Sample records for left-right axis specification

  1. Shaping the zebrafish heart: from left-right axis specification to epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, J.; Verhoeven, M.C.; Abdelilah-Seyfried, S.


    Although vertebrates appear bilaterally symmetric on the outside, various internal organs, including the heart, are asymmetric with respect to their position and/or their orientation based on the left/right (L/R) axis. The L/R axis is determined during embryo development. Determination of the L/R

  2. Polaris, a Protein Involved in Left-Right Axis Patterning, Localizes to Basal Bodies and Cilia


    Taulman, Patrick D.; Haycraft, Courtney J.; Balkovetz, Daniel F.; Yoder, Bradley K.


    Mutations in Tg737 cause a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including random left-right axis specification, polycystic kidney disease, liver and pancreatic defects, hydrocephalus, and skeletal patterning abnormalities. To further assess the biological function of Tg737 and its role in the mutant pathology, we identified the cell population expressing Tg737 and determined the subcellular localization of its protein product called Polaris. Tg737 expression is associated ...

  3. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic


    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  4. The Role of Cerl2 in the Establishment of Left-Right Asymmetries during Axis Formation and Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Belo


    Full Text Available The formation of the asymmetric left-right (LR body axis is one of the fundamental aspects of vertebrate embryonic development, and one still raising passionate discussions among scientists. Although the conserved role of nodal is unquestionable in this process, several of the details around this signaling cascade are still unanswered. To further understand this mechanism, we have been studying Cerberus-like 2 (Cerl2, an inhibitor of Nodal, and its role in the generation of asymmetries in the early vertebrate embryo. The absence of Cerl2 results in a wide spectrum of malformations commonly known as heterotaxia, which comprises defects in either global organ position (e.g., situs inversus totalis, reversed orientation of at least one organ (e.g., situs ambiguus, and mirror images of usually asymmetric paired organs (e.g., left or right isomerisms of the lungs. Moreover, these laterality defects are frequently associated with congenital heart diseases (e.g., transposition of the great arteries, or atrioventricular septal defects. Here, reviewing the knowledge on the establishment of LR asymmetry in mouse embryos, the emerging conclusion is that as necessary as is the activation of the Nodal signaling cascade, the tight control that Cerl2-mediates on Nodal signaling is equally important, and that generates a further regionalized LR genetic program in the proper time and space.

  5. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo. (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A


    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC40 is essential for motile cilia function and left-right axis formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker-Heck, Anita; Zohn, Irene E; Okabe, Noriko


    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract associated with the abnormal function of motile cilia. Approximately half of individuals with PCD also have alterations in the left-right org...

  7. OVEX1, a novel chicken endogenous retrovirus with sex-specific and left-right asymmetrical expression in gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magre Solange


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chickens, as in most birds, female gonad morphogenesis is asymmetrical. Gonads appear first rather similarly, but only the left one undergoes full differentiation and gives rise to a functional ovary. The right gonad, in which the cortex does not develop, remains restricted to the medulla and finally regresses. Opportunity was taken of this left-right asymmetry to perform a suppression subtractive hybridization screening to select for transcripts preferentially expressed in the developing left ovary as compared to the right one, and thus identify genes that are potentially involved in the process of ovarian differentiation. Results One of these transcripts, named Ovex1 according to its expression profile, corresponds to an endogenous retrovirus that has not been previously characterized. It is transcribed as full-length and singly spliced mRNAs and contains three uninterrupted open reading frames coding potentially for proteins with homology to Gag and Pro-Pol retroviral polyproteins and a third protein showing only a weak similarity with Env glycoproteins. Ovex1 is severely degenerated; it is devoid of typical long terminal repeats and displays some evidence of recombination. An orthologous Ovex1 locus was identified in the genome of zebra finch, a member of a different bird order, and similar sequences were detected in turkey, guinea fowl, and duck DNA. The relationship between these sequences follows the bird phylogeny, suggesting vertical transmission of the endogenous retrovirus for more than 100 million years. Ovex1 is transcribed in chicken gonads with a sex-dependent and left-right asymmetrical pattern. It is first expressed in the cortex of the left indifferent gonads of both sexes. Expression is transient in the left testis and absent in the right one. In developing ovaries, Ovex1 transcription increases sharply in the left cortex and is weakly detected in the medulla. After folliculogenesis, Ovex1-expressing

  8. The left-right Pitx2 pathway drives organ-specific arterial and lymphatic development in the intestine (United States)

    Mahadevan, Aparna; Welsh, Ian C.; Sivakumar, Aravind; Gludish, David W.; Shilvock, Abigail R.; Noden, Drew M.; Kurpios, Natasza A.


    SUMMARY The dorsal mesentery (DM) is the major conduit for blood and lymphatic vessels in the gut. The mechanisms underlying their morphogenesis are challenging to study and remain unknown. Here we show that arteriogenesis in the DM begins during gut rotation and proceeds strictly on the left side, dependent on the Pitx2 target gene Cxcl12. Although competent Cxcr4-positive angioblasts are present on the right, they fail to form vessels and progressively emigrate. Surprisingly, gut lymphatics also initiate in the left DM and arise only after – and dependent on – arteriogenesis, implicating arteries as drivers of gut lymphangiogenesis. Our data begin to unravel the origin of two distinct vascular systems and demonstrate how early L-R molecular asymmetries are translated into organ-specific vascular patterns. We propose a dual origin of gut lymphangiogenesis, where prior arterial growth is required to initiate local lymphatics that only subsequently connect to the vascular system. PMID:25482882

  9. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes


    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  10. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  11. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.


    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  12. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal


    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  13. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.


    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  14. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter. (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa


    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  15. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran


    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  16. Cilia in Left-Right Symmetry Breaking. (United States)

    Shinohara, Kyosuke; Hamada, Hiroshi


    Visceral organs of vertebrates show left-right (L-R) asymmetry with regard to their position and morphology. Cilia play essential role in generating L-R asymmetry. A number of genes required for L-R asymmetry have now been identified in vertebrates, including human, many of which contribute to the formation and motility of cilia. In the mouse embryo, breaking of L-R symmetry occurs in the ventral node, where two types of cilia (motile and immotile) are present. Motile cilia are located at the central region of the node, and generate a leftward fluid flow. These motile cilia at the node are unique in that they rotate in the clockwise direction, unlike other immotile cilia such as airway cilia that show planar beating. The second type of cilia essential for L-R asymmetry is immotile cilia that are peripherally located immotile cilia. They sense a flow-dependent signal, which is either chemical or mechanical in nature. Although Ca 2+ signaling is implicated in flow sensing, the precise mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  18. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSauer


    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  19. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, Stephan; Klar, Amar J. S.


    Ever since cloning the classic iv (inversedviscerum) mutation identified the “left-right dynein” (lrd) gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old “Watson” versus old “Crick” strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical “left-right axis development 1” (“lra1”) gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  20. Dual-mode operation of neuronal networks involved in left-right alternation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Bouvier, Julien; Borgius, Lotta


    between these different groups of commissural neurons and left-right alternation, are lacking. Here we show, using intersectional mouse genetics, that ablation of a group of transcriptionally defined commissural neurons - the V0 population - leads to a quadrupedal hopping at all frequencies of locomotion......All forms of locomotion are repetitive motor activities that require coordinated bilateral activation of muscles. The executive elements of locomotor control are networks of spinal neurons that determine gait pattern through the sequential activation of motor-neuron pools on either side of the body...... axis. However, little is known about the constraints that link left-right coordination to locomotor speed. Recent advances have indicated that both excitatory and inhibitory commissural neurons may be involved in left-right coordination. But the neural underpinnings of this, and a possible causal link...

  1. Zic3 is required in the extra-cardiac perinodal region of the lateral plate mesoderm for left-right patterning and heart development. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengxin; Zhu, Lirong; Hu, Lingyun; Slesnick, Timothy C; Pautler, Robia G; Justice, Monica J; Belmont, John W


    Mutations in ZIC3 cause human X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. A mouse model with targeted deletion of Zic3 demonstrates an early role for Zic3 in gastrulation, CNS, cardiac and left-right axial development. The observation of multiple malformations in Zic3(null) mice and the relatively broad expression pattern of Zic3 suggest its important roles in multiple developmental processes. Here, we report that Zic3 is primarily required in epiblast derivatives to affect left-right patterning and its expression in epiblast is necessary for proper transcriptional control of embryonic cardiac development. However, cardiac malformations in Zic3 deficiency occur not because Zic3 is intrinsically required in the heart but rather because it functions early in the establishment of left-right body axis. In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm for the establishment of laterality. These data delineate the spatial requirement of Zic3 during left-right patterning in the mammalian embryo, and provide basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction of Zic3 with signaling pathways involved in the early establishment of laterality.

  2. Right across the tree of life: the evolution of left-right asymmetry in the Bilateria. (United States)

    Namigai, Erica K O; Kenny, Nathan J; Shimeld, Sebastian M


    Directional left/right (LR) asymmetries, in which there are consistent, heritable differences in morphology between the left and right sides of bilaterally symmetrical organisms, are found in animals across the Bilateria. For many years, we have lacked evidence for shared mechanisms underlying their development. This led to the supposition that the mechanisms driving establishment of LR asymmetries, and consequently the asymmetries themselves, had evolved separately in the three major Superphyla that constitute the Bilateria. The recent discovery that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B) ligand Nodal plays a role in the regulation of LR asymmetry in both Deuterostomia and Lophotrochozoa has reignited debate in this field, as it suggests that at least this aspect of the development of the LR axis is conserved. In this review, we discuss evidence for shared mechanisms of LR asymmetry establishment across the bilaterian tree of life and consider how these mechanisms might have diverged across the Metazoa over the last 500 million years or so of evolution. As well as the likelihood that Nodal is an ancestral mechanism for regulating LR asymmetry, we reemphasize cytoskeletal architecture as a potential shared mechanism underlying symmetry breaking. However, convergent evolution remains a distinct possibility and study of a wider diversity of species will be needed to distinguish between conserved and lineage-specific mechanisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schlueter


    Full Text Available The proepicardium (PE is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.

  4. Exotic fermions in the left-right symmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.; Volkas, R.R.


    A systematic study is made of non-standard fermion multiplets in left-right symmetric models with gauge group SU(3) x SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) BL . Constraints from gauge anomaly cancellation and invariance of Yukawa coupling terms are used to define interesting classes of exotic fermions. The standard quark lepton spectrum of left-right symmetric models was identified as the simplest member of an infinite class. Phenomenological implications of the next simplest member of this class are then studied. Classes of exotic fermions which may couple to the standard fermions through doublet Higgs bosons were also considered, then shown that some of these exotics may be used to induce a generalised universal see-saw mechanism. 12 refs., 1 tab

  5. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Quiroz, Norma


    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  6. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)


    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  7. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.


    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Left-right splitting for electromagnetic scattering in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Spivack, M; Sillence, C; 10.1049/ip-smt:20040945


    The left-right splitting method and its application to electromagnetic scattering by large 3D scatterers are described. Exact numerical solutions to the governing integral equations can be prohibitively expensive for large scatterers. Under the assumption that energy is predominantly forward-scattered, the solution is expressed as a series of terms, each of which is rapidly and efficiently evaluated. In many cases only one or two terms are needed, and the formulation provides additional physical insight.

  9. Duality in Left-Right Symmetric Seesaw Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Frigerio, M.


    We consider type I+II seesaw mechanism, where the exchanges of both right-handed neutrinos and isotriplet Higgs bosons contribute to the neutrino mass. Working in the left-right symmetric framework and assuming the mass matrix of light neutrinos m ν and the Dirac-type Yukawa couplings to be known, we find the triplet Yukawa coupling matrix f, which carries the information about the masses and mixing of the right-handed neutrinos. We show that in this case there exists a duality: for any solution f, there is a dual solution f-circumflex=m ν /v L -f, where v L is the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs boson. Thus, unlike in pure type I (II) seesaw, there is no unique allowed structure for the matrix f. For n lepton generations the number of solutions is 2 n . We develop an exact analytic method of solving the seesaw nonlinear matrix equation for f

  10. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Heeck, Julian


    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates—triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet—bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates—doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level—have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many features with the well-known candidates wino, Higgsino, inert doublet scalar, sneutrino, and Minimal Dark Matter. In particular, they all predict a large gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilations, which can be searched for with Cherenkov telescopes. We furthermore discuss models with unequal left-right gauge couplings, g R  ≠ g L , taking the recent experimental hints for a charged gauge boson with 2 TeV mass as a benchmark point. In this case, the dark matter mass is determined by the observed relic density

  11. Why PeV scale left-right symmetry is a good thing (United States)

    Yajnik, Urjit A.


    Left-right symmetric gauge theory presents a minimal paradigm to accommodate massive neutrinos with all the known conserved symmetries duly gauged. The work presented here is based on the argument that the see-saw mechanism does not force the new right-handed symmetry scale to be very high, and as such some of the species from the spectrum of the new gauge and Higgs bosons can have masses within a few orders of magnitude of the TeV scale. The scale of the left-right parity breaking in turn can be sequestered from the Planck scale by supersymmetry. We have studied several formulations of such just beyond Standard Model (JBSM) theories for their consistency with cosmology. Specifically, the need to eliminate phenomenologically undesirable domain walls gives many useful clues. The possibility that the exact left-right symmetry breaks in conjunction with supersymmetry has been explored in the context of gauge mediation, placing restrictions on the available parameter space. Finally, we have also studied a left-right symmetric model in the context of metastable supersymmetric vacua and obtained constraints on the mass scale of right-handed symmetry. In all the cases studied, the mass scale of the right-handed neutrino M_R remains bounded from above, and in some of the cases the scale 10^9 GeV favourable for supersymmetric thermal leptogenesis is disallowed. On the other hand, PeV scale remains a viable option, and the results warrant a more detailed study of such models for their observability in collider and astroparticle experiments.

  12. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs. (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I


    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  13. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M.; Rumiati, Raffaella I.


    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis. PMID:24478662

  14. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario


    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  15. Tbx6 regulates left/right patterning in mouse embryos through effects on nodal cilia and perinodal signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of left/right body axis during early embryogenesis sets up a developmental cascade that coordinates the development of the viscera and is essential to the correct placement and alignment of organ systems and vasculature. Defective left-right patterning can lead to congenital cardiac malformations, vascular anomalies and other serious health problems. Here we describe a novel role for the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx6 in left/right body axis determination in the mouse. RESULTS: Embryos lacking Tbx6 show randomized embryo turning and heart looping. Our results point to multiple mechanisms for this effect. First, Dll1, a direct target of Tbx6, is down regulated around the node in Tbx6 mutants and there is a subsequent decrease in nodal signaling, which is required for laterality determination. Secondly, in spite of a lack of expression of Tbx6 in the node, we document a profound effect of the Tbx6 mutation on the morphology and motility of nodal cilia. This results in the loss of asymmetric calcium signaling at the periphery of the node, suggesting that unidirectional nodal flow is disrupted. To carry out these studies, we devised a novel method for direct labeling and live imaging cilia in vivo using a genetically-encoded fluorescent protein fusion that labels tubulin, combined with laser point scanning confocal microscopy for direct visualization of cilia movement. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the transcription factor gene Tbx6 is essential for correct left/right axis determination in the mouse and acts through effects on notch signaling around the node as well as through an effect on the morphology and motility of the nodal cilia.

  16. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...

  17. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension. (United States)

    Otjes, Simon


    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  18. A variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2 regulates left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffer's vesicle (KV size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.

  19. Ion flow regulates left-right asymmetry in sea urchin development. (United States)

    Hibino, Taku; Ishii, Yuichiro; Levin, Michael; Nishino, Atsuo


    The degree of conservation among phyla of early mechanisms that pattern the left-right (LR) axis is poorly understood. Larvae of sea urchins exhibit consistently oriented LR asymmetry. The main part of the adult rudiment is formed from the left coelomic sac of larvae, the left hydrocoel. Although this left preference is conserved among all echinoderm larvae, its mechanism is largely not understood. Using two marker genes, HpNot and HpFoxFQ-like, which are asymmetrically expressed during larval development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, we examined in this study the possibility that the recently discovered ion flux mechanism controls asymmetry in sea urchins as it does in several vertebrate species. Several ion-transporter inhibitors were screened for the ability to alter the expression of the asymmetric marker genes. Blockers of the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (omeprazole, lansoprazole and SCH28080), as well as a calcium ionophore (A23187), significantly altered the normal sidedness of asymmetric gene expression. Exposure to omeprazole disrupted the consistent asymmetry of adult rudiment formation in larvae. Immuno-detection revealed that H(+)/K(+)-ATPase-like antigens in sea urchin embryos were present through blastula stage and exhibited a striking asymmetry being present in a single blastomere in 32-cell embryos. These results suggest that, as in vertebrates, endogenous spatially-regulated early transport of H(+) and/or K(+), and also of Ca(2+), functions in the establishment of LR asymmetry in sea urchin development.

  20. Vertebrate Left-Right Asymmetry: What Can Nodal Cascade Gene Expression Patterns Tell Us? (United States)

    Schweickert, Axel; Ott, Tim; Kurz, Sabrina; Tingler, Melanie; Maerker, Markus; Fuhl, Franziska; Blum, Martin


    Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia). At the level of Nodal cascade gene activation, expression may be inverted, bilaterally induced, or absent. In a given genetic situation, patterns may be randomized or predominantly lacking laterality (absence or bilateral activation). We propose that the distributions of patterns observed may be indicative of the underlying molecular defects, with randomizations being primarily caused by defects in the flow-generating ciliary set-up, and symmetrical patterns being the result of impaired flow sensing, on the left, the right, or both sides. This prediction, the reasoning of which is detailed in this review, pinpoints functions of genes whose role in laterality determination have remained obscure.

  1. Organization of left-right coordination of neuronal activity in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Markin, Sergey N.


    . In this study, we construct and analyse two computational models of spinal locomotor circuits consisting of left and right rhythm generators interacting bilaterally via several neuronal pathways mediated by different CINs. The CIN populations incorporated in the models include the genetically identified......Different locomotor gaits in mammals, such as walking or galloping, are produced by coordinated activity in neuronal circuits in the spinal cord. Coordination of neuronal activity between left and right sides of the cord is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons cross the midline...... and the left-right synchronous hopping-like pattern in mutants lacking specific neuron classes, and speed-dependent asymmetric changes of flexor and extensor phase durations. The models provide insights into the architecture of spinal network and the organization of parallel inhibitory and excitatory CIN...

  2. Spontaneous CP Violation in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, P


    We investigate the pattern of CP violation in \\Kd, \\Bd and \\Bs mixing in a symmetrical \\model model with spontaneous CP violation. Performing a careful analysis of all relevant restrictions on the model's parameters from $\\Delta M_K$, $\\Delta M_{B_d}$, $\\Delta M_{B_s}$, $\\epsilon_K$, the sign of \\ee and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in \\goldd, we find that the mass of the right-handed charged gauge-boson, $M_2$, is restricted to be in the range 2.75 to 13$ $TeV, and that the mass of the flavour-changing neutral-Higgs bosons, $M_H$, must be between 10.2 to 14.6$ $TeV. We also find that the model, although still compatible with present experimental data, cannot accomodate the SM prediction of large CP violation in \\goldd, but, on the other hand, predicts a large CP-asymmetry of ${\\cal O}(40%)$ in \\golds. These specific predictions make it possible to submit the model to a scrupulous test at B factories and hadron colliders.

  3. Production and detection at SSC of Higgs bosons in left-right symmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.; Kayser, B.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Deshpande, N.G.; Grifols, J.; Mendez, A.; Olness, F.; Pal, P.B.


    We discuss the production and detection at SSC of charged and neutral Higgs bosons of the left-right symmetric theories. The H + , which is largely a member of a left-right ''bidoublet,'' should be detectable. The H 2 0 , a more unusual Higgs particle which, apart from mixing, is in a right-handed triplet and does not couple to quarks, may be detectable too

  4. Callosal microstructure affects the timing of electrophysiological left-right differences. (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Heins, Nina; Schlüter, Caroline; Fraenz, Christoph; Beste, Christian; Güntürkün, Onur; Genç, Erhan


    The neural architecture of the corpus callosum shows pronounced inter-individual differences. These differences are thought to affect timing of interhemispheric interactions and, in turn, functional hemispheric asymmetries. The present study aimed at elucidating the neuronal mechanisms underlying this relationship. To this end, we used a combined DTI and EEG study design. In 103 right-handed and healthy adult participants, we determined the microstructural integrity of the posterior third of the corpus callosum and examined in how far this microstructural integrity was related to between-hemisphere timing differences in neurophysiological correlates of attentional processes in the dichotic listening task. The results show that microstructural integrity of the posterior callosal third correlated with attentional timing differences in a verbal dichotic listening condition but not in a noise control condition. Hence, this association between callosal microstructure and between-hemisphere timing differences is specific for stimuli, which trigger hemispheric bottom-up processing in an asymmetric fashion. Specifically, higher microstructural integrity was associated with decreased left-right differences in the latency of the N1 event-related potential component and hence more symmetric processing of dichotic stimuli between the two hemispheres. Our data suggest that microstructure of the posterior callosal third affects functional hemispheric asymmetries by modulating the timing of interhemispheric interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates. (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J


    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reciprocal Signaling between the Ectoderm and a Mesendodermal Left-Right Organizer Directs Left-Right Determination in the Sea Urchin Embryo (United States)

    Bessodes, Nathalie; Haillot, Emmanuel; Duboc, Véronique; Röttinger, Eric; Lahaye, François; Lepage, Thierry


    During echinoderm development, expression of nodal on the right side plays a crucial role in positioning of the rudiment on the left side, but the mechanisms that restrict nodal expression to the right side are not known. Here we show that establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo relies on reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a left-right organizer located in the endomesoderm. FGF/ERK and BMP2/4 signaling are required to initiate nodal expression in this organizer, while Delta/Notch signaling is required to suppress formation of this organizer on the left side of the archenteron. Furthermore, we report that the H+/K+-ATPase is critically required in the Notch signaling pathway upstream of the S3 cleavage of Notch. Our results identify several novel players and key early steps responsible for initiation, restriction, and propagation of left-right asymmetry during embryogenesis of a non-chordate deuterostome and uncover a functional link between the H+/K+-ATPase and the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:23271979

  7. Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill. (United States)

    Brandler, William M; Morris, Andrew P; Evans, David M; Scerri, Thomas S; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Smith, George Davey; Ring, Susan M; Stein, John; Monaco, Anthony P; Talcott, Joel B; Fisher, Simon E; Webber, Caleb; Paracchini, Silvia


    Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD)] (n = 728). The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68 × 10(-9)), is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666). As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR) asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR ≤ 5%). We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR ≤ 5%). Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.

  8. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation. (United States)

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M


    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description.

  9. Right-handed quark mixing in left-right symmetric theory. (United States)

    Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir


    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the minimal left-right symmetric theory, for the case when the left-right symmetry is generalized parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close to the CKM ones, in spite of the left-right symmetry being badly broken in nature. We exemplify our results on the production of the right-handed charged gauge boson and the computation of K(L)-K(S) mass difference.

  10. Cancellation of leading divergences in left-right electroweak model and heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Romanenko, N.V.


    The fine-tuning principles are analyzed in search for estimation of heavy-particle masses in the left-right symmetric model. The modification of Veltman condition based on the hypothesis of the compression between fermion and boson energies within the left-right model multiples is proposed. The hypothesis is supplied with the requirement of the stability under rescaling. With regard to these requirements the necessity of existence of right-handed Majorana neutrinos with masses of order of right-handed gauge bosons is shown and estimations on the top-quark which are in a good agreement with the experimental value are obtained

  11. The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Yong, L.W.; Lu, T.M.; Huang, S.W.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Yu, J.K.


