaker neurons representing left and right, flexor and extensor rhythm-generating centers interacting via commissural pathways representing V3, V0D, and V0V CINs. The locomotor frequency was controlled by a parameter defining the excitation of neurons and commissural pathways mimicking the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate on locomotor frequency in isolated rodent spinal cord preparations. The model demonstrated a typical left-right alternating pattern under control conditions, switching to a hopping activity at any frequency after removing both V0 connections, a synchronized pattern at low frequencies with alternation at high frequencies after removing only V0D connections, and an alternating pattern at low frequencies with hopping at high frequencies after removing only V0V connections. We used bifurcation theory and fast-slow decomposition methods to analyze network behavior in the above regimes and transitions between them. The model

  12. Physics from multidimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, P.; Lust, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors motivate high dimensional theories by recalling the original Kaluza-Klein proposal. They review the dimensional reduction of symmetric gauge theories and they present the results of the attempts to obtain realistic description of elementary particles interactions starting from symmetric gauge theories in high dimensions

  13. Left-Right Asymmetry of Maturation Rates in Human Embryonic Neural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Lisgo, Steven; Karlebach, Guy; Ju, Jia; Cheng, Gang; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-08-01

    Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks postconception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fiber tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. We used RNA sequencing to measure gene expression levels in the left and right spinal cords, and the left and right hindbrains, of 18 postmortem human embryos aged 4 to 8 weeks postconception. Genes showing embryonic lateralization were tested for an enrichment of signals in genome-wide association data for schizophrenia. The left side of the embryonic spinal cord was found to mature faster than the right side. Both sides transitioned from transcriptional profiles associated with cell division and proliferation at earlier stages to neuronal differentiation and function at later stages, but the two sides were not in synchrony (p = 2.2 E-161). The hindbrain showed a left-right mirrored pattern compared with the spinal cord, consistent with the well-known crossing over of function between these two structures. Genes that showed lateralization in the embryonic spinal cord were enriched for association signals with schizophrenia (p = 4.3 E-05). These are the earliest stage left-right differences of human neural development ever reported. Disruption of the lateralized developmental program may play a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low mass-scale parity restoration in expanded gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1982-07-01

    It is shown that schemes of grand unification with SU(2n) 4 gauge symmetry permit the embedding of the left-right symmetric SU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R)xU(1)xSU(3) intermediate symmetry at relatively low energies (between 250 GeV and 1 TeV) as well as allowing light unification mass-scales ( 5 TeV) if n>=3 for values of the weak angle Sin 2 thetasub(W) and the strong coupling αsub(s) in the ranges 0.20 2 thetasub(W)<=0.25, 0.10<=αsub(s)<=0.15. (author)

  15. Single top partner production at lepton colliders in the left-right twin Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingyu; Han, Jinzhong; Hou, Biaofeng; Yu, Chunxu

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model, we investigate the single top partner production at lepton colliders. We calculate the production cross-sections of the processes e‑γ → ν ebT¯, e‑e+ → W‑b¯T (W+bT¯) and γγ → W‑b¯T (W+bT¯) at s = 2.0 TeV, and display some typical differential distributions of the final state particles.

  16. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in the electrofission of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommberger, F.

    1993-11-01

    At the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA of the Bonn University the left-right asymmetry A φ of the reaction d(e,e'p)n has been measured in quasi-free kinematics (E e =1.6 GeV, θ e =14 ). The scattered electrons were detected with a magnetic spectrometer. Due to the high duty cycle of ELSA non-magnetic proton detectors could be used. Therefore a simultaneous measurement at different proton angles was possible, leading to small systematic errors. The remaining systematic errors have been studied carefully and corrected. The experimental data are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, if relativistic corrections are taken into account. (orig.)

  17. Influence of left right asymmetry degrees of freedom in self-consistent calculation of 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, S.; Flocard, H.; Heenen, P.H.

    1983-06-01

    Within a constrained Hartree-Fock calculation we investigate the effects of left right asymmetric degrees of freedom associated with the channel 16 O + 4 He 20 Ne. We find a large softness of 20 Ne against octupole deformation. The optimal solution after restoration of the parity by means of a projection shows a pronouned 16 O + 4 He clustering. A generator coordinate calculation along the collective path confirms this conclusion. Once center of mass motion effects are taken into account a good agreement with experiment is found

  18. Functional identification of interneurons responsible for left-right coordination of hindlimbs in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Simon J.B.; Kiehn, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Local neuronal networks that are responsible for walking are poorly characterized in mammals. Using an innovative approach to identify interneuron inputs onto motorneuron populations in a neonatal rodent spinal cord preparation, we have investigated the network responsible for left-right coordina......Local neuronal networks that are responsible for walking are poorly characterized in mammals. Using an innovative approach to identify interneuron inputs onto motorneuron populations in a neonatal rodent spinal cord preparation, we have investigated the network responsible for left......-right coordination of the hindlimbs. We demonstrate how commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons traverse the midline to innervate contralateral neurons, are organized such that distinct flexor and extensor centers in the rostral lumbar spinal cord define activity in both flexor and extensor caudal motor pools....... In addition, the nature of some connections are reconfigured on switching from rest to locomotion via a mechanism that might be associated with synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. These results from identified pattern-generating interneurons demonstrate how interneuron populations create an effective...

  19. Cell chirality: its origin and roles in left-right asymmetric development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Liu, Jingyang; Matsuno, Kenji

    2016-12-19

    An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by 'cortical inheritance'. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality. Intriguingly, chirality in cellular structures and functions is also found in metazoans. In Drosophila, intrinsic cell chirality is observed in various left-right (LR) asymmetric tissues, and appears to be responsible for their LR asymmetric morphogenesis. In other invertebrates, such as snails and Caenorhabditis elegans, blastomere chirality is responsible for subsequent LR asymmetric development. Various cultured cells of vertebrates also show intrinsic chirality in their cellular behaviours and intracellular structural dynamics. Thus, cell chirality may be a general property of eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila, cell chirality drives the LR asymmetric development of individual organs, without establishing the LR axis of the whole embryo. Considering that organ-intrinsic LR asymmetry is also reported in vertebrates, this mechanism may contribute to LR asymmetric development across phyla.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Using Convolutional Neural Network Filters to Measure Left-Right Mirror Symmetry in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Brachmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for measuring symmetry in images by using filter responses from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs. The aim of the method is to model human perception of left/right symmetry as closely as possible. Using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN approach has two main advantages: First, CNN filter responses closely match the responses of neurons in the human visual system; they take information on color, edges and texture into account simultaneously. Second, we can measure higher-order symmetry, which relies not only on color, edges and texture, but also on the shapes and objects that are depicted in images. We validated our algorithm on a dataset of 300 music album covers, which were rated according to their symmetry by 20 human observers, and compared results with those from a previously proposed method. With our method, human perception of symmetry can be predicted with high accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inclusion of features from higher CNN layers, which encode more abstract image content, increases the performance further. In conclusion, we introduce a model of left/right symmetry that closely models human perception of symmetry in CD album covers.

  1. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    We present the first measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (A LR ) in Z boson production at the SLAC Linear Collider. The left-right asymmetry provides a direct measurement of the e - -Z coupling and thus of the effective weak mixing angle; in addition, A LR is sensitive to the unknown top-quark and Higgs-boson masses. In 1992 the SLD detector recorded 10224 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons with an unpolarized positron beam at a center-of-mass energy of 91.55 GeV. The average electron beam polarization during the run was (22.4 ± 0.6)%. We measure A LR to be 0.101 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.004 (syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θeff/W = 0.2377 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0005 (syst.). This measurement of A LR is in agreement with comparable measurements and is consistent with Standard-Model predictions for allowed top and Higgs masses

  2. microRNA function in left-right neuronal asymmetry: perspectives from C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadah, Amel; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2013-09-23

    Left-right asymmetry in anatomical structures and functions of the nervous system is present throughout the animal kingdom. For example, language centers are localized in the left side of the human brain, while spatial recognition functions are found in the right hemisphere in the majority of the population. Disruption of asymmetry in the nervous system is correlated with neurological disorders. Although anatomical and functional asymmetries are observed in mammalian nervous systems, it has been a challenge to identify the molecular basis of these asymmetries. C. elegans has emerged as a prime model organism to investigate molecular asymmetries in the nervous system, as it has been shown to display functional asymmetries clearly correlated to asymmetric distribution and regulation of biologically relevant molecules. Small non-coding RNAs have been recently implicated in various aspects of neural development. Here, we review cases in which microRNAs are crucial for establishing left-right asymmetries in the C. elegans nervous system. These studies may provide insight into how molecular and functional asymmetries are established in the human brain.

  3. microRNA function in left-right neuronal asymmetry: perspectives from C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel eAlqadah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in anatomical structures and functions of the nervous system is present throughout the animal kingdom. For example, language centers are localized in the left side of the human brain, while spatial recognition functions are found in the right hemisphere in the majority of the population. Disruption of asymmetry in the nervous system is correlated with neurological disorders. Although anatomical and functional asymmetries are observed in mammalian nervous systems, it has been a challenge to identify the molecular basis of these asymmetries. C. elegans has emerged as a prime model organism to investigate molecular asymmetries in the nervous system, as it has been shown to display functional asymmetries clearly correlated to asymmetric distribution and regulation of biologically relevant molecules. Small non-coding RNAs have been recently implicated in various aspects of neural development. Here, we review cases in which microRNAs are crucial for establishing left-right asymmetries in the C. elegans nervous system. These studies may provide insight into how molecular and functional asymmetries are established in the human brain.

  4. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory: New Insights from Hippocampal Left-Right Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gaby, Mohamady; Shipton, Olivia A; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-10-01

    All synapses are not the same. They differ in their morphology, molecular constituents, and malleability. A striking left-right asymmetry in the distribution of different types of synapse was recently uncovered at the CA3-CA1 projection in the mouse hippocampus, whereby afferents from the CA3 in the left hemisphere innervate small, highly plastic synapses on the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas those originating from the right CA3 target larger, more stable synapses. Activity-dependent modification of these synapses is thought to participate in circuit formation and remodeling during development, and further plastic changes may support memory encoding in adulthood. Therefore, exploiting the CA3-CA1 asymmetry provides a promising opportunity to investigate the roles that different types of synapse play in these fundamental properties of the CNS. Here we describe the discovery of these segregated synaptic populations in the mouse hippocampus, and discuss what we have already learnt about synaptic plasticity from this asymmetric arrangement. We then propose models for how the asymmetry could be generated during development, and how the adult hippocampus might use these distinct populations of synapses differentially during learning and memory. Finally, we outline the potential implications of this left-right asymmetry for human hippocampal function, as well as dysfunction in memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Genetic Ablation of V2a Ipsilateral Interneurons Disrupts Left-Right Locomotor Coordination in Mammalian Spinal Cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Steven A.; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Zagoraiou, Laskaro

    2008-01-01

    The initiation and coordination of activity in limb muscles are the main functions of neural circuits that control locomotion. Commissural neurons connect locomotor circuits on the two sides of the spinal cord, and represent the known neural substrate for left-right coordination. Here we......-extensor coordination is unaffected. Anatomical tracing studies reveal a direct excitatory input of V2a interneurons onto commissural interneurons, including a set of molecularly defined V0 neurons that drive left-right alternation. Our findings imply that the neural substrate for left-right coordination consists...... of at least two components; commissural neurons and a class of ipsilateral interneurons that activate commissural pathways....

  6. De novo formation of left-right asymmetry by posterior tilt of nodal cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Nonaka

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing mouse embryo, leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node determines left-right (L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism by which the rotational movement of node cilia can generate a unidirectional flow remains hypothetical. Here we have addressed this question by motion and morphological analyses of the node cilia and by fluid dynamic model experiments. We found that the cilia stand, not perpendicular to the node surface, but tilted posteriorly. We further confirmed that such posterior tilt can produce leftward flow in model experiments. These results strongly suggest that L-R asymmetry is not the descendant of pre-existing L-R asymmetry within each cell but is generated de novo by combining three sources of spatial information: antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes, and the chirality of ciliary movement.

  7. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  8. (g-2)μ anomaly and neutrino oscillations within the left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkin, O.M.; Bakanova, T.I.

    2003-12-01

    The Higgs sector structure of the left right model is investigated. The coupling constants of the physical Higgs bosons are expressed in terms of the oscillation parameters of the heavy neutrinos. The electroweak corrections to the value of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon coming from the Higgs bosons axe found. It is shown that in the LRM the motion of the light neutrino flux in matter is described within the hybrid three-neutrino scheme, namely, the neutrino oscillations and the non standard neutrino interactions, caused by the Higgs sector. These non standard contributions may considerably change the matter potential compared with the SM prediction. Therefore, the analysis of the (g-2)μ, anomaly and the oscillations of the light neutrinos in matter could be used to constrain the parameters of the heavy neutrinos. (author)

  9. Low frequency vibrations disrupt left-right patterning in the Xenopus embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Vandenberg

    Full Text Available The development of consistent left-right (LR asymmetry across phyla is a fascinating question in biology. While many pharmacological and molecular approaches have been used to explore molecular mechanisms, it has proven difficult to exert precise temporal control over functional perturbations. Here, we took advantage of acoustical vibration to disrupt LR patterning in Xenopus embryos during tightly-circumscribed periods of development. Exposure to several low frequencies induced specific randomization of three internal organs (heterotaxia. Investigating one frequency (7 Hz, we found two discrete periods of sensitivity to vibration; during the first period, vibration affected the same LR pathway as nocodazole, while during the second period, vibration affected the integrity of the epithelial barrier; both are required for normal LR patterning. Our results indicate that low frequency vibrations disrupt two steps in the early LR pathway: the orientation of the LR axis with the other two axes, and the amplification/restriction of downstream LR signals to asymmetric organs.

  10. Organization of left-right coordination of neuronal activity in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Markin, Sergey N.

    2015-01-01

    and the left-right synchronous hopping-like pattern in mutants lacking specific neuron classes, and speed-dependent asymmetric changes of flexor and extensor phase durations. The models provide insights into the architecture of spinal network and the organization of parallel inhibitory and excitatory CIN....... In this study, we construct and analyse two computational models of spinal locomotor circuits consisting of left and right rhythm generators interacting bilaterally via several neuronal pathways mediated by different CINs. The CIN populations incorporated in the models include the genetically identified...... inhibitory (V0D) and excitatory (V0V) subtypes of V0 CINs and excitatory V3 CINs. The model also includes the ipsilaterally projecting excitatory V2a interneurons mediating excitatory drive to the V0V CINs. The proposed network architectures and CIN connectivity allow the models to closely reproduce...

  11. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was {rho}{sup lum} = (63.0{+-}1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A{sub LR} to be 0.1626{+-}0.0071(stat){+-}0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations.

  12. Measurement of the Left-Right Asymmetry in Z0 Events at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, A

    2004-01-05

    Recent results from the 1992 and 1993 left-right asymmetry cross section measurements at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are presented. Measurements made with SLAC running with a center-of-mass energy at the Z{sup 0}-pole (91.2 GeV) by the SLD detector and an average electron beam polarization of 22.4 {+-} 0.7% for 1992 and 62.6 {+-} 1.2% for 1993. The asymmetry measured was A{sub LR} = 0.100 {+-} 0.044 and A{sub LR} = 0.1656 {+-} 0.0073 for the 1992 and 1993 runs, respectively. This in turn allows them to calculate the weak mixing angle value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2378 {+-} 0.0056 and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2288 {+-} 0.0009 for the two data sets.

  13. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A LR , n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e + e - annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was ρ lum = (63.0±1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A LR to be 0.1626±0.0071(stat)±0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations

  14. The first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z0 boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-David, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    The first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) in Z degrees boson production has been made with the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy (E cm ) of 91.55 GeV with a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The average beam polarization was (22.4 ± 0.6)%. Using a sample of 10,224 Z degrees decays, A LR is measured to be 0.102 ± 0.044(stat) ± 0.003(syst), which determines the effective electroweak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2375 ± 0.0056(stat) ± 0.0004(syst)

  15. [Analysis and research of brain-computer interface experiments for imaging left-right hands movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; He, Qinghua; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Ling; Zhuo, Yu; Xie, Qi; Wu, Baoming

    2008-10-01

    This is a research carried out to explore a pragmatic way of BCI based imaging movement, i. e. to extract the feature of EEG for reflecting different thinking by searching suitable methods of signal extraction and recognition algorithm processing, to boost the recognition rate of communication for BCI system, and finally to establish a substantial theory and experimental support for BCI application. In this paper, different mental tasks for imaging left-right hands movement from 6 subjects were studied in three different time sections (hint keying at 2s, 1s and 0s after appearance of arrow). Then we used wavelet analysis and Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network (BP-NN) method for processing and analyzing the experimental data of off-line. Delay time delta t2, delta t1 and delta t0 for all subjects in the three different time sections were analyzed. There was significant difference between delta to and delta t2 or delta t1 (P0.05). The average results of recognition rate were 65%, 86.67% and 72%, respectively. There were obviously different features for imaging left-right hands movement about 0.5-1s before actual movement; these features displayed significant difference. We got higher recognition rate of communication under the hint keying at about 1s after the appearance of arrow. These showed the feasibility of using the feature signals extracted from the project as the external control signals for BCI system, and demon strated that the project provided new ideas and methods for feature extraction and classification of mental tasks for BCI.

  16. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magass, Carsten Martin

    2007-01-01

    The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about ∫Ldt=1 fb -1 . Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W ' and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p→W ' +X→eν+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z ' ) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W ' has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W ' is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W ' signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1±2.1(stat) +6.0 -3.7 (sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron and neutrino, σ W ' x Br(W ' →eν). Using this limit, a lower bound on the mass of the new gauge

  17. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magass, Carsten Martin

    2007-11-02

    The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about {integral}Ldt=1 fb{sup -1}. Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W{sup '} and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p{yields}W{sup '}+X{yields}e{nu}+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z{sup '}) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W{sup '} has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W{sup '} is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W{sup '} signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1{+-}2.1(stat){sup +6.0}{sub -3.7}(sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron and neutrino, {sigma}{sub W

  18. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magass, Carsten Martin

    2007-11-02

    The TEVATRON proton-antiproton collider at FERMILAB (near Chicago/USA) is operating at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV since March 2001. This analysis uses data taken with the DOe detector until February 2006 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about {integral}Ldt=1 fb{sup -1}. Using this dataset, a search for a new heavy charged gauge boson W{sup '} and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino is performed: p anti p{yields}W{sup '}+X{yields}e{nu}+X. Additional gauge bosons (including the equivalent to the Z, the Z{sup '}) are introduced in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the most general case, the new gauge group can comprise a new mixing angle and new couplings. Here, the Altarelli Reference Model is considered which represents a generalization of the Manifest Left-Right Symmetric Model with light right-handed neutrinos. This model makes the assumptions that the new gauge boson W{sup '} has the same couplings as the Standard Model W boson and that there is no mixing. Hence, the W{sup '} is a heavy copy of the Standard Model W boson. The clear decay signature (in analogy to the decay of the W) contains an isolated electron with extreme high energy which is important for triggering. The neutrino can not be detected, but it gives rise to missing energy in the detector. The Jacobian peak in the transverse mass distribution stemming from the W decay is used for calibration, whereas the tail of the transverse mass distribution is searched for a possible W{sup '} signal. The data agrees with the expectation from background processes. For instance, in the data 37 events are reconstructed with transverse masses above 300 GeV compared to a prediction of 37.1{+-}2.1(stat){sup +6.0}{sub -3.7}(sys) background events. Since no significant excess is found in the data, an upper limit is set on the production cross section for heavy charged gauge bosons decaying into electron

  19. Precision electroweak physics with the SLD/SLC: The left-right polarization asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowson, P.C.

    1994-12-01

    Following a brief review of a commonly used general framework for the analysis of radiative corrections and possible new physics, the recent precision results from the SLD/SLC are discussed and used to test the standard electroweak model. In the 1993 SLD/SLC run, the SLD recorded 50,000 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam was (63.0 ± 1.1)%. We measure the left-right cross-section asymmetry in Z boson production, A LR , to be 0.1628 ± 0.0071 (stat) ± 0.0028 (syst) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292 ± 0.0009 (stat) ± 0.0004 (syst). When averaged with our 1992 result, we obtain sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2294 ± 0. 0010. This result differs from analogous LEP results at the level of about 2.5 σ. The world averages of electroweak data are comfortably in agreement with the standard model

  20. Serotonin has early, cilia-independent roles in Xenopus left-right patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2013-01-01

    Consistent left-right (LR patterning of the heart and viscera is a crucial part of normal embryogenesis. Because errors of laterality form a common class of birth defects, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms and stage at which LR asymmetry is initiated. Frog embryos are a system uniquely suited to analysis of the mechanisms involved in orientation of the LR axis because of the many genetic and pharmacological tools available for use and the fate-map and accessibility of early blastomeres. Two major models exist for the origin of LR asymmetry and both implicate pre-nervous serotonergic signaling. In the first, the charged serotonin molecule is instructive for LR patterning; it is redistributed asymmetrically along the LR axis and signals intracellularly on the right side at cleavage stages. A second model suggests that serotonin is a permissive factor required to specify the dorsal region of the embryo containing chiral cilia that generate asymmetric fluid flow during neurulation, a much later process. We performed theory-neutral experiments designed to distinguish between these models. The results uniformly support a role for serotonin in the cleavage-stage embryo, long before the appearance of cilia, in ventral right blastomeres that do not contribute to the ciliated organ.

  1. Online adaptive learning of Left-Right Continuous HMM for bearings condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartella, F; Liu, T; Meganck, S; Lemeire, J; Sahli, H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) approaches used for condition assessment of bearings assume that all the possible system states are fixed and known a priori and that training data from all of the associated states are available. Moreover, the training procedure is performed offline, and only once at the beginning, with the available training set. These assumptions significantly impede component diagnosis applications when all of the possible states of the system are not known in advance or environmental factors or operative conditions change during the tool's usage. The method introduced in this paper overcomes the above limitations and proposes an approach to detect unknown degradation modalities using a Left-Right Continuous HMM with a variable state space. The proposed HMM is combined with Change Point Detection algorithms to (i) estimate, from historical observations, the initial number of the model's states, as well as to perform an initial guess of the parameters, and (ii) to adaptively recognize new states and, consequently, adjust the model parameters during monitoring. The approach has been tested using real monitoring data taken from the NASA benchmark repository. A comparative study with state of the art techniques shows improvements in terms of reduction of the training procedure iterations, and early detection of unknown states.

  2. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description.

  4. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  5. Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Brandler

    Full Text Available Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD] (n = 728. The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68 × 10(-9, is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666. As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR ≤ 5%. We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR ≤ 5%. Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.

  6. Asymmetric inhibition of Ulk2 causes left-right differences in habenular neuropil formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W; Qi, Jenny Y; Talaga, Anna K; Ma, Taylur P; Pan, Luyuan; Bartholomew, Clinton R; Klionsky, Daniel J; Moens, Cecilia B; Gamse, Joshua T

    2011-07-06

    Studies of the zebrafish epithalamus have provided recent insights into the development of left-right brain asymmetry, which is crucial to normal human brain function. The habenular nuclei of zebrafish are robustly asymmetric, with dense elaboration of neuropil only in the left lateral subnucleus. Because this feature is tightly correlated with asymmetric expression of K(+) channel tetramerization domain-containing proteins 12.1 and 12.2 (Kctd12.1/12.2), we screened for Kctd12.1-interacting proteins to identify molecular mechanisms leading to neuropil asymmetry, and uncovered a novel interaction between Kctd12.1 and Unc-51-like kinase 2 (Ulk2). We show here that knockdown of Ulk2 or overexpression of Kctd12 proteins reduces asymmetric neuropil elaboration. Conversely, overexpression of Ulk2 or mutation of kctd12 genes causes excess neuropil elaboration. We conclude that Ulk2 activity promotes neuropil elaboration while Kctd12 proteins limit Ulk2 activity asymmetrically. This work describes a regulatory mechanism for neuronal process extension that may be conserved in other developmental contexts in addition to the epithalamus.

  7. FGF signaling is required for brain left-right asymmetry and brain midline formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Judith M; Yost, H Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Early disruption of FGF signaling alters left-right (LR) asymmetry throughout the embryo. Here we uncover a role for FGF signaling that specifically disrupts brain asymmetry, independent of normal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) asymmetry. When FGF signaling is inhibited during mid-somitogenesis, asymmetrically expressed LPM markers southpaw and lefty2 are not affected. However, asymmetrically expressed brain markers lefty1 and cyclops become bilateral. We show that FGF signaling controls expression of six3b and six7, two transcription factors required for repression of asymmetric lefty1 in the brain. We found that Z0-1, atypical PKC (aPKC) and β-catenin protein distribution revealed a midline structure in the forebrain that is dependent on a balance of FGF signaling. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling leads to overexpression of six3b, loss of organized midline adherins junctions and bilateral loss of lefty1 expression. Reducing FGF signaling leads to a reduction in six3b and six7 expression, an increase in cell boundary formation in the brain midline, and bilateral expression of lefty1. Together, these results suggest a novel role for FGF signaling in the brain to control LR asymmetry, six transcription factor expressions, and a midline barrier structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conservation Motivation, Social Equality and Left-Right Ideological Preferences in Western and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2017-05-01

    We investigated how attitudes towards social equality can influence the relationship between conservation motivation (or openness) and personal ideological preferences on the left-right dimension, and how this relationship pattern differs between Western and Central & Eastern European (CEE) respondents. Using data from the European Social Survey (2012) we found that individual-level of conservation motivation reduces cultural egalitarianism in both the Western European and the CEE regions, but its connection with economic egalitarianism is only relevant in the CEE region where it fosters economic egalitarianism. Since both forms of egalitarianism were related to leftist ideological preferences in Western Europe, but in the CEE region only economic egalitarianism was ideologically relevant, we concluded that the classic "rigidity of the right" phenomenon is strongly related to cultural (anti)egalitarianism in Western Europe. At the same time, conservation motivation serves as a basis for the "rigidity of the left" in the post-socialist CEE region, in a great part due to the conventional egalitarian economic views.

  9. Deformations, moduli stabilisation and gauge couplings at one-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honecker, Gabriele; Koltermann, Isabel [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, MITP & Institut für Physik (WA THEP),Johannes Gutenberg-Universität,Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staessens, Wieland [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cantoblanco,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-05

    We investigate deformations of ℤ{sub 2} orbifold singularities on the toroidal orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}) with discrete torsion in the framework of Type IIA orientifold model building with intersecting D6-branes wrapping special Lagrangian cycles. To this aim, we employ the hypersurface formalism developed previously for the orbifold T{sup 6}/(ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 2}) with discrete torsion and adapt it to the (ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 6}×ΩR) point group by modding out the remaining ℤ{sub 3} subsymmetry and the orientifold projection ΩR. We first study the local behaviour of the ℤ{sub 3}×ΩR invariant deformation orbits under non-zero deformation and then develop methods to assess the deformation effects on the fractional three-cycle volumes globally. We confirm that D6-branes supporting USp(2N) or SO(2N) gauge groups do not constrain any deformation, while deformation parameters associated to cycles wrapped by D6-branes with U(N) gauge groups are constrained by D-term supersymmetry breaking. These features are exposed in global prototype MSSM, Left-Right symmetric and Pati-Salam models first constructed in (DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.10.009; 10.1002/prop.201400066), for which we here count the number of stabilised moduli and study flat directions changing the values of some gauge couplings. Finally, we confront the behaviour of tree-level gauge couplings under non-vanishing deformations along flat directions with the one-loop gauge threshold corrections at the orbifold point and discuss phenomenological implications, in particular on possible LARGE volume scenarios and the corresponding value of the string scale M{sub string}, for the same global D6-brane models.

  10. A variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2 regulates left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffer's vesicle (KV size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.

  11. A variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) regulates left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Tsai, Su-Mei; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wang, Wen-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffer's vesicle (KV) size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.

  12. Heterochrony and Early Left-Right Asymmetry in the Development of the Cardiorespiratory System of Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J.; Metscher, Brian D.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J.; Müller, Gerd B.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A ‘tracheal lung’ is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution. PMID:25555231

  13. Mapping and explaining the use of the left-right divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Freire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is about mapping and explaining the use of the Left-Right divide across 14 countries from 5 Continents and relies on the richness of the post electoral mass surveys from the Comparative National Election Project: 14 countries and 18 elections spread over 5 continents. The paper shows not only how extensively the LR divide is used in these 14 countries, but also explains variation across both individuals and countries in terms of the factors determining LR recognition and use. Overall, it is shown that, although seen world-wide, the LR divide (both for self-placement and party placement is more present in long consolidated and middle-aged democracies and countries with freer media systems than in new democracies and societies with less free media systems. In the case of parties LR placement, party size also counts: larger parties are more easily placed. Additionally, we also show that LR recognition is more socially and politically determined in long consolidated and middle-aged democracies and in countries with more freedom of the press than in new democracies and in systems with less free media system. These findings add to the existing knowledge about these topics because previous studies were either country/Continent specific, or, if global in nature, never invested in explaining individual and system variation across 14 from 5 Continents. Besides, these findings mean that in the long term probably the new democracies will converge with the long consolidated or middle-aged ones, but this is an empirical question to be researched in future studies.

  14. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  15. Mice lacking hippocampal left-right asymmetry show non-spatial learning deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Akihiro; Kosaki, Yutaka; Ito, Isao; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2018-01-15

    Left-right asymmetry is known to exist at several anatomical levels in the brain and recent studies have provided further evidence to show that it also exists at a molecular level in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit. The distribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits in the apical and basal synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons is asymmetrical if the input arrives from the left or right CA3 pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we examined the role of hippocampal asymmetry in cognitive function using β2-microglobulin knock-out (β2m KO) mice, which lack hippocampal asymmetry. We tested β2m KO mice in a series of spatial and non-spatial learning tasks and compared the performances of β2m KO and C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice. The β2m KO mice appeared normal in both spatial reference memory and spatial working memory tasks but they took more time than WT mice in learning the two non-spatial learning tasks (i.e., a differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior (DRL) task and a straight runway task). The β2m KO mice also showed less precision in their response timing in the DRL task and showed weaker spontaneous recovery during extinction in the straight runway task. These results indicate that hippocampal asymmetry is important for certain characteristics of non-spatial learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Method used to test the imaging consistency of binocular camera's left-right optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiying; Wang, Hu; Liu, Jie; Xue, Yaoke; Yang, Shaodong; Zhao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    To binocular camera, the consistency of optical parameters of the left and the right optical system is an important factor that will influence the overall imaging consistency. In conventional testing procedure of optical system, there lacks specifications suitable for evaluating imaging consistency. In this paper, considering the special requirements of binocular optical imaging system, a method used to measure the imaging consistency of binocular camera is presented. Based on this method, a measurement system which is composed of an integrating sphere, a rotary table and a CMOS camera has been established. First, let the left and the right optical system capture images in normal exposure time under the same condition. Second, a contour image is obtained based on the multiple threshold segmentation result and the boundary is determined using the slope of contour lines near the pseudo-contour line. Third, the constraint of gray level based on the corresponding coordinates of left-right images is established and the imaging consistency could be evaluated through standard deviation σ of the imaging grayscale difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system. The experiments demonstrate that the method is suitable for carrying out the imaging consistency testing for binocular camera. When the standard deviation 3σ distribution of imaging gray difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system of the binocular camera does not exceed 5%, it is believed that the design requirements have been achieved. This method could be used effectively and paves the way for the imaging consistency testing of the binocular camera.

  17. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  18. Signals of new gauge bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, A.; Leike, A.; Riemann, T.; Schaile, D.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1991-12-01

    We analyze signals of additional neutral gauge bosons originating from E 6 and Left-Right models, at a future e + e - collider with 500 GeV c.m. energy. Radiative corrections as well as the experimental situation are taken into account. We show that masses considerably higher than the total energy can be probed, and that a discrimination between theoretical models is possible. (orig.)

  19. Hidden gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1979-01-01

    This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)

  20. Left-right asymmetry is formed in individual cells by intrinsic cell chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Ryo; Ando, Tadashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Hozumi, Shunya; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Matsuno, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    Many animals show left-right (LR) asymmetric morphology. The mechanisms of LR asymmetric development are evolutionarily divergent, and they remain elusive in invertebrates. Various organs in Drosophila melanogaster show stereotypic LR asymmetry, including the embryonic gut. The Drosophila embryonic hindgut twists 90° left-handedly, thereby generating directional LR asymmetry. We recently revealed that the hindgut epithelial cell is chiral in shape and other properties; this is termed planar cell chirality (PCC). We previously showed by computer modeling that PCC is sufficient to induce the hindgut rotation. In addition, both the PCC and the direction of hindgut twisting are reversed in Myosin31DF (Myo31DF) mutants. Myo31DF encodes Drosophila MyosinID, an actin-based motor protein, whose molecular functions in LR asymmetric development are largely unknown. Here, to understand how PCC directs the asymmetric cell-shape, we analyzed PCC in genetic mosaics composed of cells homozygous for mutant Myo31DF, some of which also overexpressed wild-type Myo31DF. Wild-type cell-shape chirality only formed in the Myo31DF-overexpressing cells, suggesting that cell-shape chirality was established in each cell and reflects intrinsic PCC. A computer model recapitulating the development of this genetic mosaic suggested that mechanical interactions between cells are required for the cell-shape behavior seen in vivo. Our mosaic analysis also suggested that during hindgut rotation in vivo, wild-type Myo31DF suppresses the elongation of cell boundaries, supporting the idea that cell-shape chirality is an intrinsic property determined in each cell. However, the amount and distribution of F-actin and Myosin II, which are known to help generate the contraction force on cell boundaries, did not show differences between Myo31DF mutant cells and wild-type cells, suggesting that the static amount and distribution of these proteins are not involved in the suppression of cell-boundary elongation

  1. Reconstruction of the spontaneously broken gauge theory in non-commutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Y.; Morita, K.

    1996-01-01

    The scheme previously proposed by the present authors is modified to incorporate the strong interaction by affording the direct product internal symmetry. The authors do not need to prepare the extra discrete space for the colour gauge group responsible for the strong interaction to reconstruct the standard model and the left-right symmetric gauge model (LRSM). The approach based on non-commutative geometry leads us to present many attractive points such as the unified picture of the gauge and Higgs field as the generalized connection on the discrete space M 4 x Z N . This approach leads to unified picture of gauge and Higgs fields as the generalized connection. The standard model needs N=2 discrete space for reconstruction in this formalism. LRSM is still alive as a model with the intermediate symmetry of the spontaneously broken SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT). N=3 discrete space is needed for the reconstruction of LRSM to include two Higgs φ and ξ bosons usual transformed as (2, 2 * , 0) and (1, 3, -2) under SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) Y , respectively. ξ is responsible to make v R Majorana fermion and so well explains the seesaw mechanism. Up and down quarks have different masses through the vacuum expectation value of φ

  2. Serotonin signaling is a very early step in patterning of the left-right axis in chick and frog embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukumoto, T; Kema, IP; Levin, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fascinating problem in developmental and evolutionary biology. Conservation of early LR patterning steps among vertebrates as well as involvement of nonprotein small-molecule messengers are very poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key

  3. Nucleonic gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques employed in nuclear gauges for the measurement of level, thickness, density and moisture are described. The gauges include both transmission and backscatter gauges and utilize alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons or gamma radiation

  4. Removing left-right asymmetry in a Sagnac interferometer applied to cancel its reflectance dependence on birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ilya; Exir, Hourieh

    2013-05-01

    We present a left-right symmetry restoring method, which removes the detrimental birefringence in the single-mode fiber Sagnac interferometer, achieved with the aid of a half waveplate oriented at a specific angle. We show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that adding a π-shift between clockwise and counterclockwise propagating, horizontally (in fiber loop plane) polarized field components, the Sagnac loop mirror's reflection becomes independent on birefringence of an element placed in the loop.

  5. Tbx6 regulates left/right patterning in mouse embryos through effects on nodal cilia and perinodal signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of left/right body axis during early embryogenesis sets up a developmental cascade that coordinates the development of the viscera and is essential to the correct placement and alignment of organ systems and vasculature. Defective left-right patterning can lead to congenital cardiac malformations, vascular anomalies and other serious health problems. Here we describe a novel role for the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx6 in left/right body axis determination in the mouse. RESULTS: Embryos lacking Tbx6 show randomized embryo turning and heart looping. Our results point to multiple mechanisms for this effect. First, Dll1, a direct target of Tbx6, is down regulated around the node in Tbx6 mutants and there is a subsequent decrease in nodal signaling, which is required for laterality determination. Secondly, in spite of a lack of expression of Tbx6 in the node, we document a profound effect of the Tbx6 mutation on the morphology and motility of nodal cilia. This results in the loss of asymmetric calcium signaling at the periphery of the node, suggesting that unidirectional nodal flow is disrupted. To carry out these studies, we devised a novel method for direct labeling and live imaging cilia in vivo using a genetically-encoded fluorescent protein fusion that labels tubulin, combined with laser point scanning confocal microscopy for direct visualization of cilia movement. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the transcription factor gene Tbx6 is essential for correct left/right axis determination in the mouse and acts through effects on notch signaling around the node as well as through an effect on the morphology and motility of the nodal cilia.

  6. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Jill A; Balantac, Zaneta L; Crawford, Andrew R; Ren, Yuexin; Toure, Jamal; Zchut, Sigalit; Kochilas, Lazaros; Creton, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos generate striking Ca(2+) patterns, which are unique regulators of dynamic developmental events. In the present study, we used zebrafish embryos as a model system to examine the developmental roles of Ca(2+) during gastrulation. We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) concentrations in the ventral margin and lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the dorsal margin and dorsal forerunner cells. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump with 0.5 microM thapsigargin elevates cytosolic Ca(2+) in all embryonic regions and induces a randomization of laterality in the heart and brain. Affected hearts, visualized in living embryos by a subtractive imaging technique, displayed either a reversal or loss of left-right asymmetry. Brain defects include a left-right reversal of pitx2 expression in the dorsal diencephalon and a left-right reversal of the prominent habenular nucleus in the brain. Embryos are sensitive to inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during early and mid gastrulation and lose their sensitivity during late gastrulation and early segmentation. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during gastrulation inhibits expression of no tail (ntl) and left-right dynein related (lrdr) in the dorsal forerunner cells and affects development of Kupffer's vesicle, a ciliated organ that generates a counter-clockwise flow of fluid. Previous studies have shown that Ca(2+) plays a role in Kupffer's vesicle function, influencing ciliary motility and translating the vesicle's counter-clockwise flow into asymmetric patterns of gene expression. The present results suggest that Ca(2+) plays an additional role in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle.

  7. Left-Right Asymmetry Is Required for the Habenulae to Respond to Both Visual and Olfactory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Dreosti, Elena; Vendrell Llopis, Nuria; Carl, Matthias; Yaksi, Emre; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Left-right asymmetries are most likely a universal feature of bilaterian nervous systems and may serve to increase neural capacity by specializing equivalent structures on left and right sides for distinct roles [1]. However, little is known about how asymmetries are encoded within vertebrate neural circuits and how lateralization influences processing of information in the brain. Consequently, it remains unclear the extent to which lateralization of the nervous system is important fo...

  8. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Extended Gauge Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We construct asymptotically free gauge theories exhibiting dynamical breaking of the left-right, strong-electroweak gauge group $G_{LR} = {\\rm SU}(3)_c \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R \\times {\\rm U}(1)_{B-L}$, and its extension to the Pati-Salam gauge group $G_{422}={\\rm SU}(4)_{PS} \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R$. The models incorporate technicolor for electroweak breaking, and extended technicolor for the breaking of $G_{LR}$ and $G_{422}$ and the generation of fermion ...

  9. Vacuum structure of the SU(3) gauge field theory in the Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, J.H.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    The SU(3) gauge field is studied in the Coulomb gauge. The Gribov ambiguities arising in the Coulomb gauge are analysed. Restricting to a class of spherically symmetric vacua it is shown that there exist non-trivial vacua characterized by a topological number eta=0, +-1/2, and +-2. This must be contrasted with the spherically symmetric SU(2) vacua which are characterized by eta=0, +-1/2. (Auth.)

  10. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  11. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  12. Quantum gauge freedom in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Panigrahi, Prasanta K., E-mail: pprasanta@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal (India)

    2017-02-15

    We demonstrate Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for the Abelian one-form gauge (Maxwell) as well as for Abelian two-form gauge theory in the very special relativity (VSR) framework. In VSR scenario, the extended action due to introduction of gaugeon fields also possesses form invariance under quantum gauge transformations. It is observed that the gaugeon field together with gauge field naturally acquire mass, which is different from the conventional Higgs mechanism. The quantum gauge transformation implements a shift in gauge parameter. Further, we analyze the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism in VSR which embeds only one subsidiary condition rather than two.

  13. Precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) for Z boson production by e + e - collisions has been attained at the Slac Linear Collider with the SLD detector. We describe this measurement for the 1993 data run, emphasizing the significant improvements in polarized beam operation which took place for this run, where the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization averaged 62.6 ± 1.2 %. Preliminary 1993 results for A LR are presented. When combined with the (less precise) 1992 result, the preliminary result for the effective weak mixing angle is sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2290 ± 0.0010

  14. Measurement of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry for charm quarks with D*+ and D+ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N.J.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Daoudi, M.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D.J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present a direct measurement of A c =2v c a c /(v 2 c +a 2 c ) from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of D * + and D + mesons in Z 0 events produced with the longitudinally polarized SLAC Linear Collider beam. These Z 0 →c over bar events are tagged on the basis of event kinematics and decay topology from a sample of hadronic Z 0 decays recorded by the SLAC Large Detector. We measure A 0 c = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  15. A Wnt5 Activity Asymmetry and Intercellular Signaling via PCP Proteins Polarize Node Cells for Left-Right Symmetry Breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Katsura; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Ajima, Rieko; Takaoka, Katsuyoshi; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Ikawa, Yayoi; Nishimura, Hiromi; McMahon, Andrew P; Willert, Karl; Okada, Yasushi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Igarashi, Yasunobu; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Shimono, Akihiko; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2017-03-13

    Polarization of node cells along the anterior-posterior axis of mouse embryos is responsible for left-right symmetry breaking. How node cells become polarized has remained unknown, however. Wnt5a and Wnt5b are expressed posteriorly relative to the node, whereas genes for Sfrp inhibitors of Wnt signaling are expressed anteriorly. Here we show that polarization of node cells is impaired in Wnt5a -/- Wnt5b -/- and Sfrp mutant embryos, and also in the presence of a uniform distribution of Wnt5a or Sfrp1, suggesting that Wnt5 and Sfrp proteins act as instructive signals in this process. The absence of planar cell polarity (PCP) core proteins Prickle1 and Prickle2 in individual cells or local forced expression of Wnt5a perturbed polarization of neighboring wild-type cells. Our results suggest that opposing gradients of Wnt5a and Wnt5b and of their Sfrp inhibitors, together with intercellular signaling via PCP proteins, polarize node cells along the anterior-posterior axis for breaking of left-right symmetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine Mapping of the Pond Snail Left-Right Asymmetry (Chirality) Locus Using RAD-Seq and Fibre-FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Yang, Fengtang; Aboobaker, Aziz; Blaxter, Mark L.; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The left-right asymmetry of snails, including the direction of shell coiling, is determined by the delayed effect of a maternal gene on the chiral twist that takes place during early embryonic cell divisions. Yet, despite being a well-established classical problem, the identity of the gene and the means by which left-right asymmetry is established in snails remain unknown. We here demonstrate the power of new genomic approaches for identification of the chirality gene, “D”. First, heterozygous (Dd) pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis were self-fertilised or backcrossed, and the genotype of more than six thousand offspring inferred, either dextral (DD/Dd) or sinistral (dd). Then, twenty of the offspring were used for Restriction-site-Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) to identify anonymous molecular markers that are linked to the chirality locus. A local genetic map was constructed by genotyping three flanking markers in over three thousand snails. The three markers lie either side of the chirality locus, with one very tightly linked (chirality gene and the variation that underpins sinistral and dextral coiling. More generally, the results also show that combining genomic technologies, such as RAD-Seq and high resolution FISH, is a robust approach for mapping key loci in non-model systems. PMID:23951082

  17. Embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows confinement of mutation-induced phenotypes to one lateral body half of bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental question in developmental biology is how a chimeric animal such as a bilateral gynandromorphic animal can have different phenotypes confined to different lateral body halves, and how mutation-induced phenotypes, such as genetic diseases, can be confined to one lateral body half in patients. Here, I propose that embryos of many, if not all, bilaterian animals are divided into left and right halves at a very early stage (which may vary among different types of animals), after which the descendants of the left-sided and right-sided cells will almost exclusively remain on their original sides, respectively, throughout the remaining development. This embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows (1) mutations and the mutation-induced phenotypes to be strictly confined to one lateral body half in animals and humans; (2) mothers with bilateral hereditary primary breast cancer to transmit their disease to their offspring at twofold of the rate compared to mothers with unilateral hereditary breast cancer; and (3) a mosaic embryo carrying genetic or epigenetic mutations to develop into either an individual with the mutation-induced phenotype confined unilaterally, or a pair of twins displaying complete, partial, or mirror-image discordance for the phenotype. Further, this left-right separation mechanism predicts that the two lateral halves of a patient carrying a unilateral genetic disease can each serve as a case and an internal control, respectively, for genetic and epigenetic comparative studies to identify the disease causations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Supersymmetric gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is dealing with the role of supersymmetric gauge theories in the quantum field theory. Methods of manipulating the theories as well as possibilities of their application in elementary particle physics are presented. In particular, the necessity is explained of a theory in which there is symmetry between Fermi and Bose fields, in other words, of the supersymmetric gauge theory for construction of a scheme for the Higgs particle connecting parameters of scalar mesons with those of the rest fields. The mechanism of supersymmetry breaking is discussed which makes it possible to remain the symmetric procedure of renormalization intact. The above mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is applied to demonstrate possibilities of constructing models of weak and electromagnetic interactions which would be acceptable from the point of view of experiments. It is noted that the supersymmetric gauge theories represent a natural technique for description of vector-like models

  19. Gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Some introductory remarks to Yang-Mills fields are given and the problem of the Coulomb gauge is considered. The perturbation expansion for quantized gauge theories is discussed and a survey of renormalization schemes is made. The role of Ward-Takahashi identities in gauge theories is discussed. The author then discusses the renormalization of pure gauge theories and theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. (B.R.H.)

  20. Vacuum gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, B.D.; Priestland, C.R.D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to vacuum gauges, particularly of the type known as Penning gauges, which are cold cathode ionisation gauges, in which a magnetic field is used to lengthen the electron path and thereby increase the number of ions produced. (author)

  1. Superaxial gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, W.; Mistelberger, H.; Schaller, P.; Schweda, M.

    1989-01-01

    Supersymmetric gauge theories can be suitably quantized in non-supersymmetric 'superaxial' gauges without abolishing the basic advantages of the superfield technique. In this review the state of the art is presented. It includes the proof of renormalization and the proof of gauge independence and supersymmetry of observable physical quantities. (author)

  2. First measurement of the left-right Z cross section asymmetry in polarized e+e- collisions at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has recently been upgraded to produce, accelerate, and collide a spin polarized electron beam. The average beam polarization during the 1992 run was (22.4 ± 0.7)%. The SLD Collaboration used the polarized beam to perform the first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) for Z boson production by e + e - collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.55 GeV with a sample of 10,224 Z decays. The measured value of A LR is 0.100 ± 0.044(stat.) ± O.004(syst.) which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2378 ± 0.0056(stat.) ± 0.0005(syst.)

  3. Testing Left-Right extensions of the standard model of electroweak interactions with double-beta decay and LHC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-07-01

    The minimal extension of the standard model of electroweak interactions allows for massive neutrinos, a massive right-handed boson WR, and a left-right mixing angle ζ. While an estimate of the light (electron) neutrino can be extracted from the non-observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay, the limits on the mixing angle and the mass of the righthanded (RH) boson may be extracted from a combined analysis of the double beta decay measurements (GERDA, EXO-200 and KamLAND-Zen collaborations) and ATLAS data on the two-jets two-leptons signals following the excitation of a virtual RH boson mediated by a heavy-mass neutrino. In this work we shall compare results of both types of experiments, and show that the estimates are not in tension.

  4. Precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) for Z boson production by e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions has been attained at the SLAC Linear Collider with the SLD detector. The author describes this measurement for the 1993 data run, emphasizing the significant improvements in polarized beam operation which took place for this run, where the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization averaged 62.6 {+-} 1.2%. Preliminary 1993 results for A{sub LR} are presented. When combined with the (less precise) 1992 result, the preliminary result for the effective weak mixing angle is sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2290 {+-} 0.0010.

  5. Size and receptor density of glutamatergic synapses: a viewpoint from left-right asymmetry of CA3-CA1 connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Shinohara

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is considered to be the main mechanism for learning and memory. Excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus undergo plastic changes during development and in response to electric stimulation. It is widely accepted that this process is mediated by insertion and elimination of various glutamate receptors. In a series of recent investigations on left-right asymmetry of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, glutamate receptor subunits have been found to have distinctive expression patterns that depend on the postsynaptic density (PSD area. Particularly notable are the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit and NR2B NMDA receptor subunit, where receptor density has either a supra-linear (GluR1 AMPA or inverse (NR2B NMDAR relationship to the PSD area. We review current understanding of structural and physiological synaptic plasticity and propose a scheme to classify receptor subtypes by their expression pattern with respect to PSD area.

  6. Breaking symmetry: the zebrafish as a model for understanding left-right asymmetry in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussigne, Myriam; Blader, Patrick; Wilson, Stephen W

    2012-03-01

    How does left-right asymmetry develop in the brain and how does the resultant asymmetric circuitry impact on brain function and lateralized behaviors? By enabling scientists to address these questions at the levels of genes, neurons, circuitry and behavior,the zebrafish model system provides a route to resolve the complexity of brain lateralization. In this review, we present the progress made towards characterizing the nature of the gene networks and the sequence of morphogenetic events involved in the asymmetric development of zebrafish epithalamus. In an attempt to integrate the recent extensive knowledge into a working model and to identify the future challenges,we discuss how insights gained at a cellular/developmental level can be linked to the data obtained at a molecular/genetic level. Finally, we present some evolutionary thoughts and discuss how significant discoveries made in zebrafish should provide entry points to better understand the evolutionary origins of brain lateralization.