    Roč. 6, Feb 17 (2015) ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nodal signaling * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry * Mouth opening * Embryonic development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2015

  12. Contribution of hedgehog signaling to the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin. (United States)

    Warner, Jacob F; Miranda, Esther L; McClay, David R


    Most bilaterians exhibit a left-right asymmetric distribution of their internal organs. The sea urchin larva is notable in this regard since most adult structures are generated from left sided embryonic structures. The gene regulatory network governing this larval asymmetry is still a work in progress but involves several conserved signaling pathways including Nodal, and BMP. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of Hedgehog signaling and it's contribution to left-right asymmetry. We report that Hh signaling plays a conserved role to regulate late asymmetric expression of Nodal and that this regulation occurs after Nodal breaks left-right symmetry in the mesoderm. Thus, while Hh functions to maintain late Nodal expression, the molecular asymmetry of the future coelomic pouches is locked in. Furthermore we report that cilia play a role only insofar as to transduce Hh signaling and do not have an independent effect on the asymmetry of the mesoderm. From this, we are able to construct a more complete regulatory network governing the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus


    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  14. Mapping and explaining the use of the left-right divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Freire


    Full Text Available This study is about mapping and explaining the use of the Left-Right divide across 14 countries from 5 Continents and relies on the richness of the post electoral mass surveys from the Comparative National Election Project: 14 countries and 18 elections spread over 5 continents. The paper shows not only how extensively the LR divide is used in these 14 countries, but also explains variation across both individuals and countries in terms of the factors determining LR recognition and use. Overall, it is shown that, although seen world-wide, the LR divide (both for self-placement and party placement is more present in long consolidated and middle-aged democracies and countries with freer media systems than in new democracies and societies with less free media systems. In the case of parties LR placement, party size also counts: larger parties are more easily placed. Additionally, we also show that LR recognition is more socially and politically determined in long consolidated and middle-aged democracies and in countries with more freedom of the press than in new democracies and in systems with less free media system. These findings add to the existing knowledge about these topics because previous studies were either country/Continent specific, or, if global in nature, never invested in explaining individual and system variation across 14 from 5 Continents. Besides, these findings mean that in the long term probably the new democracies will converge with the long consolidated or middle-aged ones, but this is an empirical question to be researched in future studies.

  15. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, Ab is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is Ab = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of Ab = 0.935.

  16. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.


    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A b , is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, A b is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z's is A b = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of A b = 0.935

  17. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct. (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P


    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  18. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  19. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, C.E.; Zahir, M.S.


    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is calculated via doubly charged Higgs, which occur naturally in left-right symmetric models. We find that the comparison with known half-lives yields values of phenomenological parameters which are compatible with earlier analyses of neutral current data. In particular, we obtain a right-handed gauge-boson mass lower bound of the order of 240 GeV. Using this result and expressions for neutrino masses derived in a parity non-conserving left-right symmetric model, we obtain msub(νsub(e)) < 1.5 eV, msub(νsub(μ)) < 0.05 MeV and msub(νsub(tau)) < 18 MeV

  20. Loop-induced decays of Higgs boson in the left-right twin Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao-Bei, Liu; Xue-Lei, Wang; Yao-Bein, Liu; Xue-Lei, Wang


    We analyze the loop-induced decays of the Higgs boson into pairs of gluons and photons in the left-right twin Higgs model. The study shows that the deviation of the partial widths for these decays relative to their Standard Model (SM) values scales with 1/f 2 , where f ∼ TeV is the symmetry breaking scale in the model. For the mass mixing parameter M equals 150 GeV, the LHC and a linear e + e - collider would be sensitive to the deviation in Γ(H → gg) for f ≤ 770(660) GeV at the 1(2) σ level. So the Higgs boson processes at the LHC can be a sensitive probe for the left-right twin Higgs model. (authors)

  1. The Bmp signaling pathway regulates development of left-right asymmetry in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Kozmik, Zbyněk


    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 164-174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk LO1419; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * Nodal pathway * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Cerberus-Nodal-Lefty-Pitx signaling cascade controls left-right asymmetry in amphioxus. (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Xing, Chaofan; Zhang, Huayang; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Wang, Yiquan


    Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus , Nodal , Lefty , and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression. Knockout of Cerberus leads to ectopic right-sided expression of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx , whereas overexpression of Cerberus represses their left-sided expression. Overexpression of Nodal in turn represses Cerberus and activates Lefty and Pitx ectopically on the right side. We also show Lefty represses Nodal , whereas Pitx activates Nodal These data combine in a model in which Cerberus determines whether the left-sided gene expression cassette is activated or repressed. These regulatory steps are essential for normal left-right asymmetry to develop, as when they are disrupted embryos may instead form two phenotypic left sides or two phenotypic right sides. Our study shows the regulatory cassette controlling left-right asymmetry was in place in the ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates. This includes the Nodal inhibitors Cerberus and Lefty, both of which operate in feedback loops with Nodal and combine to establish asymmetric Pitx expression. Cerberus and Lefty are missing from most invertebrate lineages, marking this mechanism as an innovation in the lineage leading to modern chordates.

  3. Rare top quark decays in Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.


    We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t → H0 + c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t → c + γ, which involves radiative corrections

  4. Mechanisms of Left-Right Coordination in Mammalian Locomotor Pattern Generation Circuits: A Mathematical Modeling View (United States)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Rybak, Ilya A.


    The locomotor gait in limbed animals is defined by the left-right leg coordination and locomotor speed. Coordination between left and right neural activities in the spinal cord controlling left and right legs is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs). Several CIN types have been genetically identified, including the excitatory V3 and excitatory and inhibitory V0 types. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic elimination of all V0 CINs caused switching from a normal left-right alternating activity to a left-right synchronized “hopping” pattern. Furthermore, ablation of only the inhibitory V0 CINs (V0D subtype) resulted in a lack of left-right alternation at low locomotor frequencies and retaining this alternation at high frequencies, whereas selective ablation of the excitatory V0 neurons (V0V subtype) maintained the left–right alternation at low frequencies and switched to a hopping pattern at high frequencies. To analyze these findings, we developed a simplified mathematical model of neural circuits consisting of four pacemaker neurons representing left and right, flexor and extensor rhythm-generating centers interacting via commissural pathways representing V3, V0D, and V0V CINs. The locomotor frequency was controlled by a parameter defining the excitation of neurons and commissural pathways mimicking the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate on locomotor frequency in isolated rodent spinal cord preparations. The model demonstrated a typical left-right alternating pattern under control conditions, switching to a hopping activity at any frequency after removing both V0 connections, a synchronized pattern at low frequencies with alternation at high frequencies after removing only V0D connections, and an alternating pattern at low frequencies with hopping at high frequencies after removing only V0V connections. We used bifurcation theory and fast-slow decomposition methods to analyze network behavior in the above regimes and transitions between them. The model

  5. Patient specific modeling of the HPA axis related to clinical diagnosis of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Elisabeth; Ottesen, Johnny T.


    A novel model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is presented. The axis is an endocrine system responsible for coping with stress and it is likely to be involved in depression. The dynamics of the system is studied and existence, uniqueness and positivity of the solution and the existence...... of an attracting trapping region are proved. The model is calibrated and compared to data for healthy and depressed subjects. A sensitivity analysis resulting in a set of identifiable physiological parameters is provided. A subset is selected for parameter estimation and a reduced version of the model is stated...... method for diagnosing depression and suggesting individual treatment protocols. Finally, the method may inspire pharmaceutical companies to develop target specific psychopharmaca for more effective and individual treatment....

  6. Tests of the left-right electroweak model at linear collider


    Huitu, K.; Maalampi, J.; Pandita, P. N.; Puolamaki, K.; Raidal, M.; Romanenko, N.


    The left-right model is a gauge theory of electroweak interactions based on the gauge symmetry SU(2)_R . The main motivations for this model are that it gives an explanation for the parity violation of weak interactions, provides a mechanism (see-saw) for generating neutrino masses, and has B-L as a gauge symmetry. The quark-lepton symmetry in weak interactions is also maintained in this theory. The model has many predictions one can directly test at a TeV-scale linear collider. We will consi...

  7. The electric dipole moment of the neutron in the left-right supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.


    We calculate the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) in the left-right supersymmetric model, including one-loop contributions from the chargino, the neutralino and the gluino diagrams. We discuss the dependence of the EDM on the phases of the model, as well as on the mass parameters in the left and right sectors. The neutron EDM imposes different conditions on the supersymmetric spectrum from either the electron EDM, or the neutron EDM in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The neutron EDM may be a clue to an extended gauge structure in supersymmetry. (author)

  8. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory: New Insights from Hippocampal Left-Right Asymmetries. (United States)

    El-Gaby, Mohamady; Shipton, Olivia A; Paulsen, Ole


    All synapses are not the same. They differ in their morphology, molecular constituents, and malleability. A striking left-right asymmetry in the distribution of different types of synapse was recently uncovered at the CA3-CA1 projection in the mouse hippocampus, whereby afferents from the CA3 in the left hemisphere innervate small, highly plastic synapses on the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas those originating from the right CA3 target larger, more stable synapses. Activity-dependent modification of these synapses is thought to participate in circuit formation and remodeling during development, and further plastic changes may support memory encoding in adulthood. Therefore, exploiting the CA3-CA1 asymmetry provides a promising opportunity to investigate the roles that different types of synapse play in these fundamental properties of the CNS. Here we describe the discovery of these segregated synaptic populations in the mouse hippocampus, and discuss what we have already learnt about synaptic plasticity from this asymmetric arrangement. We then propose models for how the asymmetry could be generated during development, and how the adult hippocampus might use these distinct populations of synapses differentially during learning and memory. Finally, we outline the potential implications of this left-right asymmetry for human hippocampal function, as well as dysfunction in memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric models with a universal seesaw mechanism (United States)

    Deppisch, Frank F.; Hati, Chandan; Patra, Sudhanwa; Pritimita, Prativa; Sarkar, Utpal


    We discuss a class of left-right symmetric theories with a universal seesaw mechanism for fermion masses and mixing and the implications for neutrinoless double beta (0 ν β β ) decay where neutrino masses are governed by natural type-II seesaw dominance. The scalar sector consists of left- and right-handed Higgs doublets and triplets, while the conventional Higgs bidoublet is absent in this scenario. We use the Higgs doublets to implement the left-right and the electroweak symmetry breaking. On the other hand, the Higgs triplets with induced vacuum expectation values can give Majorana masses to light and heavy neutrinos and mediate 0 ν β β decay. In the absence of the Dirac mass terms for the neutrinos, this framework can naturally realize type-II seesaw dominance even if the right-handed neutrinos have masses of a few TeV. We study the implications of this framework in the context of 0 ν β β decay.

  10. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, R.D.


    We present the first measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (A LR ) in Z boson production at the SLAC Linear Collider. The left-right asymmetry provides a direct measurement of the e - -Z coupling and thus of the effective weak mixing angle; in addition, A LR is sensitive to the unknown top-quark and Higgs-boson masses. In 1992 the SLD detector recorded 10224 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons with an unpolarized positron beam at a center-of-mass energy of 91.55 GeV. The average electron beam polarization during the run was (22.4 ± 0.6)%. We measure A LR to be 0.101 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.004 (syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θeff/W = 0.2377 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0005 (syst.). This measurement of A LR is in agreement with comparable measurements and is consistent with Standard-Model predictions for allowed top and Higgs masses

  11. Using Convolutional Neural Network Filters to Measure Left-Right Mirror Symmetry in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Brachmann


    Full Text Available We propose a method for measuring symmetry in images by using filter responses from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs. The aim of the method is to model human perception of left/right symmetry as closely as possible. Using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN approach has two main advantages: First, CNN filter responses closely match the responses of neurons in the human visual system; they take information on color, edges and texture into account simultaneously. Second, we can measure higher-order symmetry, which relies not only on color, edges and texture, but also on the shapes and objects that are depicted in images. We validated our algorithm on a dataset of 300 music album covers, which were rated according to their symmetry by 20 human observers, and compared results with those from a previously proposed method. With our method, human perception of symmetry can be predicted with high accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inclusion of features from higher CNN layers, which encode more abstract image content, increases the performance further. In conclusion, we introduce a model of left/right symmetry that closely models human perception of symmetry in CD album covers.

  12. Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, Cesar [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València,Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, C/Catedratico José Beltrán 2,E-46980 Paterna (València) (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)


    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ−e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.

  13. Measurement of the Left-Right Asymmetry in Z0 Events at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, A


    Recent results from the 1992 and 1993 left-right asymmetry cross section measurements at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are presented. Measurements made with SLAC running with a center-of-mass energy at the Z{sup 0}-pole (91.2 GeV) by the SLD detector and an average electron beam polarization of 22.4 {+-} 0.7% for 1992 and 62.6 {+-} 1.2% for 1993. The asymmetry measured was A{sub LR} = 0.100 {+-} 0.044 and A{sub LR} = 0.1656 {+-} 0.0073 for the 1992 and 1993 runs, respectively. This in turn allows them to calculate the weak mixing angle value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2378 {+-} 0.0056 and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2288 {+-} 0.0009 for the two data sets.

  14. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lath, A.


    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was {rho}{sup lum} = (63.0{+-}1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A{sub LR} to be 0.1626{+-}0.0071(stat){+-}0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations.

  15. Organization of left-right coordination in the mammalian locomotor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lebret, James M.; Kiehn, Ole


    Neuronal circuits involved in left-right coordination are a fundamental feature of rhythmic locomotor movements. These circuits necessarily include commissural interneurons (CINs) that have axons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. The properties of CINs have been described in some detail...... cord central pattern generators (CPGs). The means by which reciprocal inhibition and integration of sensory information are maintained in swimming vertebrates is described, with similarities between the three basic populations of commissural interneurons highlighted. The subsequent section concentrates......, using whole cell patch clamp, to record from anatomically defined CINs located in the rhythm-generating region of the lumbar segments. Initial results would suggest that the firing pattern of these neurons shows a greater diversity than that previously described in swimming central pattern generators...

  16. Functional identification of interneurons responsible for left-right coordination of hindlimbs in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Simon J.B.; Kiehn, Ole


    Local neuronal networks that are responsible for walking are poorly characterized in mammals. Using an innovative approach to identify interneuron inputs onto motorneuron populations in a neonatal rodent spinal cord preparation, we have investigated the network responsible for left......-right coordination of the hindlimbs. We demonstrate how commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons traverse the midline to innervate contralateral neurons, are organized such that distinct flexor and extensor centers in the rostral lumbar spinal cord define activity in both flexor and extensor caudal motor pools....... In addition, the nature of some connections are reconfigured on switching from rest to locomotion via a mechanism that might be associated with synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. These results from identified pattern-generating interneurons demonstrate how interneuron populations create an effective...

  17. Modelling genetic reorganization in the mouse spinal cord affecting left-right coordination during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybak, Ilya A.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Kiehn, Ole


    Abstract The spinal neural circuit contains inhibitory (CINi) and excitatory (CINe) commissural interneurons with axons crossing the mid-line. Direction of these axons to the other side of the cord is controlled by axon guidance molecules, such as Netrin-1 and DCC. The cord also contains...... the effects of these genetic transformations, we used a computational model of the spinal circuits containing left and right rhythm-generating neuron populations (RGs), each with a subpopulation of EphA4-positive neurons, and CINi and CINe populations mediating mutual inhibition and excitation between...... glutamatergic interneurons, whose axon guidance involves the EphA4 receptor. In EphA4 knockout (KO) and Netrin-1 KO mice, the normal left-right alternating pattern is replaced with a synchronized hopping gait, and the cord of DCC KO mice exhibits uncoordinated left and right oscillations. To investigate...

  18. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lath, A.


    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A LR , n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e + e - annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was ρ lum = (63.0±1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A LR to be 0.1626±0.0071(stat)±0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations

  19. Stomach curvature is generated by left-right asymmetric gut morphogenesis. (United States)

    Davis, Adam; Amin, Nirav M; Johnson, Caroline; Bagley, Kristen; Ghashghaei, H Troy; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette


    Left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of internal anatomy, yet the emergence of morphological asymmetry remains one of the least understood phases of organogenesis. Asymmetric rotation of the intestine is directed by forces outside the gut, but the morphogenetic events that generate anatomical asymmetry in other regions of the digestive tract remain unknown. Here, we show in mouse and Xenopus that the mechanisms that drive the curvature of the stomach are intrinsic to the gut tube itself. The left wall of the primitive stomach expands more than the right wall, as the left epithelium becomes more polarized and undergoes radial rearrangement. These asymmetries exist across several species, and are dependent on LR patterning genes, including Foxj1 , Nodal and Pitx2 Our findings have implications for how LR patterning manifests distinct types of morphological asymmetries in different contexts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. De novo formation of left-right asymmetry by posterior tilt of nodal cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Nonaka


    Full Text Available In the developing mouse embryo, leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node determines left-right (L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism by which the rotational movement of node cilia can generate a unidirectional flow remains hypothetical. Here we have addressed this question by motion and morphological analyses of the node cilia and by fluid dynamic model experiments. We found that the cilia stand, not perpendicular to the node surface, but tilted posteriorly. We further confirmed that such posterior tilt can produce leftward flow in model experiments. These results strongly suggest that L-R asymmetry is not the descendant of pre-existing L-R asymmetry within each cell but is generated de novo by combining three sources of spatial information: antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes, and the chirality of ciliary movement.

  1. Radiative Yukawa couplings in the simplest left-right symmetric model (United States)

    Gabrielli, Emidio; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti


    We revisit a recent solution to the flavor hierarchy problem based on the paradigm that Yukawa couplings are, rather than fundamental constants, effective low energy couplings radiatively generated by interactions in a hidden sector of the theory. In the present paper we show that the setup required by this scenario can be set by gauge invariance alone, provided that the standard model gauge group be extended to the left-right symmetric group of S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )Y. The simplest scheme in which Yukawa couplings are forbidden at the tree-level organises the right-handed fermions into doublets and presents an additional Higgs S U (2 )R doublet, responsible for the spontaneous breaking of the S U (2 )R gauge sector. The flavor and chiral symmetry breaking induced by the S U (2 )R breaking is transferred at the one-loop level to the standard model via the dynamics of the hidden sector, which effectively regulates the spread of the effective Yukawa couplings. The emerging left-right symmetric framework recovers additional appealing features typical of these models, allowing for instance to identify the hypercharges of the involved fermions with their B -L charges and offering a straightforward solution to the strong C P problem. The scheme gives rise to a distinguishing phenomenology that potentially can be tested at the LHC and future colliders through the same interactions that result in the radiative generation of Yukawa couplings, as well as by exploiting the properties of the additional S U (2 )R Higgs doublet.

  2. Phenomenological aspects of a left-right model based on SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doas, Alex G.; Nishi, Celso C.


    Full text: Motivated by the problem of explaining the observed maximal parity violation in the electroweak interactions, we develop a model based on the SU(3) L x SU(3) R x U(1) X gauge symmetry, where anomalies cancellation restricts the number of families is restricted to be a multiple of three. Left-right symmetry is fully realized in the model and the standard model arises in the low energy limit. The fermionic representation content has, besides standard model fields, nine additional neutrinos which could be linked with problems like neutrino oscillation, warm dark matter and baryogenesis; six new quarks which could show up at the TeV; and also new gauge bosons whose production and associated effects observed in colliders shall indicate the parity restoration. Our focus will be mainly on the spontaneous symmetry breakdown patterns leading to a compatible scenario for particle interactions with the well tested standard model. In order to break the symmetries we take into account a set of scalar fields representation content composed by: two sextets and two bi-triplets. These fields are sufficient to implement a successful mass generation mechanisms, furnishing also a consistent mixing among the fermions. We discuss the main phenomenological issues of the model. (author)

  3. Searching for dark matter signals in the left-right symmetric gauge model with CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanlei; Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng


    We investigate the singlet scalar dark matter (DM) candidate in a left-right symmetric gauge model with two Higgs bidoublets in which the stabilization of the DM particle is induced by the discrete symmetries P and CP. According to the observed DM abundance, we predict the DM direct and indirect detection cross sections for the DM mass range from 10 to 500 GeV. We show that the DM indirect detection cross section is not sensitive to the light Higgs mixing and Yukawa couplings except for the resonance regions. The predicted spin-independent DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section is found to be significantly dependent on the above two factors. Our results show that the future DM direct search experiments can cover the most parts of the allowed parameter space. The PAMELA antiproton data can only exclude two very narrow regions in the two Higgs bidoublets model. It is very difficult to detect the DM direct or indirect signals in the resonance regions due to the Breit-Wigner resonance effect.

  4. Conservation Motivation, Social Equality and Left-Right Ideological Preferences in Western and Eastern Europe (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton


    We investigated how attitudes towards social equality can influence the relationship between conservation motivation (or openness) and personal ideological preferences on the left-right dimension, and how this relationship pattern differs between Western and Central & Eastern European (CEE) respondents. Using data from the European Social Survey (2012) we found that individual-level of conservation motivation reduces cultural egalitarianism in both the Western European and the CEE regions, but its connection with economic egalitarianism is only relevant in the CEE region where it fosters economic egalitarianism. Since both forms of egalitarianism were related to leftist ideological preferences in Western Europe, but in the CEE region only economic egalitarianism was ideologically relevant, we concluded that the classic “rigidity of the right” phenomenon is strongly related to cultural (anti)egalitarianism in Western Europe. At the same time, conservation motivation serves as a basis for the “rigidity of the left” in the post-socialist CEE region, in a great part due to the conventional egalitarian economic views. PMID:28580030

  5. Universal seesaw and 0νββ in new 3331 left-right symmetric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Borah


    Full Text Available We consider a class of left-right symmetric model with enlarged gauge group SU(3c×SU(3L×SU(3R×U(1X without having scalar bitriplet. In the absence of scalar bitriplet, there is no Dirac mass term for fermions including usual quarks and leptons. We introduce new isosinglet vector-like fermions so that all the fermions get their masses through a universal seesaw mechanism. We extend our discussion to neutrino mass and its implications in neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ. We show that for TeV scale SU(3R gauge bosons, the heavy-light neutrino mixing contributes dominantly to 0νββ that can be observed at ongoing experiments. The new physics contributions arising from purely left-handed currents via exchange of keV scale right-handed neutrinos and the so called mixed helicity λ-diagram can saturate the KamLANDZen bound. We show that the right handed neutrinos in this model can have mass in the sub keV range and can be long lived compared to the age of the Universe. The contributions of these right handed neutrinos to flavour physics observables like μ→eγ and muon g−2 is also discussed. Towards the end we also comment on different possible symmetry breaking patterns of this enlarged gauge symmetry to that of the standard model.

  6. Higgs bosons and sleptons in an alternative left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, L.


    The phenomenological structure of the combined Higgs-boson--slepton sector of the alternative left-right-supersymmetric model introduced by Ma is explored. Constraints upon and relations between Higgs-boson and slepton masses are derived and a tightly constrained mass spectrum is found. In general, one neutral Higgs boson is never heavier than 98 GeV, one neutral Higgs boson is always nearly degenerate in mass with the extra neutral gauge boson Z 2 0 , and the charged Higgs boson can in principle be as light as 22 GeV. Further constraints require large ratios of Higgs vacuum expectation values, strongly favor the W R mass above ∼423 GeV, predict one Higgs-boson mass to be always very close to 98 GeV, and masses of the other Higgs bosons and the sleptons to be bounded from above and preferably not much above the Z mass. In addition, the possibility of detecting light Higgs bosons at CERN LEP and the SLAC Linear Collider is briefly discussed

  7. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae) (United States)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.


    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  8. Online adaptive learning of Left-Right Continuous HMM for bearings condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartella, F; Liu, T; Meganck, S; Lemeire, J; Sahli, H


    Standard Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) approaches used for condition assessment of bearings assume that all the possible system states are fixed and known a priori and that training data from all of the associated states are available. Moreover, the training procedure is performed offline, and only once at the beginning, with the available training set. These assumptions significantly impede component diagnosis applications when all of the possible states of the system are not known in advance or environmental factors or operative conditions change during the tool's usage. The method introduced in this paper overcomes the above limitations and proposes an approach to detect unknown degradation modalities using a Left-Right Continuous HMM with a variable state space. The proposed HMM is combined with Change Point Detection algorithms to (i) estimate, from historical observations, the initial number of the model's states, as well as to perform an initial guess of the parameters, and (ii) to adaptively recognize new states and, consequently, adjust the model parameters during monitoring. The approach has been tested using real monitoring data taken from the NASA benchmark repository. A comparative study with state of the art techniques shows improvements in terms of reduction of the training procedure iterations, and early detection of unknown states.

  9. Integration of left-right Pitx2 transcription and Wnt signaling drives asymmetric gut morphogenesis via Daam2. (United States)

    Welsh, Ian C; Thomsen, Michael; Gludish, David W; Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Bai, Yan; Martin, James F; Kurpios, Natasza A


    A critical aspect of gut morphogenesis is initiation of a leftward tilt, and failure to do so leads to gut malrotation and volvulus. The direction of tilt is specified by asymmetric cell behaviors within the dorsal mesentery (DM), which suspends the gut tube, and is downstream of Pitx2, the key transcription factor responsible for the transfer of left-right (L-R) information from early gastrulation to morphogenesis. Although Pitx2 is a master regulator of L-R organ development, its cellular targets that drive asymmetric morphogenesis are not known. Using laser microdissection and targeted gene misexpression in the chicken DM, we show that Pitx2-specific effectors mediate Wnt signaling to activate the formin Daam2, a key Wnt effector and itself a Pitx2 target, linking actin dynamics to cadherin-based junctions to ultimately generate asymmetric cell behaviors. Our work highlights how integration of two conserved cascades may be the ultimate force through which Pitx2 sculpts L-R organs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Establishment of visceral left-right asymmetry in mammals: the role of ciliary action and leftward fluid flow in the region of Hensen's node]. (United States)

    Ermakov, A S


    During individual development of vertebrates, the anteroposterior, dorsoventral, and left-right axes of the body are established. Although the vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric outside, their internal structure is asymmetric. Of special interest is the insight into establishment of visceral left-right asymmetry in mammals, since it has not only basic but also an applied medical significance. As early as 1976, it was hypothesized that the ciliary action could be associated with the establishment of left-right asymmetry in mammals. Currently, the majority of researchers agree that the ciliary action in the region of Hensen's node and the resulting leftward laminar fluid flow play a key role in the loss of bilateral symmetry and triggering of expression of the genes constituting the Nodal-Ptx2 signaling cascade, specific of the left side of the embryo. The particular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still insufficiently clear. There are three competing standpoints on how leftward fluid flow induces expression of several genes in the left side of the embryo. The morphogen gradient hypothesis postulates that the leftward flow creates a high concentration of a signaling biomolecule in the left side of Hensen's node, which, in turn, stimulates triggering of.gene expression of the Nodal-Ptx2 cascade. The biomechanical hypothesis (or two-cilia model) states that the immotile cilia located in the periphery of Hensen's node act as mechanosensors, activate mechanosensory ion channels, and trigger calcium signaling in the left side of the embryo. Finally, the "shuttle-bus model" holds that leftward fluid flow carries the lipid vesicles, which are crashed when colliding immotile cilia in the periphery of Hensen's node to release the contained signaling biomolecules. It is also noteworthy that the association between the ciliary action and establishment of asymmetry has been recently discovered in representatives of the lower invertebrates. In this paper, the author

  11. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.


    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing

  12. Four generations versus left-right symmetry. A comparative numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidsieck, Tillmann J.


    In this work, we present a comparative numerical analysis of the Standard Model (SM) with a sequential fourth generation (SM4) and the left-right symmetric Standard model (LRM). We focus on the constraints induced by flavour violating {Delta}F=2 processes in the K and B system while the results of studies of collider bounds and electroweak precision tests are taken into account as external inputs. In contrast to many previous studies of both models considered in this work, we do make not any ad-hoc assumptions on the structure of the relevant mixing matrices. Therefore, we employ powerful Monte Carlo methods in order to approximate the viable parameter space of the models. In preparation of our numerical analysis, we present all relevant formulae and review the different numerical methods used in this work. In order to better understand the patterns of new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes, we perform a fit including all relevant {Delta}F=2 constraints in the context of the Standard Model. The result of this fit is then used in a general discussion on new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes in the context of generic extensions of the Standard Model. Our numerical analysis of the SM4 and the LRM demonstrates that in both models the existing anomalies in {Delta}=2 processes can easily be resolved. We transparently show how the different observables are connected to each other by their dependence on combinations of mixing parameters. In our analysis of rare decays in the SM4, we establish patterns of flavour violation that could in principle be used to disprove this model on the basis of {Delta}F=1 processes alone. In the LRM, we discuss the importance of the contributions originating from the exchange of heavy, flavour changing, neutral Higgs bosons as well as the inability of the LRM to entirely solve the V{sub ub} problem.

  13. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  14. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes. (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K


    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  15. Two novel type II receptors mediate BMP signalling and are required to establish left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, R.; van Dinther, M.; Bakkers, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Patient, R.; ten Dijke, P.; Mummery, C.L.


    Ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, like Nodal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), are pivotal to establish left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates. However, the receptors mediating this process are unknown. Here we identified two new type II receptors for BMPs

  16. Lepton number violating signals of the top quark partners in the left-right twin Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A.


    We study the collider signatures of the left-right twin Higgs model in the case that the right-handed neutrino mass is less than the mass of the right-handed gauge boson. In this scenario, new leptonic decay chains open up, allowing the particles which cancel the one-loop quadratic divergences of the Higgs, the right-handed gauge bosons and top-partners, to be discovered. Half of these events contain same-sign leptons without missing energy, which have no genuine standard model background and for which the backgrounds are purely instrumental. These signals may be used to complement other collider searches and, in certain regions of parameter space, may be the only way to observe the particles responsible for natural electroweak symmetry breaking in the left-right twin Higgs model.

  17. MMP21 is mutated in human heterotaxy and is required for normal left-right asymmetry in vertebrates (United States)

    Guimier, Anne; Gabriel, George C.; Bajolle, Fanny; Tsang, Michael; Liu, Hui; Noll, Aaron; Schwartz, Molly; El Malti, Rajae; Smith, Laurie D.; Klena, Nikolai T.; Jimenez, Gina; Miller, Neil A.; Oufadem, Myriam; Moreau de Bellaing, Anne; Yagi, Hisato; Saunders, Carol J.; Baker, Candice N.; Di Filippo, Sylvie; Peterson, Kevin A.; Thiffault, Isabelle; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Cooley, Linda D.; Farrow, Emily G.; Masson, Cécile; Schoen, Patric; Deleuze, Jean-François; Nitschké, Patrick; Lyonnet, Stanislas; de Pontual, Loic; Murray, Stephen A.; Bonnet, Damien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Amiel, Jeanne; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Lo, Cecilia W.; Gordon, Christopher T.


    Heterotaxy results from a failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry early in embryonic development. By whole exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing and high-throughput cohort resequencing we identified recessive mutations in matrix metallopeptidase 21 (MMP21), in nine index cases with heterotaxy. In addition, Mmp21 mutant mice and morphant zebrafish display heterotaxy and abnormal cardiac looping, respectively, suggesting a novel role for extra-cellular remodeling in the establishment of laterality in vertebrates. PMID:26437028

  18. Class voting and Left-Right party positions: A comparative study of 15 Western democracies, 1960-2005. (United States)

    Jansen, Giedo; Evans, Geoffrey; Graaf, Nan Dirk de


    Studies that explain the class voting have often focused on "bottom-up" social factors, but paid little attention to 'top-down' political factors. We argue that party positions on left-right ideology have an effect on the strength of class voting. This argument is tested by estimating the impact of the Left-Right party positions on the class-vote association through a Two-Step Hierarchical analysis of integrated data from 15 countries in Western-Europe, the United States and Australia (1960-2005) supplemented with data from the Comparative Manifesto Project. Although there is a general trend for class voting to decline over time, partially accounted for by the impact of education, we find that most variation in class voting does not take the form of a linear decline. The ideological positions of left-wing parties alone do not have any effect, but the polarization of parties along the left-right dimension is associated with substantially higher levels of class voting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry for charm quarks with D*+ and D+ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N.J.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Daoudi, M.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D.J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.


    We present a direct measurement of A c =2v c a c /(v 2 c +a 2 c ) from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of D * + and D + mesons in Z 0 events produced with the longitudinally polarized SLAC Linear Collider beam. These Z 0 →c over bar events are tagged on the basis of event kinematics and decay topology from a sample of hadronic Z 0 decays recorded by the SLAC Large Detector. We measure A 0 c = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  20. Low-mass right-handed gauge bosons, manifest left-right symmetry, and the K/sub L/-K/sub s/ mass difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.; Raychaudhuri, A.


    We calculate the K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference in left-right-symmetric models with four quarks. It is found that a low right-handed mass scale requires strong deviations from manifest left-right symmetry

  1. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Potential Players of Left-Right Asymmetry in Female Chicken Gonads. (United States)

    Wan, Zhiyi; Lu, Yanan; Rui, Lei; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Fang; Tu, Chengfang; Li, Zandong


    Most female birds develop only a left ovary, whereas males develop bilateral testes. The mechanism underlying this process is still not completely understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of female chicken gonads and identify novel candidate side-biased genes. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA harvested from the left and right gonads on embryonic day 6 (E6), E12, and post-hatching day 1 (D1). By comparing the gene expression profiles between the left and right gonads, 347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained on E6, 3730 were obtained on E12, and 2787 were obtained on D1. Side-specific genes were primarily derived from the autosome rather than the sex chromosome. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were most enriched in the Piwi-interactiing RNA (piRNA) metabolic process, germ plasm, chromatoid body, P granule, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, and methane metabolism. A total of 111 DEGs, five gene ontology (GO) terms, and three pathways were significantly different between the left and right gonads among all the development stages. We also present the gene number and the percentage within eight development-dependent expression patterns of DEGs in the left and right gonads of female chicken.

  2. Left-Right Orientation and Electoral Choices: Divergences in the Relationships With Authority and Out-Groups. (United States)

    Passini, Stefano; Villano, Paola


    New political parties and movements have recently grown across Europe. These parties often state their distance from the classic left-right juxtaposition, even if their voters still place themselves in the left-right continuum. The aim of the present research was to focus on the Italian political context and to analyze differences between left of center and right of center self-positioned people on attitudes concerning authority-individual and intergroup relationships. The results confirm the hypotheses. Left of center voters have lower attitudes of authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, prejudice, and ethnocentrism; they are less supportive of harsh punitive methods toward delinquents; and attach more importance to democratic values as compared with right of center voters. These differences are significant also considering voters within the same party. Although participants have declared they vote for the same party/movement, the voters who place themselves on the left of center indeed appear to have different views from those on the right of center, as concerns the relationship with authority and attitudes toward minorities.

  3. An Analysis of $B_{s}$ Decays in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model with Spontaneous CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Patricia; Ball, Patricia; Fleischer, Robert


    Non-leptonic B_s decays into CP eigenstates that are caused by \\bar b -> \\bar cc\\bar s quark-level transitions, such as B_s -> D_s^+D^-_s, J/psi eta^(') or J/psi phi, provide a powerful tool to search for ``new physics'', as the CP-violating effects in these modes are tiny in the Standard Model. We explore these effects for a particular scenario of new physics, the left-right-symmetric model with spontaneous CP violation. In our analysis, we take into account all presently available experimental constraints on the parameters of this model, i.e. those implied by K- and B-decay observables; we find that CP asymmetries as large as O(40%) may arise in the B_s channels, whereas the left-right-symmetric model favours a small CP asymmetry in the ``gold-plated'' mode B_d -> J/psi K_S. Such a pattern would be in favour of B-physics experiments at hadron machines, where the B_s modes are very accessible.

  4. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich


    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  5. Precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)


    A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) for Z boson production by e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions has been attained at the SLAC Linear Collider with the SLD detector. The author describes this measurement for the 1993 data run, emphasizing the significant improvements in polarized beam operation which took place for this run, where the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization averaged 62.6 {+-} 1.2%. Preliminary 1993 results for A{sub LR} are presented. When combined with the (less precise) 1992 result, the preliminary result for the effective weak mixing angle is sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2290 {+-} 0.0010.

  6. Follow your gut: relaying information from the site of left-right symmetry breaking in the mouse. (United States)

    Saijoh, Yukio; Viotti, Manuel; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina


    A central unresolved question in the molecular cascade that drives establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates are the mechanisms deployed to relay information between the midline site of symmetry-breaking and the tissues which will execute a program of asymmetric morphogenesis. The cells located between these two distant locations must provide the medium for signal relay. Of these, the gut endoderm is an attractive candidate tissue for signal transmission since it comprises the epithelium that lies between the node, where asymmetry originates, and the lateral plate, where asymmetry can first be detected. Here, focusing on the mouse as a model, we review our current understanding and entertain open questions concerning the relay of LR information from its origin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sex-specific regulation of weight and puberty by the Lin28/let-7 axis (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Shinoda, Gen; Zhu, Hao; Cousminer, Diana L; Crossman, Christine; Bellissimo, Christian; Goldenberg, Anna; Daley, George Q; Palmert, Mark R


    Growth and pubertal timing differ in boys and girls. Variants in/near LIN28B associate with age at menarche (AAM) in genome-wide association studies and some AAM-related variants associate with growth in a sex-specific manner. Sex-specific growth patterns in response to Lin28b perturbation have been detected in mice, and overexpression of Lin28a has been shown to alter pubertal timing in female mice. To investigate further how Lin28a and Lin28b affect growth and puberty in both males and females, we evaluated Lin28b loss-of-function (LOF) mice and Lin28a gain-of-function (GOF) mice. Because both Lin28a and Lin28b can act via the conserved microRNA let-7, we also examined let-7 GOF mice. As reported previously, Lin28b LOF led to lighter body weights only in male mice while Lin28a GOF yielded heavier mice of both sexes. Let-7 GOF mice weighed less than controls, and males were more affected than females. Timing of puberty was assessed by vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PS). Male Lin28b LOF and male let-7 GOF, but not female, mice displayed alteration of pubertal timing, with later PS than controls. In contrast, both male and female Lin28a GOF mice displayed late onset of puberty. Together, these data point toward a complex system of regulation by Lin28a, Lin28b, and let-7, in which Lin28b and let-7 can impact both puberty and growth in a sex-specific manner, raising the possibility that this pathway may contribute to differential regulation of male and female growth and puberty in humans. PMID:26698568

  8. Left-right difference in fetal liver oxygenation during hypoxia estimated by BOLD MRI in a fetal sheep model. (United States)

    Sørensen, A; Holm, D; Pedersen, M; Tietze, A; Stausbøl-Grøn, B; Duus, L; Uldbjerg, N


    The purpose of this study was to measure differences in oxygenation between the left and right sides of the fetal liver during varying oxygenation levels. Eight ewes carrying singleton fetuses at gestational age 125 days (term, 145 days) were included in the study. Under anesthesia the ewes were ventilated with gas containing different levels of oxygen, thereby subjecting the fetuses to hyperoxia (mean ± SD maternal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), 23.2 ± 8.2 kPa) and hypoxia (mean maternal arterial pO2, 7.1 ± 0.5 kPa). Changes in oxygenation within the fetal liver were assessed by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During hyperoxia there was no difference between the BOLD signal in the left and right sides of the fetal liver; mean change in BOLD (ΔBOLD)(hyperox), -0.9 ± 3.7%. During hypoxia, however, the decrease in the BOLD signal was more pronounced in the right side as compared with the left side, thereby creating a significant increase in the left-right difference in the BOLD signal; mean ΔBOLD(hypox), 5.2 ± 2.2% (P = 0.002, paired t-test). The left-right difference was directly proportional to the degree of hypoxia (R2 = 0.86, P = 0.007). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating differences in oxygenation between the left and right sides of the fetal liver during hypoxia, a difference that can be explained by increased ductus venosus shunting. Thus, the BOLD MRI technique is a promising non-invasive tool that might be useful for the future monitoring of the human fetus. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Quark-lepton unification and eight-fold ambiguity in the left-right symmetric seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteins, P.; Lavignac, St.; Savoy, C.A


    In many extensions of the Standard Model, including a broad class of left-right symmetric and Grand United theories, the light neutrino mass matrix is given by the left-right symmetric seesaw formula M{sub {nu}} = f*v{sub L} - v{sup 2}/v{sub R}*Y{sub {nu}}*f{sup -1}*Y{sub {nu}}, in which the right-handed neutrino mass matrix and the SU(2){sub L} triplet couplings are proportional to the same matrix f. We propose a systematic procedure for reconstructing the 2{sup n} solutions (in the n-family case) for the matrix f as a function of the Dirac neutrino couplings (Y{sub {nu}}){sub ij} and of the light neutrino mass parameters, which can be used in both analytical and numerical studies. We apply this procedure to a particular class of supersymmetric SO(10) models with two 10-dimensional and a pair of 126 + 126 representations in the Higgs sector, and study the properties of the corresponding 8 right-handed neutrino spectra. Then, using the reconstructed right-handed neutrino and triplet parameters, we study lepton-genesis and lepton flavour violation in these models, and comment on flavour effects in lepton-genesis in the type I limit. We find that the mixed solutions where both the type I and the type II seesaw mechanisms give a significant contribution to neutrino masses provide new opportunities for successful lepton-genesis in SO(10) Great Unified Theories. (authors)

  10. Fine mapping of the pond snail left-right asymmetry (chirality) locus using RAD-Seq and fibre-FISH. (United States)

    Liu, Mengning Maureen; Davey, John W; Banerjee, Ruby; Han, Jie; Yang, Fengtang; Aboobaker, Aziz; Blaxter, Mark L; Davison, Angus


    The left-right asymmetry of snails, including the direction of shell coiling, is determined by the delayed effect of a maternal gene on the chiral twist that takes place during early embryonic cell divisions. Yet, despite being a well-established classical problem, the identity of the gene and the means by which left-right asymmetry is established in snails remain unknown. We here demonstrate the power of new genomic approaches for identification of the chirality gene, "D". First, heterozygous (Dd) pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis were self-fertilised or backcrossed, and the genotype of more than six thousand offspring inferred, either dextral (DD/Dd) or sinistral (dd). Then, twenty of the offspring were used for Restriction-site-Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) to identify anonymous molecular markers that are linked to the chirality locus. A local genetic map was constructed by genotyping three flanking markers in over three thousand snails. The three markers lie either side of the chirality locus, with one very tightly linked (hybridization (FISH) of pachytene cells showed that the three BACs tightly cluster on the same bivalent chromosome. Fibre-FISH identified a region of greater that ∼0.4 Mb between two BAC clone markers that must contain D. This work therefore establishes the resources for molecular identification of the chirality gene and the variation that underpins sinistral and dextral coiling. More generally, the results also show that combining genomic technologies, such as RAD-Seq and high resolution FISH, is a robust approach for mapping key loci in non-model systems.

  11. Mutations in zebrafish pitx2 model congenital malformations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome but do not disrupt left-right placement of visceral organs. (United States)

    Ji, Yongchang; Buel, Sharleen M; Amack, Jeffrey D


    Pitx2 is a conserved homeodomain transcription factor that has multiple functions during embryonic development. Mutations in human PITX2 cause autosomal dominant Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), characterized by congenital eye and tooth malformations. Pitx2(-/-) knockout mouse models recapitulate aspects of ARS, but are embryonic lethal. To date, ARS treatments remain limited to managing individual symptoms due to an incomplete understanding of PITX2 function. In addition to regulating eye and tooth development, Pitx2 is a target of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signaling pathway that mediates left-right (LR) asymmetry of visceral organs. Based on its highly conserved asymmetric expression domain, the Nodal-Pitx2 axis has long been considered a common denominator of LR development in vertebrate embryos. However, functions of Pitx2 during asymmetric organ morphogenesis are not well understood. To gain new insight into Pitx2 function we used genome editing to create mutations in the zebrafish pitx2 gene. Mutations in the pitx2 homeodomain caused phenotypes reminiscent of ARS, including aberrant development of the cornea and anterior chamber of the eye and reduced or absent teeth. Intriguingly, LR asymmetric looping of the heart and gut was normal in pitx2 mutants. These results suggest conserved roles for Pitx2 in eye and tooth development and indicate Pitx2 is not required for asymmetric looping of zebrafish visceral organs. This work establishes zebrafish pitx2 mutants as a new animal model for investigating mechanisms underlying congenital malformations in ARS and high-throughput drug screening for ARS therapeutics. Additionally, pitx2 mutants present a unique opportunity to identify new genes involved in vertebrate LR patterning. We show Nodal signaling-independent of Pitx2-controls asymmetric expression of the fatty acid elongase elovl6 in zebrafish, pointing to a potential novel pathway during LR organogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elimination of Left-Right Reciprocal Coupling in the Adult Lamprey Spinal Cord Abolishes the Generation of Locomotor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Messina


    Full Text Available The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL, before and after spinal transections (T at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head. For experimental animals with ML spinal lesions, sensory stimulation could elicit well-coordinated locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some significant differences in the parameters of locomotor activity compared to those for normal animals. Computer models representing normal animals or experimental animals with ML spinal lesions could mimic many of the differences in locomotor activity. For experimental animals with ML and T spinal lesions, right and left rostral hemi-spinal cords, disconnected from intact caudal cord, usually produced tonic or unpatterned muscle activity. Hemi-spinal cords sometimes generated spontaneous or sensory-evoked relatively high frequency “burstlet” activity that probably is analogous to the previously described in vitro “fast rhythm”, which is thought to represent lamprey locomotor activity. However, “burstlet” activity in the present study had parameters and features that were very different than those for lamprey locomotor activity: average frequencies were ~25 Hz, but individual frequencies could be >50 Hz; burst proportions (BPs often varied with cycled time; “burstlet” activity usually was not accompanied by a rostrocaudal phase lag; and following ML spinal lesions alone, “burstlet” activity could occur in the presence or absence of swimming burst activity, suggesting the two were generated

  13. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  14. Production of the Higgs boson associated with a top quark pair in the left-right twin Higgs model (United States)

    Shen, Jie-Fen; Cao, Jun; Yan, Lei-Bing


    In the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model, we first examine the effects on the t\\bar{t}h production at the ILC and LHC. Our results show that in the allowed parameter space, the absolute values of the relative correction can be significantly large and thus provide a good test for the LRTH model. We also estimate the new production channel of t\\bar{T}h or T\\bar{t}h at the LHC and find that, with reasonable parameter values of the LRTH model, the values of the total hadronic cross-section can reach the level of 102 fb. The dominant decay mode T\\rightarrow \\phi^{+}b \\rightarrow t\\bar{b}b , with h\\rightarrow b\\bar{b} (or h→W+W-) can make the processes pp\\rightarrow t\\bar{T}h+T\\bar{t}h give rise to the t\\bar{t}bb\\bar{b}\\bar{b} (or t\\bar{t}bbW^{+}W^{-} ) final state, which has less background than ht\\bar{t} production, and thus this new channel may likely be observable at the LHC.

  15. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A LR ) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A LR experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4±1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617±0.0071(stat.)±0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A LR is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model

  16. Non-minimal flavored S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} left-right symmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Izquierdo, Juan Carlos [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    We propose a non-minimal left-right symmetric model with parity symmetry where the fermion mixings arise as a result of imposing an S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} flavor symmetry, and an extra Z{sup e}{sub 2} symmetry is considered in the lepton sector. Then the neutrino mass matrix possesses approximately the μ-τ symmetry. The breaking of the μ-τ symmetry induces sizable non-zero θ{sub 13}, and the deviation of θ{sub 23} from 45 {sup circle} is strongly controlled by an ε free parameter and the neutrino masses. So, an analytic study of the CP parities in the neutrino masses is carried out to constrain the ε parameter and the lightest neutrino mass that accommodate the mixing angles. The results are: (a) the normal hierarchy is ruled out for any values of the Majorana phases; (b) for the inverted hierarchy the values of the reactor and atmospheric angles are compatible up to 2, 3 σ C.L.; (c) the degenerate ordering is the most favorable such that the reactor and atmospheric angle are compatible with the experimental data for a large set of values of the free parameters. The model predicts defined regions for the effective neutrino mass, the neutrino mass scale and the sum of the neutrino masses for the favored cases. Therefore, this model may be testable by the future experiments. (orig.)

  17. Are consumers aware of top-bottom but not of left-right inferences? Implications for shelf space positions. (United States)

    Valenzuela, Ana; Raghubir, Priya


    We propose that the horizontal and vertical position of an item on a display is a source of information that individuals use to make judgments. Six experiments using 1 × 5 or 5 × 5 displays show that consumers judge that products placed at the bottom (vs. top) and on the left-hand (vs. middle and right-hand) side of a display are less expensive and of lower quality (Study 1a using a bar display, Study 1b using wine, and Study 1c using Swatch watches). Results support the claim that verticality effects (top-bottom) are attenuated when participants are less involved with the decision task (Study 2 using Swatch watches and chocolates) and when they are exposed to information that questions the diagnosticity of using vertical position as a cue (Study 3 using wine). However, the horizontality (left-right) effect is robust to both of these manipulations. Horizontality effects are exacerbated for participants primed with a number line (Study 4 also using wine), suggesting that exposure to the number line (where higher numbers are on the right) is a possible antecedent of the horizontality effect. The verticality effects may, on the other hand, reflect people's retail experience of seeing higher priced products on higher shelves, which leads to their forming a similar expectation. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical implications for visual information processing as well as practical implications for retail management. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A{sub LR}) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A{sub LR} experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4{+-}1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin {sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A{sub LR} is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model.