  7. Left-right asymmetry for pion and kaon production in the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bo; She, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Mao, Ya-Jun; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the left-right asymmetry in the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) process without introducing any weighting functions. With the current theoretical understanding, we find that the Sivers effect plays a key role in our analysis. We use the latest parametrization of the Sivers and fragmentation functions to reanalyze the π ± production process and find that the results are sensitive to the parametrization. We also extend our calculation on the K ± production, which can help us know more about the Sivers distribution of the sea quarks and the unfavored fragmentation processes. HERMES kinematics with a proton target, COMPASS kinematics with a proton, deuteron, and neutron target (the information on the neutron target can be effectively extracted from the 3 He target), and JLab kinematics (both 6 GeV and 12 GeV) with a proton and neutron target are considered in our paper. (orig.)

  8. Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.

  9. Systematics of higher-spin gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wit, B.; Freedman, D.Z.

    1980-01-01

    Free-field theories for symmetric tensor and tensor-spinor gauge fields have recently been obtained which describe massless particles of arbitrary integer or half-integer spin. An independent discussion of these field theories is given here, based on a hierarchy of generalized Christoffel symbols with simple gauge transformation properties. The necessity of certain constraints on gauge fields and parameters is easily seen. Wave equations and Lagrangians are expressed in terms of the Christoffel symbols, and the independent modes of the system are counted in covariant gauges. Minimal-coupling inconsistency and a combined system of higher-spin boson gauge fields interacting with relativistic particles is discussed

  10. Lepton number violation at colliders from kinematically inaccessible gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Richard [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Durham (United Kingdom); DARC, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    We reevaluate the necessity of W{sub R} gauge bosons being kinematically accessible to test the left-right symmetric model (LRSM) at hadron colliders. In the limit that W{sub R} are too heavy, resonant production of sub-TeV Majorana neutrinos N can still proceed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) via the process pp → W{sub R}{sup ±*} → Nl{sup ±} → l{sup ±}l{sup ±} + nj if mediated by a far off-shell W{sub R}. Traditional searches strategies are insensitive to this regime as they rely on momenta of final states scaling with TeV-scale M{sub W{sub R}}. For such situations, the process is actually kinematically and topologically identical to the direct production (DP) process pp → W{sub SM}{sup ±*} → Nl{sup ±} → l{sup ±}l{sup ±} + nj. In this context, we reinterpret √(s) = 8 TeV LHC constraints on DP rates for the minimal LRSM. For m{sub N} = 200-500 GeV and right-left coupling ratio κ{sub R} = g{sub R}/g{sub L}, we find (M{sub W{sub R}}/κ{sub R}) > 1.1-1.8 TeV at 95% CLs. Expected sensitivities to DP at 14 (100) TeV are also recast: with L = 1 (10) ab{sup -1}, one can probe (M{sub W{sub R}}/κ{sub R}) < 7.9-8.9 (14-40) TeV for m{sub N} = 100-700 (1200) GeV, well beyond the anticipated sensitivity of resonant W{sub R} searches. Findings in terms of gauge invariant dimension-six operators with heavy N are also reported. (orig.)

  11. Translational groups as generators of gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, Tomy

    2003-01-01

    We examine the gauge generating nature of the translational subgroup of Wigner's little group for the case of massless tensor gauge theories and show that the gauge transformations generated by the translational group are only a subset of the complete set of gauge transformations. We also show that, just as in the case of topologically massive gauge theories, translational groups act as generators of gauge transformations in gauge theories obtained by extending massive gauge noninvariant theories by a Stueckelberg mechanism. The representations of the translational groups that generate gauge transformations in such Stueckelberg extended theories can be obtained by the method of dimensional descent. We illustrate these results with the examples of Stueckelberg extended first class versions of Proca, Einstein-Pauli-Fierz, and massive Kalb-Ramond theories in 3+1 dimensions. A detailed analysis of the partial gauge generation in massive and massless second rank symmetric gauge theories is provided. The gauge transformations generated by the translational group in two-form gauge theories are shown to explicitly manifest the reducibility of gauge transformations in these theories

  12. Translational groups as generators of gauge transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaria, Tomy

    2003-11-01

    We examine the gauge generating nature of the translational subgroup of Wigner’s little group for the case of massless tensor gauge theories and show that the gauge transformations generated by the translational group are only a subset of the complete set of gauge transformations. We also show that, just as in the case of topologically massive gauge theories, translational groups act as generators of gauge transformations in gauge theories obtained by extending massive gauge noninvariant theories by a Stückelberg mechanism. The representations of the translational groups that generate gauge transformations in such Stückelberg extended theories can be obtained by the method of dimensional descent. We illustrate these results with the examples of Stückelberg extended first class versions of Proca, Einstein-Pauli-Fierz, and massive Kalb-Ramond theories in 3+1 dimensions. A detailed analysis of the partial gauge generation in massive and massless second rank symmetric gauge theories is provided. The gauge transformations generated by the translational group in two-form gauge theories are shown to explicitly manifest the reducibility of gauge transformations in these theories.

  13. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A LR ) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A LR experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4±1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617±0.0071(stat.)±0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A LR is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model

  14. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  15. The Role of Cerl2 in the Establishment of Left-Right Asymmetries during Axis Formation and Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Belo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the asymmetric left-right (LR body axis is one of the fundamental aspects of vertebrate embryonic development, and one still raising passionate discussions among scientists. Although the conserved role of nodal is unquestionable in this process, several of the details around this signaling cascade are still unanswered. To further understand this mechanism, we have been studying Cerberus-like 2 (Cerl2, an inhibitor of Nodal, and its role in the generation of asymmetries in the early vertebrate embryo. The absence of Cerl2 results in a wide spectrum of malformations commonly known as heterotaxia, which comprises defects in either global organ position (e.g., situs inversus totalis, reversed orientation of at least one organ (e.g., situs ambiguus, and mirror images of usually asymmetric paired organs (e.g., left or right isomerisms of the lungs. Moreover, these laterality defects are frequently associated with congenital heart diseases (e.g., transposition of the great arteries, or atrioventricular septal defects. Here, reviewing the knowledge on the establishment of LR asymmetry in mouse embryos, the emerging conclusion is that as necessary as is the activation of the Nodal signaling cascade, the tight control that Cerl2-mediates on Nodal signaling is equally important, and that generates a further regionalized LR genetic program in the proper time and space.

  16. The C. elegans Tailless/TLX transcription factor nhr-67 controls neuronal identity and left/right asymmetric fate diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Sumeet; Antonio, Celia; Tursun, Baris; Hobert, Oliver

    2009-09-01

    An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell fate determination in the nervous system requires the elucidation of transcriptional regulatory programs that ultimately control neuron-type-specific gene expression profiles. We show here that the C. elegans Tailless/TLX-type, orphan nuclear receptor NHR-67 acts at several distinct steps to determine the identity and subsequent left/right (L/R) asymmetric subtype diversification of a class of gustatory neurons, the ASE neurons. nhr-67 controls several broad aspects of sensory neuron development and, in addition, triggers the expression of a sensory neuron-type-specific selector gene, che-1, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor. Subsequent to its induction of overall ASE fate, nhr-67 diversifies the fate of the two ASE neurons ASEL and ASER across the L/R axis by promoting ASER and inhibiting ASEL fate. This function is achieved through direct expression activation by nhr-67 of the Nkx6-type homeobox gene cog-1, an inducer of ASER fate, that is inhibited in ASEL through the miRNA lsy-6. Besides controlling bilateral and asymmetric aspects of ASE development, nhr-67 is also required for many other neurons of diverse lineage history and function to appropriately differentiate, illustrating the broad and diverse use of this type of transcription factor in neuronal development.

  17. Laterotopic representation of left-right information onto the dorso-ventral axis of a zebrafish midbrain target nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Hidenori; Bianco, Isaac H; Hamaoka, Takanori; Miyashita, Toshio; Uemura, Osamu; Concha, Miguel L; Russell, Claire; Wilson, Stephen W; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2005-02-08

    The habenulae are part of an evolutionarily highly conserved limbic-system conduction pathway that connects telencephalic nuclei to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain . In zebrafish, unilateral activation of the Nodal signaling pathway in the left brain specifies the laterality of the asymmetry of habenular size . We show "laterotopy" in the habenulo-interpeduncular projection in zebrafish, i.e., the stereotypic, topographic projection of left-sided habenular axons to the dorsal region of the IPN and of right-sided habenular axons to the ventral IPN. This asymmetric projection is accounted for by a prominent left-right (LR) difference in the size ratio of the medial and lateral habenular sub-nuclei, each of which specifically projects either to ventral or dorsal IPN targets. Asymmetric Nodal signaling directs the orientation of laterotopy but is dispensable for the establishment of laterotopy itself. Our results reveal a mechanism by which information distributed between left and right sides of the brain can be transmitted bilaterally without loss of LR coding, which may play a crucial role in functional lateralization of the vertebrate brain .

  18. An analysis on older driver's driving behavior by GPS tracking data: Road selection, left/right turn, and driving speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the high older-related accident ratio and increasing population aging problem, understanding older drivers' driving behaviors has become more and more important for building and improving transportation system. This paper examines older driver's driving behavior which includes road selection, left/right turn and driving speed. A two-month experiment of 108 participants was carried out in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Since apparently contradictory statements were often drawn in survey-based or simulators-based studies, this study collected not only drivers' basic information but also GPS data. Analysis of road selection demonstrates that older drivers are reluctant to drive on expressway not only in short trips but also in long trips. The present study did not find significant difference between older drivers and others while turning at the intersections. To investigate the impact factors on driving speed, a random-effects regression model is constructed with explanatory variables including age, gender, road types and the interaction terms between age and road types. Compared with other variables, it fails to find that age (60 years old or over has significant impact on driving speed. Moreover, the results reflect that older drivers drive even faster than others at particular road types: national road and ordinary municipal road. The results in this study are expected to help improve transportation planning and develop driving assistance systems for older drivers.

  19. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A{sub LR}) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A{sub LR} experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4{+-}1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin {sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A{sub LR} is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model.

  20. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a special algebraic gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Haresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges except algebraic gauges. However in general, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We show that nontrivial copies can not occur in this gauge. We then provide an example of spherically symmetric gauge field configuration and prove that with a proper boundary condition on the configuration, this gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S3${{\\mathbb S}^3}$.

  1. Gauge glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1984-12-01

    The fundamental laws of nature may be truely random, or they may be so complicated that a random description is adequate. With this philosophy we examine various ways in which a lattice gauge theory (at the Planck scale) can be generalized. Without here giving up a regular lattice structure (which we really ought to do) we consider two generalizations. Making the action (quenched) random has the effect that the gauge group tends to break down and some gauge bosons become massive, unless the gauge group has special properties: no noncentral corners in the geometry of conjugacy classes and furthermore a connected center. Making the concept of gauge transformation more general has a symmetry breaking effect for groups with outer automorphisms. A study of SU 5 -breaking in the context of the first breakdown mechanism (D. Bennett, E. Buturovic and H. B. Nielsen) is shortly reviewed. (orig.)

  2. Gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    Modern theories of the interactions between fundamental particles are all gauge theories. In the case of gravitation, application of this principle to space-time leads to Einstein's theory of general relativity. All the other interactions involve the application of the gauge principle to internal spaces. Electromagnetism serves to introduce the idea of a gauge field, in this case the electromagnetic field. The next example, the strong force, shows unique features at long and short range which have their origin in the self-coupling of the gauge fields. Finally the unification of the description of the superficially dissimilar electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces completes the picture of successes of the gauge principle. (author)

  3. A measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z0 production with polarized e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.

    1993-12-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider at SLAC is an e + e - collider running at √s ∼ M Z and has provided an electron beam with longitudinal polarization at the SLC interaction point. The 1992 polarized run data were taken with the SLD detector. The author presents here the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) for the 1992 run. The polarized run began in May and ended in September of 1992 at a mean center-of-mass energy of 91.56 GeV. Tower hit information of the liquid argon calorimeter and endcap warm iron calorimeter pads were used for selecting hadronic Z 0 or tau pair events. The SLD detector collected about 11,000 events during this run. The magnitude of the longitudinal polarization of the electron beam was continuously measured by a polarimeter based on Compton scattering, and was monitored by a polarimeter based on Moller scattering. The luminosity-weighted average longitudinal polarization during the 1992 run was measured as 22.4 ± 0.6 (syst.)%. From these data, the value of A LR has been measured to be 0.102 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.003 (syst.), corresponding to an effective electroweak mixing angle (sin 2 θ w eff ) of 0.2375 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0004 (syst.). The error is dominated by the statistical error. This value of sin 2 θ w eff is in good agreement with existing measurements from other experiments. Studies of improvements in A LR event selection for future high-statistics runs are also discussed

  4. Gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.

    1989-01-01

    This article is a survey of the history and ideas of gauge theory. Described here are the gradual emergence of symmetry as a driving force in the shaping of physical theory; the elevation of Noether's theorem, relating symmetries to conservation laws, to a fundamental principle of nature; and the force of the idea (''the gauge principle'') that the symmetries of nature, like the interactions themselves, should be local in character. The fundamental role of gauge fields in mediating the interactions of physics springs from Noether's theorem and the gauge principle in a remarkably clean and elegant way, leaving, however, some tantalizing loose ends that might prove to be the clue to a future deeper level of understanding. The example of the electromagnetic field as the prototype gauge theory is discussed in some detail and serves as the basis for examining the similarities and differences that emerge in generalizing to non-Abelian gauge theories. The article concludes with a brief examination of the dream of total unification: all the forces of nature in a single unified gauge theory, with the differences among the forces due to the specific way in which the fundamental symmetries are broken in the local environment

  5. Symmetry gauge theory for paraparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kursawe, U.

    1986-01-01

    In the present thesis it was shown that for identical particles the wave function of which has a more complicated symmetry than it is the case at the known kinds of particles, the bosons and fermions, a gauge theory can be formulated, the so-called 'symmetry gauge theory'. This theory has its origin alone in the symmetry of the particle wave functions and becomes first relevant when more than two particles are considered. It was shown that for particles with mixed-symmetrical wave functions, so-called 'paraparticles', the quantum mechanical state is no more described by one Hilbert-space element but by a many-dimensional subspace of this Hilbert space. The gauge freedom consists then just in the freedom of the choice of the basis in this subspace, the corresponding gauge group is the group of the unitary basis transformation in this subspace. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. First Measurement of the Left-Right Charge Asymmetry in Hadronic Z Boson Decays and a New Determination of sin2θeffW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.; Benvenuti, A.; Coller, J.; Hedges, S.; Johnson, A.; Shank, J.; Whitaker, J.; Allen, N.; Cotton, R.; Dervan, P.; Hasan, A.; McKemey, A.; Watts, S.; Caldwell, D.; Lu, A.; Yellin, S.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyne, D.; Liu, X.; Reinertsen, P.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B.; Williams, D.; DOliveira, A.; Johnson, R.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Dima, M.; Harton, J.; Smy, M.; Wilson, R.; Baranko, G.; Fahey, S.; Fan, C.; Krishna, N.; Lauber, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Wagner, D.; Bazarko, A.; Bolton, T.; Rowson, P.; Shaevitz, M.; Camanzi, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Piemontese, L.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Abt, I.; Eisenstein, B.; Gladding, G.; Karliner, I.; Shapiro, G.; Steiner, H.; Bardon, O.; Burrows, P.; Busza, W.; Cowan, R.; Dong, D.; Fero, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Kendall, H.; Lath, A.; Lia, V.; Osborne, L.; Quigley, J.; Taylor, F.; Torrence, E.; Verdier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the left-right charge asymmetry A obs Q in hadronic Z boson decays. This was performed at E c.m. =91.27 GeV with the SLD at the SLAC Linear Collider with a polarized electron beam. Using 89838 events we obtain A obs Q =0.225±0.056±0.019, which leads to a measurement of the electron left-right asymmetry parameter, A e =0.162±0.041±0.014, and sin 2 θ eff W =0.2297±0.0052±0.0018. Also, the A obs Q measurement combined with the left-right cross section asymmetry determines A e independent of the value of the electron-beam polarization. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC40 is essential for motile cilia function and left-right axis formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker-Heck, Anita; Zohn, Irene E; Okabe, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract associated with the abnormal function of motile cilia. Approximately half of individuals with PCD also have alterations in the left-right...... organization of their internal organ positioning, including situs inversus and situs ambiguous (Kartagener's syndrome). Here, we identify an uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing a protein, CCDC40, essential for correct left-right patterning in mouse, zebrafish and human. In mouse and zebrafish, Ccdc40...

  8. Experimental studies on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heating system with helical and Left-Right twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Conventional solar heaters are inefficient due to poor convective heat transfer. → Twisted tapes improve the heat transfer rate in solar water heater system. → Increase in outlet water temperature by 15 o C through the use of twisted tapes. →Thermal performance of twisted tape collector is 19% more than plain tube system. → Reduces collector area (0.6 m 2 ) whereas area for conventional collector is 1 m 2 . -- Abstract: Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with helical and Left-Right twist of twist ratio 3 has been performed and presented. The helical twisted tape induces swirl flow inside the riser tubes unidirectional over the length. But, in Left-Right system the swirl flow is bidirectional which increases the heat transfer and pressure drop when compared to the helical system. The experimental heat transfer and friction factors characteristics are validated with theoretical equations and the deviation falls with in the acceptable limits. The results show that heat transfer enhancement in twisted tape collector is higher than the plain tube collector. Compared to helical and Left-Right twisted tape system of same twist ratio 3, maximum thermal performance is obtained for Left-Right twisted tape collector with increase in solar intensity.

  9. Lexical Decision with Left, Right and Center Visual Field Presentation: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Regular Readers by Means of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differences in processing between regular and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different visual field presentations (left, right, and center). The research utilized behavioral measures that provide information on accuracy and reaction time and electro-physiological measures that permit the examination of brain…

  10. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a quadratic gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raval, Haresh

    2016-01-01

    The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges. Algebraic gauges are likely to be ambiguity free. However, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. In addition, they are not generally compatible with the boundary conditions on the gauge fields, which are needed to compactify the space i.e., the ambiguity continues to exist on a compact manifold. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We consider an example of a spherically symmetric gauge field configuration in which we prove that this Lorentz invariant gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S 3 , when a proper boundary condition on the gauge configuration is taken into account. Thus, we provide one example where the ambiguity is absent on a compact manifold in the algebraic gauge. We also show that the BRST invariance is preserved in this gauge. (orig.)

  11. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a quadratic gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raval, Haresh [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-15

    The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges. Algebraic gauges are likely to be ambiguity free. However, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. In addition, they are not generally compatible with the boundary conditions on the gauge fields, which are needed to compactify the space i.e., the ambiguity continues to exist on a compact manifold. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We consider an example of a spherically symmetric gauge field configuration in which we prove that this Lorentz invariant gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S{sup 3}, when a proper boundary condition on the gauge configuration is taken into account. Thus, we provide one example where the ambiguity is absent on a compact manifold in the algebraic gauge. We also show that the BRST invariance is preserved in this gauge. (orig.)

  12. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels ( I h currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  14. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  15. Gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)

  16. Gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1978-01-01

    In these notes the author provides some background on the theory of gauge fields, a subject of increasing popularity among particle physicists (and others). Detailed motivations and applications which are covered in the other lectures of this school are not presented. In particular the application to weak interactions is omitted by referring to the introduction given by J. Ilipoulos a year ago (CERN Report 76-11). The aim is rather to stress those aspects which suggest that gauge fields may play some role in a future theory of strong interactions. (Auth.)

  17. Composite gauge bosons of transmuted gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1987-10-01

    It is shown that effective gauge theories of composite gauge bosons describing the dynamics of composite quarks and leptons can be transmuted from the subcolor gauge theory describing that of subquarks due to the condensation of subquarks and that the equality of effective gauge coupling constants can result as in a grand unified gauge theory. (author)

  18. Nucleonic gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.

    1977-01-01

    The present position of nucleonic techniques for process measurements, is considered from the technical and cost viewpoints. Systems considered include level, density, thickness (including coating thickness), moisture, and sulphur in hydrocarbons gauges and also belt weighers. The advantages of such systems are discussed and the cost-benefit position considered. The combination of nucleonic measuring equipment with a microcomputer is examined. (U.K.)

  19. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  20. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents

  1. Photon energy dependence of left-right asymmetry parameters of Kr 4p photoelectrons in the vicinity of 3d resonant excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricz, S.; Holste, K.; Borovik, Jr.A.A.; Bernhardt, D.; Schippers, S.; Muller, A.; Kover, A.; Varga, D.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A left-right asymmetry was observed experimentally for the outer s-shell photoelectrons of noble gases and of the H 2 molecule in our previous studies (see the cited articles for the definition of 'left' and 'right' as well as for the details of the experimental method). Recently, the angular distribution of 4p photoelectrons of Kr was measured with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range (90 - 94.4 eV) of the 3d -1 → np resonant excitations in order to determine the anisotropy parameters. Now, also the left-right asymmetry parameters have been determined from the measured spectra of Ref. [3]. The experiment was performed at beamline BW3 of the DORIS III storage ring at HASYLAB (Hamburg, Germany). The emitted electrons were analyzed using the ESA-22D electrostatic electron spectrometer. Fig. 1 shows the measured left-right asymmetry parameters (A LR ) of the two fine structure components of Kr 4p photoelectrons. The asymmetry parameters (A LR ) are increasing with increasing photon energies reaching a maximum value of 0.04, definitely different from zero when considering the error bars. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry parameters oscillate around the (3d 3/2,5/2 ) -1 → 5p resonant excitation for both fine structure components. Currently, we do not know what kind of interaction can produce a left-right asymmetry in photon-atom collisions but the shape of the oscillations shows interference between the unknown and the resonant excitation channels. One of the most important observations is that the sign of A LR changes from positive to negative and then back again to positive just within a narrow photon energy range of only 250 meV around the (3d 5/2 ) -1 → 5p resonant excitation. Within such a narrow range artificial asymmetry of the experimental setup is totally unconceivable. Acknowledgements. The authors thank the DORIS III staff for providing excellent working conditions. This work was

  2. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  3. On the gauge dependence of vacuum transitions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Konstandin, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15

    In principle, observables as for example the sphaleron rate or the tunneling rate in a first-order phase transition are gauge-independent. However, in practice a gauge dependence is introduced in explicit perturbative calculations due to the breakdown of the gradient expansion of the effective action in the symmetric phase. We exemplify the situation using the effective potential of the Abelian Higgs model in the general renormalizable gauge. Still, we find that the quantitative dependence on the gauge choice is small for gauges that are consistent with the perturbative expansion.

  4. An effective theory of massive gauge bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The coupling of a group-valued massive scalar field to a gauge field through a symmetric rank-2 field strenght is studied. By considering energies very small compared with the mass of the scalar and invoking the decoupling theorem, one is left with a low-energy effective theory describing a dynamics of massive vector fields. (Author) [pt

  5. The Higgs-strahlung and double Higgs-strahlung production in the left-right twin Higgs model at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao-Bei, Liu; Hong-Mei, Han; Xue-Lei, Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Higgs-strahlung process e + e - → ZH and the double Higgs-strahlung process e + e - → ZHH are very important for studying Higgs boson properties and the Higgs self-coupling in the high-energy e + e - collider (ILC). We calculate the contributions of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model to these processes and find that, in the favorable parameter spaces, the LRTH model can generate significant corrections to the production cross-section of these processes. We expect that the possible signals of the LRTH model can be detected via these processes in the future ILC experiments. (authors)

  6. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  8. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  10. Radioisotope Gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made by Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., in August, 1979, on the uses of isotope-equipped measuring instruments in private industrial enterprises by sending questionnaires to 1372 enterprises using sealed radiation sources. The results are described. i.e. usage of isotope-equipped measuring instruments, the economic effects, and problems for the future, and also the general situation in this field. Such instruments used are gas chromatography apparatus, thickness, level and moisture gauges, sulfur analyzer, etc. Except the gas chromatography, the rest are mostly incorporated in automatic control systems. As the economic effects, there are the rises in productivity, quality and yield and the savings in materials, energy and manpower. While they are used to great advantage, there are still problems occasionally in measuring accuracy and others. (J.P.N.)

  11. Introduction to gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, B. de

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures we present the key ingredients of theories with local gauge invariance. We introduce gauge invariance as a starting point for the construction of a certain class of field theories, both for abelian and nonabelian gauge groups. General implications of gauge invariance are discussed, and we outline in detail how gauge fields can acquire masses in a spontaneous fashion. (orig./HSI)

  12. Comparison of vascular width and accuracy of subjective assessment of pulmonary flow X-ray films of children with left-right shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Hannover Medizinische Hochschule

    1985-01-01

    The authors established a comparative relationship between accuracy of measurement of pulmonary flow and extent of vascular widening in 72 children with Left-Right shunt vitiae; this accuracy of pulmonary flow measurement had been subjectively estimated by 4 investigators without knowing the diagnosis and in comparison to the haemodynamic values (percentage of correct findings). The following procedure was adopted: In a control group of 143 healthy children, we first determined the vascular diameter of the right descending pulmonary artery, of the right upper lobal vein, and of the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields, at an accurately defined distance from the point of the hilus, and compared with the vascular diameters of the children with left-right shunt, employing the method of discrimination analysis. Comparison of the judgement by the 4 investigators with the degree of increase of the vascular diameters showed an accuracy of 65-100% if the right descending pulmonary artery became wider by 2.6 mm, and an accuracy of 79-95% if the mean vascular width in the right upper field increased by 0.7 mm. The accuracy was 83-94% if the mean vascular width in the right lower field increased by 0.6 mm. Statistical studies also showed that the judgement of the 4 investigators was influenced by different vessels. (orig.) [de

  13. Continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Schierholz, G.; Wiese, U.J.

    1993-01-01

    On the lattice some of the salient features of pure gauge theories and of gauge theories with fermions in complex representations of the gauge group seem to be lost. These features can be recovered by considering part of the theory in the continuum. The prerequisite for that is the construction of continuum gauge fields from lattice gauge fields. Such a construction, which is gauge covariant and complies with geometrical constructions of the topological charge on the lattice, is given in this paper. The procedure is explicitly carried out in the U(1) theory in two dimensions, where it leads to simple results. (orig.)