  19. Natural reversal of left-right gut/gonad asymmetry in C. elegans males is independent of embryonic chirality. (United States)

    Callander, Davon C; Alcorn, Melissa R; Birsoy, Bilge; Rothman, Joel H


    Anatomical left-right (L/R) asymmetry in C. elegans is established in the four-cell embryo as a result of anteroposterior skewing of transverse mitotic spindles with a defined handedness. This event creates a chiral embryo and ultimately an adult body plan with fixed L/R positioning of internal organs and components of the nervous system. While this "dextral" configuration is invariant in hermaphrodites, it can be reversed by physical manipulation of the early embryo or by mutations that interfere with mitotic spindle orientation, which leads to viable, mirror-reversed (sinistral) animals. During normal development of the C. elegans male, the gonad develops on the right of the midline, with the gut bilaterally apposed on the left. However, we found that in males of the laboratory N2 strain and Hawaiian ("Hw") wild isolate, the gut/gonad asymmetry is frequently reversed in a temperature-dependent manner, independent of normal embryonic chirality. We also observed sporadic errors in gonad migration occurring naturally during early larval stages of these and other wild strains; however, the incidence of such errors does not correlate with the frequency of L/R gut/gonad reversals in these strains. Analysis of N2/Hw hybrids and recombinant inbred advanced intercross lines (RIAILs) indicate that the L/R organ reversals are likely to result from recessively acting variations in multiple genes. Thus, unlike the highly reproducible L/R asymmetries of most structures in hermaphrodites, the L/R asymmetry of the male C. elegans body plan is less rigidly determined and subject to natural variation that is influenced by a multiplicity of genes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Drosophila Syncrip binds the gurken mRNA localisation signal and regulates localised transcripts during axis specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. McDermott


    In the Drosophila oocyte, mRNA transport and localised translation play a fundamental role in axis determination and germline formation of the future embryo. gurken mRNA encodes a secreted TGF-α signal that specifies dorsal structures, and is localised to the dorso-anterior corner of the oocyte via a cis-acting 64 nucleotide gurken localisation signal. Using GRNA chromatography, we characterised the biochemical composition of the ribonucleoprotein complexes that form around the gurken mRNA localisation signal in the oocyte. We identified a number of the factors already known to be involved in gurken localisation and translational regulation, such as Squid and Imp, in addition to a number of factors with known links to mRNA localisation, such as Me31B and Exu. We also identified previously uncharacterised Drosophila proteins, including the fly homologue of mammalian SYNCRIP/hnRNPQ, a component of RNA transport granules in the dendrites of mammalian hippocampal neurons. We show that Drosophila Syncrip binds specifically to gurken and oskar, but not bicoid transcripts. The loss-of-function and overexpression phenotypes of syncrip in Drosophila egg chambers show that the protein is required for correct grk and osk mRNA localisation and translational regulation. We conclude that Drosophila Syncrip is a new factor required for localisation and translational regulation of oskar and gurken mRNA in the oocyte. We propose that Syncrip/SYNCRIP is part of a conserved complex associated with localised transcripts and required for their correct translational regulation in flies and mammals.

  1. p38 MAPK as an essential regulator of dorsal-ventral axis specification and skeletogenesis during sea urchin development: a re-evaluation. (United States)

    Molina, Maria Dolores; Quirin, Magali; Haillot, Emmanuel; Jimenez, Felipe; Chessel, Aline; Lepage, Thierry


    Dorsal-ventral axis formation in the sea urchin embryo relies on the asymmetrical expression of the TGFβ Nodal. The p38-MAPK pathway has been proposed to be essential for dorsal-ventral axis formation by acting upstream of nodal expression. Here, we report that, in contrast to previous studies that used pharmacological inhibitors of p38, manipulating the activity of p38 by genetic means has no obvious impact on morphogenesis. Instead, we discovered that p38 inhibitors strongly disrupt specification of all germ layers by blocking signalling from the Nodal receptor and by interfering with the ERK pathway. Strikingly, while expression of a mutant p38 that is resistant to SB203580 did not rescue dorsal-ventral axis formation or skeletogenesis in embryos treated with this inhibitor, expression of mutant Nodal receptors that are resistant to SB203580 fully restored nodal expression in SB203580-treated embryos. Taken together, these results establish that p38 activity is not required for dorsal-ventral axis formation through nodal expression nor for skeletogenesis. Our results prompt a re-evaluation of the conclusions of several recent studies that linked p38 activity to dorsal-ventral axis formation and to patterning of the skeleton. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai


    Full Text Available Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4 is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10 and not by a later block (post-stage 10. Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning.

  3. Adolescent alcohol exposure alters the rat adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in a sex-specific manner


    Logrip, Marian L.; Rivier, Catherine; Lau, Calvin; Im, Sarah; Vaughan, Joan; Lee, Soon


    Exposure to alcohol during adolescence exerts long-term effects on the adult brain stress circuits, causing many changes that persist into adulthood. Here we examined the consequences of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE, administered from postnatal day (PND) 28–42] on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related brain circuitry of rats challenged with an intragastric administration of alcohol in adulthood (PND 70–71). Both male and female adolescent rats were exposed to alcohol v...

  4. Lack of specific association between panicogenic properties of caffeine and HPA-axis activation. A placebo-controlled study of caffeine challenge in patients with panic disorder. (United States)

    Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Markianos, Manolis; Oulis, Panagiotis


    A subgroup of patients with Panic Disorder (PD) exhibits increased sensitivity to caffeine administration. However, the association between caffeine-induced panic attacks and post-caffeine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation in PD patients remains unclear. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 19 PD patients underwent a 400-mg caffeine-challenge and a placebo-challenge, both administered in the form of instant coffee. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were assessed at both baseline and post-challenge. No patient panicked after placebo-challenge, while nine patients (47.3%) panicked after caffeine-challenge. Placebo administration did not result in any significant change in hormones' plasma levels. Overall, sample's patients demonstrated significant increases in ACTH, cortisol, and DHEAS plasma levels after caffeine administration. However, post-caffeine panickers and non-panickers did not differ with respect to the magnitude of the increases. Our results indicate that in PD patients, caffeine-induced panic attacks are not specifically associated with HPA-axis activation, as this is reflected in post-caffeine increases in ACTH, cortisol and DHEAS plasma levels, suggesting that caffeine-induced panic attacks in PD patients are not specifically mediated by the biological processes underlying fear or stress. More generally, our results add to the evidence that HPA-axis activation is not a specific characteristic of panic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungil


    The Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) project carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is an effort to bring cold neutron instrumentation to Korea's only large scale research reactor, HANARO, located in Daejeon. As part of the CNRF project, a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer (Cold-TAS) is being developed along with other five: 40 m long and 12 m long small angle neutron scattering instruments (40m-SANS and 12m-SANS), disk-chopper time-of-flight spectrometer (DC-ToF), Bio- Reflectometer (Bio-REF) and the reflectometer with vertical sample geometry (REF-V). For those cold neutron instruments, the performance of an individual instrument depends not only on its design but also on the guide that feeds cold neutrons to the instrument. Therefore, the quality of the neutron flux at an instrument position has to be checked with the specification of the instrument. As for the Cold-TAS, since the instrument requires a tall beam and a high flux of short wavelength neutrons, it was tentatively decided that it would use the cold guide 4 (CG4). The detailed specification of the guide is listed. Checking the neutron flux of the guide at the instrument position is the obvious next step

  6. Common origin of 3.55 keV x-ray line and gauge coupling unification with left-right dark matter (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab; Patra, Sudhanwa


    We present a minimal left-right dark matter framework that can simultaneously explain the recently observed 3.55 keV x-ray line from several galaxy clusters and gauge coupling unification at high energy scale. Adopting a minimal dark matter strategy, we consider both left and right handed triplet fermionic dark matter candidates which are stable by virtue of a remnant Z2≃(-1 )B -L symmetry arising after the spontaneous symmetry breaking of left-right gauge symmetry to that of the standard model. A scalar bitriplet field is incorporated whose first role is to allow radiative decay of right handed triplet dark matter into the left handed one and a photon with energy 3.55 keV. The other role this bitriplet field at TeV scale plays is to assist in achieving gauge coupling unification at a high energy scale within a nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) model while keeping the scale of left-right gauge symmetry around the TeV corner. Apart from solving the neutrino mass problem and giving verifiable new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and charged lepton flavor violation, the model with TeV scale gauge bosons can also give rise to interesting collider signatures like diboson excess, dilepton plus two jets excess reported recently in the large hadron collider data.

  7. The BMP pathway is essential for re-specification and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis in regenerating and intact planarians. (United States)

    Molina, M Dolores; Saló, Emili; Cebrià, Francesc


    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway has been shown to play an important role in the establishment of the dorsoventral axis during development in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In an attempt to unravel the role of BMPs in pattern formation during planarian regeneration, we studied this signaling pathway in Schmidtea mediterranea. Here, we functionally characterize planarian homologues of two key elements of the pathway: Smed-BMP and Smed-Smad1. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Smed-BMP is expressed at the planarian dorsal midline, suggesting a role in dorsoventral patterning, while Smed-Smad1 is widely expressed throughout the mesenchyme and in the central nervous system. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdowns of Smed-BMP or Smed-Smad1 led to the disappearance of dorsal markers along with the ectopic expression of ventral markers on the dorsal side of the treated animals. In almost all cases, a duplicated central nervous system differentiated dorsally after Smed-BMP or Smed-Smad1 RNAi. These defects were observed not only during regeneration but also in intact non-regenerating animals. Our results suggest that the BMP signaling pathway is conserved in planarians and that it plays a key role in the regeneration and maintenance of the dorsoventral axis.

  8. A Specific Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis of Type 2 Diabetic Mice Induces GLP-1 Resistance through an Enteric NO-Dependent and Gut-Brain Axis Mechanism. (United States)

    Grasset, Estelle; Puel, Anthony; Charpentier, Julie; Collet, Xavier; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Tercé, François; Burcelin, Rémy


    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies control glycemia in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, in some patients the treatment must be discontinued, defining a state of GLP-1 resistance. In animal models we identified a specific set of ileum bacteria impairing the GLP-1-activated gut-brain axis for the control of insulin secretion and gastric emptying. Using prediction algorithms, we identified bacterial pathways related to amino acid metabolism and transport system modules associated to GLP-1 resistance. The conventionalization of germ-free mice demonstrated their role in enteric neuron biology and the gut-brain-periphery axis. Altogether, insulin secretion and gastric emptying require functional GLP-1 receptor and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the enteric nervous system within a eubiotic gut microbiota environment. Our data open a novel route to improve GLP-1-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex-Specific Effects of Chronic Administration of Relaxin-3 on Food Intake, Body Weight and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Rats. (United States)

    Calvez, J; de Ávila, C; Guèvremont, G; Timofeeva, E


    The present study examined the effects of chronic central administration of relaxin-3 (RLN3) on food intake, body weight and fat mass in intact and sterilised male and female rats, as well as on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in intact male and female rats that received i.c.v. infusions of RLN3 (400 pmol/day) or vehicle during a 14-day period. The intact RLN3-injected rats displayed a higher body weight than the vehicle-treated groups, and this increase was statistically significantly stronger in female rats compared to male rats. In addition, feed efficiency and gonadal white adipose tissue weight were higher in female RLN3-injected rats. Chronic i.c.v. administration of RLN3 activated the HPG axis in intact male rats, whereas inhibition of the HPG axis was observed in intact female rats. RLN3 significantly increased the plasma levels of luteinising hormone and follicular-stimulating hormone in male rats but not in female rats. Conversely, hypothalamic expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA was decreased by RLN3 in female rats but not in male rats. In addition, the plasma levels of oestradiol were significantly decreased by RLN3 administration in female rats. Consequently, intact RLN3-injected female rats failed to display phasic inhibition of eating during oestrus. Sex-specific effects of RLN3 on food intake and body weight were also observed in ovariectomised female and orchidectomised male rats, suggesting that the sex-specific effects of RLN3 on energy metabolism are independent on the differential effects of RLN3 on HPG axis activity in male and female rats. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  10. Patient-specific modeling of the neuroendocrine HPA-axis and its relation to depression: Ultradian and circadian oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmand-Høyer, Johanne; Ottesen, Stine Timmermann; Ottesen, Johnny T.


    . The model is able to describe the oscillatory patterns in hormone concentration data from 29 patients and healthy controls. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling with statistical hypothesis testing, three of the model parameters are identified to be related to depression. These parameters represent......In the Western world approximately 10% of the population experience severe depression at least once in their lifetime and many more experience a mild form of depression. Depression has been associated with malfunctions in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. We suggest a novel mechanistic...... underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the average levels as well as the ultradian frequencies and amplitudes of the hormones ACTH and cortisol. The results are promising since they point toward an exact etiology for depression. As a consequence new biomarkers and pharmaceutical targets may...

  11. The spinal control of locomotion and step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry from slow to moderate speeds. (United States)

    Dambreville, Charline; Labarre, Audrey; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Frigon, Alain


    When speed changes during locomotion, both temporal and spatial parameters of the pattern must adjust. Moreover, at slow speeds the step-to-step pattern becomes increasingly variable. The objectives of the present study were to assess if the spinal locomotor network adjusts both temporal and spatial parameters from slow to moderate stepping speeds and to determine if it contributes to step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. To determine the role of the spinal locomotor network, the spinal cord of 6 adult cats was transected (spinalized) at low thoracic levels and the cats were trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Cats were implanted with electrodes to chronically record electromyography (EMG) in several hindlimb muscles. Experiments began once a stable hindlimb locomotor pattern emerged. During experiments, EMG and bilateral video recordings were made during treadmill locomotion from 0.1 to 0.4 m/s in 0.05 m/s increments. Cycle and stance durations significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas swing duration remained unaffected. Extensor burst duration significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas sartorius burst duration remained unchanged. Stride length, step length, and the relative distance of the paw at stance offset significantly increased with increasing speed, whereas the relative distance at stance onset and both the temporal and spatial phasing between hindlimbs were unaffected. Both temporal and spatial step-to-step left-right asymmetry decreased with increasing speed. Therefore, the spinal cord is capable of adjusting both temporal and spatial parameters during treadmill locomotion, and it is responsible, at least in part, for the step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Limits on the dipole moments of the $\\tau$-lepton via the process $e^{+}e^{-} \\to \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}\\gamma$ in a left-right symmetric model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Noriega, Luis; 10.1142/S0217732304014689


    Limits on the anomalous magnetic moment and the electric dipole moment of the tau lepton are calculated through the reaction e/sup + /e/sup -/ to tau /sup +/ tau /sup -/ gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model. The results are based on the recent data reported by the L3 collaboration at CERN LEP. Due to the stringent limit of the model mixing angle phi , the effect of this angle on the dipole moments is quite small.

  13. Observation of parity violation and a left-right asymmetry in the reaction /sup 35/Cl (n, p) /sup 35/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.; Vesna, V.A.; Gledenov, Y.M.; Lobashev, V.M.; Okunev, I.S.; Popov, Y.P.; Rigol' , K.; Smotritskii, L.M.


    The P-odd and left-right asymmetry in the emission of protons by the compound nucleus in the reaction /sup 35/Cl (n, p) /sup 35/S have been measured for the first time. The coefficients are a/sub p/ = -(1.51 +- 0.34) x 10/sup -4/ and a/sup LR//sub p/ = -(2.40 +- 0.43) x 10/sup -4/. A limitation is found on the dependence of the total cross section on the neutron helicity: Vertical Bar..cap alpha../sub n/Vertical Bar<2 x 10/sup -6/ (at a 90% confidence level).

  14. Wnt11b is involved in cilia-mediated symmetry breakage during Xenopus left-right development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    Full Text Available Breakage of bilateral symmetry in amphibian embryos depends on the development of a ciliated epithelium at the gastrocoel roof during early neurulation. Motile cilia at the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP give rise to leftward flow of extracellular fluids. Flow is required for asymmetric gene expression and organ morphogenesis. Wnt signaling has previously been involved in two steps, Wnt/ß-catenin mediated induction of Foxj1, a regulator of motile cilia, and Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP dependent cilia polarization to the posterior pole of cells. We have studied Wnt11b in the context of laterality determination, as this ligand was reported to activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt11b was found to be expressed in the so-called superficial mesoderm (SM, from which the GRP derives. Surprisingly, Foxj1 was only marginally affected in loss-of-function experiments, indicating that another ligand acts in this early step of laterality specification. Wnt11b was required, however, for polarization of GRP cilia and GRP morphogenesis, in line with the known function of Wnt/PCP in cilia-driven leftward flow. In addition Xnr1 and Coco expression in the lateral-most GRP cells, which sense flow and generate the first asymmetric signal, was attenuated in morphants, involving Wnt signaling in yet another process related to symmetry breakage in Xenopus.

  15. Short-distance QCD corrections to K{sup 0}K̄{sup 0} mixingat next-to-leading order in Left-Right models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Véronique [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, CNRS,University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Descotes-Genon, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, CNRS,University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    Left-Right (LR) models are extensions of the Standard Model where left-right symmetry is restored at high energies, and which are strongly constrained by kaon mixing described in the framework of the |ΔS|=2 effective Hamiltonian. We consider the short-distance QCD corrections to this Hamiltonian both in the Standard Model (SM) and in LR models. The leading logarithms occurring in these short-distance corrections can be resummed within a rigourous Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach integrating out heavy degrees of freedom progressively, or using an approximate simpler method of regions identifying the ranges of loop momentum generating large logarithms in the relevant two-loop diagrams. We compare the two approaches in the SM at next-to-leading order, finding a very good agreement when one scale dominates the problem, but only a fair agreement in the presence of a large logarithm at leading order. We compute the short-distance QCD corrections for LR models at next-to-leading order using the method of regions, and we compare the results with the EFT approach for the WW{sup ′} box with two charm quarks (together with additional diagrams forming a gauge-invariant combination), where a large logarithm occurs already at leading order. We conclude by providing next-to-leading-order estimates for cc, ct and tt boxes in LR models.

  16. Comparison of vascular width and accuracy of subjective assessment of pulmonary flow X-ray films of children with left-right shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Hannover Medizinische Hochschule


    The authors established a comparative relationship between accuracy of measurement of pulmonary flow and extent of vascular widening in 72 children with Left-Right shunt vitiae; this accuracy of pulmonary flow measurement had been subjectively estimated by 4 investigators without knowing the diagnosis and in comparison to the haemodynamic values (percentage of correct findings). The following procedure was adopted: In a control group of 143 healthy children, we first determined the vascular diameter of the right descending pulmonary artery, of the right upper lobal vein, and of the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields, at an accurately defined distance from the point of the hilus, and compared with the vascular diameters of the children with left-right shunt, employing the method of discrimination analysis. Comparison of the judgement by the 4 investigators with the degree of increase of the vascular diameters showed an accuracy of 65-100% if the right descending pulmonary artery became wider by 2.6 mm, and an accuracy of 79-95% if the mean vascular width in the right upper field increased by 0.7 mm. The accuracy was 83-94% if the mean vascular width in the right lower field increased by 0.6 mm. Statistical studies also showed that the judgement of the 4 investigators was influenced by different vessels. (orig.) [de

  17. Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Leads to Stimulus-Specific Changes in Cytokine Reactivity and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Sensitivity in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Vore


    absence of cytokine alterations, and a tendency toward heightened HPA axis reactivity. These findings suggest that adolescent ethanol exposure may cause lasting alterations in cytokine regulation and HPA axis sensitivity that (a persist into adulthood; (b may vary depending on the nature of the challenge incurred during adulthood; and that (c are sex-specific.

  18. Single vector-like top partner production in the left-right twin Higgs model at TeV energy eγ colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhanying; Yang Guang; Yang Bingfang


    The left-right twin Higgs model contains a new vector-like heavy top quark, which mixes with the SM-like top quark. In this work, we studied the single vector-like top partner production via process e - γ → νeT-barb at the International Linear Collider. We calculated the production cross section at tree level and displayed the relevant differential distributions. The result shows that there will be 125 events produced each year with √s=2 TeV and the integrated luminosity Script Lint ≈ 500 fb -1 , and the b-quark tagging and the relevant missing energy cut will be helpful to detect this new effect. (authors)

  19. The Left-Right asymmetry of top quarks in associated top-charged Higgs bosons at the LHC as a probe of the tan$\\beta$ parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, J; Djouadi, A; Macorini, G; Mirabella, E; Orlando, N; Renard, F M; Verzegnassi, C


    Many extensions of the Standard Model involve two Higgs doublet fields to break the electroweak symmetry, leading to the existence of three neutral and two charged Higgs particles. In particular, this is the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. A very important parameter is $\\tan\\beta$ defined as the ratio of the vacuum expectation value of the two Higgs doublets. In this paper we focus on the left-right asymmetry in the production of polarised top quarks in association with charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. This quantity allows for a theoretically clean determination of $\\tan\\beta$. In the MSSM, the asymmetry remains sensitive to the strong and electroweak radiative corrections and, thus, to the superparticle spectrum. Some possible implications of these results are discussed.

  20. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry of heavy quarks measured with jet charge and with leptons at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Stanford Univ., CA


    The authors present direct measurements of the left-right asymmetry of b- and c-quarks from the decay of Z 0 bosons produced in the annihilation of longitudinally polarized electrons and unpolarized positrons. Two complementary techniques are presented: (1) Z 0 → b bar b decays are tagged using track impact parameters with b bar b discrimination provided by momentum-weighted track charge; (2) semileptonic b-decays are tagged using high p and p T muons and electrons. The preliminary results from their 1993 data sample are: A b = 0.93 ± 0.13 ± 0.13 for the jet charge and A b = 0.93 ± 0.14 ± 0.09, and A c = 0.40 ± 0.23 ± 0.20 for the leptons, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  1. The Bergen left-right discrimination test: practice effects, reliable change indices, and strategic performance in the standard and alternate form with inverted stimuli. (United States)

    Grewe, Philip; Ohmann, Hanno A; Markowitsch, Hans J; Piefke, Martina


    Several authors pointed out that left-right discrimination (LRD) tasks may be entangled with differential demands on mental rotation (MR). However, studies considering this interrelationship are rare. To differentially assess LRD of stimuli with varying additional demands on MR, we constructed and evaluated an extended version of the Bergen right-left discrimination (BRLD) test including additional subtests with inverted stickmen stimuli in 174 healthy participants (50♂, 124♀) and measured subjective reports on participants' strategies to accomplish the task. Moreover, we analyzed practice effects and reliable change indices (RCIs) on BRLD performance, as well as gender differences. Performance significantly differed between subtests with high and low demands on MR with best scores on subtests with low demands on MR. Participants' subjective strategies corroborate these results: MR was most frequently reported for subtests with highest MR demands (and lowest test performance). Pronounced practice effects were observed for all subtests. Sex differences were not observed. We conclude that our extended version of the BRLD allows for the differentiation between LRD with high and low demands on MR abilities. The type of stimulus materials is likely to be critical for the differential assessment of MR and LRD. Moreover, RCIs provide a basis for the clinical application of the BRLD.

  2. Search for a Heavy Right-Handed W Boson and Heavy Right-Handed Neutrino of the Left-Right Symmetric Extension of the Standard Theory

    CERN Document Server


    A search for a heavy right-handed $W_{R}$ boson, and heavy right-handed neutrinos $N_{\\ell}$ ($\\ell = e, \\mu$) performed by the CMS experiment is summarized here. Using the 2.6 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the CMS experiment in 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, this search seeks evidence of a $W_{R}$ boson and $N_{\\ell}$ neutrinos in events with two leptons and two jets. The data do not significantly exceed expected backgrounds, and are consistent with expected results of the Standard Theory given uncertainties. For Standard Theory extensions with strict left-right symmetry, and assuming only one $N_{\\ell}$ flavor contributes significantly to the $W_{R}$ decay width, mass limits are set in the two-dimensional $(M_{W_{R}}, M_{N_{\\ell}})$ plane at 95\\% confidence level. The limits extend to a $W_{R}$ mass of 3.3 TeV in the electron channel and 3.5 TeV in the muon channel, and span a wide range of $M_{N_{\\ell}}$ masses below $M_{W_{R}}$.