  14. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  15. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  16. Global gauge fixing in lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachin, S.; Parrinello, C. (Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York (USA))

    1991-10-15

    We propose a covariant, nonperturbative gauge-fixing procedure for lattice gauge theories that avoids the problem of Gribov copies. This is closely related to a recent proposal for a gauge fixing in the continuum that we review. The lattice gauge-fixed model allows both analytical and numerical investigations: on the analytical side, explicit nonperturbative calculations of gauge-dependent quantities can be easily performed in the framework of a generalized strong-coupling expansion, while on the numerical side a stochastic gauge-fixing algorithm is very naturally associated with the scheme. In both applications one can study the gauge dependence of the results, since the model actually provides a smooth'' family of gauge-fixing conditions.

  17. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  18. Radionuclides gauges. Gauges designed for permanent installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This present norm determines, for radionuclides gauges designed for permanent installation, the characteristics that these gauges should satisfied in their construction and performance to respect the prescriptions. It indicates the testing methods which permit to verify the agreement, gives a classification of gauges and specifies the indications to put on the emitter block [fr

  19. On the hyperbolicity of Einstein's and other gauge field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that Einstein's vacuum field equations (respectively the conformal vacuum field equations) in a frame formalism imply a symmetric hyperbolic system of ''reduce'' propagation equations for any choice of coordinate system and frame field (and conformal factor). Certain freely specifiable ''gauge source'' functions occurring in the reduced equations reflect the choice of gauge. Together with the initial data they determine the gauge uniquely. Their choice does not affect the isometry class (conformal class) of a solution of an initial value problem. By the same method symmetric hyperbolic propagation equations are obtained from other gauge field equations, irrespective of the gauge. Using the concept of source functions one finds that Einstein's field equation, considered as second order equations for the metric coefficients, are of wave equation type in any coordinate system. (orig.)

  20. Diffraction gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    This system of gauging is now being designed to fit on an Excello NC lathe to measure the form, accuracy, and size of external contoured surfaces as they approach the finish machined size. A template profile of the finished workpiece, but 0.003 in. bigger on radius, will be aligned with the workpiece using a reference diameter and face on the machining fixture to leave a gap between the profile of the template and workpiece. A helium--neon laser beam will be projected through this gap using a rotating retroreflector and a fixed laser. The resulting diffraction pattern produced by the laser beam passing through the template to workpiece gap will be reflected and focused on a fixed diode array via a second retroreflector which moves and remains in optical alignment with the first. These retroreflectors will be rotated about a center that will enable the laser beam, which is shaped in a long slit, to scan the template workpiece gap from the pole to the equator of the workpiece. The characteristic diffraction pattern will be detected by the fixed diode array, and the signal levels from this array will be processed in a mini-computer programmed to produce a best fit through the two minima of the diode signals. The separation of the two minima will yield the size of the workpiece to template gap and this information will be presented to the machine tool operator

  1. Single vector-like top partner production in the left-right twin Higgs model at TeV energy eγ colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhanying; Yang Guang; Yang Bingfang

    2013-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs model contains a new vector-like heavy top quark, which mixes with the SM-like top quark. In this work, we studied the single vector-like top partner production via process e - γ → νeT-barb at the International Linear Collider. We calculated the production cross section at tree level and displayed the relevant differential distributions. The result shows that there will be 125 events produced each year with √s=2 TeV and the integrated luminosity Script Lint ≈ 500 fb -1 , and the b-quark tagging and the relevant missing energy cut will be helpful to detect this new effect. (authors)

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of Left-Right twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.; Suresh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater with full length Left-Right twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300 mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been studied. The experimental data for plain tube collector has been compared with fundamental equation within a discrepancy of ±7.41% and ±14.97% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Result shows that the Nusselt number decreases by 11% and 19% for twist fitted with rod and twist with spacer, respectively, when compared with full length twist. Friction factor also decreases by 18% and 29% for twist fitted with rod and spacer, respectively, as compared with full length twist. The heat enhancement in twist fitted with rod at the trailing edge is maximum when compared with twist fitted with spacer because the swirl flow is maintained throughout the length of rod.

  3. Kupffer's vesicle is a ciliated organ of asymmetry in the zebrafish embryo that initiates left-right development of the brain, heart and gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Jeffrey J; Amack, Jeffrey D; Nyholm, Molly K; Harris, Erin B; Yost, H Joseph

    2005-03-01

    Monocilia have been proposed to establish the left-right (LR) body axis in vertebrate embryos by creating a directional fluid flow that triggers asymmetric gene expression. In zebrafish, dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) express a conserved ciliary dynein gene (left-right dynein-related1, lrdr1) and form a ciliated epithelium inside a fluid-filled organ called Kupffer's vesicle (KV). Here, videomicroscopy demonstrates that cilia inside KV are motile and create a directional fluid flow just prior to the onset of asymmetric gene expression in lateral cells. Laser ablation of DFCs and surgical disruption of KV provide direct evidence that ciliated KV cells are required during early somitogenesis for subsequent LR patterning in the brain, heart and gut. Antisense morpholinos against lrdr1 disrupt KV fluid flow and perturb LR development. Furthermore, lrdr1 morpholinos targeted to DFC/KV cells demonstrate that Lrdr1 functions in these ciliated cells to control LR patterning. This provides the first direct evidence, in any vertebrate, that impairing cilia function in derivatives of the dorsal organizer, and not in other cells that express ciliogenic genes, alters LR development. Finally, genetic analysis reveals novel roles for the T-box transcription factor no tail and the Nodal signaling pathway as upstream regulators of lrdr1 expression and KV morphogenesis. We propose that KV is a transient embryonic 'organ of asymmetry' that directs LR development by establishing a directional fluid flow. These results suggest that cilia are an essential component of a conserved mechanism that controls the transition from bilateral symmetry to LR asymmetry in vertebrates.

  4. On Symmetric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Ryan; Cho, Ilwoo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study structure theorems of algebras of symmetric functions. Based on a certain relation on elementary symmetric polynomials generating such algebras, we consider perturbation in the algebras. In particular, we understand generators of the algebras as perturbations. From such perturbations, define injective maps on generators, which induce algebra-monomorphisms (or embeddings) on the algebras. They provide inductive structure theorems on algebras of symmetric polynomials. As...

  5. Lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1982-01-01

    After a description of a pure Yang-Mills theory on a lattice, the author considers a three-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory. Thereafter he discusses the exact relation between lattice gauge theories with the gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3). Finally he presents Monte Carlo data on phase transitions in SU(2) and SO(3) lattice gauge models. (HSI)

  6. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  7. Gauge invariance rediscovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyasu, K.

    1978-01-01

    A pedagogical approach to gauge invariance is presented which is based on the analogy between gauge transformations and relativity. By using the concept of an internal space, purely geometrical arguments are used to teach the physical ideas behind gauge invariance. Many of the results are applicable to general gauge theories

  8. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  9. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  10. Consistent left-right asymmetry cannot be established by late organizers in Xenopus unless the late organizer is a conjoined twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Levin, Michael

    2010-04-01

    How embryos consistently orient asymmetries of the left-right (LR) axis is an intriguing question, as no macroscopic environmental cues reliably distinguish left from right. Especially unclear are the events coordinating LR patterning with the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axes and midline determination in early embryos. In frog embryos, consistent physiological and molecular asymmetries manifest by the second cell cleavage; however, models based on extracellular fluid flow at the node predict correct de novo asymmetry orientation during neurulation. We addressed these issues in Xenopus embryos by manipulating the timing and location of dorsal organizer induction: the primary dorsal organizer was ablated by UV irradiation, and a new organizer was induced at various locations, either early, by mechanical rotation, or late, by injection of lithium chloride (at 32 cells) or of the transcription factor XSiamois (which functions after mid-blastula transition). These embryos were then analyzed for the position of three asymmetric organs. Whereas organizers rescued before cleavage properly oriented the LR axis 90% of the time, organizers induced in any position at any time after the 32-cell stage exhibited randomized laterality. Late organizers were unable to correctly orient the LR axis even when placed back in their endogenous location. Strikingly, conjoined twins produced by late induction of ectopic organizers did have normal asymmetry. These data reveal that although correct LR orientation must occur no later than early cleavage stages in singleton embryos, a novel instructive influence from an early organizer can impose normal asymmetry upon late organizers in the same cell field.

  11. A Genetic-Based Feature Selection Approach in the Identification of Left/Right Hand Motor Imagery for a Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacoub, Charles; Mhanna, Georges; Rihana, Sandy

    2017-01-23

    Electroencephalography is a non-invasive measure of the brain electrical activity generated by millions of neurons. Feature extraction in electroencephalography analysis is a core issue that may lead to accurate brain mental state classification. This paper presents a new feature selection method that improves left/right hand movement identification of a motor imagery brain-computer interface, based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks used as classifiers. Raw electroencephalography signals are first preprocessed using appropriate filtering. Feature extraction is carried out afterwards, based on spectral and temporal signal components, and thus a feature vector is constructed. As various features might be inaccurate and mislead the classifier, thus degrading the overall system performance, the proposed approach identifies a subset of features from a large feature space, such that the classifier error rate is reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to reduce the number of features to as low as 0.5% (i.e., the number of ignored features can reach 99.5%) while improving the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the classifier.

  12. A semi-Markov model for stroke with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Matthews, Fiona E; van den Hout, Ardo

    2013-02-20

    This paper presents a parametric method of fitting semi-Markov models with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring. We investigate transition intensities in a three-state illness-death model with no recovery. We relax the Markov assumption by adjusting the intensity for the transition from state 2 (illness) to state 3 (death) for the time spent in state 2 through a time-varying covariate. This involves the exact time of the transition from state 1 (healthy) to state 2. When the data are subject to left or interval censoring, this time is unknown. In the estimation of the likelihood, we take into account interval censoring by integrating out all possible times for the transition from state 1 to state 2. For left censoring, we use an Expectation-Maximisation inspired algorithm. A simulation study reflects the performance of the method. The proposed combination of statistical procedures provides great flexibility. We illustrate the method in an application by using data on stroke onset for the older population from the UK Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Genetic-Based Feature Selection Approach in the Identification of Left/Right Hand Motor Imagery for a Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Yaacoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography is a non-invasive measure of the brain electrical activity generated by millions of neurons. Feature extraction in electroencephalography analysis is a core issue that may lead to accurate brain mental state classification. This paper presents a new feature selection method that improves left/right hand movement identification of a motor imagery brain-computer interface, based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks used as classifiers. Raw electroencephalography signals are first preprocessed using appropriate filtering. Feature extraction is carried out afterwards, based on spectral and temporal signal components, and thus a feature vector is constructed. As various features might be inaccurate and mislead the classifier, thus degrading the overall system performance, the proposed approach identifies a subset of features from a large feature space, such that the classifier error rate is reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to reduce the number of features to as low as 0.5% (i.e., the number of ignored features can reach 99.5% while improving the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the classifier.

  14. Gauge theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The relatively simple Fibre-Bundle geometry of a Yang-Mills gauge theory - mainly the clear distinction between base and fibre - made it possible, between 1953 and 1971, to construct a fully quantized version and prove that theory's renormalizability; moreover, nonperturbative (topological) solutions were subsequently found in both the fully symmetric and the spontaneously broken modes (instantons, monopoles). Though originally constructed as a model formalism, it became in 1974 the mathematical mold holding the entire Standard Model (i.e. QCD and the Electroweak theory). On the other hand, between 1974 and 1984, Einstein's theory was shown to be perturbatively nonrenormalizable. Since 1974, the search for Quantum Gravity has therefore provided the main motivation for the construction of Gauge Theories of Gravity. Earlier, however, in 1958-76 several such attempts were initiated, for aesthetic or heuristic reasons, to provide a better understanding of the algebraic structure of GR. A third motivation has come from the interest in Unification, making it necessary to bring GR into a form compatible with an enlargement of the Standard Model. Models can be classified according to the relevant structure group in the fibre. Within the Poincare group, this has been either the R 4 translations, or the Lorentz group SL(2, C) - or the entire Poincare SL(2, C) x R 4 . Enlarging the group has involved the use of the Conformal SU(2, 2), the special Affine SA(4, R) = SL(4, R) x R 4 or Affine A(4, R) groups. Supergroups have included supersymmetry, i.e. the graded-Poincare group (n =1...8 m its extensions) or the superconformal SU(2, 2/n). These supergravity theories have exploited the lessons of the aesthetic-heuristic models - Einstein-Cartan etc. - and also achieved the Unification target. Although perturbative renormalizability has been achieved in some models, whether they satisfy unitarity is not known. The nonperturbative Ashtekar program has exploited the understanding of

  15. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  16. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  17. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  18. Signatures of right-handed Majorana neutrinos and gauge bosons in eγ collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    The process e - γ→e + W R - W R - is studied in the framework of the left-right symmetric model. It is shown that this reaction and e - γ→l + W R - W R - for the arbitrary final lepton are likely to be discovered at the CLIC collider. For a relatively light doubly charged Higgs boson its mass does not have much influence on the discovery potential, while for heavier values the probability of the reaction increases

  19. Mutations in zebrafish pitx2 model congenital malformations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome but do not disrupt left-right placement of visceral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongchang; Buel, Sharleen M; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Pitx2 is a conserved homeodomain transcription factor that has multiple functions during embryonic development. Mutations in human PITX2 cause autosomal dominant Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), characterized by congenital eye and tooth malformations. Pitx2(-/-) knockout mouse models recapitulate aspects of ARS, but are embryonic lethal. To date, ARS treatments remain limited to managing individual symptoms due to an incomplete understanding of PITX2 function. In addition to regulating eye and tooth development, Pitx2 is a target of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signaling pathway that mediates left-right (LR) asymmetry of visceral organs. Based on its highly conserved asymmetric expression domain, the Nodal-Pitx2 axis has long been considered a common denominator of LR development in vertebrate embryos. However, functions of Pitx2 during asymmetric organ morphogenesis are not well understood. To gain new insight into Pitx2 function we used genome editing to create mutations in the zebrafish pitx2 gene. Mutations in the pitx2 homeodomain caused phenotypes reminiscent of ARS, including aberrant development of the cornea and anterior chamber of the eye and reduced or absent teeth. Intriguingly, LR asymmetric looping of the heart and gut was normal in pitx2 mutants. These results suggest conserved roles for Pitx2 in eye and tooth development and indicate Pitx2 is not required for asymmetric looping of zebrafish visceral organs. This work establishes zebrafish pitx2 mutants as a new animal model for investigating mechanisms underlying congenital malformations in ARS and high-throughput drug screening for ARS therapeutics. Additionally, pitx2 mutants present a unique opportunity to identify new genes involved in vertebrate LR patterning. We show Nodal signaling-independent of Pitx2-controls asymmetric expression of the fatty acid elongase elovl6 in zebrafish, pointing to a potential novel pathway during LR organogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abelian gauge theories with tensor gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1984-01-01

    Gauge fields of arbitrary tensor type are introduced. In curved space-time the gravitational field serves as a bridge joining different gauge fields. The theory of second order tensor gauge field is developed on the basis of close analogy to Maxwell electrodynamics. The notion of tensor current is introduced and an experimental test of its detection is proposed. The main result consists in a coupled set of field equations representing a generalization of Maxwell theory in which the Einstein equivalence principle is not satisfied. (author)

  1. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  2. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  3. Counting with symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics.  It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions.  Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions.  Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4.  The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...

  4. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....

  5. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Noncontractible hyperloops in gauge models with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzlaff, Jürgen

    1984-11-01

    We study finite-energy configurations in SO( N) gauge theories with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. For all winding numbers, noncontractible hyperloops are constructed. The corresponding energy density is spherically symmetric, and the configuration with maximal energy on each hyperloop can be determined. Noncontractible hyperloops with an arbitrary winding number for SU(2) gauge theory are also given.

  7. Noncontractible hyperloops in gauge models with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzlaff, J.

    1984-01-01

    We study finite-energy configurations in SO(N) gauge theories with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. For all winding numbers, noncontractible hyperloops are constructed. The corresponding energy density is spherically symmetric, and the configuration with maximal energy on each hyperloop can be determined. Noncontractible hyperloops with an arbitrary winding number for SU(2) gauge theory are also given. (orig.)

  8. Noncontractible hyperloops in gauge models with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burzlaff, J. (Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland). School of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-11-01

    We study finite-energy configurations in SO(N) gauge theories with Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. For all winding numbers, noncontractible hyperloops are constructed. The corresponding energy density is spherically symmetric, and the configuration with maximal energy on each hyperloop can be determined. Noncontractible hyperloops with an arbitrary winding number for SU(2) gauge theory are also given.

  9. Phase-structure of SU(3) lattice gauge-higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Mitrjushkin, V.K.; Zadorozhny, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Phase structure is investigated of SU(3) symmetric gauge-Higgs theory with a defrost radial mode. The Higgs fields are considered in the fundamental representation of SU(3) group. It is shown that the phase structures of SU(3) and SU(2) symmetric coincide qualitatively

  10. Distributed Searchable Symmetric Encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Leenders, Bram; Lim, Hoon Wei; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Huaxiong; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) allows a client to store encrypted data on a storage provider in such a way, that the client is able to search and retrieve the data selectively without the storage provider learning the contents of the data or the words being searched for. Practical SSE schemes

  11. Maximal Abelian and Curci-Ferrari gauges in momentum subtraction at three loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. M.; Gracey, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The vertex structure of QCD fixed in the maximal Abelian gauge (MAG) and Curci-Ferrari gauge is analyzed at two loops at the fully symmetric point for the 3-point functions corresponding to the three momentum subtraction (MOM) renormalization schemes. Consequently, the three-loop renormalization group functions are determined for each of these three schemes in each gauge using properties of the renormalization group equation.

  12. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  13. Gauge field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.

    1975-10-01

    Stora's analysis is continued in discussing the nonabelian (Yang-Mills) gauge field models (G.F.M.). The gauge independence of the physical scattering operator is discussed in some details and the connection between its unitary and the Slavnov symmetry outlined. Only the models involving semisimple gauge groups are considered. This greatly simplifies the analysis of the possible quantum corrections to the Quantum Action Principle which is reduced to the study of the cohomology group of the Lie algebra characterizing the gauge theory. The discussion is at the classical level for the algebraic properties of the SU(2) Higgs-Kibble-Englert-Brout-Faddeev-Popov lagrangian and its invariance under Slavnov identity transformations is exhibited. The renormalization of the Slavnov identity in the G.M.F. involving semisimple gauge groups is studied. The unitary and gauge independence of the physical S operator in the SU(2) H.K. model is dealt with [fr

  14. Field-theoretical investigations in nonlinear realizations of gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chenhan.

    1989-01-01

    A review of both linear realization and non-linear realization of gauge symmetries is given and the connection between the two recipes is carefully examined. The author then constructs both linear and non-linear realizations for of supersymmetric theories. The supermultiplets of the Goldstone modes contain Goldstone bosons, quasi-Goldstone bosons and quasi-Goldstone fermions. He makes an attempt to construct a specific model of a supersymmetric non-linear realization for the Nambu-Goldstone superfields and the quasi-Goldstone fermions are identified with the quarks and leptons. Further, he discusses a mechanism by which the components of the Nambu-Goldstone supermultiplets are given non-zero mass splittings by the coupling to a hidden sector. Next, he turns to anti-symmetric tensor gauge theories, which are shown to be classically equivalent to the non-linear models describing the complete symmetry breakdown. To study the quantum mechanical equivalence of these two models, he carries out the tensor gauge fixing and the quantization procedures for the anti-symmetric tensor theories and establish the global symmetry currents which connect the two models. He then builds the supersymmetric extensions of the anti-symmetric tensor gauge theories in both abelian and non-abelian versions. Such super-tensor gauge theories are shown, by using the superfield equations of motion, to be equivalent to the fully doubled supersymmetric non-linear models of complete symmetry breakdown

  15. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partovi, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    From a generalization of the covariant derivative, nonlocal gauge theories are developed. These theories enjoy local gauge invariance and associated Ward identities, a corresponding locally conserved current, and a locally conserved energy-momentum tensor, with the Ward identities implying the masslessness of the gauge field as in local theories. Their ultraviolet behavior allows the presence as well as the absence of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the latter in analogy with lattice theories

  16. Introduction to gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    These lecture notes contain the text of five lectures and a Supplement. The lectures were given at the JINR-CERN School of Physics, Tabor, Czechoslovakia, 5-18 June 1983. The subgect of the lecinvariancetures: gauge of electromagnetic and weak interactions, higgs and supersymmetric particles. The Supplement contains reprints (or excerpts) of some classical papers on gauge invariance by V. Fock, F. London, O. Klein and H. Weyl, in which the concept of gauge invariance was introduced and developed

  17. Implementing general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Linda M.; Dine, Michael; Festuccia, Guido; Mason, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been much progress in building models of gauge mediation, often with predictions different than those of minimal gauge mediation. Meade, Seiberg, and Shih have characterized the most general spectrum which can arise in gauge-mediated models. We discuss some of the challenges of building models of general gauge mediation, especially the problem of messenger parity and issues connected with R symmetry breaking and CP violation. We build a variety of viable, weakly coupled models which exhibit some or all of the possible low energy parameters.

  18. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlocal gauge theories including gravity are considered. It is shown that the introduction of the additional nonlocal interaction makes γ 5 -anomalous theories meaningful. The introduction of such interaction leads to macrocausal unitary theory, which describes the interaction of massive vector fields with fermion fields. It is shown that nonlocal gauge theories with nonlocal scale Λ nl ≤(1-10) TeV can solve the gauge hierarchy problem. An example of nonlinear grand unified gauge model in which topologically nontrivial finite energy monopole solutions are absent is found

  19. Parastatistics and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed

  20. A new gauge for supersymmetric abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.W.; Barcelos Neto, J.

    1984-01-01

    A new gauge for supersymmetric abelian gauge theories is presented. It is shown that this new gauge allows us to obtain terms which usually come as radiative corrections to the supersymmetric abelian gauge theories when one uses the Wess-Zumino gauge. (Author) [pt

  1. Symmetric waterbomb origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.

  2. Symmetric modular torsatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  3. Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed

  4. Rain Gauges Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  5. Nonabelian generalized gauge multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, Ulf; Zabzine, Maxim; Rocek, Martin; Ryb, Itai; Unge, Rikard von

    2009-01-01

    We give the nonabelian extension of the newly discovered N = (2, 2) two-dimensional vector multiplets. These can be used to gauge symmetries of sigma models on generalized Kaehler geometries. Starting from the transformation rule for the nonabelian case we find covariant derivatives and gauge covariant field-strengths and write their actions in N = (2, 2) and N = (1, 1) superspace.

  6. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  7. Gauge theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji; Nakanishi, Noboru; Nariai, Hidekazu

    1983-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named symposium. They deal with geometrical aspects of gauge theory and gravitation, special problems in gauge theories, quantum field theory in curved space-time, quantum gravity, supersymmetry including supergravity, and grand unification. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  8. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  9. Gauge field configurations in curved spacetimes (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaleb-Joutei, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Comtet, A.

    1979-05-01

    One continues the study of gauge field configurations in curved spaces, using the formalism and results of a previous paper. A class of static, finite action, selfdual solutions of SU(2) gauge fields on a Euclidean section of de Sitter space is presented. The action depends on a continuous parameter. The spin connection solution is obtained as a particular case and a certain passage to the limiting case of a flat space is shown to reproduce the Euclidean Prasad-Sommerfield solution. The significance and possible interest of such solutions are discussed. The results are then generalized to a non-Einstein but conformally flat space, including de Sitter space as an Einstein limit. Next Baecklund type transformations are constructed starting from selfduality constraints for such curved spaces. These transformations are applied to the above mentioned solutions. The last two sections contain remarks on solutions with a background Robinson-Bertotti metric and on static, axially symmetric solutions respectively

  10. Doses from portable gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.

    1988-08-01

    Field studies to measure actual radiation exposures of operators of commercial moisture-density gauges were undertaken in several regions of Canada. Newly developed bubble detector dosimeter technology and conventional dosimetry such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), integrating electronic dosimeters (DRDs), and CR-39 neutron track-etch detectors were used to estimate the doses received by 23 moisture-density gauge operators and maintenance staff. These radiation dose estimates were supported by mapping radiation fields and accounting for the time an operator was near a gauge. Major findings indicate that gauge maintenance and servicing workers were more likely than gauge operators to receive exposures above the level of 5 mSv, and that neutron doses were roughly the same as gamma doses. Gauge operators receive approximately 75% of their dose when transporting and carrying the gauge. Dose to their hands is similar to the dose to their trunks, but the dose to their feet area is 6 to 30 times higher. Gamma radiation is the primary source of radiation contributing to operator dose

  11. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  12. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  13. General gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, Patrick; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2009-01-01

    We give a general definition of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking which encompasses all the known gauge mediation models. In particular, it includes both models with messengers as well as direct mediation models. A formalism for computing the soft terms in the generic model is presented. Such a formalism is necessary in strongly-coupled direct mediation models where perturbation theory cannot be used. It allows us to identify features of the entire class of gauge mediation models and to distinguish them from specific signatures of various subclasses. (author)

  14. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  15. The energy–momentum tensor(s in classical gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Blaschke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy–momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space–time. For the canonical energy–momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy–momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein–Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.