  3. A semi-Markov model for stroke with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring. (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Matthews, Fiona E; van den Hout, Ardo


    This paper presents a parametric method of fitting semi-Markov models with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring. We investigate transition intensities in a three-state illness-death model with no recovery. We relax the Markov assumption by adjusting the intensity for the transition from state 2 (illness) to state 3 (death) for the time spent in state 2 through a time-varying covariate. This involves the exact time of the transition from state 1 (healthy) to state 2. When the data are subject to left or interval censoring, this time is unknown. In the estimation of the likelihood, we take into account interval censoring by integrating out all possible times for the transition from state 1 to state 2. For left censoring, we use an Expectation-Maximisation inspired algorithm. A simulation study reflects the performance of the method. The proposed combination of statistical procedures provides great flexibility. We illustrate the method in an application by using data on stroke onset for the older population from the UK Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Primordial germ cells in the dorsal mesentery of the chicken embryo demonstrate left-right asymmetry and polarized distribution of the EMA1 epitope. (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Friedman-Einat, Miriam; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit


    Despite the importance of the chicken as a model system, our understanding of the development of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) is far from complete. Here we characterized the morphology of PGCs at different developmental stages, their migration pattern in the dorsal mesentery of the chicken embryo, and the distribution of the EMA1 epitope on PGCs. The spatial distribution of PGCs during their migration was characterized by immunofluorescence on whole-mounted chicken embryos and on paraffin sections, using EMA1 and chicken vasa homolog antibodies. While in the germinal crescent PGCs were rounded and only 25% of them were labeled by EMA1, often seen as a concentrated cluster on the cell surface, following extravasation and migration in the dorsal mesentery PGCs acquired an elongated morphology, and 90% exhibited EMA1 epitope, which was concentrated at the tip of the pseudopodia, at the contact sites between neighboring PGCs. Examination of PGC migration in the dorsal mesentery of Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20-22 embryos demonstrated a left-right asymmetry, as migration of cells toward the genital ridges was usually restricted to the right, rather than the left, side of the mesentery. Moreover, an examination of another group of cells that migrate through the dorsal mesentery, the enteric neural crest cells, revealed a similar preference for the right side of the mesentery, suggesting that the migratory pathway of PGCs is dictated by the mesentery itself. Our findings provide new insights into the migration pathway of PGCs in the dorsal mesentery, and suggest a link between EMA1, PGC migration and cell-cell interactions. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying migration of PGCs in avians. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  5. The PAM-1 aminopeptidase regulates centrosome positioning to ensure anterior-posterior axis specification in one-cell C. elegans embryos. (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Marshall, Sara L; Jaeger, Eva C; Greene, Pauline E; Brady, Lauren K; Isaac, R Elwyn; Schrandt, Jennifer C; Brooks, Darren R; Lyczak, Rebecca


    In the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is established when the sperm donated centrosome contacts the posterior cortex. While this contact appears to be essential for axis polarization, little is known about the mechanisms governing centrosome positioning during this process. pam-1 encodes a puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase that regulates centrosome positioning in the early embryo. Previously we showed that pam-1 mutants fail to polarize the A-P axis. Here we show that PAM-1 can be found in mature sperm and in cytoplasm throughout early embryogenesis where it concentrates around mitotic centrosomes and chromosomes. We provide further evidence that PAM-1 acts early in the polarization process by showing that PAR-1 and PAR-6 do not localize appropriately in pam-1 mutants. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that PAM-1's role in polarity establishment is to ensure centrosome contact with the posterior cortex. We inactivated the microtubule motor dynein, DHC-1, in pam-1 mutants, in an attempt to prevent centrosome movement from the cortex and restore anterior-posterior polarity. When this was done, the aberrant centrosome movements of pam-1 mutants were not observed and anterior-posterior polarity was properly established, with proper localization of cortical and cytoplasmic determinants. We conclude that PAM-1's role in axis polarization is to prevent premature movement of the centrosome from the posterior cortex, ensuring proper axis establishment in the embryo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Search for heavy neutrinos and W$_R$ bosons with right-handed couplings in a left-right symmetric model in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard


    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, M[mu], and right-handed W[R] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W[R] mass, dependent on the value of M(W[R]). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W[R]), M(N[mu])) mass plane extends to M(W[R]) = 2.5 TeV.

  7. An axis-specific rotational rainbow in the direct scatter of formaldehyde from Au(111) and its influence on trapping probability. (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Krüger, Bastian C; Meyer, Sven; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim


    The conversion of translational to rotational motion often plays a major role in the trapping of small molecules at surfaces, a crucial first step for a wide variety chemical processes that occur at gas-surface interfaces. However, to date most quantum-state resolved surface scattering experiments have been performed on diatomic molecules, and little detailed information is available about how the structure of nonlinear polyatomic molecules influences the mechanisms for energy exchange with surfaces. In the current work, we employ a new rotationally resolved 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme to measure the rotational distribution in formaldehyde molecules directly scattered from the Au(111) surface at incidence kinetic energies in the range 0.3-1.2 eV. The results indicate a pronounced propensity to excite a-axis rotation (twirling) rather than b- or c-axis rotation (tumbling or cartwheeling), and are consistent with a rotational rainbow scattering model. Classical trajectory calculations suggest that the effect arises-to zeroth order-from the three-dimensional shape of the molecule (steric effects). Analysis suggests that the high degree of rotational excitation has a substantial influence on the trapping probability of formaldehyde at incidence translational energies above 0.5 eV.

  8. Rotationally-Resolved Scattering of Formaldehyde from the 111Au Surface: AN Axis Specific Rotational Rainbow and its Role in Trapping Probability (United States)

    Park, Barratt; Krueger, Bastian C.; Meyer, Sven; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec; Schaefer, Tim


    The conversion of translational to rotational motion often plays a major role in the trapping of small molecules at surfaces, a crucial first step for a wide variety of chemical processes that occur at gas-surface interfaces. However, to date most quantum-state resolved surface scattering experiments have been performed on diatomic molecules, and very little detailed information is available about how the structure of non-linear polyatomic molecules influences the mechanisms for energy exchange with surfaces. In the current work, we employ a new rotationally-resolved 1+1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme to measure rotational distribution in formaldehyde molecules directly scattered from the Au(111) surface at incident kinetic energies in the range 0.3-1.2 eV. The results indicate a pronounced propensity to excite a-axis rotation (twirling) rather than b- or c-axis rotation (tumbling or cartwheeling), and are consistent with a rotational rainbow scattering model. Classical trajectory calculations suggest that the effect arises--to zeroth order--from the three-dimensional shape of the molecule (steric effects). The results have broad implications for the enhanced trapping probability of prolate and near-prolate molecules at surfaces.

  9. A patient-specific model of the negative-feedback control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis. (United States)

    Pandiyan, Balamurugan; Merrill, Stephen J; Benvenga, Salvatore


    The purpose of modelling the negative-feedback control mechanism of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis is to describe the clinical course of euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism for patients. Thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels are controlled by negative-feedback control through thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). T4, like other hormones, can be bound or unbound; the unbound T4 (FT4) is used as a marker for hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a disease in which the thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes attack autoantigens in follicle cells, destroying them over a long time. To describe the operation of the feedback control, we developed a mathematical model involving four clinical variables: TSH, FT4, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and the thyroid gland's functional size. The first three variables are regularly measured while the last variable is determined through relationships between the other three variables. The problem of two different time scales for circulating hormones and thyroid damage is addressed using singular perturbation theory. Analysis of the mathematical model establishes stability and conditions under which the diseased state can maintain the slow movement toward diseased state equilibrium. Although we have used four variables in modelling the feedback control through the HPT axis, the predicted clinical course given any set of parameters is shown to depend on the steady-state levels of TSH and FT4. This observation makes possible the development of the clinical charts based only on the levels of TSH, time and potential steady-state values. To validate the model predictions, a dataset obtained from a Sicilian adult population has been employed. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  10. Atrial myocardium derives from the posterior region of the second heart field, which acquires left-right identity as Pitx2c is expressed. (United States)

    Galli, Daniela; Domínguez, Jorge N; Zaffran, Stephane; Munk, Andrew; Brown, Nigel A; Buckingham, Margaret E


    Splanchnic mesoderm in the region described as the second heart field (SHF) is marked by Islet1 expression in the mouse embryo. The anterior part of this region expresses a number of markers, including Fgf10, and the contribution of these cells to outflow tract and right ventricular myocardium has been established. We now show that the posterior region also has myocardial potential, giving rise specifically to differentiated cells of the atria. This conclusion is based on explant experiments using endogenous and transgenic markers and on DiI labelling, followed by embryo culture. Progenitor cells in the right or left posterior SHF contribute to the right or left common atrium, respectively. Explant experiments with transgenic embryos, in which the transgene marks the right atrium, show that atrial progenitor cells acquire right-left identity between the 4- and 6-somite stages, at the time when Pitx2c is first expressed. Manipulation of Pitx2c, by gain- and loss-of-function, shows that it represses the transgenic marker of right atrial identity. A repressive effect is also seen on the proliferation of cells in the left sinus venosus and in cultured explants from the left side of the posterior SHF. This report provides new insights into the contribution of the SHF to atrial myocardium and the effect of Pitx2c on the formation of the left atrium.

  11. Search for heavy neutrinos and W(R) bosons with right-handed couplings in a left-right symmetric model in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Aguilo, E; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Mohammadi, A; Reis, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Ceard, L; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins Junior, M; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá Júnior, W L; Carvalho, W; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Malek, M; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Soares Jorge, L; Sznajder, A; Vilela Pereira, A; Anjos, T S; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Ellithi Kamel, A; Khalil, S; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Karjalainen, A; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Millischer, L; Nayak, A; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Chasserat, J; 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Erhan, S; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Traczyk, P; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Babb, J; Clare, R; Dinardo, M E; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Giordano, F; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Liu, H; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Paramesvaran, S; Sturdy, J; Sumowidagdo, S; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Andrews, W; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Evans, D; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Mangano, B; Padhi, S; Palmer, C; Petrucciani, G; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Sudano, E; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yoo, J; Barge, D; Bellan, R; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Flowers, K; Geffert, P; Golf, F; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lowette, S; Magaña Villalba, R; McColl, N; Pavlunin, V; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; West, C; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Chen, Y; Di Marco, E; Duarte, J; Gataullin, M; Ma, Y; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Spiropulu, M; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Xie, S; Yang, Y; Zhu, R Y; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Iiyama, Y; Jang, D W; Liu, Y F; Paulini, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Luiggi Lopez, E; Smith, J G; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Eggert, N; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Ryd, A; Salvati, E; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Winstrom, L; Wittich, P; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Green, D; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kunori, S; Kwan, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yang, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Das, S; De Gruttola, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fisher, M; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Hugon, J; Kim, B; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Low, J F; Matchev, K; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Park, M; Remington, R; Rinkevicius, A; Sellers, P; Skhirtladze, N; Snowball, M; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Gaultney, V; Hewamanage, S; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Veeraraghavan, V; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Dorney, B; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Vodopiyanov, I; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bai, Y; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Callner, J; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatyan, S; Lacroix, F; O'Brien, C; Silkworth, C; Strom, D; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Duru, F; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Hu, G; Maksimovic, P; Swartz, M; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Kenny, R P; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tinti, G; Wood, J S; Barfuss, A F; Bolton, T; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Krajczar, K; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Velicanu, D; Wenger, E A; Wolf, R; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Cooper, S I; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Franzoni, G; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Nash, D; Trocino, D; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Lusito, L; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Ofierzynski, R A; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Vuosalo, C; Williams, G; Winer, B L; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hegeman, J; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Koay, S A; Lopes Pegna, D; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Alagoz, E; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Kress, M; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Vidal Marono, M; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Guragain, S; Parashar, N; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Boulahouache, C; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, Y S; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Rose, K; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Walker, M; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Sengupta, S; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Roh, Y; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Florez, C; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Belknap, D; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Friis, E; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Palmonari, F; Pierro, G A; Ross, I; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J


    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N(μ), and right-handed W(R) bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0  fb(-1) sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W(R) mass, dependent on the value of M(W(R)). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W(R)), M(N(μ)) mass plane extends to M(W(R))=2.5  TeV.

  12. Development and validation of a subject-specific moving-axis tibiofemoral joint model using MRI and EOS imaging during a quasi-static lunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzialo, C M; Pedersen, P H; Simonsen, C W


    The aims of this study were to introduce and validate a novel computationally-efficient subject-specific tibiofemoral joint model. Subjects performed a quasi-static lunge while micro-dose radiation bi-planar X-rays (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) were captured at roughly 0°, 20°, 45°, 60°, and 90° o...

  13. Triple-axis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Gy.


    A triple-axis spectrometer has been designed for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter. Because of the limited number of other operational equipment the triple axis spectrometer was used in a multi purpose regime, e.g. high resolution diffractometry, strain analysis, reflectometry, quasielastic and inelastic scattering. A polarization setup was also tested on this spectrometer. (R.P.)

  14. Gut-brain axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Pijl, Hanno


    To summarize recent studies on the regulation and the functions of the gut-brain axis. Visual cues of food and food intake interact with the gut-brain axis at the level of the hypothalamus. However, the hypothalamic response to glucose intake is considerably altered in patients with type 2 diabetes

  15. A critical role of the Thy28-MYH9 axis in B cell-specific expression of the Pax5 gene in chicken B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitsugu Fujita

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that Pax5 plays essential roles in B cell lineage commitment. However, molecular mechanisms of B cell-specific expression of Pax5 are not fully understood. Here, we applied insertional chromatin immunoprecipitation (iChIP combined with stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC (iChIP-SILAC to direct identification of proteins interacting with the promoter region of the endogenous single-copy chicken Pax5 gene. By comparing B cells with macrophage-like cells trans-differentiated by ectopic expression of C/EBPβ, iChIP-SILAC detected B cell-specific interaction of a nuclear protein, Thy28/Thyn1, with the Pax5 1A promoter. Trans-differentiation of B cells into macrophage-like cells caused down-regulation of Thy28 expression. Loss-of-function of Thy28 induced decrease in Pax5 expression and recruitment of myosin-9 (MYH9, one of Thy28-interacting proteins, to the Pax5 1A promoter. Loss-of-function of MYH9 also induced decrease in Pax5 expression. Thus, our analysis revealed that Thy28 is functionally required for B cell-specific expression of Pax5 via recruitment of MYH9 to the Pax5 locus in chicken B cells.

  16. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem. The combination B + L of the baryon and lepton numbers is known to be anomalous in the standard model (sM). For T >TEW, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition, the B +L violation becomes unsuppressed [1-3]. Thus any B +L.

  17. A gene encoding a protein with a proline-rich domain (MtPPRD1), revealed by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), is specifically expressed in the Medicago truncatula embryo axis during germination. (United States)

    Bouton, Sophie; Viau, Laure; Lelièvre, Eric; Limami, Anis M


    A gene MtPPRD1, encoding a protein of 132 amino acids containing a proline-rich domain (PRD), has been revealed by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) with two mRNA populations of embryo axes harvested immediately before and after radicle emergence. Although at the protein level MtPPRD1 showed low homology with plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), it did exhibit the eight cysteine residues conserved in all plant LTPs, a characteristic signature that allows the formation of a hydrophobic cavity adapted for loading hydrophobic molecules. Expression studies of MtPPRD1 have been carried out by quantitative real time RT-PCR throughout germination and post-germination processes in control seeds and seeds in which germination was delayed by abscisic acid (ABA) or the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulphoximine (MSX) treatments. The results showed that MtPPRD1 expression is developmentally regulated, induced in the embryo axis immediately before radicle emergence, reaches its maximum expression and declines during the early post-germination phase. Organ specificity studies showed that, except for a low and probably constitutive expression in roots, MtPPRD1 is specifically expressed in the embryo axis. Based on both experimental and in silico studies several putative roles are proposed for MtPPRD1 in Medicago truncatula, this protein can intervene (i) as an LTP in membrane biogenesis and regulation of the intracellular fatty acid pool by binding and transferring fatty acids and phospholipids between membranes, (ii) in the control of a developmental process specific to late germination and to early phases of post-germination, and (iii) and/or pathogen defence.

  18. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.


    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (Ppopulation, but a sex×group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95 % CI 0·4, 21·8;P=0...

  19. Axial level-specific regulation of neuronal development: lessons from PITX2. (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Martin, Donna M


    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is vital for proper control of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of developing neurons. Pitx2 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is highly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain. In humans, mutations in PITX2 result in Rieger syndrome, characterized by defects in the development of the eyes, umbilicus, and teeth and variable abnormalities in the brain, including hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia. Alternative splicing of Pitx2 in the mouse results in three isoforms, Pitx2a, Pitx2b, and Pitx2c, each of which is expressed symmetrically along the left-right axis of the brain throughout development. Here, we review recent evidence for axial and brain region-specific requirements for Pitx2 during neuronal migration and differentiation, highlighting known isoform contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Intra-individual diagnostic image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose comparison between spiral cCT with iterative image reconstruction and z-axis automated tube current modulation and sequential cCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Holger; Maros, Máté E.; Meyer, Mathias; Gawlitza, Joshua; Förster, Alex; Haubenreisser, Holger; Kurth, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Groden, Christoph; Henzler, Thomas


    •Superiority of spiral versus sequential cCT in image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose.•Spiral cCT: lower organ-specific-radiation-dose in eye lense compared to tilted sequential cCT.•State-of-the-art IR spiral cCT techniques has significant advantages over sequential cCT techniques. Superiority of spiral versus sequential cCT in image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose. Spiral cCT: lower organ-specific-radiation-dose in eye lense compared to tilted sequential cCT. State-of-the-art IR spiral cCT techniques has significant advantages over sequential cCT techniques. To prospectively evaluate image quality and organ-specific-radiation dose of spiral cranial CT (cCT) combined with automated tube current modulation (ATCM) and iterative image reconstruction (IR) in comparison to sequential tilted cCT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) without ATCM. 31 patients with a previous performed tilted non-contrast enhanced sequential cCT aquisition on a 4-slice CT system with only FBP reconstruction and no ATCM were prospectively enrolled in this study for a clinical indicated cCT scan. All spiral cCT examinations were performed on a 3rd generation dual-source CT system using ATCM in z-axis direction. Images were reconstructed using both, FBP and IR (level 1–5). A Monte-Carlo-simulation-based analysis was used to compare organ-specific-radiation dose. Subjective image quality for various anatomic structures was evaluated using a 4-point Likert-scale and objective image quality was evaluated by comparing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Spiral cCT led to a significantly lower (p < 0.05) organ-specific-radiation dose in all targets including eye lense. Subjective image quality of spiral cCT datasets with an IR reconstruction level 5 was rated significantly higher compared to the sequential cCT acquisitions (p < 0.0001). Consecutive mean SNR was significantly higher in all spiral datasets (FBP, IR 1–5) when compared to sequential cCT with a mean

  1. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy


    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  2. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.


    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  3. Vertical axis wind turbines (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU


    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  4. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  5. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis. (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping


    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  6. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis


    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping


    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  7. Sequence-dependent rotation axis changes in tennis. (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Martin, Caroline; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Bideau, Benoit; Isableu, Brice


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of rotation axes during a tennis serve. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the contribution of the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis) during the four discrete tennis serve phases (loading, cocking, acceleration and follow through). Ten ranked athletes (International Tennis Number 1-3) repeatedly performed a flat service aiming at a target on the other side of the net. The four serve phases are distinct and thus, each movement phase seems to be organised around specific rotation axes. The results showed that the limbs' rotational axis does not necessarily coincide with the minimum inertia axis across the cocking phase of the tennis serve. Even though individual serving strategies were exposed, all participants showed an effect due to the cocking phase and changed the rotation axis during the task. Taken together, the results showed that despite inter-individual differences, nine out of 10 participants changed the rotation axis towards the minimum inertia and/or the mass axis in an endeavour to maximise external rotation of the shoulder to optimally prepare for the acceleration phase.

  8. Three axis attitude control system (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)


    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  9. Chapter 7. Axis formation and the rapid evolutionary transformation of larval form. (United States)

    Raff, Rudolf A; Snoke Smith, Margaret


    Marine invertebrate embryos and larvae are diverse and can evolve rapidly, providing a link between early developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We here discuss the role of evolutionary changes in axis formation, which is a crucial part of the patterning of marine embryos and larvae. We focus on sea urchin embryos, where axial features are well defined and subject to active current investigation. The genetic control of processes of formation of the three axial systems, animal-vegetal, dorsal-ventral, and left-right, is becoming established for species that undergo development via the feeding pluteus larva. These species represent the primitive condition among living sea urchins. We compare their developmental processes to the highly modified development of a species that has evolved a nonfeeding larva. This derived form has accelerated some elements of axis formation, and eliminated or modified others. Three features of embryonic/larval evolution stand out (1) evolution of developmental features occurs rapidly over geological time; (2) upstream gene regulatory systems of axis formation are conserved, whereas downstream features evolve rapidly; and (3) heterochronies play an important role.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich


    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  11. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping


    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  12. Tilted-axis wobbling in odd-mass nuclei (United States)

    Budaca, R.


    A triaxial rotor Hamiltonian with a rigidly aligned high-j quasiparticle is treated by a time-dependent variational principle, using angular momentum coherent states. The resulting classical energy function has three unique critical points in a space of generalized conjugate coordinates, which can minimize the energy for specific ordering of the inertial parameters and a fixed angular momentum state. Because of the symmetry of the problem, there are only two unique solutions, corresponding to wobbling motion around a principal axis and, respectively, a tilted axis. The wobbling frequencies are obtained after a quantization procedure and then used to calculate E 2 and M 1 transition probabilities. The analytical results are employed in the study of the wobbling excitations of 135Pr nucleus, which is found to undergo a transition from low angular momentum transverse wobbling around a principal axis toward a tilted-axis wobbling at higher angular momentum.

  13. Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Quiroz, Norma


    We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.

  14. Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics,Randall Laboratory of Physics, The University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastián,Colima 28045 (Mexico)


    We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.

  15. Higgs bosons in the left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkina, G.G.; Boyarkin, O.M.


    The model with the SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L gauge group, containing one bidoublet and two triplets in the Higgs sector, is considered. The link between the constants determining the physical Higgs boson interactions and the neutrino oscillation parameters is found. It is shown that the observation of the ultrahigh-energy neutrinos with the help of the processes e - ν e →W - Z, e - ν e →μ - ν μ , gives us information on the singly charged Higgs bosons. The processes of the doubly charged Higgs boson production, e - μ - →Δ (--) 1 γ, e - μ - →Δ (--) 1 Z, are investigated. From the point of view of detecting the neutral Higgs bosons the process of the electron-muon recharge e - μ + →e + μ - is studied. (orig.)

  16. A systematic comparison of on-axis and off-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niessen, F.; Burrows, A.; Fanta, A. Bastos da Silva


    Abstract The capabilities of the novel on-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) technique were explored in a systematic comparison with conventional off-axis TKD. The effect of experimental parameters on the appearance of on-axis and off-axis Kikuchi patterns was measured and discussed. In ...

  17. Search for Heavy Neutrinos and WR Bosons with Right-Handed Couplings in a Left-Right Symmetric Model in pp Collisions at s=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Shreyber, I.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny Iii, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.


    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N[mu], and right-handed W[R] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W[R] mass, dependent on the value of M(W[R]). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W[R]), M(N[mu])) mass plane extends to M(W[R]) = 2.5 TeV.

  18. Principles of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis. (United States)

    Triebel, Jakob; Bertsch, Thomas; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Rios-Barrera, Daniel; Pearce, Christy F; Hüfner, Michael; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen


    The hormonal family of vasoinhibins, which derive from the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, are known for their inhibiting effects on blood vessel growth, vasopermeability, and vasodilation. As pleiotropic hormones, vasoinhibins act in multiple target organs and tissues. The generation, secretion, and regulation of vasoinhibins are embedded into the organizational principle of an axis, which integrates the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the target tissue microenvironment. This axis is designated as the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis. Disturbances of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis are associated with the pathogenesis of retinal and cardiac diseases and with diseases occurring during pregnancy. New phylogenetical, physiological, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Acute injuries of the axis vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.T. (United General Hospital, Sedro Woolley, WA (USA)); Harris, J.H. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Radiology)


    A retrospective analysis of 165 patients admitted to Hermann Hospital with acute injuries of the axis vertebra revealed 68 (41%) dens fractures, 62 (38%) cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis ('hangman's' fracture), 21 (13%) extension teardrop fractures, 10 (6%) hyperextension dislocations, and 2 (1.0%) fractures each of the laminae and spinous processes. Of the axis injuries 31 (18%) were limited to the axis body alone. Of these, 21 (61%) were hyperextension teardrop fractures and 10 (32%) were hyperextension dislocations. Axis injuries were associated with acute injuries of other cervical vertebrae in 14 (8%) of the patients. (orig./GDG).