  16. Gauge theories and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabibbo, N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter attempts to present some of the fundamental geometrical ideas at the basis of gauge theories. Describes Dirac Monopoles and discusses those ideas that are not usually found in more ''utilitarian'' presentations which concentrate on QCD or on the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model. This topic was chosen because of the announcement of the possible detection of a Dirac monopole. The existence of monopoles depends on topological features of gauge theories (i.e., on global properties of field configurations which are unique to gauge theories). Discusses global symmetry-local symmetry; the connection; path dependence and the gauge fields; topology and monopoles; the case of SU(3) x U(1); and the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole

  17. Gauge field copies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.

    1979-01-01

    The construction of field strength copies without any gauge constraint is discussed. Several examples are given, one of which is not only a field strength copy but also (at the same time) a 'current copy'. (author) [pt

  18. Nuclear radiation gauge standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described, comprising a body of superposed interleaved thin layers of a moderating material containing hydrogen in the molecular structure thereof and of a substantially non-moderating material

  19. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  20. Amorphous gauge glass theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Bennett, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Assuming that a lattice gauge theory describes a fundamental attribute of Nature, it should be pointed out that such a theory in the form of a gauge glass is a weaker assumption than a regular lattice model in as much as it is not constrained by the imposition of translational invariance; translational invariance is, however, recovered approximately in the long wavelength or continuum limit. (orig./WL)

  1. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  2. Gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The book is intended to explain, in an elementary way, the basic notions and principles of gauge theories. Attention is centred on the Salem-Weinberg model of electro-weak interactions, as well as neutrino-lepton scattering and the parton model. Classical field theory, electromagnetic, Yang-Mills and gravitational gauge fields, weak interactions, Higgs mechanism and the SU(5) model of grand unification are also discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  4. General relativity and gauge gravity theories of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    It is a short review of today's gauge gravity theories and their relations with Einstein General Relativity. The conceptions of construction of the gauge gravity theories with higher derivatives are analyzed. GR is regarded as the gauge gravity theory corresponding to the choice of G ∞4 as the local gauge symmetry group and the symmetrical tensor of rank two g μν as the field variable. Using the mathematical technique, single for all fundamental interactions (namely variational formalism for infinite Lie groups), we can obtain Einstein's theory as the gauge theory without any changes. All other gauge approaches lead to non-Einstein theories of gravity. But above-mentioned mathematical technique permits us to construct the gauge gravity theory of higher order (for instance SO (3,1)-gravity) so that all vacuum solutions of Einstein equations are the solutions of the SO (3,1)-gravity theory. The structure of equations of SO(3,1)-gravity becomes analogous to Weeler-Misner geometrodynamics one

  5. Symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...

  6. Gauge invariant treatment of the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Fodor, Z.; Hebecker, A.

    1994-03-01

    We evaluate the gauge invariant effective potential for the composite field σ = 2Φ † Φin the SU(2)-Higgs model at finite temperature. Symmetric and broken phases correspond to the domains σ ≤ T 2 /3 and σ > T 2 /3, respectively. The effective potential increases very steeply at small values of σ. Predictions for several observables, derived from the ordinary and the gauge invariant effective potential, are compared. Good agreement is found for the critical temperature and the jump in the order parameter. The results for the latent heat differ significantly for large Higgs masses. (orig.)

  7. A symmetric safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny

    2010-01-01

    How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.

  8. Symmetric q-Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dattoli

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.

  9. Quantum and classical gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Terashima, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The use of the mass term of the gauge field as a gauge fixing term, which was discussed by Zwanziger, Parrinello and Jona-Lasinio in a large mass limit, is related to the non-linear gauge by Dirac and Nambu. We have recently shown that this use of the mass term as a gauge fixing term is in fact identical to the conventional local Faddeev-Popov formula without taking a large mass limit, if one takes into account the variation of the gauge field along the entire gauge orbit. This suggests that the classical massive vector theory, for example, could be re-interpreted as a gauge invariant theory with a gauge fixing term added in suitably quantized theory. As for massive gauge particles, the Higgs mechanics, where the mass term is gauge invariant, has a more intrinsic meaning. We comment on several implications of this observation. (author)

  10. Gauge symmetry, chirality and parity effects in four-particle systems: Coulomb's law as a universal function for diatomic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooydonk, G

    2000-11-01

    Following recent work in search for a universal function (Van Hooydonk, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., (1999), 1617), we test four symmetric +/- a(n)Rn potentials for reproducing molecular potential energy curves (PECs). Classical gauge symmetry for 1/R-potentials results in generic left right asymmetric PECs. A pair of symmetric perturbed Coulomb potentials is quantitatively in accordance with observed PECs. For a bond, a four-particle system, charge inversion (a parity effect, atom chirality) is the key to explain this shape generically. A parity adapted Hamiltonian reduces from ten to two terms and to a soluble Bohr-like formula, a Kratzer (1 - Re/R)2 potential. The result is similar to the combined action of spin and wave function symmetry upon the Hamiltonian in Heitler-London theory. Analytical perturbed Coulomb functions varying with (1 - Re/R) scale attractive and repulsive branches of PECs for 13 bonds H2, HF, LiH, KH, AuH, Li2, LiF, KLi, NaCs, Rb2, RbCs, Cs2 and I2 in a single straight line. The 400 turning points for 13 bonds are reproduced with a deviation of 0.007 A at both branches. For 230 points at the repulsive side, the deviation is 0.003 A. The perturbed electrostatic Coulomb law is a universal molecular function. Ab initio zero molecular parameter functions give PECs of acceptable quality, just using atomic ionisation energies. The function can be used as a model potential for inverting levels and gives a first principle's comparison of short- and long-range interactions, important for the study of cold atoms. Wave-packet dynamics, femto-chemistry applied to the crossing of covalent and ionic curves, can provide evidence for this theory. We anticipate this scale/shape invariant scheme applies to smaller scales in nuclear and high-energy particle physics. For larger gravitational scales (Newton 1/R potentials), problems with super-unification are discussed. Reactions between hydrogen and antihydrogen, feasible in the near future, will probably produce

  11. To gauge or not to gauge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldacena, Juan; Milekhin, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    The D0 brane, or BFSS, matrix model is a quantum mechanical theory with an interesting gravity dual. We consider a variant of this model where we treat the SU( N) symmetry as a global symmetry, rather than as a gauge symmetry. This variant contains new non-singlet states. We consider the impact of these new states on its gravity dual. We argue that the gravity dual is essentially the same as the one for the original matrix model. The non-singlet states have higher energy at strong coupling and are therefore dynamically suppressed.

  12. Derivation of the gauge link in light cone gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    In light cone gauge, a gauge link at light cone infinity is necessary for transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution to restore the gauge invariance in some specific boundary conditions. We derive such transverse gauge link in a more regular and general method. We find the gauge link at light cone infinity naturally arises from the contribution of the pinched poles: one is from the quark propagator and the other is hidden in the gauge vector field in light cone gauge. Actually, in the amplitude level, we have obtained a more general gauge link over the hypersurface at light cone infinity which is beyond the transverse direction. The difference of such gauge link between semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan processes can also be obtained directly and clearly in our derivation.

  13. Renormalizable Non-Covariant Gauges and Coulomb Gauge Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, L

    1999-01-01

    To study ``physical'' gauges such as the Coulomb, light-cone, axial or temporal gauge, we consider ``interpolating'' gauges which interpolate linearly between a covariant gauge, such as the Feynman or Landau gauge, and a physical gauge. Lorentz breaking by the gauge-fixing term of interpolating gauges is controlled by extending the BRST method to include not only the local gauge group, but also the global Lorentz group. We enumerate the possible divergences of interpolating gauges, and show that they are renormalizable, and we show that the expectation value of physical observables is the same as in a covariant gauge. In the second part of the article we study the Coulomb-gauge as the singular limit of the Landau-Coulomb interpolating gauge. We find that unrenormalized and renormalized correlation functions are finite in this limit. We also find that there are finite two-loop diagrams of ``unphysical'' particles that are not present in formal canonical quantization in the Coulomb gauge. We verify that in the ...

  14. Poincare gauge in electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittin, W.E.; Smythe, W.R.; Wyss, W.

    1982-01-01

    The gauge presented here, which we call the Poincare gauge, is a generalization of the well-known expressions phi = -rxE 0 and A = 1/2 B 0 x r for the scalar and vector potentials which describe static, uniform electric and magnetic fields. This gauge provides a direct method for calculating a vector potential for any given static or dynamic magnetic field. After we establish the validity and generality of this gauge, we use it to produce a simple and unambiguous method of computing the flux linking an arbitrary knotted and twisted closed circuit. The magnetic flux linking the curve bounding a Moebius band is computed as a simple example. Arguments are then presented that physics students should have the opportunity of learning early in their curriculum modern geometric approaches to physics. (The language of exterior calculus may be as important to future physics as vector calculus was to the past.) Finally, an appendix illustrates how the Poincare gauge (and others) may be derived from Poincare's lemma relating exact and closed exterior differential forms

  15. Gauge fields in a torsion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Ion

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the motion and the field equations in a non-null curvature and torsion space. In this 4-n dimensional space, the connection coefficients are γ bc a = 1/2S bc a + 1/2T bc a, where S bc a is the symmetrical part and T bc a are the components of the torsion tensor. We will consider that all the fields depend on x = x α , α = 1,2,3,4 and do not depend on y = y k , k=1,2,...,n. The factor S bc a depends on the components of the metric tensor g αβ (x) and on the gauge fields A ν s 0 (x) and the components of the torsion depend only on the gauge fields A ν s 0 (x). We take into consideration the particular case for which the geodesic equations coincide with the motion equations in the presence of the gravitational and the gauge fields. In this case the field equations are Einstein equations in a 4-n dimensional space. We show that both the geodesic equations and the field equations can be obtained from a variational principle. (author)

  16. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  17. Hot Conformal Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i......We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged...... in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...

  18. Renormalization of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.

    1975-04-01

    Gauge theories are characterized by the Slavnov identities which express their invariance under a family of transformations of the supergauge type which involve the Faddeev Popov ghosts. These identities are proved to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory, within the BPHZ framework, when the underlying Lie algebra is semi-simple and the gauge function is chosen to be linear in the fields in such a way that all fields are massive. An example, the SU2 Higgs Kibble model is analyzed in detail: the asymptotic theory is formulated in the perturbative sense, and shown to be reasonable, namely, the physical S operator is unitary and independant from the parameters which define the gauge function [fr

  19. Continuum gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1976-09-01

    The mathematics of gauge fields and some related concepts are discussed: some corrections on the principal fiber bundles emphasize the idea that the present formulation of continuum theories is incomplete. The main ingredients used through the construction of the renormalized perturbation series are then described: the Faddeev Popov argument, and the Faddeev Popov Lagrangian; the Slavnov symmetry and the nature of the Faddeev Popov ghost fields; the Slavnov identity, with an obstruction: the Adler Bardeen anomaly, and its generalization to the local cohomology of the gauge Lie algebra. Some smooth classical configurations of gauge fields which ought to play a prominent role in the evaluation of the functional integral describing the theory are also reviewed

  20. Generally covariant gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of generally covariant gauge theories in four space-time dimensions is investigated. The field variables are taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection 1-form and a scalar density. Modulo an important degeneracy, complex [euclidean] vacuum general relativity corresponds to a special case in this class. A canonical analysis of the generally covariant gauge theories with the same gauge group as general relativity shows that they describe two degrees of freedom per space point, qualifying therefore as a new set of neighbors of general relativity. The modification of the algebra of the constraints with respect to the general relativity case is computed; this is used in addressing the question of how general relativity stands out from its neighbors. (orig.)

  1. Lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1983-04-01

    In the last few years lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena in gauge theories. The lattice serves as an ultraviolet cutoff, rendering the theory well defined and amenable to numerical and analytical work. Of course, as with any cutoff, at the end of a calculation one must consider the limit of vanishing lattice spacing in order to draw conclusions on the physical continuum limit theory. The lattice has the advantage over other regulators that it is not tied to the Feynman expansion. This opens the possibility of other approximation schemes than conventional perturbation theory. Thus Wilson used a high temperature expansion to demonstrate confinement in the strong coupling limit. Monte Carlo simulations have dominated the research in lattice gauge theory for the last four years, giving first principle calculations of nonperturbative parameters characterizing the continuum limit. Some of the recent results with lattice calculations are reviewed

  2. Measurement of the parity-violation parameter Ab from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quark production in Z0 decays using a momentum-weighted track-charge technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    Using an impact parameter tag to select an enriched sample of Z 0 →bbbar events, and the net momentum-weighted track charge to identify the sign of the charge of the underlying b quark, we have measured the left-right forward-backward asymmetry for b quark production as a function of polar angle. Based on 1.8pb -1 of Z 0 decay data produced with a mean electron beam polarization of P e =63%, this yields a direct measurement of the extent of parity violation in the Zbb coupling of A b =0.87±0.11(stat)±0.09(syst)

  3. Instantons in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of works which, taken together, give a complete and consistent presentation of instanton calculus in non-Abelian gauge theories, as it exists now. Some of the papers reproduced are instanton classics. Among other things, they show from a historical perspective how the instanton solution has been found, the motivation behind it and how the physical meaning of instantons has been revealed. Other papers are devoted to different aspects of instanton formalism including instantons in supersymmetric gauge theories. A few unsolved problems associated with instantons are d

  4. Holographic Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco; /Princeton U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Stanford U., ITP; Franco, Sebastian; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-06-19

    We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.

  5. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-01-01

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced

  6. The 2-dimensional O(4) symmetric Heisenberg ferromagnet in terms of rotation invariant variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtkamp, A.

    1981-09-01

    After introduction of rotation invariant auxiliary variables, the integration over all rotation variant variables (spins) in the 0(4) symmetric two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet can be performed. The resulting new Hamiltonian involves a sum over closed loops. It is complex and invariant under U(1) gauge transformations. Ruehl's boson representation is used to derive the result. (orig.)

  7. Chemical potentials in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actor, A.; Pennsylvania State Univ., Fogelsville

    1985-01-01

    One-loop calculations of the thermodynamic potential Ω are presented for temperature gauge and non-gauge theories. Prototypical formulae are derived which give Ω as a function of both (i) boson and/or fermion chemical potential, and in the case of gauge theories (ii) the thermal vacuum parameter Asub(O)=const (Asub(μ) is the euclidean gauge potential). From these basic abelian gauge theory formulae, the one-loop contribution to Ω can readily be constructed for Yang-Mills theories, and also for non-gauge theories. (orig.)

  8. Gauge theory description of compactified pp-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, Matteo; Boer, Jan de; Harmark, Troels; Imeroni, Emiliano; Obers, Niels A.

    2003-01-01

    We find a new Penrose limit of AdS 5 xS 5 that gives the maximally symmetric pp-wave background of type-IIB string theory in a coordinate system that has a manifest space-like isometry. This induces a new pp-wave/gauge-theory duality which on the gauge theory side involves a novel scaling limit of N=4 SYM theory. The new Penrose limit, when applied to AdS 5 xS 5 /Z M , yields a pp-wave with a space-like circle. The dual gauge theory description involves a triple scaling limit of an N=2 quiver gauge theory. We present in detail the map between gauge theory operators and string theory states including winding states, and verify agreement between the energy eigenvalues obtained from string theory and those computed in gauge theory, at least to one-loop order in the planar limit. We furthermore consider other related new Penrose limits and explain how these limits can be understood as part of a more general framework. (author)

  9. Hermiticity and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Theory of Hermitian Relativity (HRT) the postulates of hermiticity and gauge invariance are formulated in different ways, due to a different understanding of the idea of hermiticity. However all hermitian systems of equations have to satisfy Einstein's weak system of equations being equivalent to Einstein-Schroedinger equations. (author)

  10. Digital lattice gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.

  11. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1983-06-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  12. Gauge theory and renormalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1996-01-01

    Early developments leading to renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories for the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, are discussed from a personal viewpoint. They drastically improved our view of the role of field theory, symmetry and topology, as well as other branches of mathematics, in

  13. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)element ofG that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ), x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space G which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)sigmasub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportional sigmasub(i)sigmasub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder-Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson-loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI=0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  14. Industrial nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennerstedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    A great number of industrial nuclear gauges are used in Sweden. The administrative routines for testing, approval and licensing are briefly described. Safety standards, including basic ICRP criteria, are summarized and a theoretical background to the various measuring techniques is given. Numerous practical examples are given. (author)

  15. Solution of the gauge identities in the axial gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbourgo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Starting from the spectral representation of the two-point functions in the axial gauge, the gauge identities are solved so as to express the higher-point Green functions linearly in terms of the two-point spectral function. The four-point functions are an important input for investigations of scalar electrodynamics and vector chromodynamics based on the gauge technique. (author)

  16. Some observations on interpolating gauges and non-covariant gauges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the viability of using interpolating gauges to define the non-covariant gauges starting from the covariant ones. We draw attention to the need for a very careful treatment of boundary condition defining term. We show that the boundary condition needed to maintain gauge-invariance as the interpolating parameter ...

  17. Gauge symmetry breaking in gauge theories -- in search of clarification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries in gauge theories from a philosophical angle, taking into account the fact that the notion of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry, though widely employed in textbook expositions of the Higgs mechanism, is not supported by

  18. Two-dimensional gauge dynamics and the topology of singular determinantal varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kenny [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge,Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-27

    We record an observation about the Witten indices in two families of gauged linear sigma models: the U(2) model for linear sections of Grassmannians, and the U(1) model for quadric complete intersections. We describe how the Witten indices are related to the Euler characteristics of the singular skew-symmetric or symmetric determinantal varieties featuring in the analysis of their opposite phases, and we discuss the extent to which these relationships can be reconciled with standard Born-Oppenheimer arguments.

  19. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  20. Nambu–Poisson gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurčo, Branislav, E-mail: jurco@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Mathematical Institute, Prague 186 75 (Czech Republic); Schupp, Peter, E-mail: p.schupp@jacobs-university.de [Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Vysoký, Jan, E-mail: vysokjan@fjfi.cvut.cz [Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Prague 115 19 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-02

    We generalize noncommutative gauge theory using Nambu–Poisson structures to obtain a new type of gauge theory with higher brackets and gauge fields. The approach is based on covariant coordinates and higher versions of the Seiberg–Witten map. We construct a covariant Nambu–Poisson gauge theory action, give its first order expansion in the Nambu–Poisson tensor and relate it to a Nambu–Poisson matrix model.

  1. Nambu–Poisson gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Vysoký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We generalize noncommutative gauge theory using Nambu–Poisson structures to obtain a new type of gauge theory with higher brackets and gauge fields. The approach is based on covariant coordinates and higher versions of the Seiberg–Witten map. We construct a covariant Nambu–Poisson gauge theory action, give its first order expansion in the Nambu–Poisson tensor and relate it to a Nambu–Poisson matrix model.

  2. Gravitationally induced zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Coulomb gauge for Abelian gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio

    2010-08-01

    It is shown that on curved backgrounds, the Coulomb gauge Faddeev-Popov operator can have zero modes even in the Abelian case. These zero modes cannot be eliminated by restricting the path integral over a certain region in the space of gauge potentials. The conditions for the existence of these zero modes are studied for static spherically symmetric spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions. For this class of metrics, the general analytic expression of the metric components in terms of the zero modes is constructed. Such expression allows one to find the asymptotic behavior of background metrics, which induce zero modes in the Coulomb gauge, an interesting example being the three-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Some of the implications for quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are discussed.

  3. Mesotherapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Matsukura, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2010-04-01

    Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung disease, is a rare disorder characterized by fat distribution around the shoulders, arms, and neck in the context of chronic alcoholism. Complete excision of nonencapsulated lipomas is difficult. However, reports describing conservative therapeutic measures for lipomatosis are rare. The authors present the case of a 42-year-old man with a diagnosis of benign symmetric lipomatosis who had multiple, large, symmetrical masses in his neck. Multiple phosphatidylcholine injections in the neck were administered 4 weeks apart, a total of seven times to achieve lipolysis. The patient's lipomatosis improved in response to the injections, and he achieved good cosmetic results. Intralesional injection, termed mesotherapy, using phosphatidylcholine is a potentially effective therapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis that should be reconsidered as a therapeutic option for this disease.

  4. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SU(2)R is shown to provide necessary conditions for leptogenesis which converts later to the observed baryon asymmetry. The strength of lepton number violation is related to the. Majorana neutrino mass and hence related to current bounds on light neutrino masses. Thus the observed neutrino masses and the baryon ...

  5. The renaissance of gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyasu, K.

    1982-01-01

    Gauge theory is a classic example of a good idea proposed before its time. A brief historical review of gauge theory is presented to see why it required over 50 years for gauge invariance to be rediscovered as the basic principle governing the fundamental forces of Nature. (author)

  6. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...

  7. Equation of Motion of a Mass Point in Gravitational Field and Classical Tests of Gauge Theory of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ning; Zhang Dahua

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.

  8. The string unification of gauge couplings and gauge kinetic mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Chuichiro; Matsuda, Masahisa; Matsuoka, Takeo; Mochinaga, Daizo.

    1993-01-01

    In the superstring models we have not only the complete 27 multiplets of E 6 but also extra incomplete (27+27-bar) chiral supermultiplets being alive at low energies. Associated with these additional multiplets, when the gauge symmetry contains more than one U(1) gauge group, there may exist gauge kinetic mixings among these U(1) gauge groups. In such cases the effect of gauge kinetic mixings should be incorporated into the study of unification of gauge couplings. We study these interesting effects systematically in these models. The string threshold effect is also taken into account. It is found that in the four-generation models we do not have an advisable solution of string unification of gauge couplings consistent with experimental values at the electroweak scale. We also discuss the possible scenarios to solve this problem. (author)

  9. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  10. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  11. Gauging the octonion algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, A.K.; Joshi, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    By considering representation theory for non-associative algebras the fundamental adjoint representations of the octonion algebra is constructed. It is then shown how these representations by associative matrices allow a consistent octonionic gauge theory to be realized. It was found that non-associativity implies the existence of new terms in the transformation laws of fields and the kinetic term of an octonionic Lagrangian. 13 refs

  12. Quantized gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1987-01-01

    The two formulations of quantum theory of the free electromagnetic field are presented. In the Coulomb gauge approach the independent dynamical variables have been identified and then, in order to quantize the theory, it has been sufficient to apply the straightforward canonical quantization. In the Gupta-Bleuler approach the auxilliary theory is first considered. The straightforward canonical quantization of it leads to the quantum theory defined in the space G with indefinite norm. 15 refs. (author)

  13. Lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petronzio, R.

    1992-01-01

    Lattice gauge theories are about fifteen years old and I will report on the present status of the field without making the elementary introduction that can be found in the proceedings of the last two conferences. The talk covers briefly the following subjects: the determination of α s , the status of spectroscopy, heavy quark physics and in particular the calculation of their hadronic weak matrix elements, high temperature QCD, non perturbative Higgs bounds, chiral theories on the lattice and induced theories

  14. Anomalous gauge theories revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    A possible formulation of chiral gauge theories with an anomalous fermion content is re-examined in light of the lattice framework based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. It is shown that the fermion sector of a wide class of anomalous non-abelian theories cannot consistently be formulated within this lattice framework. In particular, in 4 dimension, all anomalous non-abelian theories are included in this class. Anomalous abelian chiral gauge theories cannot be formulated with compact U(1) link variables, while a non-compact formulation is possible at least for the vacuum sector in the space of lattice gauge fields. Our conclusion is not applied to effective low-energy theories with an anomalous fermion content which are obtained from an underlying anomaly-free theory by sending the mass of some of fermions to infinity. For theories with an anomalous fermion content in which the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism, a possibility of a consistent lattice formulation is not clear. (author)

  15. Lopsided Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that the unavoidable tuning among supersymmetric parameters required to raise the Higgs boson mass beyond its experimental limit opens up new avenues for dealing with the so called $\\mu$-$B_\\mu$ problem of gauge mediation. In fact, it allows for accommodating, with no further parameter tuning, large values of $B_\\mu$ and of the other Higgs-sector soft masses, as predicted in models where both $\\mu$ and $B_\\mu$ are generated at one-loop order. This class of models, called Lopsided Gauge Mediation, offers an interesting alternative to conventional gauge mediation and is characterized by a strikingly different phenomenology, with light higgsinos, very large Higgs pseudoscalar mass, and moderately light sleptons. We discuss general parametric relations involving the fine-tuning of the model and various observables such as the chargino mass and the value of $\\tan\\beta$. We build an explicit model and we study the constraints coming from LEP and Tevatron. We show that in spite of ne...