  20. Family environment is associated with HPA-axis activity in adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Nederhof, E.; Rosmalen, J.G.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the developmental programming part of the theory of biological sensitivity to context using family environmental factors and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Specifically, we investigated whether perceived parenting (Rejection

  1. Design of Off-Axis PIAACMC Mirrors (United States)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Kern, Brian; Bendek, Eduardo


    The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) provides an efficient way to control diffraction propagation effects caused by the central obstruction/segmented mirrors of the telescope. PIAACMC can be optimized in a way that takes into account both chromatic diffraction effects caused by the telescope obstructed aperture and tip/tilt sensitivity of the coronagraph. As a result, unlike classic PIAA, the PIAACMC mirror shapes are often slightly asymmetric even for an on-axis configuration and require more care in calculating off-axis shapes when an off-axis configuration is preferred. A method to design off-axis PIAA mirror shapes given an on-axis mirror design is presented. The algorithm is based on geometrical ray tracing and is able to calculate off-axis PIAA mirror shapes for an arbitrary geometry of the input and output beams. The method is demonstrated using the third generation PIAACMC design for WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) telescope. Geometrical optics design issues related to the off-axis diffraction propagation effects are also discussed.

  2. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul


    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Creating a Multi-axis Machining Postprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vavruška


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the postprocessor creation process. When using standard commercially available postprocessors it is often very difficult to modify its internal source code, and it is a very complex process, in many cases even impossible, to implement the newly-developed functions. It is therefore very important to have a method for creating a postprocessor for any CAM system, which allows CL data (Cutter Location data to be generated to a separate text file. The goal of our work is to verify the proposed method for creating a postprocessor. Postprocessor functions for multi-axis machiningare dealt with in this work. A file with CL data must be translated by the postprocessor into an NC program that has been customized for a specific production machine and its control system. The postprocessor is therefore verified by applications for machining free-form surfaces of complex parts, and by executing the NC programs that are generated on real machine tools. This is also presented here.

  4. Analisis Semiotika Makna Pesan pada Iklan Axis Versi “Iritologi – Menatap Masa Depan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Sulistiyawati


    the habits of teenagers  use a social media. From visual ads displayed reinforce the message that this Axis products is targeting the youth as target audience, teenagers or students are consumers who crave products with good quality but at an affordable price. Although targeting teenagers, but in Axis target market remains targeting all circles. The Setting or background on the ads are displayed also as a representation that  Axis can be reached all circles of society, especially the lower middle class. The myth meaning in Axis adv is implied a specific scene. Generally these ads is convey that selfie and social media as part of people's lives, especially the younger generation wich use it to interact and shows their existence to community. Through the uploaded photos on social media, the audience represents feelings and activities that are doing. So, It’s triggers the requirements for fluent and economic network communication. Keywords: advertisement, Axis, myth, semiotic

  5. Analytical Aerodynamic Simulation Tools for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deglaire, Paul


    Wind power is a renewable energy source that is today the fastest growing solution to reduce CO 2 emissions in the electric energy mix. Upwind horizontal axis wind turbine with three blades has been the preferred technical choice for more than two decades. This horizontal axis concept is today widely leading the market. The current PhD thesis will cover an alternative type of wind turbine with straight blades and rotating along the vertical axis. A brief overview of the main differences between the horizontal and vertical axis concept has been made. However the main focus of this thesis is the aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades. Making aerodynamically efficient turbines starts with efficient blades. Making efficient blades requires a good understanding of the physical phenomena and effective simulations tools to model them. The specific aerodynamics for straight bladed vertical axis turbine flow are reviewed together with the standard aerodynamic simulations tools that have been used in the past by blade and rotor designer. A reasonably fast (regarding computer power) and accurate (regarding comparison with experimental results) simulation method was still lacking in the field prior to the current work. This thesis aims at designing such a method. Analytical methods can be used to model complex flow if the geometry is simple. Therefore, a conformal mapping method is derived to transform any set of section into a set of standard circles. Then analytical procedures are generalized to simulate moving multibody sections in the complex vertical flows and forces experienced by the blades. Finally the fast semi analytical aerodynamic algorithm boosted by fast multipole methods to handle high number of vortices is coupled with a simple structural model of the rotor to investigate potential aeroelastic instabilities. Together with these advanced simulation tools, a standard double multiple streamtube model has been developed and used to design several straight bladed

  6. The manufacturing and metrology of off-axis mirrors (United States)

    Penzkofer, Karlheinz; Rascher, Rolf; Küpper, Lutz; Liebl, Johannes


    Especially in the area of the large mirror manufacturing only a few manufacturers are capable to produce optical surfaces of high quality. Therefore a deterministic process should be developed in the project IFasO. In the field of telescope optics off-axis optical systems are becoming increasingly important. These systems try to avoid an obstructing of the incoming light by moving the secondary mirror out of the primary mirror's optical axis. This advantage leads to an increasing market for this type of optical surface. Until now off-axis mirrors were difficult or almost impossible to produce. With the processes developed in IFasO, high quality mirrors become possible. For this reason, this paper describes the manufacturing of off-axis surfaces and its problems. The mirror production used in the project IFasO is based on the specific design of the CNC center developed by the company Optotech. This center UPG2000 is capable of grinding, polishing, sagitta measurement and interferometric measurement in one mounting of the specimen. Usually a large optics has to be transported during their manufacturing after every individual process step. There is always a risk of damage of the specimen. The exact orientation of the surface relatively to the tool position is also required. This takes a huge amount of time and makes up most of the production time. In this presentation the use of UPG2000 and the next steps within the process development are described. In the current status the manufacturing of large off-axis elements with a PV < λ/10 rms is reproducible.

  7. Endocannabinoid Signaling, Glucocorticoid-Mediated Negative Feedback and Regulation of the HPA Axis (United States)

    Hill, M. N.; Tasker, J. G.


    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the outflow of glucocorticoid hormones under basal conditions and in response to stress. Within the last decade, a large body of evidence has mounted indicating that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the central regulation of the stress response; however, the specific role endocannabinoid signalling plays in phases of HPA axis regulation, or the neural sites of action mediating this regulation, was not mapped out until recently. This review aims to collapse the current state of knowledge regarding the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the HPA axis to put together a working model of how and where endocannabinoids act within the brain to regulate outflow of the HPA axis. Specifically, we discuss the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the HPA axis under basal conditions, activation in response to acute stress and glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback. Interestingly, there appears to be some anatomical specificity to the role of the endocannabinoid system in each phase of HPA axis regulation, as well as distinct roles of both anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in these phases. Ultimately, the current level of information indicates that endocannabinoid signalling acts to suppress HPA axis activity through concerted actions within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamus. PMID:22214537

  8. A high speed vertical axis wind machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    South, P


    The operational feasibility of vertical axis wind machines was investigated at the National Aeronautical Establishment in Ottawa through use of a wind tunnel and a rotor with blades curved in a skipping rope shape...

  9. Rates and processes of crystallization in on-axis and off-axis MOR basaltic melts (United States)

    Zellmer, Georg F.; Dulski, Peter; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Perfit, Michael R.


    Residence times of olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and xenocrysts in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basaltic melts have been studied since the mid 1980s using geospeedometric techniques (i.e. using diffusion of major and trace elements) in order to constrain the processes of melt ascent and differentiation in this important magmatic setting. Residence times range from a few hours to several years, but potential links between these timescales and specific tectonomagmatic variables such as spreading rate and relative locations of eruption site and ridge axis have remained elusive. Here we demonstrate how incomplete chemical diffusion of Sr within plagioclase crystals from MOR basalts erupted in on- and off-axis settings on a number of ridges with variable spreading rates provide geospeedometric constraints. We combine electron probe microanalytical crystal maps with detailed laser ablation profiles of almost 70 plagioclase crystals from the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9-10°N, the intermediate spreading Gorda and Juan de Fuca (JdF) ridges, and the ultraslow spreading Gakkel ridge to calculate crystal residence times. These range from a few days to several months. The scarcity of residence times exceeding years corroborates previous data indicating that most of the growth of plagioclase phenocrysts occurs within the conduit at the onset of and during eruption on the sea floor, and extends this result to the fast-spreading EPR. Further, statistical analysis is employed to show for the first time that residence times are systematically longer at slower spreading rates, in off-axis samples, and samples sourced from laterally distal axial melt lenses. Plagioclase textures and residence time variations appear to be linked to differences in the dynamics of late-stage, pre-eruptive magma storage and ascent in the different tectonomagmatic settings investigated. In the future, geospeedometric work on MOR samples will be required to assess if the effect of spreading

  10. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.


    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  11. Psychiatric Axis I Comorbidities among Patients with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi


    Full Text Available Objectives. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders influence the outcome and prognosis of gender dysphoria. The aim of this study is to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a group of patients. Methods. Eighty-three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS were recruited and assessed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I. Results. Fifty-seven (62.7% patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (33.7%, specific phobia (20.5%, and adjustment disorder (15.7% were the three most prevalent disorders. Conclusion. Consistent with most earlier researches, the majority of patients with gender dysphoria had psychiatric Axis I comorbidity.

  12. Development of triple axis neutron spectrometer (Paper No. 24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.C.; Wadhwa, N.R.; Goveas, S.H.


    The triple axis neutron spectrometers are the basic instruments intended for use with neutron beams from reactors. Various types of spectrometers, each devoted to different kinds of measurement can be designed and manufactured, once a prototype having all the attributes of a versatile instrument is designed and developed. With the view to achieving self reliance in this field, Central Workshops of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay designed and developed a prototype of triple axis spectrometer meeting the specifications prepared by Nuclear Physics Division of BARC . This spectrometer, with a moving wedge system was successfully manufactured and installed at 'DHRUVA'. Another version of this spectrometer, called the 'Polarised Neutron Spectrometer' was also built and exported to South Korea and installed at Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute, Seoul. This paper deals with basic concept, development of design, engineering of mechanical assemblies, the manufacturing approach and problems encountered during manufacture. (author). 3 figs

  13. Aeroelastically coupled blades for vertical axis wind turbines (United States)

    Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew F.


    Various technologies described herein pertain to a vertical axis wind turbine blade configured to rotate about a rotation axis. The vertical axis wind turbine blade includes at least an attachment segment, a rear swept segment, and optionally, a forward swept segment. The attachment segment is contiguous with the forward swept segment, and the forward swept segment is contiguous with the rear swept segment. The attachment segment includes a first portion of a centroid axis, the forward swept segment includes a second portion of the centroid axis, and the rear swept segment includes a third portion of the centroid axis. The second portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced ahead of the first portion of the centroid axis and the third portion of the centroid axis is angularly displaced behind the first portion of the centroid axis in the direction of rotation about the rotation axis.

  14. Shifted axis angular positioning mechanisms – unconventional use of exact constraint design


    Szykiedans Ksawery; Bujwan Maciej


    Paper presents some remarks about designing angular positioners having significant angular displacement and shifted axis of rotation. Those driving mechanism are useful in specific applications where mechanism wraps around other object or there is a need of rotation around virtual axis. Examples of those applications like orthotic robots or gimbals for panoramic motions where developed at Faculty of Mechatronics WUT. Usage of exact constraint method was described including its influence to a ...

  15. A note on the limitations of the magnetic axis direction determination by neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaked, Hagai


    Rotation crystal symmetry analysis of the magnetic intensities in neutron powder diffraction from magnetically ordered, collinear structures is performed. This analysis, making no reference to a specific crystal system, leads to the well-known limitations on the direction of magnetic axis determination by neutron powder diffraction. It shows that due to the second-order dependence of the magnetic intensity on the magnetic axis components, these limitations result solely from the crystal rotation symmetry in the magnetically ordered state

  16. Shifted axis angular positioning mechanisms – unconventional use of exact constraint design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szykiedans Ksawery


    Full Text Available Paper presents some remarks about designing angular positioners having significant angular displacement and shifted axis of rotation. Those driving mechanism are useful in specific applications where mechanism wraps around other object or there is a need of rotation around virtual axis. Examples of those applications like orthotic robots or gimbals for panoramic motions where developed at Faculty of Mechatronics WUT. Usage of exact constraint method was described including its influence to a kinematic structure of designed mechanism.

  17. Equilibrium and stability of off-axis periodically focused particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, J.S.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B.


    A general equation for the centroid motion of free, continuous, intense beams propagating off axis in solenoidal periodic focusing fields is derived. The centroid equation is found to be independent of the specific beam distribution and may exhibit unstable solutions. A new Vlasov equilibrium for off-axis beam propagation is also obtained. The properties of the equilibrium and the relevance of centroid motion to beam confinement are discussed

  18. Axis I psychiatric disorders, paraphilic sexual offending and implications for pharmacological treatment. (United States)

    Kafka, Martin


    Axis I non-sexual psychopathology, especially if associated with other manifestations of impulsivity, could be important to consider during the assessment and pharmacological treatment of paraphilic sexual offenders. The author performed a Medline literature search using combinations of the following terms "sexual offender," "paraphilia," "Axis I," and "comorbid." In addition, individual paraphilic disorders including "exhibitionism," "voyeurism," "frotteurism," "sexual sadism" and "pedophilia" were searched with the terms "Axis I" and "comorbid." From the literature retrieved, 18 relevant specific articles and additional references were reviewed that utilized either a comprehensive prospective methodology to ascertain Axis I psychopathology or a specific diagnosis not typically included in structured diagnostic instruments was ascertained with validated rating instruments. Unipolar and bipolar mood disorders, social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental conditions (mental retardation, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Asperger's disorder) are Axis I psychopathologies reported as co-associated with paraphilic sexual offending. The aforementioned Axis I psychiatric disorders typically manifest during childhood or adolescence, the same age of onset as paraphilic disorders. Alcohol abuse is prevalent among paraphilic offenders as well and its presence serves as an additional disinhibitor. Research supporting the concurrent pharmacological treatment of Axis I comorbidities is modest but offers support that such treatment could mitigate paraphilic behavior. This review was organized to emphasize positive findings. Studies reviewed varied in both sample types and settings as well as ascertainment and diagnostic methodologies. The literature reviewed is modest in size and additionally limited by small samples. A subset of males with Axis I diagnoses of mood disorders, social anxiety disorder, substance use disorders, and

  19. Theoretical tool movement required to diamond turn an off-axis paraboloid on axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.


    Current techniques for manufacturing off-axis paraboloids are both expensive and insufficiently accurate. An alternative method, turning the workpiece about its axis on a diamond-turning machine, is presented, and the equations describing the necessary tool movement are derived. A discussion of a particular case suggests that the proposed technique is feasible

  20. The stomach-brain axis. (United States)

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J


    The stomach has distinct functions in relation to the ingestion and handling of solids and liquids. These functions include storage of the food before it is gradually emptied into the duodenum, mechanical crushing of larger food particles to increase the surface area, secretion of an acidic enzyme rich gastric juice and mixing the ingested food with the gastric juice. In addition, the stomach 'senses' the composition of the gastric content and this information is passed via the vagal nerve to the lateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, most likely as palatability signals that influence eating behaviour. Other sensory qualities related to the stimulation of gastric tension receptors are satiety and fullness. Receptors that respond to macronutrient content or gastric wall tension influence appetite and meal related hormone responses. The ingestion of food - in contrast to an infusion of nutrients into the stomach - has distinct effects on the activation of specific brain regions. Brain areas such as thalamus, amygdala, putamen and praecuneus are activated by the ingestion of food. Gastric nutrient infusion evokes greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. The brain integrates these interrelated neural and hormonal signals arising from the stomach as well as visual, olfactory and anticipatory stimuli that ultimately influence eating and other behavioural patterns. Furthermore, there is now good evidence from experimental studies that gastric afferents influence mood, and animal studies point towards the possibility that gastric dysfunction may be a risk factor for mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. The stomach is also not only colonised by Helicobacter pylori but a large array of bacteria. While there is sufficient evidence to suggest that H. pylori may alter caloric intake and mood, the role of other gastric microbiome for the brain function is unknown. To address this appropriate targeted gastric microbiome studies would be

  1. Modular off-axis solar concentrator (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P; Hall, John C


    A solar concentrator including a housing defining a vertical axis and including a receiving wall connected to a reflecting wall to define an internal volume and an opening into the internal volume, wherein the reflecting wall defines at least one primary optical element, and wherein at least a portion of the reflecting wall includes a layer of reflective material, the housing further including a cover connected to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall to seal the opening, and at least one receiver mounted on the receiving wall such that a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell.

  2. Enclosed, off-axis solar concentrator (United States)

    Benitez, Pablo; Grip, Robert E; Minano, Juan C; Narayanan, Authi A; Plesniak, Adam; Schwartz, Joel A


    A solar concentrator including a housing having receiving wall, a reflecting wall and at least two end walls, the receiving, reflecting and end walls defining a three-dimensional volume having an inlet, wherein a vertical axis of the housing is generally perpendicular to the inlet, a receiver mounted on the receiving wall of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell, wherein a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, at least one clip disposed on the reflecting wall an optical element received within the three-dimensional volume, the optical element including at least one tab, the tab being engaged by the clip to align the optical element with the receiver, and a window received over the inlet to enclose the housing.

  3. Innovative Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad


    The wind turbines can be classified as: i) Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), and ii) Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The HAWT is fully developed and the size is growing higher. Whereas, the VAWT is not developed because of the less efficiency and vibration issues of big structure. However......, and its aerodynamic characteristics are obtained by an experimental method. A new design is called D2퐴 − 푉퐴푊푇 and a test ring is made to validate the numerical results. A double multiple stream tube method (DMSTM) and blade element method (BEM) are used to determine the numerical performance of a proposed...

  4. Associations between HPA axis functioning and level of anxiety in children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallen, V. L.; Tulen, J. H. M.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Treffers, P. D. A.; de Jong, F. H.; Ferdinand, R. F.


    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis becomes active in response to stress. Hence, increased levels of anxiety in children and adolescents may be associated with changes in HPA-axis functioning. The aim of this study was to test if level of anxiety or specific anxiety disorders were

  5. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design. (United States)

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao


    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  6. Sequence-dependent rotation axis changes and interaction torque use in overarm throwing. (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Venture, Gentiane; Isableu, Brice


    We examined the role of rotation axes during an overarm throwing task. Participants performed such task and were asked to throw a ball at maximal velocity at a target. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the minimum inertia axis would be exploited during the throwing phases, a time when internal-external rotations of the shoulder are particularly important. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the performance and to compute the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis). More specifically, we investigated whether a velocity-dependent change in rotational axes can be observed in the different throwing phases and whether the control obeys the principle of minimum inertia resistance. Our results showed that the limbs' rotational axis mainly coincides with the minimum inertia axis during the cocking phase and with the shoulder-elbow axis during the acceleration phase. Besides these rotation axes changes, the use of interaction torque is also sequence-dependent. The sequence-dependent rotation axes changes associated with the use of interaction torque during the acceleration phase could be a key factor in the production of hand velocity at ball release.

  7. Research of misalignment between dithered ring laser gyro angle rate input axis and dither axis (United States)

    Li, Geng; Wu, Wenqi; FAN, Zhenfang; LU, Guangfeng; Hu, Shaomin; Luo, Hui; Long, Xingwu


    The strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS), especially the SINS composed by dithered ring laser gyroscope (DRLG) is a kind of equipment, which providing high reliability and performance for moving vehicles. However, the mechanical dither which is used to eliminate the "Lock-In" effect can cause vibration disturbance to the INS and lead to dithering coupling problem in the inertial measurement unit (IMU) gyroscope triad, so its further application is limited. Among DRLG errors between the true gyro rotation rate and the measured rotation rate, the frequently considered one is the input axis misalignment between input reference axis which is perpendicular to the mounting surface and gyro angular rate input axis. But the misalignment angle between DRLG dither axis and gyro angular rate input axis is often ignored by researchers, which is amplified by dither coupling problem and that would lead to negative effects especially in high accuracy SINS. In order to study the problem more clearly, the concept of misalignment between DRLG dither axis and gyro angle rate input axis is researched. Considering the error of misalignment is of the order of 10-3 rad. or even smaller, the best way to measure it is using DRLG itself by means of an angle exciter as an auxiliary. In this paper, the concept of dither axis misalignment is explained explicitly firstly, based on this, the frequency of angle exciter is induced as reference parameter, when DRLG is mounted on the angle exciter in a certain angle, the projections of angle exciter rotation rate and mechanical oscillation rate on the gyro input axis are both sensed by DRLG. If the dither axis has misalignment error with the gyro input axis, there will be four major frequencies detected: the frequency of angle exciter, the dither mechanical frequency, sum and difference frequencies of the former two frequencies. Then the amplitude spectrum of DRLG output signal obtained by the using LabVIEW program. if there are only angle

  8. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P.


    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)


    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  10. Microbes and the gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Bercik, P; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F


    The 'gut-brain' or 'brain-gut axis', depending on whether we emphasize bottom-up or top-bottom pathways, is a bi-directional communication system, comprised of neural pathways, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS), vagus, sympathetic and spinal nerves, and humoral pathways, which include cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides as signaling molecules. Recent evidence, mainly arising from animal models, supports a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge regarding the role of microbes, including commensals, probiotics and gastrointestinal pathogens, in bottom-up pathways of communication in the gut-brain axis. Although this has clear implications for psychiatric co-morbidity in functional and inflammatory conditions of the gut, the focus of this review will be to discuss the current evidence for a role of bacteria (commensals, probiotics, and pathogens) as key modulators of gut-brain communication. The strongest evidence for a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis currently arises from animal studies and indicate that mechanisms of communication are likely to be multiple. There is need for the concepts generated in animal models to be translated to the human in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  12. Mechanical axis-derived femoral component rotation in extramedullary total knee arthroplasty: a comparison between femoral transverse axis and transepicondylar axis. (United States)

    Seo, Jai-Gon; Moon, Young-Wan; Lim, Ji-Soon; Park, Se-Jun; Kim, Sang-Min


    Correct rotational alignment of the femoral component is paramount to the success of total knee arthroplasty, but debate continues as to which method is the most reliable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical axis-derived rotational axis of the femoral component using an extramedullary femoral alignment guide system. Between 2009 and 2010, 60 patients (120 knees) underwent simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Postoperative CT scans were performed on all 120 knees. The mechanical axis-derived rotational axis of the femoral component was compared with the surgical transepicondylar axis on CT scans. The femoral component was externally rotated compared with the surgical transepicondylar axis (mean = 1.6°, SD = 2.2°, range: from 4.8° of internal rotation to 7.9° of external rotation). One hundred and nine of the 120 knees (90.8%) were rotated by less than 5° from the surgical transepicondylar axis. All inter-observer observations on CT scans were within a range of ±2.1° and showed no significant differences. Mechanical axis-derived rotational axis of the femoral component was found to be closely related to the surgical transepicondylar axis, to an extent which suggests that the mechanical axis-derived rotational axis could be a new alternative option in determining optimal rotational alignment of the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty. II.

  13. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (UARPE2AXIS2) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  14. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001 (UARPE2AXIS1) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  15. Evaluation of the angles of magnetic axis relative to rotation axis of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, A.D.; Dagkesamanskaya, I.M.


    The difference of an observed width of integrated pulse's profile and a beamwidth of pulsar emission is pointed out. A method to evaluate angle #betta# of the magnetic axis relative to the rotation axis is proposed. Values of #betta# are obtained for 308 pulsars. The secular decrease of #betta# has been found. The radius of the emitting region, #betta#-factors and the density of radiating particles are also evaluated

  16. A Portable Single Axis Magnetic Gradiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Nielsen, Otto V


    The single axis magnetic gradiometer based on two compact detector compensation (CDC) fluxgate ringcore sensors separated 20 cm is described. Despite its high stability and precision better than 1 nT, the calibration procedures are not straightforward. Firstly, the mono-axial measurement does not...... measurements is achieved by using a magnetic dipole of strength 2 mAm(2). In a coil facility, the gradient can be determined with an accuracy of 0.3 nT/m(RMS)....

  17. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans


    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...... or experimentally determined probability distributions may be used. The application to the study of the dispersion relation for excitations in a crystal is outlined...

  18. AXIS - Advanced X-ray Imaging Sarellite (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; AXIS Team


    We present an overview of the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS), a probe mission concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band over a 15' field of view. These capabilities are designed to attain a wide range of science goals such as (i) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spin of supermassive black holes through monitoring of gravitationally microlensed quasars; (ii) understanding AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) probing the fueling of AGN by resolving the SMBH sphere of influence in nearby galaxies; (iv) investigating hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with LSST, ELTs, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout detectors.

  19. Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum (United States)

    Fedak, Waldemar; Anweiler, Stanisław; Gancarski, Wojciech; Ulbrich, Roman


    Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

  20. Gaussian tunneling model of c-axis twist Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, A.; Klemm, R.A.; Scharnberg, K.


    We calculate the critical current density J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) for Josephson tunneling between identical high-temperature superconductors twisted an angle (var p hi) 0 about the c axis. Regardless of the shape of the two-dimensional Fermi surface and for very general tunneling matrix elements, an order parameter (OP) with general d-wave symmetry leads to J c J (π/4)=0. This general result is inconsistent with the data of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)] on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212), which showed J c J to be independent of (var p hi) 0 . If the momentum parallel to the barrier is conserved in the tunneling process, J c J should vary substantially with the twist angle (var p hi) 0 when the tight-binding Fermi surface appropriate for Bi2212 is taken into account, even if the OP is completely isotropic. We quantify the degree of momentum nonconservation necessary to render J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) constant within experimental error for a variety of pair states by interpolating between the coherent and incoherent limits using five specific models to describe the momentum dependence of the tunneling matrix element squared. From the data of Li et al., we conclude that the c-axis tunneling in Bi2212 must be very nearly incoherent, and that the OP must have a nonvanishing Fermi-surface average for T c . We further show that the apparent conventional sum-rule violation observed by Basov et al. [Science 283, 49 (1999)] can be consistent with such strongly incoherent c-axis tunneling.

  1. Reframing the Teenage Wasteland: Adolescent Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. (United States)

    McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Luczynski, Pauline; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F


    Human adolescence is arguably one of the most challenging periods of development. The young adult is exposed to a variety of stressors and environmental stimuli on a backdrop of significant physiological change and development, which is especially apparent in the brain. It is therefore unsurprising that many psychiatric disorders are first observable during this time. The human intestine is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms, and evidence from both preclinical and clinical research focusing on the established microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders may be influenced by intestinal dysbiosis. Provocatively, many if not all of the challenges faced by the developing teen have a documented impact on these intestinal commensal microbiota. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the developing adolescent brain and intestinal microbiota, discuss recent research investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis during puberty, and propose that pre- and probiotics may prove useful in both the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders specifically benefitting the young adult. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Ted Blair; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Buchheit, Thomas Edward


    Shock testing was performed on a selected commercial-off-the-shelf - MicroElectroMechanical System (COTS-MEMS) accelerometer to determine the margin between the published absolute maximum rating for shock and the 'measured' level where failures are observed. The purpose of this testing is to provide baseline data for isolating failure mechanisms under shock and environmental loading in a representative device used or under consideration for use within systems and assemblies of the DOD/DOE weapons complex. The specific device chosen for this study was the AD22280 model of the ADXL78 MEMS Accelerometer manufactured by Analog Devices Inc. This study focuses only on the shock loading response of the device and provides the necessary data for adding influence of environmental exposure to the reliability of this class of devices. The published absolute maximum rating for acceleration in any axis was 4000 G for this device powered or unpowered. Results from this study showed first failures at 8000 G indicating a margin of error of two. Higher shock level testing indicated that an in-plane, but off-axis acceleration was more damaging than one in the sense direction.

  3. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian


    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical tool movement required to diamond turn an off-axis paraboloid on axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.


    High-quality, off-axis parabolic reflectors, required by the CTR and laser-fusion programs at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and other ERDA laboratories, are currently manufactured by hand. There are several drawbacks to this method, including lead times of up to a year, costs in excess of dollars 75,000 for a small reflector, and unsatisfactory limits to the tolerances obtainable. This situation has led to a search for cheaper and more accurate methods of manufacturing off-axis paraboloids. An alternative method, turning the workpiece about its axis on a diamond-turning machine, is presented, and the equations describing the necessary tool movement are derived. A discussion of a particular case suggests that the proposed technique is feasible

  5. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers. (United States)

    Trevino, S F


    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  6. The triple axis and SPINS spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevino, S.F.


    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments

  7. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga


    Full Text Available Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  8. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il


    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  9. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il


    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, ∼ 5 m Curved Guide, ∼ 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, ∼ 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world

  10. Flow and Convective Heat Transfer of Cylinder Misaligned from Aerodynamic Axis of Cyclone Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Leukhin


    Full Text Available The paper provides and analyzes results of experimental investigations on physical specific features of hydrodynamics and convective heat transfer of a cyclone flow with a group of round cylinders located symmetrically relative to its aerodynamic axis, calculative equations for average and local heat transfer factors at characteristic sections of cylinder surface.

  11. The podoplanin-CLEC-2 axis inhibits inflammation in sepsis. (United States)

    Rayes, Julie; Lax, Siân; Wichaiyo, Surasak; Watson, Stephanie K; Di, Ying; Lombard, Stephanie; Grygielska, Beata; Smith, Stuart W; Skordilis, Kassiani; Watson, Steve P


    Platelets play a critical role in vascular inflammation through the podoplanin and collagen/fibrin receptors, C-type-lectin-like-2 (CLEC-2) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI), respectively. Both receptors regulate endothelial permeability and prevent peri-vascular bleeding in inflammation. Here we show that platelet-specific deletion of CLEC-2 but not GPVI leads to enhanced systemic inflammation and accelerated organ injury in two mouse models of sepsis-intra-peritoneal lipopolysaccharide and cecal ligation and puncture. CLEC-2 deficiency is associated with reduced numbers of podoplanin-expressing macrophages despite increased cytokine and chemokine levels in the infected peritoneum. Pharmacological inhibition of the interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin regulates immune cell infiltration and the inflammatory reaction during sepsis, suggesting that activation of podoplanin underlies the anti-inflammatory action of platelet CLEC-2. We suggest podoplanin-CLEC-2 as a novel anti-inflammatory axis regulating immune cell recruitment and activation in sepsis.

  12. Confinement studies of helical-axis Heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, F.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kondo, K.


    The L-H transition in the helical-axis heliotron, Heliotron J, was investigated. For ECH-only, NBI-only and ECH+NBI combination heating plasmas, the confinement quality of the H-mode was examined with special regard to the magnetic configuration, the vacuum edge iota value of which was chosen as a label of the configuration. The experimental iota dependence of the H ISS95 -factor (τ E exp /τ E ISS95 ) has revealed that there exist the specific configurations for which the high-quality H-modes (1.3 ISS95 p , was calculated and compared with the experiment. Edge plasma characteristics are also measured and discussed with regard to the E r -shear formation at the transition. (author)

  13. Software tool for horizontal-axis wind turbine simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7, 5 CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    The main problem of a wind turbine generator design project is the design of the right blades capable of satisfying the specific energy requirement of an electric system with optimum performance. Once the blade has been designed for optimum operation at a particular rotor angular speed, it is necessary to determine the overall performance of the rotor under the range of wind speed that it will encounter. A software tool that simulates low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbines was developed for this purpose. With this program, the user can calculate the rotor power output for any combination of wind and rotor speeds, with definite blade shape and airfoil characteristics. The software also provides information about distribution of forces along the blade span, for different operational conditions. (author)

  14. beta-Catenin is essential for patterning the maternally specified animal-vegetal axis in the sea urchin embryo. (United States)

    Wikramanayake, A H; Huang, L; Klein, W H


    In sea urchin embryos, the animal-vegetal axis is specified during oogenesis. After fertilization, this axis is patterned to produce five distinct territories by the 60-cell stage. Territorial specification is thought to occur by a signal transduction cascade that is initiated by the large micromeres located at the vegetal pole. The molecular mechanisms that mediate the specification events along the animal-vegetal axis in sea urchin embryos are largely unknown. Nuclear beta-catenin is seen in vegetal cells of the early embryo, suggesting that this protein plays a role in specifying vegetal cell fates. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that beta-catenin is necessary for vegetal plate specification and is also sufficient for endoderm formation. In addition, we show that beta-catenin has pronounced effects on animal blastomeres and is critical for specification of aboral ectoderm and for ectoderm patterning, presumably via a noncell-autonomous mechanism. These results support a model in which a Wnt-like signal released by vegetal cells patterns the early embryo along the animal-vegetal axis. Our results also reveal similarities between the sea urchin animal-vegetal axis and the vertebrate dorsal-ventral axis, suggesting that these axes share a common evolutionary origin.

  15. Tachykinins and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: An update. (United States)

    Lasaga, Mercedes; Debeljuk, Luciano


    Tachykinins play a critical role in neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. The best known members of the family are substance P (SP), neurokinin A and neurokinin B. Tachykinins mediate their biological actions through three G protein-coupled receptors, named NK1, NK2, and NK3. SP was suggested to play an important role in the ovulatory process in mammals and humans. Recent findings suggest a role of tachykinins in the aging of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. A high presence of SP was found in the sheep pars tuberalis and evidence indicates that it may have some role in the control of prolactin secretion. The presence of SP was confirmed in Leydig cells of the rat testes of animals submitted to constant light or treated with estrogens. Tachykinins were found to increase the motility of human spermatozoa. Tachykinins were also found to be present in the mouse ovary and more specifically, in the granulose cells. It is possible that tachykinins may play an important role in the ovarian function. NKB has been implicated in the steroid feedback control of GnRH release. Human mutations in the gene encoding this peptide or its receptor (TACR3) lead to a defect in the control of GnRH. A specific subset of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, colocalized three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, NKB and dynorphin. This subpopulation of neurons mediates the gonadal hormone feedback control of GnRH secretion. NKB/NK3 signaling plays a role in puberty onset and fertility in humans. This minireview summarizes the recent data about the action of tachykinins on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of the bicipital groove axis for confirming alignment of the humerus with transepicondylar and ulnar shaft axes during intramedullary nailing. (United States)

    Meriç, Gökhan; Zeybek, Gülşah; Kıray, Amaç; Atik, Aziz; Budeyri, Aydın; Koşay, Can


    Intramedullary nailing is the preferred surgical treatment of humerus shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the bicipital groove and specific anatomical landmarks in achieving correct alignment of the humerus during intramedullary nailing, and to describe these anatomical landmarks. Thirty (15 right; 15 left) total upper cadaver extremities were used in this study. After the anatomical landmarks were identified and marked, humeral head axis, transepicondylar axis, ulnar shaft axis, bicipital groove axis, and angular measurements of these were obtained. The mean angle between the bicipital groove axis and transepicondylar axis was 48.17°±12.35º (range: 20.10º to 74.6º). The mean angle between the bicipital groove axis and ulna diaphysis axis was 41.82º±11.56 º (range: 17.91º to 68.27º). The mean angle between the humeral head axis and bicipital groove axis was 20.53°±3.90º (range: 11.85º to 31.81º). The mean retroversion angle between the humeral head axis and transepicondylar axis was 27.52±11.37º (range: 4.26º to 49.36º). The mean angle between the humeral head axis and ulna diaphysis axis was 61.73º±12.08º (range: 33.97º to 86.37º). The mean torsion angle was 62.58º±11.28 º (range: 40.74º to 85.74º). Measurement and utilization of the relationship between the bicipital groove, ulna diaphysis and transepicondylar axes may be used for restoring humeral rotation.

  17. Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and RF9 stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult male rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    Ullah, Rahim; Batool, Aalia; Wazir, Madiha; Naz, Rabia; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad; Fu, Junfen


    Stress activates gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and represses hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis) but RF9 administration relieves stress-induced repression of the HPG-axis. Importantly, it was not known whether GnIH signaling and RF9 synthetic peptide modulate the HPA axis. To assess this, mammalian orthologs of GnIH (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) and RF9 were administered to intact adult male rhesus monkeys. RFRP-1 (125μg/animal), RFRP-3 (250μg/animal) and RF9 (0.1mg/kg BW) were intravenously (iv) injected into normal fed (n=4) monkeys. Additionally, a single bolus iv injection of RF9 (0.1mg/kg BW) was also administered to 48h fasted monkeys (n=4) to check the effects of RF9 signaling on an activated HPA-axis. Serial blood samples were collected, centrifuged and the obtained plasma was used for the analysis of cortisol by specific enzyme immunoassay. RFRP-1 treatment significantly increased cortisol levels while RFRP-3 increased the plasma cortisol, but the effect was non-significant. RF9 treatment significantly increased cortisol levels in normal fed animals. In contrast, RF9 injection did not significantly alter circulating cortisol in fasted monkeys. In conclusion, our results suggest stimulatory action of RFRPs and RF9 on the HPA axis in the adult male monkeys. However, the mechanism and site of action of RFRP-1 and RF9 along the HPA-axis is still unknown. Therefore, further studies are needed to decipher the mechanism and site of action of RFRPs and RF9 on the HPA axis in primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Developmental Programming of Health and Disease (United States)

    Xiong, Fuxia; Zhang, Lubo


    Adverse environments during the fetal and neonatal development period may permanently program physiology and metabolism, and lead to increased risk of diseases in later life. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key mechanisms that contribute to altered metabolism and response to stress. Programming of the HPA axis often involves epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene promoter, which influences tissue-specific GR expression patterns and response to stimuli. This review summarizes the current state of research on the HPA axis and programming of health and disease in the adult, focusing on the epigenetic regulation of GR gene expression patterns in response to fetal and neonatal stress. Aberrant GR gene expression patterns in the developing brain may have a significant negative impact on protection of the immature brain against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the critical period of development during and immediately after birth. PMID:23200813

  19. RITA-type triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennow, H.M.


    The RITA spectrometer at Risoe National Laboratory was the first to incorporate a complete re-thinking of the neutron-path from source, through detector to analysis. Since then, other RITA-type spectrometers such as SPINS at NIST, RITA-II at PSI have been built, and several new spectrometers around the world are adapting the same philosophy. The main novelty of RITA was the introduction of a single back-end tank featuring both an analyser block with multiple individually turnable analyser blades and a 2D position sensitive detector. Several new triple-axis spectrometers are presently being built at existing and future sources, and almost all of them have learnt from the experience with RITA. (R.P.)

  20. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)


    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  1. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P.


    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  2. Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis). (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdoğan, S


    In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Organization of co-occurring Axis II features in borderline personality disorder. (United States)

    Critchfield, Kenneth L; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Kernberg, Otto F


    Considerable heterogeneity exists in the comorbid Axis II features that frequently accompany borderline personality disorder (BPD). These features have potential to be meaningfully organized, relate to specific BPD presentation, and have implications for treatment process and outcome. The present study explored patterns of Axis II comorbidity in order to identify subtypes of BPD. A well-defined sample of 90 patients diagnosed with BPD was recruited as part of an RCT study. Participants were administered the International Personality Disorder Examination (Loranger, 1999) to diagnose BPD and assess comorbid Axis II features. Other measures were also administered to assess aspects of current work and relationship functioning, symptomatology, and self-concept. Q-factoring was used to develop subtypes based on commonly occurring Axis II profiles, identifying three: Cluster A (elevated paranoid and schizotypal features), Cluster B (elevated narcissistic and histrionic features), and Cluster C (elevated avoidant and obsessive-compulsive features). An additional factor analysis revealed two dimensions underlying the comorbid features identifiable as: extraversion versus introversion and antagonism versus constraint. Validity of these two maps of comorbidity was explored in terms of the BPD criteria themselves, as well as on work and relationship functioning, identity diffusion, views of self and others, positive and negative affect, behavioural dyscontrol, and symptomatic distress. Clinically meaningful subtypes can be identified for BPD based on co-occurring Axis II features. Further research is needed to replicate and further establish base-rates of these subtypes as well as their differential implications for treatment.

  4. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Programming after Recurrent Hypoglycemia during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao


    Full Text Available Permanent brain injury is a complication of recurrent hypoglycemia during development. Recurrent hypoglycemia also has adverse consequences on the neuroendocrine system. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure, characterized by ineffective glucose counterregulation during hypoglycemia, is well described in children and adults on insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus. Whether recurrent hypoglycemia also has a programming effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA axis has not been well studied. Hypoglycemia is a potent stress that leads to increased glucocorticoid secretion in all age groups, including the perinatal period. Other conditions associated with exposure to excess glucocorticoid in the perinatal period have a programming effect on the HPA axis activity. Limited animal data suggest the possibility of similar programming effect after recurrent hypoglycemia in the postnatal period. The age at exposure to hypoglycemia likely determines the HPA axis response in adulthood. Recurrent hypoglycemia in the early postnatal period likely leads to a hyperresponsive HPA axis, whereas recurrent hypoglycemia in the late postnatal period lead to a hyporesponsive HPA axis in adulthood. The age-specific programming effects may determine the neuroendocrine response during hypoglycemia and other stressful events in individuals with history of recurrent hypoglycemia during development.

  5. Multi-level risk factors for suicidal ideation among at-risk adolescent females : The role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giletta, M.; Calhoun, C.D.; Hastings, P.D.; Rudolph, K.D.; Nock, M.K.; Prinstein, M.J.


    Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological,

  6. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir


    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine...

  7. Concept of a Programmable Fixture for 3-Axis CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dalloul


    Full Text Available CNC machine is the one of the major reasons for industrial advancement in recent decades for its ability of producing accurate parts. The most commen CNC machines are of 3-axis and adopted widely in the industrial sector. However, for producing more complicated parts 5-axis CNC machines are required. Although the introduction of the 5-axis machine came after the 3-axis CNC machine has established itself and many manufacturers did not make the move toward the newer model and its high pricing compared to the 3-axis model did not help either. In this time the development of a fixture or a platform to help transfer the 3-axis to a 5-axis to some degree. This paper discusses the concept of a programmable fixture that gives 3-axis CNC machine the freedom to act in similar manner as the 5-axis. The paper describes the mechanism with some initial results of the testing. Result showed that the platform moves in translation manner with an average error of 5.58 % and 7.303% average error for rotation movement.

  8. Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V. (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E


    Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as a starting point for a line of research establishing incremental predictive utility for a separate suicide risk assessment in the DSM framework. A standardized suicide risk assessment protocol, measures of depressive, anxious, and eating disordered symptomatology, as well as an index of comorbidity were administered to a sample of 412 adult outpatients. Our data indicate that data from standardized suicide risk assessments are associated with indices of symptomatology severity as well as comorbidity, controlling for GAF. These results support the nonredundancy of the assessments and suggest the utility of longitudinal investigations of the predictive utility of a sixth DSM axis in the assessment of suicide risk.

  9. Anteroposterior axis patterning by early canonical Wnt signaling during hemichordate development (United States)

    Darras, Sébastien; Fritzenwanker, Jens H.; Uhlinger, Kevin R.; Farrelly, Ellyn; Pani, Ariel M.; Hurley, Imogen A.; Norris, Rachael P.; Osovitz, Michelle; Terasaki, Mark; Wu, Mike; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Kirschner, Marc; Gerhart, John C.


    The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates. We further test the hypothesis by investigating the role of cWnt signaling during early patterning along the A/P axis of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. We have cloned and investigated the expression of the complete Wnt ligand and Frizzled receptor complement of S. kowalevskii during early development along with many secreted Wnt modifiers. Eleven of the 13 Wnt ligands are ectodermally expressed in overlapping domains, predominantly in the posterior, and Wnt antagonists are localized predominantly to the anterior ectoderm in a pattern reminiscent of their distribution in vertebrate embryos. Overexpression and knockdown experiments, in combination with embryological manipulations, establish the importance of cWnt signaling for repression of anterior fates and activation of mid-axial ectodermal fates during the early development of S. kowalevskii. However, surprisingly, terminal posterior fates, defined by posterior Hox genes, are unresponsive to manipulation of cWnt levels during the early establishment of the A/P axis at late blastula and early gastrula. We establish experimental support for a conserved role of Wnt signaling in the early specification of the A/P axis during deuterostome body plan diversification, and further build support for an ancestral role of this pathway in early evolution of the bilaterian A/P axis. We find strong support for a role of cWnt in

  10. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  11. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota. (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana


    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  12. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil


    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  13. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis. (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F


    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  14. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M.; Onishi, N.; Tajima, N. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T.


    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  15. Dead-end tract of the conduction axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosawa, H.; Becker, A. E.


    In the definitive heart the anterior continuation of the main conduction axis is considered to be the right bundle branch. In this study three hearts from neonates and infants were examined in which this situation did not pertain. The conduction axis continued beyond the point of origin of the right

  16. The Performance Characteristics of a Closed Loop, One Axis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a closed loop one axis solar tracking device of the polar axis type, which achieves an accurate tracking of the sun with a steady state error of less, than 2%. This prototype uses a photo-sensing system to generate an error signal. This error signal switches on a relay, which actuates an electromechanical ...

  17. Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without vertical axis of rotation (United States)

    Romero, Louis [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd [Albuquerque, NM; Aaronson, Gene [Albuquerque, NM


    The symmetry properties of a magnetic levitation arrangement are exploited to produce spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without aligning the rotational axis of the rotor with the direction of the force of gravity. The rotation of the rotor stabilizes perturbations directed parallel to the rotational axis.

  18. Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...

  19. A psychology of the human brain–gut–microbiome axis (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard


    Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508

  20. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M V; Kessing, L V


    This paper reviews studies of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity in patients with affective disorders. It is concluded that, despite methodological drawbacks in most studies, dysregulation of the HPA axis seems to be a consistent finding in a proportion of patients with affective...... disorder. The HPA axis is a complex neuroendocrine network with multiple integrated levels of control, and it is likely that the dysregulation involves abnormalities at several sites within the axis. At present, it is not clear whether the abnormalities are related to the affective episodes only...... or to the disorder itself. There is a need for prospective studies of larger samples of patients to be followed during successive affective episodes with a combination of measurements of the HPA-axis activity and brain imaging....

  1. Prevalence and comorbidity of Axis I and Axis II disorders among treatment refractory adolescents admitted for specialized psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.J.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.; Hutsebaut, J.


    Research shows that approximately half of the adolescents in a clinical setting suffer from a personality disorder (PD). This finding has not yet been replicated in Europe. To test whether this finding also applies to Europe, structured diagnostic interviews for both Axis I and Axis II disorders

  2. Correlation of RDC/TMD axis I diagnoses and axis II pain-related disability. A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.


    As part of an ongoing multicenter investigation involving four highly specialized tertiary clinics for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) treatment, retrospective analysis of Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) axis I and axis II data gathered on clinic and community cases were assessed

  3. On the validity of localized approximation for an on-axis zeroth-order Bessel beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouesbet, Gérard; Lock, J.A.; Ambrosio, L.A.; Wang, J.J.


    Localized approximation procedures are efficient ways to evaluate beam shape coefficients of laser beams, and are particularly useful when other methods are ineffective or inefficient. Several papers in the literature have reported the use of such procedures to evaluate the beam shape coefficients of Bessel beams. Examining the specific case of an on-axis zeroth-order Bessel beam, we demonstrate that localized approximation procedures are valid only for small axicon angles. - Highlights: • The localized approximation has been widely used to evaluate the Beam Shape Coefficients (BSCs) of Bessel beams. • The validity of this approximation is examined in the case of an on-axis zeroth-order Bessel beam. • It is demonstrated, in this specific example, that the localized approximation is efficient only for small enough axicon angles. • It is easily argued that this result must remain true for any kind of Bessel beams.

  4. Semi-analytic off-axis X-ray source model (United States)

    Shamshad, M.; Anjomrouz, M.; Smithies, D. J.; Largeau, A.; Lu, G.; Atharifard, A.; Vanden Broeke, L.; Aamir, R.; Panta, R. K.; Walsh, M. F.; Goulter, B. P.; Healy, J. L.; Bheesette, S.; Bell, S. T.; Bateman, C. J.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.


    Spectral computed tomography (CT) systems are employed with energy-resolving photon counting detectors. Incorporation of a spectrally accurate x-ray beam model in image reconstruction helps to improve material identification and quantification by these systems. Using an inaccurate x-ray model in spectral reconstruction can lead to severe image artifacts, one of the extreme cases of this is the well-known beam-hardening artifacts. An often overlooked spectral feature of x-ray beams in spectral reconstruction models is the angular dependence of the spectrum with reference to the central beam axis. To address these factors, we have developed a parameterized semi-analytical x-ray source model in the diagnostic imaging range (30-120 kVp) by applying regression techniques to data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc). This x-ray beam model is generalized to describe the off-axis spectral information within ±17o along θ (vertical direction), ±5o along phi (horizontal direction) of the central axis, and can be parameterized for specific x-ray tube models. Comparisons of our model with those generated by SpekCalc, TOPAS, and IPEM78 at central axis show good agreement (within 2 %). We have evaluated the model with experimental data collected with a small animal spectral scanner.