  16. Gauging Variational Inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahn, Sungsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-25

    Computing partition function is the most important statistical inference task arising in applications of Graphical Models (GM). Since it is computationally intractable, approximate methods have been used to resolve the issue in practice, where meanfield (MF) and belief propagation (BP) are arguably the most popular and successful approaches of a variational type. In this paper, we propose two new variational schemes, coined Gauged-MF (G-MF) and Gauged-BP (G-BP), improving MF and BP, respectively. Both provide lower bounds for the partition function by utilizing the so-called gauge transformation which modifies factors of GM while keeping the partition function invariant. Moreover, we prove that both G-MF and G-BP are exact for GMs with a single loop of a special structure, even though the bare MF and BP perform badly in this case. Our extensive experiments, on complete GMs of relatively small size and on large GM (up-to 300 variables) confirm that the newly proposed algorithms outperform and generalize MF and BP.

  17. Gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Slavnov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture is devoted to the discussion of gauge field theory permitting from the single point of view to describe all the interactions of elementary particles. The authors used electrodynamics and the Einstein theory of gravity to search for a renormgroup fixing a form of Lagrangian. It is shown that the gauge invariance added with the requirement of the minimum number of arbitraries in Lagrangian fixes unambigously the form of the electromagnetic interaction. The generalization of this construction for more complicate charge spaces results in the Yang-Mills theory. The interaction form in this theory is fixed with the relativity principle in the charge space. A quantum scheme of the Yang-Mills fields through the explicit separation of true dynamic variables is suggested. A comfortable relativistically invariant diagram technique for the calculation of a producing potential for the Green functions is described. The Ward generalized identities have been obtained and a procedure of the elimination of ultraviolet and infrared divergencies has been accomplished. Within the framework of QCD (quantum-chromodynamic) the phenomenon of the asymptotic freedom being the most successful prediction of the gauge theory of strong interactions was described. Working methods with QCD outside the framework of the perturbation theory have been described from a coupling constant. QCD is represented as a single theory possessing both the asymptotical freedom and the freedom retaining quarks [ru

  18. Gauge invariance and the transformation properties of the electromagnetic four-potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, E.

    1979-12-01

    The problems which arise when Noether's theorem is applied to the Lagrangian of the electromagnetic theory are investigated. They are shown to be related to the gauge dependence of the standard transformation properties of the potential A(subμ). An alternative transformation equation, which in a certain sense is gauge independent, is introduced for infinitesimal space-time transformations. This transformation leads, by Noether's theorem, directly to the continuity equations for the symmetric energy-momentum tensor and the gauge independent angular momentum tensor. The consequences of the transformation formula for finite space-time transformations are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Measurement of the parity-violation parameters Ab and Ac from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of leptons in hadronic events at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    The parity-violating parameters A b and A c are directly measured by the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider in e + e - collisions with polarized electrons at the Z 0 resonance. Leptons with distinctive total and transverse momenta are used to select and analyze Z 0 →bcbar events. A b and A c are extracted by forming the left-right forward-backward asymmetry in electron beam polarization and quark polar angle. From our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb --1 of Z 0 decay data with an average electron beam polarization of 63% we find A b =0.91±0.14 (stat) ±0.07 (syst) and A c =0.37±0.23 (stat) ±0.21 (syst)

  20. Relaxation methods for gauge field equilibrium equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.; Piran, T.

    1984-01-01

    This article gives a pedagogical introduction to relaxation methods for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on treating nonlinear problems with delta-function source terms and axial symmetry, which arise in the context of effective Lagrangian approximations to the dynamics of quantized gauge fields. The authors present a detailed theoretical analysis of three models which are used as numerical examples: the classical Abelian Higgs model (illustrating charge screening), the semiclassical leading logarithm model (illustrating flux confinement within a free boundary or ''bag''), and the axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles (illustrating the occurrence of p topological quantum numbers in non-Abelian gauge fields). They then proceed to a self-contained introduction to the theory of relaxation methods and allied iterative numerical methods and to the practical aspects of their implementation, with attention to general issues which arise in the three examples. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of details of the numerical solution of the models, presenting sample numerical results

  1. Local gauge coupling running in supersymmetric gauge theories on orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbach, M.

    2007-01-01

    By extending Feynman's path integral calculus to fields which respect orbifold boundary conditions we provide a straightforward and convenient framework for loop calculations on orbifolds. We take advantage of this general method to investigate supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in five, six and ten dimensions where the extra dimensions are compactified on an orbifold. We consider hyper and gauge multiplets in the bulk and calculate the renormalization of the gauge kinetic term which in particular allows us to determine the gauge coupling running. The renormalization of the higher dimensional theories in orbifold spacetimes exhibits a rich structure with three principal effects: Besides the ordinary renormalization of the bulk gauge kinetic term the loop effects may require the introduction of both localized gauge kinetic terms at the fixed points/planes of the orbifold and higher dimensional operators. (orig.)

  2. Local gauge coupling running in supersymmetric gauge theories on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbach, M.

    2007-11-21

    By extending Feynman's path integral calculus to fields which respect orbifold boundary conditions we provide a straightforward and convenient framework for loop calculations on orbifolds. We take advantage of this general method to investigate supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in five, six and ten dimensions where the extra dimensions are compactified on an orbifold. We consider hyper and gauge multiplets in the bulk and calculate the renormalization of the gauge kinetic term which in particular allows us to determine the gauge coupling running. The renormalization of the higher dimensional theories in orbifold spacetimes exhibits a rich structure with three principal effects: Besides the ordinary renormalization of the bulk gauge kinetic term the loop effects may require the introduction of both localized gauge kinetic terms at the fixed points/planes of the orbifold and higher dimensional operators. (orig.)

  3. Global aspects of gauge anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the global aspects of gauge anomalies in even dimensions. After a very brief description of local gauge anomalies, the possible global gauge anomalies for various gauge theories are discussed using homotopy theory. One of the main results obtained in a general formula for the SU(n - k) global gauge anomaly coefficient in arbitrary 2n dimensions. The result is expressed in terms of the James number of the Stiefel manifold SU(n + 1)/SU(n - k) and the generalized Dynkin indices. From this, the possibilities of SU(n), SU(n - 1), and SU(2) global gauge anomalies in arbitrary 2n dimensions have been determined. We have also determined the possibilities of global gauge anomalies for the gauge groups SP(2N) and SO(N) in certain general dimensions, as well as for the exceptional gauge groups in specific dimensions. Moreover, several general propositions are formulated and proved which are very useful in the study of global gauge anomalies

  4. Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, St.

    2005-12-01

    This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G 2 -manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G 2 -manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G 2 -manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G 2 -manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G 2 -manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E 8 x E 8 -heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)

  5. Gauge fixing conditions for the SU(3) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragiadakos, Ch.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    SU(3) gauge theory is quantized in the temporal gauge A 0 =0. Gauge fixing conditions are imposed completely on the electric field components, conjugate to the vector potential Ssub(i) that belongs to the subalgebra SO(3) of SU(3). The generating functional in terms of the independent variables is derived. It is ghost-free and may be regarded as a theory of (non-relativistic) spin-0, 1, 2, and 3 fields. (Auth.)

  6. Inflation and gauge mediation in supersymmetric gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Yuichiro; Sakai, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple high-scale inflationary scenario based on a phenomenologically viable model with direct gauge mediation of low-scale supersymmetry breaking. Hybrid inflation occurs in a hidden supersymmetry breaking sector. Two hierarchical mass scales to reconcile both high-scale inflation and gauge mediation are necessary for the stability of the metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum. Our scenario is also natural in light of the Landau pole problem of direct gauge mediation. (author)

  7. Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Terras, Audrey

    This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random  matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.

  8. Ballistic impulse gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    A gauge for detecting the impulse generated in sample materials by X-rays or other impulse producing mechanisms utilizes a pair of flat annular springs to support a plunger relative to a housing which may itself be supported by a pair of flat annular springs in a second housing. The plunger has a mounting plate mounted on one end and at the other, a position or velocity transducer is mounted. The annular springs consist of an outer ring and an inner ring with at least three arcuate members connecting the outer ring with the inner ring.

  9. Gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorski, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum field theory forms the present theoretical framework for the understanding of the fundamental interactions of particle physics. This book examines gauge theories and their symmetries with an emphasis on their physical and technical aspects. The author discusses field-theoretical techniques and encourages the reader to perform many of the calculations presented. This book includes a brief introduction to perturbation theory, the renormalization programme, and the use of the renormalization group equation. Several topics of current research interest are covered, including chiral symmetry and its breaking, anomalies, and low energy effective lagrangians and some basics of supersymmetry

  10. Comments on gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in a O(N) model is discussed. It is shown the existence of an upper bound for the hierarchy of order α- 1 / 2 , as proposed by Gildener. This same constraint appears when the breaking is made by the radiative corrections in a scheme elaborated by Weinberg. It is found that fine tunning or redefinition of coupling constants to improve hieracrchy, as proposed in several papers, cannot be done before the calculation of higher order contributions to the effective potential. (Author) [pt

  11. Yang--Mills gauge theories and Baker--Johnson quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, J.; Mahanthappa, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    We show that the physical mass of a fermion in a symmetric asymptotically free non-Abelian vector gauge theory is dynamical in origin. We comment on the close analogy that exists between such a theory and the Baker--Johnson finite quantum electrodynamics. Comments are also made when there is spontaneous symmetry breaking

  12. Fourier acceleration in lattice gauge theories. I. Landau gauge fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, C.T.H.; Batrouni, G.G.; Katz, G.R.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Lepage, G.P.; Wilson, K.G.; Rossi, P.; Svetitsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fourier acceleration is a useful technique which can be applied to many different numerical algorithms in order to alleviate the problem of critical slowing down. Here we describe its application to an optimization problem in the simulation of lattice gauge theories, that of gauge fixing a configuration of link fields to the Landau gauge (partial/sub μ/A/sup μ/ = 0). We find that a steepest-descents method of gauge fixing link fields at β = 5.8 on an 8 4 lattice can be made 5 times faster using Fourier acceleration. This factor will grow as the volume of the lattice is increased. We also discuss other gauges that are useful to lattice-gauge-theory simulations, among them one that is a combination of the axial and Landau gauges. This seems to be the optimal gauge to impose for the Fourier acceleration of two other important algorithms, the inversion of the fermion matrix and the updating of gauge field configurations

  13. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  14. Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...

  15. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-09-24

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  16. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  17. Comments on general gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Sudano, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    There has been interest in generalizing models of gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. As shown by Meade, Seiberg, and Shih (MSS), the soft masses of general gauge mediation can be expressed in terms of the current two-point functions of the susy-breaking sector. We here give a simple extension of their result which provides, for general gauge mediation, the full effective potential for squark pseudo-D-flat directions. The effective potential reduces to the sfermion soft masses near the origin, and the full potential, away from the origin, can be useful for cosmological applications. We also generalize the soft masses and effective potential to allow for general gauge mediation by Higgsed gauge groups. Finally, we discuss general gauge mediation in the limit of small F-terms, and how the results of MSS connect with the analytic continuation in superspace results, based on a spurion analysis.

  18. Correlation of the ghost and the quark in the lattice Landau gauge QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the quark field on the ghost propagator of the lattice Landau gauge are investigated by using the unquenched SU(3) configurations produced by the MILC collaboration and compared with quenched gauge configurations of SU(2) first copy of the over relaxation gauge fixing, the parallel tempering (PT) gauge fixing and quenched SU(3) 56 4 configurations. We measure the color symmetric and the color antisymmetric ghost propagator and the Binder cumulant of the l 1 norm and the l 2 norm of color antisymmetric ghost propagators and investigate deviation from those of Gaussian distributions. In the first copy samples of quenched SU(2) we observe a large fluctuation in the Binder cumulant at the lowest momentum point. This fluctuation is reduced in the P T gauge fixed samples. The color anti-symmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(3) configurations depends on the lattice size and is small as compared to the symmetric one in the large lattice of 56 4 . The Binder cumulant of the quenched SU(2) and the N f = 2 + 1 unquenched SU(3) are almost consistent with 3-d and 8-d Gaussian distribution, respectively. A comparison of the SU(3) unquenched configurations and quenched configurations indicates that the dynamical quarks have the effect of making color antisymmetric ghost propagator closer to the Gaussian distribution and the Kugo-Ojima color confinement parameter c closer to 1. (author)

  19. Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...

  20. Renormalization effects in the SU(16) maximally gauged theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi-Hezaveh, E.

    1981-03-01

    In the context of a quark-lepton unified gauge theory, when fermionic degrees of freedom are maximally gauged, several intermediate mass scales filling the grand plateau, between 10 2 Gev. and the grand unifying mass scale, M, may exist. In particular, when renormalization effects are taken into account for the SU(16) ''maximal'' gauge symmetry, [in which lepton number is regarded as the fourth color quantum number], it turns out that two intermediate stages governed by the symmetries G 2 =SU(8)sub(I) S SU(8)sub(II) X U(1)sub(F) and G 3 =SU(2)sub(L) X XU(2)sub(R) X SU(4)sub(C) can naturally coexist if Sin 2 theta (Msub(W))>1/6+5/9(α(Msub(W)/αsub(S)(Msub(W)). It is shown that these symmetries break down at a mass scale of the order of Msub(X) approximately equal to 10 4 -10 5 Gev. If neutral current phenomenology (or any other experiment) predicts Sin 2 theta (Msub(W))>0.206, then quark-lepton unification and left-right symmetry simultaneously break down at M approximately equal to 10 4 Gev. (at which αsub(C)(Msub(X) approximately equal to 0.041). It is then argued that apart from proton decay, n-anti n oscillation and neutrinoless double β decay processes, an accurate experimental value of Sin 2 theta (Msub(W)), to α 10 -4 accuracy) plays a crucial role in determining the possible existence of such intermediate stages. (author)

  1. A natural Poincare gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Pereira, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A natural candidate model for a gauge theory for the Poincare group is discussed. It satisfies the usual electric-magnetic symmetry of gauge models and is a contraction of a gauge model for the De Sitter group. Its field equations are just the Yang-Mills equations for the Poincare group. It is shown that these equations do not follow from a Lagrangean. (Author) [pt

  2. Gauge-invariant flow equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a closed gauge-invariant functional flow equation for Yang-Mills theories and quantum gravity that only involves one macroscopic gauge field or metric. It is based on a projection on physical and gauge fluctuations. Deriving this equation from a functional integral we employ the freedom in the precise choice of the macroscopic field and the effective average action in order to realize a closed and simple form of the flow equation.

  3. Stochastic quantization and gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolck, U. van.

    1987-01-01

    Stochastic quantization is presented taking the Flutuation-Dissipation Theorem as a guide. It is shown that the original approach of Parisi and Wu to gauge theories fails to give the right results to gauge invariant quantities when dimensional regularization is used. Although there is a simple solution in an abelian theory, in the non-abelian case it is probably necessary to start from a BRST invariant action instead of a gauge invariant one. Stochastic regularizations are also discussed. (author) [pt

  4. Classical local U(1 gauge invariance in Weyl 2-spinor lenguage and charge quantization from irreducible representations of the gauge group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago

    Full Text Available A new classical 2-spinor approach to U(1 gauge theory is presented in which the usual four-potential vector field is replaced by a symmetric second rank spinor. Following a lagrangian formulation, it is shown that the four-rank spinor representing the Maxwell field tensor has a U(1 local gauge invariance in terms of the electric and magnetic field strengths. When applied to the magnetic field of a monopole, this formulation, via the irreducible representation condition for the gauge group, leads to a quantization condition differing by a factor 2 of the one predicted by Dirac without relying on any kind of singular vector potentials. Finally, the U(1 invariant spinor equations, are applied to electron magnetic resonance which has many applications in the study of materials. Keywords: Weyl 2-spinor lenguage, Dirac equation, Gauge theories, Charge quantization

  5. The topology of gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellis, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Instantons in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory have been studied extensively by physicists and mathematicians alike. The surprisingly rich topological structure plays an important role in hadron structure. A crucial role is played by how the boundary conditions on the gauge fields are imposed. While the topology of gauge fields in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory is understood for the compact manifold of the 4-sphere, the manifold of the 4-torus remains an active area of study. The latter is particularly important in the study of Lattice QCD

  6. Gauged U(1) clockwork theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Min

    2018-03-01

    We consider the gauged U (1) clockwork theory with a product of multiple gauge groups and discuss the continuum limit of the theory to a massless gauged U (1) with linear dilaton background in five dimensions. The localization of the lightest state of gauge fields on a site in the theory space naturally leads to exponentially small effective couplings of external matter fields localized away from the site. We discuss the implications of our general discussion with some examples, such as mediators of dark matter interactions, flavor-changing B-meson decays as well as D-term SUSY breaking.

  7. Symmetric energy-momentum tensor in Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Proca theories obtained using only Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.; Flores, E.

    2006-01-01

    The symmetric and gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensors for source-free Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories are obtained by means of translations in spacetime via a systematic implementation of Noether's theorem. For the source-free neutral Proca field, the same procedure yields also the symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In all cases, the key point to get the right expressions for the energy-momentum tensors is the appropriate handling of their equations of motion and the Bianchi identities. It must be stressed that these results are obtained without using Belinfante's symmetrization techniques which are usually employed to this end. (Author)

  8. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  9. Tilting-connected symmetric algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    The notion of silting mutation was introduced by Iyama and the author. In this paper we mainly study silting mutation for self-injective algebras and prove that any representation-finite symmetric algebra is tilting-connected. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for a Bongartz-type Lemma to hold for silting objects.

  10. Symmetric group representations and Z

    OpenAIRE

    Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.

  11. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  12. Quantum systems and symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained

  13. The symmetric longest queue system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, Ivo; van der Wal, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We derive the performance of the exponential symmetric longest queue system from two variants: a longest queue system with Threshold Rejection of jobs and one with Threshold Addition of jobs. It is shown that these two systems provide lower and upper bounds for the performance of the longest queue

  14. Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in

  15. Residual gauge invariance of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryang, S.; Saito, T.; Shigemoto, K.

    1984-01-01

    The time-independent residual gauge invariance of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories is considered. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian are found in terms of Gegengauer's polynomials. Physical states which satisfy the subsidiary condition corresponding to Gauss' law are constructed systematically. (orig.)

  16. Capacitive gauging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging physical dimensions of solid or tubular bodies (e.g. a nuclear fuel pellet) comprises a capacitive transducer having electrodes forming diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors and means for connecting the pairs, preferably sequentially, in an arm of a four arm electrical network. For circumferential scanning of a solid body along its length, the body is moved along a path of travel through head assembly including the transducer by means of plungers with the axis of the body being coincident with the axis of the transducer. As the body moves through the transducer the diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors scan the surface to result in a surface profile of the body. For scanning the bore of a pipe or tube the transducer is inserted as a probe and moved along the bore of the pipe or tube, means being provided for maintaining the probe coaxial with the pipe or tube. (author)

  17. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  18. Lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hasenfratz, P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals almost exclusively with applications in QCD. Presumably QCD will remain in the center of lattice calculations in the near future. The existing techniques and the available computer resources should be able to produce trustworthy results in pure SU(3) gauge theory and in quenched hadron spectroscopy. Going beyond the quenched approximation might require some technical breakthrough or exceptional computer resources, or both. Computational physics has entered high-energy physics. From this point of view, lattice QCD is only one (although the most important, at present) of the research fields. Increasing attention is devoted to the study of other QFTs. It is certain that the investigation of nonasymptotically free theories, the Higgs phenomenon, or field theories that are not perturbatively renormalizable will be important research areas in the future

  19. Prospects for gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailin, D.

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the present status of the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions and of QCD and examines the likely avenues of future development. The most attractive possibility is that there is a ''grand unified theory'' (GUT) which describes all known interactions except gravity, and in which the only input energy scale is the Planck mass. The GUTs so far proposed share the deficiency that they offer no explanation of the (>=3) observed fermion generations. The author reviews the 'horizontal' symmetries invented to bring order to the fermion sector. Typically such theories have non-minimal Higgs content, so he reviews the processes whereby charged or neutral scalars may be found. The incorporation of supersymmetry into the gauge theory of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions is another attractive prospect and he discusses briefly the attempts to do this and the likely experimental signatures of such a scheme. (Auth.)

  20. Gauged Lepton Flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Grinstein, B.; Merlo, L.; Quilez, P.

    2016-12-22

    The gauging of the lepton flavour group is considered in the Standard Model context and in its extension with three right-handed neutrinos. The anomaly cancellation conditions lead to a Seesaw mechanism as underlying dynamics for all leptons; requiring in addition a phenomenologically viable setup leads to Majorana masses for the neutral sector: the type I Seesaw Lagrangian in the Standard Model case and the inverse Seesaw in the extended model. Within the minimal extension of the scalar sector, the Yukawa couplings are promoted to scalar fields in the bifundamental of the flavour group. The resulting low-energy Yukawa couplings are proportional to inverse powers of the vacuum expectation values of those scalars; the protection against flavour changing neutral currents differs from that of Minimal Flavor Violation. In all cases, the $\\mu-\\tau$ flavour sector exhibits rich and promising phenomenological signals.

  1. On the dynamics of gauge potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jiafu; Li Yuanjie; Zhang Jinru

    1992-01-01

    The gauge potential is resolved into gauge potential of strength and gauge potential of phase. The phase gauge potential can be described with an equivalent potential of inertial force. A Lagrangian density with phase gauge potential is given and some examples are discussed. The method proposed has been extended to the case of the non-Abelian group

  2. Introduction to gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailin, David; Love, Alexander

    1986-01-01

    The book is intended as an introduction to gauge field theory for the postgraduate student of theoretical particle physics. The topics discussed in the book include: path integrals, classical and quantum field theory, scattering amplitudes, feynman rules, renormalisation, gauge field theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking, grand unified theory, and field theories at finite temperature. (UK)

  3. CP violation in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, C.O.

    Some aspects of CP violation in gauge theories are reviewed. The topics covered include a discussion of the Kobayashi-Maskawa six-quarks model, models of soft- CP violation (extended Higgs sector), the strong CP problem and finally some speculations relating CP violation and magnetic charges in non-abelian gauge theories. (Author) [pt

  4. Pressure gauge experiments in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A; Desa, E.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Prabhudesai, S.

    . The effective mean density directly estimated by the use of a dual pressure gauge system was in close agreement with the density of water samples measured using a precision densitometer. Good quality sea level measurements can be obtained from pressure gauges...

  5. Remarks on lattice gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1981-01-01

    The author reports a study of the phase structure of lattice gauge models where one takes as a gauge group a non-abelian discrete subgroup of SU(3). In addition he comments on a lattice action proposed recently by Manton and observes that it violates a positivity property. (Auth.)

  6. Remarks on lattice gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1981-01-01

    The author reports on a study of the phase structure of lattice gauge models where one takes as a gauge group a non-abelian discrete subgroup of SU(3). In addition he comments on a lattice action proposed recently by Manton (1980) and observes that it violates a positivity property. (Auth.)

  7. Particle structure of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenhagen, K.

    1985-11-01

    The implications of the principles of quantum field theory for the particle structure of gauge theories are discussed. The general structure which emerges is compared with that of the Z 2 Higgs model on a lattice. The discussion leads to several confinement criteria for gauge theories with matter fields. (orig.)

  8. Gauging away a big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-08-01

    We argue that in the tensionless phase of string theory where the stringy gauge symmetries are unbroken, (at least some) cosmological singularities can be understood as gauge artefacts. We present two conceptually related, but distinct, pieces of evidence: one relying on spacetime and the other on worldsheet.

  9. Gauge invariance of string fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.; Peskin, M.E.

    1985-10-01

    Some work done to understand the appearance of gauge bosons and gravitons in string theories is reported. An action has been constructed for free (bosonic) string field theory which is invariant under an infinite set of gauge transformations which include Yang-Mills transformations and general coordinate transformations as special cases. 15 refs., 1 tab

  10. Gauge invariance and holographic renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Young Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalization: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. There is a mismatch in the degrees of freedom between the bulk theory and the boundary one. We resolve this problem by noticing that there is a residual gauge symmetry (RGS. By extending the RGS such that it satisfies infalling boundary condition at the horizon, we can understand the problem in the context of general holographic embedding of a global symmetry at the boundary into the local gauge symmetry in the bulk.

  11. Light-cone gauge approach to arbitrary spin fields, currents and shadows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space, conformal fields, conformal currents, and shadow fields in flat space are studied. Light-cone gauge formulations for such fields, currents and shadows are obtained. Use of the Poincaré parametrization of AdS space and ladder operators allows us to treat fields in flat and AdS spaces on an equal footing. Light-cone gauge realization of relativistic symmetries for fields, currents and shadows is also obtained. The light-cone gauge formulation for fields is obtained by using the gauge invariant Lagrangian which is presented in terms of modified de Donder divergence, while the light-cone gauge formulation for currents and shadows is obtained by using the gauge invariant approach to currents and shadows. This allows us to demonstrate explicitly how the ladder operators entering the gauge invariant formulation of fields, currents and shadows manifest themselves in the light-cone gauge formulation for fields, currents and shadows. (paper)

  12. Weakly Isolated horizons: first order actions and gauge symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Reyes, Juan D.; Vukašinac, Tatjana

    2017-04-01

    Holst action is indeed differentiable without the need of additional surface terms or any gauge fixing for Type I spherically symmetric (strongly) isolated horizons—and a preferred foliation—, this result does not go through for more general isolated or weakly isolated horizons. Our results represent the first comprehensive study of these issues and clarify some contradictory statements found in the literature.

  13. Weakly Isolated horizons: first order actions and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Reyes, Juan D; Vukašinac, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    the Holst action is indeed differentiable without the need of additional surface terms or any gauge fixing for Type I spherically symmetric (strongly) isolated horizons—and a preferred foliation—, this result does not go through for more general isolated or weakly isolated horizons. Our results represent the first comprehensive study of these issues and clarify some contradictory statements found in the literature. (paper)

  14. Local gauge symmetry and confinement in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Pearson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The nonabelian color gauge theory of quarks and gluons has been proposed as the basis for fundamental theory of hadrons. The features of this theory (quantum chromodynamics) are considered which lead to confinement. A transverse lattice formulation of the theory is also discussed, which is used as a basis for calculation of properties of the hadron bound states. The theory is quantized by eliminating the longitudinal degrees of freedom in favour of coulomb potential. Hadrons are formed as bound states of quarks and the symmetric phase gluons

  15. Effective Einsteinian gravity from Poincare gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekler, P.; Mielke, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Poincare gauge theory of gravity should apply in the microphysical domain. Here we investigate its implications for macrophysics. Weakly self double dual Riemann-Cartan curvature is assumed throughout. It is shown that the metrical background is then determined by Einstein's field equations with the Belinfante-Rosenfeld symmetrized energy-momentum current amended by spin squared terms. Moreover, the effective cosmological constant can be reconciled with the empirical data by absorbing the corresponding constant curvature part into the dynamical torsion of recently found exact solutions. Macroscopically this extra torsion remains undetectable. (author)

  16. Gauge fields and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Soda, J.

    2013-07-01

    The isotropy and homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) favors “scalar driven” early Universe inflationary models. However, gauge fields and other non-scalar fields are far more common at all energy scales, in particular at high energies seemingly relevant to inflation models. Hence, in this review we consider the role and consequences, theoretical and observational, that gauge fields can have during the inflationary era. Gauge fields may be turned on in the background during inflation, or may become relevant at the level of cosmic perturbations. There have been two main classes of models with gauge fields in the background, models which show violation of the cosmic no-hair theorem and those which lead to isotropic FLRW cosmology, respecting the cosmic no-hair theorem. Models in which gauge fields are only turned on at the cosmic perturbation level, may source primordial magnetic fields. We also review specific observational features of these models on the CMB and/or the primordial cosmic magnetic fields. Our discussions will be mainly focused on the inflation period, with only a brief discussion on the post inflationary (p)reheating era. Large field models: The initial value of the inflaton field is large, generically super-Planckian, and it rolls slowly down toward the potential minimum at smaller φ values. For instance, chaotic inflation is one of the representative models of this class. The typical potential of large-field models has a monomial form as V(φ)=V0φn. A simple analysis using the dynamical equations reveals that for number of e-folds Ne larger than 60, we require super-Planckian initial field values,5φ0>3M. For these models typically ɛ˜η˜Ne-1. Small field models: Inflaton field is initially small and slowly evolves toward the potential minimum at larger φ values. The small field models are characterized by the following potential V(φ)=V0(1-(), which corresponds to a Taylor expansion about the origin, but more realistic

  17. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han

    2018-01-17

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.

  18. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  19. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  20. Self-dual gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zet, G.

    2002-01-01

    The self-duality equations are important in gauge theories because they show the connection between gauge models with internal symmetry groups and gauge theory of gravity. They are differential equations of the first order and it is easier to investigate the solutions for different particular configurations of the gauge fields and of space-times.One of the most important property of the self-duality equations is that they imply the Yang-Mills field equations. In this paper we will prove this property for the general case of a gauge theory with compact Lie group of symmetry over a 4-dimensional space-time manifold. It is important to remark that there are 3m independent self-duality equations (of the first order) while the number of Yang-Mills equations is equal to 4m, where m is the dimension of the gauge group. Both of them have 4m unknown functions which are the gauge potentials A μ a (x), a = 1, 2, ....,m; μ = 0, 1, 2, 3. But, we have, in addition, m gauge conditions for A μ a (x), (for example Coulomb, Lorentz or axial gauge) which together with the selfduality equation constitute a system of 4m equations. The Bianchi identities for the self-dual stress tensor F μν a coincide with the Yang-Mills equations and do not imply therefore supplementary conditions. We use the axial gauge in order to obtain the self duality equations for a SU(2) gauge theory over a curved space-time. The compatibility between self-duality and Yang-Mills equations is studied and some classes of solutions are obtained. In fact, we will write the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations and we will analyse only the Yang-Mills sector. The Einstein equations can not be obtained of course from self-duality. They should be obtained if we would consider a gauge theory having P x SU(2) as symmetry group, where P is the Poincare group. More generally, a gauge theory of N-extended supersymmetry can be developed by imposing the self-duality condition. (author)

  1. On symmetric structures of order two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bousquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Let (ω n 0 < n be the sequence known as Integer Sequence A047749 http://www.research.att.com/ njas/sequences/A047749 In this paper, we show that the integer ω n enumerates various kinds of symmetric structures of order two. We first consider ternary trees having a reflexive symmetry and we relate all symmetric combinatorial objects by means of bijection. We then generalize the symmetric structures and correspondences to an infinite family of symmetric objects.

  2. What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs

  3. En-gauging naturalness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharucha, Aoife [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. T31; Goudelis, Andreas [Savoie Univ., CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The discovery of a 125.5 GeV Higgs with standard model-like couplings and naturalness considerations motivate gauge extensions of the MSSM. We analyse two variants of such an extension and carry out a phenomenological study of regions of the parameter space statisfying current direct and indirect constraints, employing state-of-the-art two-loop RGE evolution and GMSB boundary conditions. We find that due to the appearance of non-decoupled D-terms it is possible to obtain a 125.5 GeV Higgs with stops below 2 TeV, while the uncolored sparticles could still lie within reach of the LHC. We compare the contributions of the stop sector and the non-decoupled D-terms to the Higgs mass, and study their effect on the Higgs couplings. We further investigate the nature of the next-to lightest supersymmetric particle, in light of the GMSB motivated searches currently being pursued by ATLAS and CMS.

  4. En-gauging naturalness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas; McGarrie, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a 125.5 GeV Higgs with standard model-like couplings and naturalness considerations motivate gauge extensions of the MSSM. We analyse two variants of such an extension and carry out a phenomenological study of regions of the parameter space satisfying current direct and indirect constraints, employing state-of-the-art two-loop RGE evolution and GMSB boundary conditions. We find that due to the appearance of non-decoupled D-terms it is possible to obtain a 125.5 GeV Higgs with stops below 2 TeV, while the uncoloured sparticles could still lie within reach of the LHC. We compare the contributions of the stop sector and the non-decoupled D-terms to the Higgs mass, and study their effect on the Higgs couplings. We further investigate the nature of the next-to lightest supersymmetric particle, in light of the GMSB motivated searches currently being pursued by ATLAS and CMS. (orig.)

  5. Concepts on the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bone growth and mass, vertebral column, spinal cord, brain, skull, extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries, disproportions and molecular pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Freeman, Brian J C

    2008-01-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Encouraging advances thought to be related to AIS pathogenesis have recently been made in several fields including anthropometry of bone growth, bone mass, spinal growth modulation, extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries and disproportions, magnetic resonance imaging of vertebral column, spinal cord, brain, skull, and molecular pathogenesis. These advances are leading to the evaluation of new treatments including attempts at minimally invasive surgery on the spine and peri-apical ribs. Several concepts of AIS are outlined indicating their clinical applications but not their research potential. The concepts, by derivation morphological, molecular and mathematical, are addressed in 15 sections: 1) initiating and progressive factors; 2) relative anterior spinal overgrowth; 3) dorsal shear forces that create axial rotational instability; 4) rotational preconstraint; 5) uncoupled, or asynchronous, spinal neuro-osseous growth; 6) brain, nervous system and skull; 7) a novel neuro-osseous escalator concept based on a putative abnormality of two normal polarized processes namely, a) increasing skeletal dimensions, and b) the CNS body schema - both contained within a neuro-osseous timing of maturation (NOTOM) concept; 8) transverse plane pelvic rotation, skeletal asymmetries and developmental theory; 9) thoraco-spinal concept; 10) origin in contracture at the hips; 11) osteopenia; 12) melatonin deficiency; 13) systemic melatonin-signaling pathway dysfunction; 14) platelet calmodulin dysfunction; and 15) biomechanical spinal growth modulation. From these concepts, a collective model for AIS pathogenesis is formulated. The central concept of this model includes the body schema of the neural systems, widely-studied in adults, that control normal posture and coordinated movements with frames of reference in the posterior parietal cortex. The escalator concept

  6. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in pion-proton radiative exchange and charge exchange scattering from 301 to 625 MeV/c on a transversely polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, George Jung-Kwang.

    1988-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry A/sub N/ in π/sup /minus//p → γn has been measured at p/sub π = 301, 316, 427, 471, 547, 586, and 625 MeV/c using a transversely polarized target. The final-state neutron and gamma were detected in coincidence by two states of matching neutron and gamma detectors at gamma angles centered around 90/degree and 110/degree/ c.m. A gamma detector consisted of an array of 15 counters, each was 15/times/15/times/25 cm 3 block of lead-glass. A neutron detector consisted of 15 counters also, each one was a cylindrical plastic scintillator 7.6 cm in diameter and 45.7 cm long. The A/sub N/ results are compared with the predictions from the most recent single-pion photoproduction partial-wave analysis by Arai and Fujii. The agreement is poor, casting doubt on the correctness of the value for the radiative-decay amplitude of the neutral Roper resonance now in use. A comparison is made with the 90/degree/recoil proton polarization data of the inverse reaction derived from γd scattering, there are substantial discrepencies. Charge exchange (π/sup /minus/p/ → γ/degree/n) events were the major yield in this experiment. Very precise values of the charge exchange analyzing power were obtained with an error of typically 3%. The charge exchange results are compared with the predictions from recent γn partial wave analyses. At the lower incident energies little difference is seen between the VPI, Karlsruhe-Helsinki, and CMU-LBL analyses, and there is excellent agreement with our experiment. From the onset of the Roper resonance the VPI solution is strongly favored

  7. Gauge and non-gauge curvature tensor copies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1982-10-01

    A procedure for constructing curvature tensor copies is discussed using the anholonomic geometrical framework. The corresponding geometries are compared and the notion of gauge copy is elucidated. An explicit calculation is also made. (author)

  8. BRST gauge fixing and regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, P.H.; Jonghe, F. de; Sollacher, R.

    1995-05-01

    In the presence of consistent regulators, the standard procedure of BRST gauge fixing (or moving from one gauge to another) can require non-trivial modifications. These modifications occur at the quantum level, and gauges exist which are only well-defined when quantum mechanical modifications are correctly taken into account. We illustrate how this phenomenon manifests itself in the solvable case of two-dimensional bosonization in the path-integral formalism. As a by-product, we show how to derive smooth bosonization in Batalin-Vilkovisky Lagrangian BRST quantization. (orig.)

  9. Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-17

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  10. Gauge theory of amorphous magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, A.I.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    A gauge theory of disordered magnets as a field theory in the principal fiber bundle with structure group SL(3, R) is constructed. The gauge field interacting with a vector field (the magnetization) is responsible for the disorder. A complete system of equations, valid for arbitrary disordered magnets, is obtained. In the limiting case of a free gauge field the proposed approach leads to the well-known Volovik-Dzyaloshinskii theory, which describes isotropic spin glasses. In the other limiting case when the curvature is zero the results of Ignatchenko and Iskhakov for weakly disordered ferromagnets are reproduced

  11. 'Baldin autumn' and gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is the reminiscences of the participant of the gauge field theory beginning and the first 'Baldin Autumn' conference in 1969. This conference was named 'Vector Mesons and Electromagnetic Interactions'. At that time, just the processes with vector mesons participation contained some experimental indications of new universal interactions existence. Vector dominance was the experimental evidence of physical reasons of the gauge field theory. In the course of time the gauge field theory form, which was under discussion thirty seven years ago, became generally recognized and experimentally corroborated. It led to construction of the well-known Standard Model of elementary particle interactions

  12. Covariant gauges at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Landshoff, Peter V

    1992-01-01

    A prescription is presented for real-time finite-temperature perturbation theory in covariant gauges, in which only the two physical degrees of freedom of the gauge-field propagator acquire thermal parts. The propagators for the unphysical degrees of freedom of the gauge field, and for the Faddeev-Popov ghost field, are independent of temperature. This prescription is applied to the calculation of the one-loop gluon self-energy and the two-loop interaction pressure, and is found to be simpler to use than the conventional one.

  13. Lattice calculations in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The lattice formulation of quantum gauge theories is discussed as a viable technique for quantitative studies of nonperturbative effects in QCD. Evidence is presented to ascertain that whole classes of lattice actions produce a universal continuum limit. Discrepancies between numerical results from Monto Carlo simulations for the pure gauge system and for the system with gauge and quark fields are discussed. Numerical calculations for QCD require very substantial computational resources. The use of powerful vector processors of special purpose machines, in extending the scope and magnitude or the calculations is considered, and one may reasonably expect that in the near future good quantitative predictions will be obtained for QCD

  14. Effective potential for spontaneously broken gauge theories and gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, T.; Ovrut, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Appelquist-Carazzone effective-field-theory method, where one uses effective light-field coupling constants dependent on the heavy-field sector, is explicitly shown to be valid for the discussion of the gauge-hierarchy problem in grand unified gauge models. Using the method of functionals we derive an expression for the one-loop approximation to the scalar-field effective potential for spontaneously broken theories in an arbitrary R/sub xi/ gauge. We argue that this potential generates, through its derivatives, valid zero-momentum, one-particle-irreducible vertices for any value of xi (not just the xi→infinity Landau gauge). The equation that the one-loop vacuum correction must satisfy is presented, and we solve this equation for a number of spontaneously broken theories including gauge theories with gauge groups U(1) and SO(3). We find that a one-loop vacuum shift in a massless, non-Goldstone direction occurs via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism with an effective coupling constant dependent on the heavy-field sector

  15. Some observations on interpolating gauges and non-covariant gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, Satish D.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the viability of using interpolating gauges to define the non-covariant gauges starting from the covariant ones. We draw attention to the need for a very careful treatment of boundary condition defining term. We show that the boundary condition needed to maintain gauge invariance as the interpolating parameter θ varies, depends very sensitively on the parameter variation. We do this with a gauge used by Doust. We also consider the Lagrangian path-integrals in Minkowski space for gauges with a residual gauge-invariance. We point out the necessity of inclusion of an ε-term (even) in the formal treatments, without which one may reach incorrect conclusions. We, further, point out that the ε-term can contribute to the BRST WT-identities in a non-trivial way (even as ε → 0). We point out that these contributions lead to additional constraints on Green's function that are not normally taken into account in the BRST formalism that ignores the ε-term, and that they are characteristic of the way the singularities in propagators are handled. We argue that a prescription, in general, will require renormalization; if at all it is to be viable. (author)

  16. Path integral quantization in the temporal gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, B.; Steiner, F.

    1983-06-01

    The quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories in the temporal gauge is studied within Feynman's path integral approach. The standard asymptotic boundary conditions are only imposed on the transverse gauge fields. The fictituous longitudinal gauge quanta are eliminated asymptotically by modified boundary conditions. This abolishes the residual time-independent gauge transformations and leads to a unique fixing of the temporal gauge. The resulting path integral for the generating functional respects automatically Gauss's law. The correct gauge field propagator is derived. It does not suffer from gauge singularities at n x k = 0 present in the usual treatment of axial gauges. The standard principal value prescription does not work. As a check, the Wilson loop in temporal gauge is calculated with the new propagator. To second order (and to all orders in the Abelian case) the result agrees with the one obtained in the Feynman and Coulomb gauge. (orig.)

  17. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  18. Gauge theories in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitchison, I.J.R.; Hey, A.J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The first theory, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is known to give a successful account of electromagnetic interactions. Weak and strong interactions are described by gauge theories which are generalisations of QED. The electro-weak gauge theory of Glashow Salam and Weinberg unites electromagnetic and weak interactions. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the gauge theory of strong interactions. This approach to these theories, designed for the non-specialist, is based on a straightforward generalisation of non-relativistic quantum-mechanical perturbation theory to the relativistic case, leading to an intuitive introduction to Feynman graphs. Spontaneously broken-or 'hidden'-symmetries are given particular attention, with the physics of hidden gauge invariance and the role of the vacuum (essential to the unified theories) being illustrated by an extended but elementary discussion of the non-relativistic example of superconductivity. Throughout, emphasis is placed both on realistic calculations and on physical understanding. (author)

  19. Technical data on nucleonic gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    This nucleonic gauge manual and directory provides a reference database of nucleonic control systems available to potential users in the fields of exploration, exploitation and processing of natural resources and in the manufacturing industries. It starts with background information an the general principals of nucleonic gauges, followed by portable nuclear analysis systems (PNAS), computer tomography, cost-benefit on NCS (Nucleonic Control Systems) applications and trends and transfer of NCS technology. It continues with radiation protection and safety, discusses nucleonic gauges with low radioactivity sources and ends with typical models of nucleonic gauges. The basic principles of the most popular techniques are reviewed and reference data links to suppliers are provided. Information sheets on many typical commercial devices are also included. It will help end-users to select the most suitable alternative to solve a particular problem or to measure a certain parameter in a specific process

  20. Spontaneous emergence of gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1987-05-01

    Within the framework of the random dynamics project we have demonstrated several mechanisms for breakdown of a preexisting exact gauge symmetry. This note concerns and reviews a mechanism which works essentially in the opposite direction, leading from am accidental approximate symmetry to an exact formal gauge symmetry. It was shown that although this symmetry is a priori only strictly formal, it can under certain circumstances lead to a physical consequence: the corresponding gauge boson becomes massless. In the chaotic models typical for our random dynamics project there is, of course, a strong competition between this mechanism and mechanisms which temd to destroy the symmetry and give mass(es) to the gauge boson(s). (orig.)

  1. Symmetry breaking in gauge glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1988-09-01

    In order to explain why nature selects the gauge groups of the Standard Model, Brene and Nielsen have proposed a way to break gauge symmetry which does not rely on the existence of a Higgs field. The observed gauge groups will in this scheme appear as the only surviving ones when this mechanism is applied to a random selection of gauge groups. The essential assumption is a discrete space-time with random couplings. Some working assumptions were made for computational reasons of which the most important is that quantum fluctuations were neclected. This work presents an example which under the same conditions show that a much wider class of groups than predicted by Brene and Nielsen will be broken. In particular no possible Standard Model Group survives unbroken. Numerical calculations support the analytical result. (orig.)

  2. Radiative processes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Kleiss, R.; Danckaert, D.; Causmaecker, P. De; Gastmans, R.; Troost, W.; Tai Tsun Wu

    1982-01-01

    It is shown how the introduction of explicit polarization vectors of the radiated gauge particles leads to great simplifications in the calculation of bremsstrahlung processes at high energies. (author)

  3. Hard amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parke, S.J.

    1991-03-01

    In this lecture series 1 presents recent developments in perturbation theory methods for gauge theories for processes with many partons. These techniques and results are useful in the calculation of cross sections for processes with many final state partons which have applications in the study of multi-jet phenomena in high-energy colliders. The results illuminate many important and interesting properties of non-abelian gauge theories. 30 refs., 9 figs

  4. Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deploys several types of rain gauges (MET, RAIN, and optical rain gauge [ORG] datastreams) as well as disdrometers (DISD and VDIS datastreams) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site. This handbook deals specifically with the independent analog ORG (i.e., the ORG datastream).

  5. Model of unified gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author)

  6. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  7. Symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, I G

    1997-01-01

    One of the most classical areas of algebra, the theory of symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials has long been known to be connected to combinatorics, representation theory, and other branches of mathematics. Written by perhaps the most famous author on the topic, this volume explains some of the current developments regarding these connections. It is based on lectures presented by the author at Rutgers University. Specifically, he gives recent results on orthogonal polynomials associated with affine Hecke algebras, surveying the proofs of certain famous combinatorial conjectures.

  8. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  9. The Higgs sector of gravitational gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational gauge theories with de Sitter, Poincare and affine symmetry group are investigated under the aspect of the breakdown of the initial symmetry group down to the Lorentz subgroup. As opposed to the nonlinear realization approach, in the dynamical symmetry breaking procedure, the structure subgroup is not chosen arbitrarily, but is dictated by the symmetry of the groundstate of a Higgs field. We review the theory of spontaneously broken de Sitter gravity by Stelle and West and apply a similar approach to the case of the Poincare and affine groups. We will find that the Poincare case is almost trivial. The translational Higgs field reveals itself as pure gauge, i.e., it is expressed entirely in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons and does not appear in the Lagrangian after the symmetry breaking. The same holds for the translational part of the affine group. The Higgs field provoking the breakdown of the general linear group leads to the determination of the Lorentzian signature of the metric in the groundstate. We show that the Higgs field remains in its groundstate, i.e., that the metric will have Lorentzian signature, unless we introduce matter fields that explicitely couple to the symmetric part of the connection. Furthermore, we present arguments that the Lorentzian signature is actually the only possible choice for physical spacetime, since the symmetry breaking mechanism works only if the stability subgroup is taken to be the Lorentz group. The other four-dimensional rotation groups are therefore ruled out not only on physical, but also on theoretical grounds. Finally, we show that some features, like the necessity of the introduction of a dilaton field, that seem artificial in the context of the affine theory, appear most natural if the gauge group is taken to be the special linear group in five dimensions. We also present an alternative model which is based on the spinor representation of the Lorentz group and is especially adopted to the

  10. More gaugings of N=8 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    New non-compact gaugings of N = 8 supergravity are constructed. The gauge groups are SO(p,q) (with p + q = 8) and the group contraction of SO(p,q) about SO(p). The SO(4,4) gauging and the corresponding contraction truncate to gauged N = 4 supergravity theories. (orig.)

  11. Gauge invariance and fermion mass dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.

    1979-05-01

    Renormalization-group equation fermion mass dimensions are shown to be gauge dependent in gauge theories possessing non-vector couplings of gauge bosons to fermions. However, the ratios of running fermion masses are explicitly shown to be gauge invariant in the SU(5) and SU(2) x U(1) examples of such theories. (author)

  12. Improved Landau gauge fixing and discretisation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, F.D.R.; Bowman, P.O.; Leinweber, D.B.; Richards, D.G.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Lattice discretisation errors in the Landau gauge condition are examined. An improved gauge fixing algorithm in which O(a 2 ) errors are removed is presented. O(a 2 ) improvement of the gauge fixing condition displays the secondary benefit of reducing the size of higher-order errors. These results emphasise the importance of implementing an improved gauge fixing condition

  13. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described. Each standard has physical characteristics and dimensions effective for representing to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration, an infinite mass of homogeneous hydrogen content. Calibration standards are discussed which are suitable for use with surface gauges and with depth gauges. (C.F.)

  14. Solvable spectral problems from 2d CFT and \\mathscr{N} = 2 gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, M. R.; Pietrykowski, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    The so-called 2d/4d correspondences connect two-dimensional conformal field theory (2d CFT), \\mathscr{N} = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories and quantum integrable systems. The latter in the simplest case of the SU(2) gauge group are nothing but the quantum-mechanical systems. In the present article we summarize our recent results and list open problems concerning an application of the aforementioned dualities in the studies of spectral problems for some Schrödinger operators with Mathieu-type periodic, periodic PT-symmetric and (Heun’s) elliptic potentials.

  15. Matter and gauge couplings of N=2 supergravity in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, H.; Sezgin, E.

    1984-04-01

    We construct the couplings of a single anti-symmetric tensor multiplet, the non-compact HP(n-1,1) identical Sp(n,1)/Sp(n)xSp(1) σ-model and a Yang-Mills multiplet with the local gauge group Sp(n)xSp(1) to N=2 supergravity in d=6. The theory has a positive definite potential. If only the Sp(n) group is gauged, we can use the global Sp(1) invariance to realize a super-Higgs effect a la Scherk and Schwarz. [Nucl. Phys. B153, 61(1979)]. (author)

  16. Gauge Symmetry and Slavnov-Taylor Identities for Randomly Stirred Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David

    2007-01-01

    The path integral for randomly forced incompressible fluids is shown to have an underlying Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry as a consequence of Galilean invariance. This symmetry must be respected to have a consistent generating functional, free from both an overall infinite factor and spurious relations amongst correlation functions. We present a procedure for respecting this BRS symmetry, akin to gauge fixing in quantum field theory. Relations are derived between correlation functions of this gauge-fixed, BRS symmetric theory, analogous to the Slavnov-Taylor identities of quantum field theory

  17. Hairy black hole solutions in U(1) gauge-invariant scalar-vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-05-01

    In U (1) gauge-invariant scalar-vector-tensor theories with second-order equations of motion, we study the properties of black holes (BH) on a static and spherically symmetric background. In shift-symmetric theories invariant under the shift of scalar ϕ → ϕ + c, we show the existence of new hairy BH solutions where a cubic-order scalar-vector interaction gives rise to a scalar hair manifesting itself around the event horizon. In the presence of a quartic-order interaction besides the cubic coupling, there are also regular BH solutions endowed with scalar and vector hairs.

  18. Quantum effects in non-maximally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Non-Maximally symmetric spaces provide a more general background to explore the relation between the geometry of the manifold and the quantum fields defined in the manifold than those with maximally symmetric spaces. A static Taub universe is used to study the effect of curvature anisotropy on the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a self-interacting scalar field. The one-loop effective potential on a λphi 4 field with arbitrary coupling xi is computed by zeta function regularization. For massless minimal coupled scalar fields, first order phase transitions can occur. Keeping the shape invariant but decreasing the curvature radius of the universe induces symmetry breaking. If the curvature radius is held constant, increasing deformation can restore the symmetry. Studies on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories are also focused on the deformation effect. Using the dimensional regularization, the effective potential of the free scalar fields in M 4 x T/sup N/ and M 4 x (Taub) 3 spaces are obtained. The stability criterions for the static solutions of the self-consistent Einstein equations are derived. Stable solutions of the M 4 x S/sup N/ topology do not exist. With the Taub space as the internal space, the gauge coupling constants of SU(2), and U(1) can be determined geometrically. The weak angle is therefore predicted by geometry in this model

  19. Gauge-invariant variational methods for Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, D.; Weinstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops variational methods for calculating the ground-state and excited-state spectrum of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories defined in the A 0 = 0 gauge. The scheme introduced in this paper has the advantage of allowing one to convert more familiar tools such as mean-field, Hartree-Fock, and real-space renormalization-group approximation, which are by their very nature gauge-noninvariant methods, into fully gauge-invariant techniques. We show that these methods apply in the same way to both Abelian and non-Abelian theories, and that they are at least powerful enough to describe correctly the physics of periodic quantum electrodynamics (PQED) in (2+1) and (3+1) space-time dimensions. This paper formulates the problem for both Abelian and non-Abelian theories and shows how to reduce the Rayleigh-Ritz problem to that of computing the partition function of a classical spin system. We discuss the evaluation of the effective spin problem which one derives the PQED and then discuss ways of carrying out the evaluation of the partition function for the system equivalent to a non-Abelian theory. The explicit form of the effective partition function for the non-Abelian theory is derived, but because the evaluation of this function is considerably more complicated than the one derived in the Abelian theory no explicit evaluation of this function is presented. However, by comparing the gauge-projected Hartree-Fock wave function for PQED with that of the pure SU(2) gauge theory, we are able to show that extremely interesting differences emerge between these theories even at this simple level. We close with a discussion of fermions and a discussion of how one can extend these ideas to allow the computation of the glueball and hadron spectrum

  20. Small gauge vitrectomy: Recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Khanduja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small gauge vitrectomy, also known as minimally invasive vitreous surgery (MIVS, is a classic example of progress in biomedical engineering. Disparity in conjunctival and scleral wound location and reduction in wound diameter are its core principles. Fluidic changes include increased pressure head loss with consequent reduction in infusional flow rate and use of higher aspiration vacuum at the cutter port. Increase An increase in port open/port closed time maintains an adequate rate of vitreous removal. High Intensity Discharge (HID lamps maintain adequate illumination in spite of a decrease in the number of fiberoptic fibers. The advantages of MIVS are, a shorter surgical time, minimal conjunctival damage, and early postoperative recovery. Most complications are centered on wound stability and risk of postoperative hypotony, endophthalmitis, and port site retinal break formation. MIVS is suited in most cases, however, it can cause dehiscence of recent cataract wounds. Retraction of the infusion cannula in the suprachoroidal space may occur in eyes with scleral thinning. As a lot has been published and discussed about sutureless vitrectomy a review of this subject is necessary. A PubMed search was performed in December 2011 with terms small gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, and 27 gauge vitrectomy, which were revised in August 2012. There were no restrictions on the date of publication but it was restricted to articles in English or other languages, if there abstracts were available in English.

  1. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  2. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  3. Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  4. General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen [Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Duke University,Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708-0320 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.

  5. General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen

    2015-01-01

    We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.

  6. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  7. Two-dimensional N=(2,2) lattice gauge theories with matter in higher representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Anosh

    2014-06-01

    We construct two-dimensional N=(2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories on a Euclidean spacetime lattice with matter in the two-index symmetric and anti-symmetric representations of SU(N c ) color group. These lattice theories preserve a subset of the supercharges exact at finite lattice spacing. The method of topological twisting is used to construct such theories in the continuum and then the geometric discretization scheme is used to formulate them on the lattice. The lattice theories obtained this way are gauge-invariant, free from fermion doubling problem and exact supersymmetric at finite lattice spacing. We hope that these lattice constructions further motivate the nonperturbative explorations of models inspired by technicolor, orbifolding and orientifolding in string theories and the Corrigan-Ramond limit.

  8. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il'in, O. I.; Il'ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  9. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  10. Introduzione alle teorie di gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar

    2016-01-01

    "Introduzione alle Teorie di Gauge" completa la serie di tre volumi basati sulle lezioni dei corsi di Meccanica Quantistica Relativistica, Interazioni Elettrodeboli e Teorie di Gauge, impartite dagli autori agli studenti delle Lauree Magistrali in Fisica e Astronomia & Astrofisica dell'Universita "La Sapienza" di Roma, nell'arco di qualche decennio. L'obiettivo principale del volume è di introdurre i concetti di base della rinormalizzazione nella teoria quantistica dei campi e i fondamenti delle moderne teorie di Gauge. Anche se collegato ai volumi precedenti, il libro si presta ad una lettura indipendente, che presume solo conoscenze generali di relativita speciale, della seconda quantizzazione e della fenomenologia delle interazioni elettrodeboli. Lo strumento di base è l'integrale sui cammini di Feynman, introdotto nei capitoli iniziali e sistematicamente impiegato nel seguito. L'esposizione segue un percorso pedagogico, che parte dal caso semplice dell'ampiezza di transizione in meccanica quantistic...

  11. Axially symmetrical stresses measurement in the cylindrical tube using DIC with hole-drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinji; Yao, Xuefeng; Zhang, Danwen

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new method combining the digital image correlation (DIC) with the hole-drilling technology to characterize the axially symmetrical stresses of the cylindrical tube is developed. First, the theoretical expressions of the axially symmetrical stresses in the cylindrical tube are derived based on the displacement or strain fields before and after hole-drilling. Second, the release of the axially symmetrical stresses for the cylindrical tube caused by hole-drilling is simulated by the finite element method (FEM), which indicates that the axially symmetrical stresses of the cylindrical tube calculated by the cylindrical solution is more accuracy than that for traditionally planar solution. Finally, both the speckle image information and the displacement field of the cylindrical tube before and after hole-drilling are extracted by combining the DIC with the hole-drilling technology, then the axially symmetrical loading induced stresses of the cylindrical tube are obtained, which agree well with the results from the strain gauge method.

  12. Gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory is developed as an extension of the existing gyrokinetic theories. In essence, the formalism introduced here is a kinetic description of magnetized plasmas in the gyrocenter coordinates which is fully equivalent to the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the particle coordinates. In particular, provided the gyroradius is smaller than the scale-length of the magnetic field, it can treat high frequency range as well as the usual low frequency range normally associated with gyrokinetic approaches. A significant advantage of this formalism is that it enables the direct particle-in-cell simulations of compressional Alfven waves for MHD applications and of RF waves relevant to plasma heating in space and laboratory plasmas. The gyrocenter-gauge kinetic susceptibility for arbitrary wavelength and arbitrary frequency electromagnetic perturbations in a homogeneous magnetized plasma is shown to recover exactly the classical result obtained by integrating the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the particle coordinates. This demonstrates that all the waves supported by the Vlasov-Maxwell system can be studied using the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic model in the gyrocenter coordinates. This theoretical approach is so named to distinguish it from the existing gyrokinetic theory, which has been successfully developed and applied to many important low-frequency and long parallel wavelength problems, where the conventional meaning of gyrokinetic has been standardized. Besides the usual gyrokinetic distribution function, the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory emphasizes as well the gyrocenter-gauge distribution function, which sometimes contains all the physics of the problems being studied, and whose importance has not been realized previously. The gyrocenter-gauge distribution function enters Maxwell's equations through the pull-back transformation of the gyrocenter transformation, which depends on the perturbed fields. The efficacy of the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic approach is

  13. Gauge theory and variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bleecker, David

    2005-01-01

    This text provides a framework for describing and organizing the basic forces of nature and the interactions of subatomic particles. A detailed and self-contained mathematical account of gauge theory, it is geared toward beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates in mathematics and physics. This well-organized treatment supplements its rigor with intuitive ideas.Starting with an examination of principal fiber bundles and connections, the text explores curvature; particle fields, Lagrangians, and gauge invariance; Lagrange's equation for particle fields; and the inhomogeneous field

  14. Machines for lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-05-01

    The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig

  15. Introduction to lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cock, P.

    1988-03-01

    A general introduction to Lattice Gauge Theory (LGT) is given. The theory is discussed from first principles to facilitate an understanding of the techniques used in LGT. These include lattice formalism, gauge invariance, fermions on the lattice, group theory and integration, strong coupling methods and mean field techniques. A review of quantum chromodynamics on the lattice at finite temperature and density is also given. Monte Carlo results and analytical methods are discussed. An attempt has been made to include most relevant data up to the end of 1987, and to update some earlier reviews existing on the subject. 224 refs., 33 figs., 14 tabs

  16. Renormalization of gauge fields models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.

    1974-01-01

    A new approach to gauge field models is described. It is based on the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp-Zimmermann (BPHZ) renormalization scheme making extensive use of the quantum action principle, and the Slavnov invariance. The quantum action principle being first summarized in the framework of the BPHZ is then applied to a global symmetry problem. The symmetry property of the gauge field Lagrangians in the tree approximation is exhibited, and the preservation of this property at the quantum level is discussed. The main results relative to the Abelian and SU(2) Higgs-Kibble models are briefly reviewed [fr

  17. An introduction to gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Written by three of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model, including an award-winning former director general of CERN, this book provides a completely up-to-date account of gauge theories. Starting from Feynman’s path integrals, Feynman rules are derived, gauge fixing and Faddeev-Popov ghosts are discussed, and renormalization group equations are derived. Several important applications to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are discussed, including the one-loop derivation of asymptotic freedom for QCD.

  18. Dark coupling and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data

  19. Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.

  20. Nilpotent BRST charge without auxillary B fields in quantum gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a modified BRST transformation for non-Abelian gauge theories. In this transformation, there is no need to introduce auxiliary B fields, yet the generatior Q for the modified transformation is nilpotent and commutes with the Hamiltonian. The Lagrangian is no longer invariant under Q, but the quantum theory which is defined by the Hamiltonian is still symmetric with respect to the transformation generated by Q

  1. The one-loop Green's functions of dimensionally reduced gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.; Prager, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    The dimensional regularization technique as well as that by dimensional reduction is applied to the calculation of the regularized one-loop Green's functions in dsub(o)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with real massless scalars and spinors in arbitrary (real) representations of a gauge group G. As a particular example, the super-symmetrically regularized one-loop Green's functions of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills model are derived. (author). 17 refs

  2. Symmetric energy-momentum tensor in Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Proca theories obtained using only Noether's theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, E. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: merced@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2006-07-01

    The symmetric and gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensors for source-free Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories are obtained by means of translations in spacetime via a systematic implementation of Noether's theorem. For the source-free neutral Proca field, the same procedure yields also the symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In all cases, the key point to get the right expressions for the energy-momentum tensors is the appropriate handling of their equations of motion and the Bianchi identities. It must be stressed that these results are obtained without using Belinfante's symmetrization techniques which are usually employed to this end. (Author)

  3. Lattice simulation of a center symmetric three dimensional effective theory for SU(2) Yang-Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    We present lattice simulations of a center symmetric dimensionally reduced effective field theory for SU(2) Yang Mills which employ thermal Wilson lines and three-dimensional magnetic fields as fundamental degrees of freedom. The action is composed of a gauge invariant kinetic term, spatial gauge fields and a potential for theWilson line which includes a ''fuzzy'' bag term to generate non-perturbative fluctuations between Z(2) degenerate ground states. The model is studied in the limit where the gauge fields are set to zero as well as the full model with gauge fields. We confirm that, at moderately weak coupling, the ''fuzzy'' bag term leads to eigenvalue repulsion in a finite region above the deconfining phase transition which shrinks in the extreme weak-coupling limit. A non-trivial Z(N) symmetric vacuum arises in the confined phase. The effective potential for the Polyakov loop in the theory with gauge fields is extracted from the simulations including all modes of the loop as well as for cooled configurations where the hard modes have been averaged out. The former is found to exhibit a non-analytic contribution while the latter can be described by a mean-field like ansatz with quadratic and quartic terms, plus a Vandermonde potential which depends upon the location within the phase diagram. Other results include the exact location of the phase boundary in the plane spanned by the coupling parameters, correlation lengths of several operators in the magnetic and electric sectors and the spatial string tension. We also present results from simulations of the full 4D Yang-Mills theory and attempt to make a qualitative comparison to the 3D effective theory. (orig.)

  4. Lattice simulation of a center symmetric three dimensional effective theory for SU(2) Yang-Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dominik

    2010-11-17

    We present lattice simulations of a center symmetric dimensionally reduced effective field theory for SU(2) Yang Mills which employ thermal Wilson lines and three-dimensional magnetic fields as fundamental degrees of freedom. The action is composed of a gauge invariant kinetic term, spatial gauge fields and a potential for theWilson line which includes a ''fuzzy'' bag term to generate non-perturbative fluctuations between Z(2) degenerate ground states. The model is studied in the limit where the gauge fields are set to zero as well as the full model with gauge fields. We confirm that, at moderately weak coupling, the ''fuzzy'' bag term leads to eigenvalue repulsion in a finite region above the deconfining phase transition which shrinks in the extreme weak-coupling limit. A non-trivial Z(N) symmetric vacuum arises in the confined phase. The effective potential for the Polyakov loop in the theory with gauge fields is extracted from the simulations including all modes of the loop as well as for cooled configurations where the hard modes have been averaged out. The former is found to exhibit a non-analytic contribution while the latter can be described by a mean-field like ansatz with quadratic and quartic terms, plus a Vandermonde potential which depends upon the location within the phase diagram. Other results include the exact location of the phase boundary in the plane spanned by the coupling parameters, correlation lengths of several operators in the magnetic and electric sectors and the spatial string tension. We also present results from simulations of the full 4D Yang-Mills theory and attempt to make a qualitative comparison to the 3D effective theory. (orig.)

  5. Comprehensive asynchronous symmetric rendezvous algorithm in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meenu Chawla

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Simulation results affirm that CASR algorithm performs better in terms of average time-to-rendezvous as compared ... process; neighbour discovery; symmetric rendezvous algorithm. 1. .... dezvous in finite time under the symmetric model. The CH ..... CASR algorithm in Matlab 7.11 and performed several.

  6. Lattice implementation of Abelian gauge theories with Chern-Simons number and an axion field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Daniel G.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Real time evolution of classical gauge fields is relevant for a number of applications in particle physics and cosmology, ranging from the early Universe to dynamics of quark-gluon plasma. We present an explicit non-compact lattice formulation of the interaction between a shift-symmetric field and some U (1) gauge sector, a (x)FμνF˜μν, reproducing the continuum limit to order O (dxμ2) and obeying the following properties: (i) the system is gauge invariant and (ii) shift symmetry is exact on the lattice. For this end we construct a definition of the topological number density K =FμνF˜μν that admits a lattice total derivative representation K = Δμ+ Kμ, reproducing to order O (dxμ2) the continuum expression K =∂μKμ ∝ E → ṡ B → . If we consider a homogeneous field a (x) = a (t), the system can be mapped into an Abelian gauge theory with Hamiltonian containing a Chern-Simons term for the gauge fields. This allow us to study in an accompanying paper the real time dynamics of fermion number non-conservation (or chirality breaking) in Abelian gauge theories at finite temperature. When a (x) = a (x → , t) is inhomogeneous, the set of lattice equations of motion do not admit however a simple explicit local solution (while preserving an O (dxμ2) accuracy). We discuss an iterative scheme allowing to overcome this difficulty.

  7. Lattice implementation of Abelian gauge theories with Chern–Simons number and an axion field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Figueroa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real time evolution of classical gauge fields is relevant for a number of applications in particle physics and cosmology, ranging from the early Universe to dynamics of quark–gluon plasma. We present an explicit non-compact lattice formulation of the interaction between a shift-symmetric field and some U(1 gauge sector, a(xFμνF˜μν, reproducing the continuum limit to order O(dxμ2 and obeying the following properties: (i the system is gauge invariant and (ii shift symmetry is exact on the lattice. For this end we construct a definition of the topological number density K=FμνF˜μν that admits a lattice total derivative representation K=Δμ+Kμ, reproducing to order O(dxμ2 the continuum expression K=∂μKμ∝E→⋅B→. If we consider a homogeneous field a(x=a(t, the system can be mapped into an Abelian gauge theory with Hamiltonian containing a Chern–Simons term for the gauge fields. This allow us to study in an accompanying paper the real time dynamics of fermion number non-conservation (or chirality breaking in Abelian gauge theories at finite temperature. When a(x=a(x→,t is inhomogeneous, the set of lattice equations of motion do not admit however a simple explicit local solution (while preserving an O(dxμ2 accuracy. We discuss an iterative scheme allowing to overcome this difficulty.

  8. High accuracy step gauge interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byman, V.; Jaakkola, T.; Palosuo, I.; Lassila, A.

    2018-05-01

    Step gauges are convenient transfer standards for the calibration of coordinate measuring machines. A novel interferometer for step gauge calibrations implemented at VTT MIKES is described. The four-pass interferometer follows Abbe’s principle and measures the position of the inductive probe attached to a measuring head. The measuring head of the instrument is connected to a balanced boom above the carriage by a piezo translation stage. A key part of the measuring head is an invar structure on which the inductive probe and the corner cubes of the measuring arm of the interferometer are attached. The invar structure can be elevated so that the probe is raised without breaking the laser beam. During probing, the bending of the probe and the interferometer readings are recorded and the measurement face position is extrapolated to zero force. The measurement process is fully automated and the face positions of the steps can be measured up to a length of 2 m. Ambient conditions are measured continuously and the refractive index of air is compensated for. Before measurements the step gauge is aligned with an integrated 2D coordinate measuring system. The expanded uncertainty of step gauge calibration is U=\\sqrt{{{(64 nm)}2}+{{(88× {{10}-9}L)}2}} .

  9. Covariant gauges for constrained systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Khvedelidze, A.M.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The method of constructing of extended phase space for singular theories which permits the consideration of covariant gauges without the introducing of a ghost fields, is proposed. The extension of the phase space is carried out by the identification of the initial theory with an equivalent theory with higher derivatives and applying to it the Ostrogradsky method of Hamiltonian description. 7 refs

  10. Interfaces in hot gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bronoff, S.

    1996-01-01

    The string tension at low T and the free energy of domain walls at high T can be computed from one and the same observable. We show by explicit calculation that domain walls in hot Z(2) gauge theory have good thermodynamical behaviour. This is due to roughening of the wall, which expresses the restoration of translational symmetry.

  11. Experimental tests of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidt, D.

    1984-11-01

    This series of five lectures is intended to provide the experimental basis to the theoretical courses on gauge symmetries delivered by C. Jarlskog and R. Petronzio. The framework is the standard model. The experimental material is taken mainly from lepton-hadron and e + e - -experiments. (orig./HSI)

  12. Gauged multisoliton baby Skyrme model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilenka, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of U (1 ) gauged modification of the 2 +1 -dimensional planar Skyrme model with a particular choice of the symmetry breaking potential term which combines a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. In the absence of the gauge interaction, the multisolitons of the model are aloof, as they consist of the individual constituents which are well separated. A peculiar feature of the model is that there are usually several different stable static multisoliton solutions of rather similar energy in a topological sector of given degree. We investigate the pattern of the solutions and find new previously unknown local minima. It is shown that coupling of the aloof planar multi-Skyrmions to the magnetic field strongly affects the pattern of interaction between the constituents. We analyze the dependency of the structure of the solutions, their energies, and magnetic fluxes on the strength of the gauge coupling. It is found that, generically, in the strong coupling limit, the coupling to the gauge field results in effective recovery of the rotational invariance of the configuration.

  13. Gauge unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1980-02-01

    After having reviewed briefly the last twenty years' progress in the theory of unification, with the twin aspects of development of a gauge theory of basic interactions linked with internal symmetry and the spontaneous breaking of these symmetries, the Nobel prize winners have summarized the present situation and the immediate problems. At the end, an extrapolation of the future is also given

  14. Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and κ-symmetry and

  15. Gauge theory and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirn, H.

    1982-01-01

    The present orientation of particle physics, founded on local gauge invariance theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking is described in a simple formalism. The application of these ideas to the latest theories describing electromagnetic and weak interactions (Glashow, Weinberg, Salam models) and strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics, is presented so as to give a general picture of the mechanisms subtending these theories [fr

  16. Gauge symmetries, topology, and quantisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The following two loosely connected sets of topics are reviewed in these lecture notes: (1) Gauge invariance, its treatment in field theories and its implications for internal symmetries and edge states such as those in the quantum Hall effect. (2) Quantisation on multiply connected spaces and a topological proof the spin-statistics theorem which avoids quantum field theory and relativity. Under (1), after explaining the meaning of gauge invariance and the theory of constraints, we discuss boundary conditions on gauge transformations and the definition of internal symmetries in gauge field theories. We then show how the edge states in the quantum Hall effect can be derived from the Chern-Simons action using the preceding ideas. Under (2), after explaining the significance of fibre bundles for quantum physics, we review quantisation on multiply connected spaces in detail, explaining also mathematical ideas such as those of the universal covering space and the fundamental group. These ideas are then used to prove the aforementioned topological spin-statistics theorem

  17. Gauge-free gyrokinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, Joshua; Brizard, Alain

    2017-10-01

    Test-particle gyrocenter equations of motion play an essential role in the diagnosis of turbulent strongly-magnetized plasmas, and are playing an increasingly-important role in the formulation of kinetic-gyrokinetic hybrid models. Previous gyrocenter models required the knowledge of the perturbed electromagnetic potentials, which are not directly observable quantities (since they are gauge-dependent). A new gauge-free formulation of gyrocenter motion is presented, which enables gyrocenter trajectories to be determined using only measured values of the directly-observable electromagnetic field. Our gauge-free gyrokinetic theory is general enough to allow for gyroradius-scale fluctuations in both the electric and magnetic field. In addition, we provide gauge-free expressions for the charge and current densities produced by a distribution of gyrocenters, which explicitly include guiding-center and gyrocenter polarization and magnetization effects. This research was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-SC0014032 (AB) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JB).

  18. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  19. New gauged N = 8, D = 4 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C M

    2003-01-01

    New gaugings of four-dimensional N = 8 supergravity are constructed, including one which has a Minkowski space vacuum that preserves N = 2 supersymmetry and in which the gauge group is broken to SU(3) x U(1) 2 . Previous gaugings used the form of the ungauged action which is invariant under a rigid SL (8,R) symmetry and promoted a 28-dimensional subgroup (SO(8), SO(p, 8 - p) or the non-semi-simple contraction CSO(p, q, 8 - p - q)) to a local gauge group. Here, a dual form of the ungauged action is used which is invariant under SU*(8) instead of SL (8,R) and new theories are obtained by gauging 28-dimensional subgroups of SU*(8). The gauge groups are non-semi-simple and are different real forms of the CSO(2p, 8 - 2p) groups, denoted as CSO*(2p, 8 - 2p), and the new theories have a rigid SU(2) symmetry. The five-dimensional gauged N = 8 supergravities are dimensionally reduced to D = 4. The D = 5, SO(p, 6 - p) gauge theories reduce, after a duality transformation, to the D = 4, CSO(p, 6 - p, 2) gauging while the SO*(6) gauge theory reduces to the D = 4, CSO*(6, 2) gauge theory. The new theories are related to the old ones via an analytic continuation. The non-semi-simple gaugings can be dualized to forms with different gauge groups

  20. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    1991-01-01

    Some aspects of supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. It is shown that dynamical supersymmetry breaking does not occur in supersymmetric QED in higher dimensions. The cancellation of both local (perturbative) and global (non-perturbative) gauge anomalies are also discussed in supersymmetric gauge theories. We argue that there is no dynamical supersymmetry breaking in higher dimensions in any supersymmetric gauge theories free of gauge anomalies. It is also shown that for supersymmetric gauge theories in higher dimensions with a compact connected simple gauge group, when the local anomaly-free condition is satisfied, there can be at most a possible Z 2 global gauge anomaly in extended supersymmetric SO(10) (or spin (10)) gauge theories in D=10 dimensions containing additional Weyl fermions in a spinor representation of SO(10) (or spin (10)). In four dimensions with local anomaly-free condition satisfied, the only possible global gauge anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theories are Z 2 global gauge anomalies for extended supersymmetric SP(2N) (N=rank) gauge theories containing additional Weyl fermions in a representation of SP(2N) with an odd 2nd-order Dynkin index. (orig.)