  5. Multi-Axis Thrust Measurements of the EO-1 Pulsed Plasma Thruster (United States)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Haag, Thomas W.


    Pulsed plasma thrusters are low thrust propulsive devices which have a high specific impulse at low power. A pulsed plasma thruster is currently scheduled to fly as an experiment on NASA's Earth Observing-1 satellite mission. The pulsed plasma thruster will be used to replace one of the reaction wheels. As part of the qualification testing of the thruster it is necessary to determine the nominal thrust as a function of charge energy. These data will be used to determine control algorithms. Testing was first completed on a breadboard pulsed plasma thruster to determine nominal or primary axis thrust and associated propellant mass consumption as a function of energy and then later to determine if any significant off-axis thrust component existed. On conclusion that there was a significant off-axis thrust component with the bread-board in the direction of the anode electrode, the test matrix was expanded on the flight hardware to include thrust measurements along all three orthogonal axes. Similar off-axis components were found with the flight unit.

  6. Mifepristone inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis by intervening in SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis. (United States)

    Zheng, Ning; Chen, Jiahang; Liu, Weiqun; Liu, Jian; Li, Tao; Chen, Hongning; Wang, Jichuang; Jia, Lee


    SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis determines the proliferative potential and site-specific cancer metastasis. Recent studies suggest involvement of the axis and steroidal hormone in ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we hypothesize that mifepristone (RU486), a well-known progesterone-based abortifacient, might interfere this axis and inhibit ovarian cancer metastasis. Mifepristone at concentrations SDF-1. SDF-1 significantly stimulated proliferation of SKOV-3 and IGROV-1 cells with concomitant increases in intracellular phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. SDF-1 activated cell chemotatic migration and actin polymerization, and up-regulated expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, VEGF without influencing the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and integrins β1, α1, α3, α5, and α6. The above-mentioned effects of SDF-1 could be antagonized by mifepristone concentration-dependently, and CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Mifepristone suppressed the SDF-1-induced migration, invasion and adhesion of the cancer cells to extracellular matrixes. Three-day pretreatment of nude mice with mifepristone (5 and 20 mg/kg/day) followed by a single intraperitoneal IGROV-1 inoculation, along with repeated SDF-1 and mifepristone administrations in turn every other day for 36 days significantly reduced ascitic fluid, metastatic foci, tumor weight and immunoreactivity of CXCR4 in comparison with the SDF-1-treated control. Our results suggest that mifepristone inhibit SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis, may have preventive and therapeutic effects on ovarian cancer metastasis.

  7. The vibration discomfort of standing people: evaluation of multi-axis vibration. (United States)

    Thuong, Olivier; Griffin, Michael J


    Few studies have investigated discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration and none has explored methods of predicting the discomfort of standing people from simultaneous fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical vibration of a floor. Using the method of magnitude estimation, 16 subjects estimated their discomfort caused by dual-axis and tri-axial motions (octave-bands centred on either 1 or 4 Hz with various magnitudes in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions) and the discomfort caused by single-axis motions. The method of predicting discomfort assumed in current standards (square-root of the sums of squares of the three components weighted according to their individual contributions to discomfort) provided reasonable predictions of the discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration. Improved predictions can be obtained for specific stimuli, but no single simple method will provide accurate predictions for all stimuli because the rate of growth of discomfort with increasing magnitude of vibration depends on the frequency and direction of vibration.

  8. Noggin and noggin-like genes control dorsoventral axis regeneration in planarians. (United States)

    Molina, M Dolores; Neto, Ana; Maeso, Ignacio; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Saló, Emili; Cebrià, Francesc


    Planarians regenerate a whole animal from a small body piece within a few days. Recent studies have shown that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is required to reestablish the dorsoventral (DV) axis. In vertebrates, the specification of the DV axis depends on the coordinated action of a dual organizer defined by BMP and antidorsalizing morphogenetic protein (ADMP) under the control of several factors, including the inhibitors chordin and noggin. Planarians have an expanded noggin family (up to ten members), which have been classified as canonical noggin (nog) and noggin-like (nlg) genes, the latter carrying an insertion within the noggin domain. Here we show that a BMP/ADMP organizer governs DV axis reestablishment during planarian regeneration, highlighting a greater-than-thought conservation of the mechanisms that establish this axis in protostomes and deuterostomes. Also, we report that whereas noggin genes function as canonical BMP inhibitors, the silencing of planarian nlg8 induces ectopic neurogenesis and enhances ventralizing bmp(RNAi) phenotypes. Finally, we show that noggin-like genes are conserved from cnidarian to vertebrates and that both planarian nlg8 and Xenopus nlg ventralize Xenopus embryos when overexpressed. Remarkably, this ventralization is not associated with an increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The design and manufacture of a low cost, six axis, industrial robot


    McMaster , Robert S


    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of producing a low cost, 6 axis, Industrial Robot. The formulation of a design specification based on market trends is shown, and used as a starting point for formal design analysis. A robot conceptual design based on two, series coupled, triangular link mechanisms was devised, following a detailed analysis of various kinematic mechanisms. The purpose of the mechanisms analysis was to find a lo...

  10. Vegetally localized Xenopus trim36 regulates cortical rotation and dorsal axis formation


    Cuykendall, Tawny N.; Houston, Douglas W.


    Specification of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus depends on rearrangements of the egg vegetal cortex following fertilization, concomitant with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. How these processes are tied together is not clear, but RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis are known to be essential. Despite their importance, few vegetally localized RNAs have been examined in detail. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel localized m...

  11. Celiac axis stenosis: incidence and etiologies in asymptomatic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun Beom; Shin, Sang June; Park, Jae Hyung


    To determine the incidence and etiologies of celiac axis stenosis in asymptomatic individuals. This prospective study involved 400 consecutive patients (male: 319, female: 81) referred to us for celiac arteriography between April and July 1999. When celiac axis branches were opacified by collateral circulation during superior mesenteric arteriography, the presence of celiac axis stenosis was suspected; lateral projection celiac arteriography was performed and the pressure gradient was measured. The indicators used to determine whether or not celiac axis stenosis was significant were luminal narrowing of more than 50% and a resultant pressure gradient of at least 10 mmHg. Its etiology was determined on the basis of angiographic appearances and CT findings. Twenty-nine patients (7.3%) had celiac axis stenosis. The etiology of the condition was extrinsic compression due to the median arcuate ligament in 16 patients (55%) and atherosclerosis in three (10%), while in ten (35%) it was not determined. The incidence of celiac axis stenosis did not vary significantly according to sex, age and the presence of calcified aortic plaque representing atherosclerosis. The incidence of hemodynamically significant celiac axis stenosis in this asymptomatic Korean population was 7.3% and the most important etiology was extrinsic compression by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Atherosclerosis was only a minor cause of the condition

  12. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (United States)

    Simão Ferreira, C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.


    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple streamtube model, a double-multiple streamtube model, the actuator cylinder model, a 2D potential flow panel model, a 3D unsteady lifting line model, and a 2D conformal mapping unsteady vortex model. The comparison covers rotor configurations with two NACA0015 blades, for several tip speed ratios, rotor solidity and fixed pitch angle, included heavily loaded rotors, in inviscid flow. The results show that the streamtube models are inaccurate, and that correct predictions of rotor power and rotor thrust are an effect of error cancellation which only occurs at specific configurations. The other four models, which explicitly model the wake as a system of vorticity, show mostly differences due to the instantaneous or time averaged formulation of the loading and flow, for which further research is needed.

  13. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans]. (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A


    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  14. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.


    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  15. Design characteristics to reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling during side stick handling of aircraft pitch and roll axis control (United States)

    Cote, Marie-Eve

    Integrating a manual flight control inceptor with coupled axes such as the side stick within a flight deck creates challenges for the pilot to input a one-axis command without inadvertently inducing inputs in the opposite axis. The present paper studies three design features of the side stick and armrest setup believed to help reduce inadvertent cross-axis coupling occurrences. Design features address the aimed pilot population anthropometry (1.57m woman to 1.9m male) and their variability in upper segment measurements. Seven pilots of varying anthropometric sizes were asked to perform one-axis manoeuvres in pitch and roll for each setup configuration. To compare the setups both the duration and the definite integral of the unintended cross-axis input were processed and analyzed for each manoeuvre. Findings show that a short armrest reduces the occurrences of cross-axis input for the roll manoeuvre, whereas the side stick skew reduces inadvertent cross-axis coupling for the pitch manoeuvres.

  16. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B


    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  17. Associated neutrino mixing and neutrino oscillations in left-right electro weak gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.


    The question of the associated neutrino mixing is investigated within the frame work of leftright symmetric gauge theory of electro weak interactions. It is shown that the weak leptonic neutral currents are independent of the mixing angle while the charged counterpart crucially depend on them. As the mass of right handed gauge boson becomes very large, the results reduce to those of the standard model, albeit the arbitrarily small mass for the neutrino. With the associated mixing of neutrinos, the muonness changing neutral weak currents are absent at the tree level. A condition for νsub(α)reversibleνsub(β) oscillation is derived as mind[νsub(α)]/mind[νsub(β)]>msub(α)/msub(β) where α, β stand for e, μ, tau in that order (αnot=β). With three neutrino mixing by SO(3) rotation, the present experimental data on neutrino oscillations are satisfactorily explained with the conclusion that νsub(e) oscilates mostly with νsub(tau) and vice-versa while νsub(μ) beam suffers very little oscillation. Consequently it is conjectured that most probably Lsub(e) and Lsub(tau) (lepton numbers) are not conversed while Lsub(μ) is nearly conserved in weak interaction. (orig.)

  18. Heterotaxy syndrome: This is the left, right? | Huang | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare and complex disorder of the chest and abdominal organ arrangements, and presents a diagnostic challenge to the radiologist. This article describes the morphological characteristics of heterotaxy and situs abnormalities, in particular left and right atrial isomerism, and suggests an approach in ...

  19. A Preliminary Measurement of the Left-Right Parity-Violating ep Asymmetry at E158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesiada, J.


    This thesis investigates the parity-violating ep asymmetry based on the Run I data produced in Spring of 2002 by the E158 experiment, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main scientific objective of the experiment is the precision measurement of the weak mixing angle of the Standard Model. The ep asymmetry is an important background in the experiment and theoretically interesting in its own right, providing insights into the structure of the proton. The analysis centers upon identifying systematic error and consistency. The definite measurement of the ep asymmetry will await the final reprocessing of the data set during the Fall of 2002.

  20. Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, Jamil


    The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R}. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model. We find that the trinification model predicts that several new scalar particles have masses in the O(100 GeV) range. Moreover, large regions of the parameter space lead to measurable deviations from Standard-Model predictions of the Higgs couplings. Hence the trinification model awaits crucial tests at the Large Hadron Collider in the coming years.

  1. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  2. Basic personal values and the meaning of left-right political orientations in 20 countries


    Piurko, Yuval; Schwartz, Shalom H; Davidov, Eldad


    This study used basic personal values to elucidate the motivational meanings of ‘left’ and ‘right’ political orientations in 20 representative national samples from the European Social Survey (2002-3). It also compared the importance of personal values and socio-demographic variables as determinants of political orientation. Hypotheses drew on the different histories, prevailing culture, and socio-economic level of 3 sets of countries—liberal, traditional and post-communist. As hy...

  3. Disgust sensitivity and the neurophysiology of left-right political orientations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Smith

    Full Text Available Disgust has been described as the most primitive and central of emotions. Thus, it is not surprising that it shapes behaviors in a variety of organisms and in a variety of contexts--including homo sapien politics. People who believe they would be bothered by a range of hypothetical disgusting situations display an increased likelihood of displaying right-of-center rather than left-of-center political orientations. Given its primal nature and essential value in avoiding pathogens disgust likely has an effect even without registering in conscious beliefs. In this article, we demonstrate that individuals with marked involuntary physiological responses to disgusting images, such as of a man eating a large mouthful of writhing worms, are more likely to self-identify as conservative and, especially, to oppose gay marriage than are individuals with more muted physiological responses to the same images. This relationship holds even when controlling for the degree to which respondents believe themselves to be disgust sensitive and suggests that people's physiological predispositions help to shape their political orientations.

  4. Tbx5 Buffers Inherent Left/Right Asymmetry Ensuring Symmetric Forelimb Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Sulaiman


    Full Text Available The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric. The mechanisms that ensure symmetric limb formation are unknown but they can be disrupted in disease. In Holt-Oram Syndrome (HOS, caused by mutations in TBX5, affected individuals have left-biased upper/forelimb defects. We demonstrate a role for the transcription factor Tbx5 in ensuring the symmetric formation of the left and right forelimb. In our mouse model, bilateral hypomorphic levels of Tbx5 produces asymmetric forelimb defects that are consistently more severe in the left limb than the right, phenocopying the left-biased limb defects seen in HOS patients. In Tbx hypomorphic mutants maintained on an INV mutant background, with situs inversus, the laterality of defects is reversed. Our data demonstrate an early, inherent asymmetry in the left and right limb-forming regions and that threshold levels of Tbx5 are required to overcome this asymmetry to ensure symmetric forelimb formation.

  5. Deficit in rewarding mechanisms and prefrontal left/right cortical effect in vulnerability for internet addiction. (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta


    The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability. Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli. Higher-IAT (more than 50 score, with moderate or severe internet addiction) and lower-IAT (internet addiction). Alpha band and RTs were affected by IAT, with significant bias (reduced RTs) for high-IAT in response to gambling videos and videogames; and by BAS, BAS-Reward subscale (BAS-R), since not only higher-IAT, but also BAS and BAS-R values determined an increasing of left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity (alpha reduction) in response to videogames and gambling stimuli for both Go and NoGo conditions, in addition to decreased RTs for these stimuli categories. The increased PFC responsiveness and the lateralisation (left PFC hemisphere) effect in NoGo condition was explained on the basis of a 'rewarding bias' towards more rewarding cues and a deficit in inhibitory control in higher-IAT and higher-BAS subjects. In contrast lower-IAT and lower-BAS predicted a decreased PFC response and increased RTs for NoGo (inhibitory mechanism). These results may support the significance of personality (BAS) and IAT measures for explaining future internet addiction behaviour based on this observed 'vulnerability'.

  6. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlák, M.; Bob, P.; Roman, R.; Ježek, S.; Damborská, A.; Chládek, Jan; Shaw, D. J.; Kukleta, M.


    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2013), s. 711-719 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electrodermal activity * pointwise trasinformation * autonomic nervous system * asymmetry * stress Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  7. Particle orbit analysis for LHD helical axis configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.


    Fast ion orbits for helical magnetic axis configurations in LHD (Large Helical Device) are analyzed and compared with the standard circular axis case. Boundaries between passing and helically trapped particle regions show clear differences: in the non-planar axis case the helically trapped region spreads, near the magnetic axis, over a much wider band across the 90deg pitch angle value and shows a very marked asymmetry. The locally trapped particle region is also wider than in the standard case. The differences in the loss cone boundaries of the two cases are rather small, however, the effects of re-entering criteria are very important in both cases. On the contrary, effects of finite coil size are not significant. (author)

  8. Off-axis vortex breakdown in a shallow whirlpool. (United States)

    Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N; López-Herrera, José María


    The off-axis emergence of vortex breakdown (VB) is revealed. The steady axisymmetric flow in a vertical sealed cylinder, which is partially filled with water and the rest is filled with air, is driven by the rotating bottom disk. The numerical simulations show that VB can emerge away from the rotation axis, interface, and walls. As the rotation intensifies, VB first develops in the water region. If the water height is less (larger) than nearly one half of the cylinder radius, VB emerges off (on) the axis. As the rotation further increases, the off-axis VB ring touches the interface and then a thin countercirculation layer develops in the air flow above the water VB domain. This two-fluid VB ring shrinks (it even disappears in a very shallow whirlpool) as the interface approaches the bottom disk.

  9. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  10. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki


    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  11. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.


    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  12. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  13. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  14. Design of a Three-Axis Machine Tool Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal


    This report documents the design improvement process of the components in a tool module for a three-axis machine tool, which occurred during the period of March-April 2002 in support of a critical U.S...

  15. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N. Joseph


    Full Text Available An organism’s reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  16. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility. (United States)

    Joseph, Dana N; Whirledge, Shannon


    An organism's reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  17. Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our...

  18. Three-Axis Gasless Sounding Rocket Payload Attitude Control (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas released by current sounding rocket payload attitude control systems (ACS) has the potential to interfere with some types of science instruments. A single-axis...

  19. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis. (United States)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C; Huizink, Anja C; Tulen, Joke H M; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Creemers, Hanneke E; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C


    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary diagnoses of clinical anxiety disorders (AD) from each other, and from a general population reference group (GP). The study sample consisted of 152 AD children (comparing separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia), aged 8- to 12-years, and 200 same-aged reference children. HPA-axis functioning was measured by a diurnal cortisol profile. ANS functioning was measured by continuous measures of skin conductance level in rest and during a mental arithmetic task and high frequency heart rate variability in rest. PA was assessed by a questionnaire. The AD sample showed lower high frequency heart rate variability during rest, heightened anticipatory PA, higher basal and reactive skin conductance levels and lower basal HPA-axis functioning compared to the GP sample. The existence of three or more clinical disorders, i.e. a high clinical 'load', was associated with lower basal HPA-axis functioning, higher skin conductance level and lower posttest PA. Specific phobia could be discerned from social phobia and separation anxiety disorder on higher skin conductance level. Our findings indicated that children with AD have specific psychophysiological characteristics, which resemble the psychophysiological characteristics of chronic stress. A high clinical 'load' is associated with an altered ANS and HPA-axis functioning. Overall, ANS and HPA-axis functioning relate to AD in general, accept for specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Early programming of the IGF-I axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Ingstrup, Helga Kristensen; Schack-Nielsen, Lene


    -I production. Conversely, studies suggest that later in childhood, those breastfed are taller and have higher IGF-I levels. Therefore, it has been suggested that the IGF-I axis may be programmed by diet during infancy. The association between IGF-I in infancy and later life is not known. OBJECTIVE: To examine......=-0.26, P=0.043, and n=109). CONCLUSION: The results support the hypothesis that the IGF-I axis can be programmed early in life....

  1. Optic axis-driven new horizons for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boardman Allan D.


    Full Text Available The broad assertion here is that the current hyperbolic metamaterial world is only partially served by investigations that incorporate only some limited version of anisotropy. Even modest deviations of the optic axis from the main propagation axis lead to new phase shifts, which not only compete with those created by absorption but end up dominating them. Some progress has been attempted in the literature by introducing the terms “asymmetric hyperbolic media”, but it appears that this kind of asymmetry only involves an optic axis at an angle to the interface of a uniaxial crystal. From a device point of view, many new prospects should appear and the outcomes of the investigations presented here yield a new general theory. It is emphasised that the orientation of the optic axis is a significant determinant in the resulting optical properties. Whereas for conventional anisotropic waveguides homogeneous propagating waves occur over a limited range of angular dispositions of the optic axis it is shown that for a hyperbolic guide a critical angular setting exists, above which the guided waves are always homogeneous. This has significant implications for metawaveguide designs. The resulting structures are more tolerant to optic axis misalignment.

  2. Comparison of astigmatic axis in the seated and supine positions. (United States)

    Smith, E M; Talamo, J H; Assil, K K; Petashnick, D E


    Refractive error is assessed in the seated position while keratorefractive procedures are performed in the supine position. Since position-induced ocular torsion could yield suboptimal results from improper axis alignment, this study was undertaken to ascertain whether ocular cyclotorsion occurs when a subject moves from a seated to supine position. Fifty eyes of 29 subjects with refractive cylinder greater than 0.50 diopters were enrolled. Refraction was done with a phoropter and the correction was placed in a trial frame using plus cylinder. Astigmatic axis was determined in the seated and supine positions for 32 eyes by utilizing the "rocking the cylinder" technique and for 32 eyes using the Jackson cross cylinder. Both techniques were used for 14 eyes. No statistically-significant difference for cylinder axis measured in the seated versus supine position was observed using the rocking the cylinder (4.3 degrees standard deviation [SD], 3.5 degrees, range 0 degrees to 13 degrees, p = NS) or the Jackson cross cylinder methods (2.3 degrees, SD, 1.9 degrees, range 0 degrees to 7 degrees, p = NS). Approximately 25% of eyes had a change in axis of 7 degrees to 16 degrees. These data suggest that the cylinder axis does not change significantly or predictably when most subjects move from the seated to supine position. The Jackson cross cylinder method seems more accurate and reproducible than the rocking the cylinder technique in determination of astigmatic axis under these circumstances.

  3. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.


    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  4. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu


    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  5. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  6. Development and Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Model for a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shires


    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vertical axis wind turbines which have several inherent attributes that offer some advantages for offshore operations, particularly their scalability and low over-turning moments with better accessibility to drivetrain components. This paper describes an aerodynamic performance model for vertical axis wind turbines specifically developed for the design of a novel offshore V-shaped rotor with multiple aerodynamic surfaces. The model is based on the Double-Multiple Streamtube method and includes a number of developments for alternative complex rotor shapes. The paper compares predicted results with measured field data for five different turbines with both curved and straight blades and rated powers in the range 100–500 kW. Based on these comparisons, the paper proposes modifications to the Gormont dynamic stall model that gives improved predictions of rotor power for the turbines considered.

  7. Improvements to optical performance in diffractive elements used for off-axis illumination (United States)

    Welch, Kevin; Fedor, Adam; Felder, Daniel; Childers, John; Emig, Tim


    As photolithographic tools are pressed to print the ever shrinking features required in today's devices, complex off-axis illumination is taking an ever increasing role in meeting this challenge. This, in turn, is driving tighter, more stringent requirements on the diffractive elements used in these illumination systems. Specifically, any imbalance in the poles of an off-axis illuminator will contribute to reductions in the ultimate imaging performance of a lithographic tool and increased complexity in tool-to-tool matching. The article will focus on improvements to the manufacturing process that achieve substantially better pole balance. The modeling of the possible process contributors will be discussed. Challenges resulting from the manufacturing methodology will be shared. Finally, the improvement in manufacturing process performance will be reported by means of a pole balance capability index.

  8. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn


    -related behaviors. Based on such findings our aim was to investigate the molecular differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampal granular cell layer of the rat dentate gyrus. Homogeneous isolation of this specific area was performed by laser-capture microdissection and Illumina microarray chips...

  9. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny


    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  10. The Microbiome-Gut-Behavior Axis: Crosstalk Between the Gut Microbiome and Oligodendrocytes Modulates Behavioral Responses. (United States)

    Ntranos, Achilles; Casaccia, Patrizia


    Environmental and dietary stimuli have always been implicated in brain development and behavioral responses. The gut, being the major portal of communication with the external environment, has recently been brought to the forefront of this interaction with the establishment of a gut-brain axis in health and disease. Moreover, recent breakthroughs in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice have demonstrated the significant impact of the microbiome in modulating behavioral responses in mice and have established a more specific microbiome-gut-behavior axis. One of the mechanisms by which this axis affects social behavior is by regulating myelination at the prefrontal cortex, an important site for complex cognitive behavior planning and decision-making. The prefrontal cortex exhibits late myelination of its axonal projections that could extend into the third decade of life in humans, which make it susceptible to external influences, such as microbial metabolites. Changes in the gut microbiome were shown to alter the composition of the microbial metabolome affecting highly permeable bioactive compounds, such as p-cresol, which could impair oligodendrocyte differentiation. Dysregulated myelination in the prefrontal cortex is then able to affect behavioral responses in mice, shifting them towards social isolation. The reduced social interactions could then limit microbial exchange, which could otherwise pose a threat to the survival of the existing microbial community in the host and, thus, provide an evolutionary advantage to the specific microbial community. In this review, we will analyze the microbiome-gut-behavior axis, describe the interactions between the gut microbiome and oligodendrocytes and highlight their role in the modulation of social behavior.

  11. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein access: Comparison between short axis and long axis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek F Tammam


    Full Text Available The use of real-time ultrasound (US is advantageous in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs in adults, especially in whom difficulties are anticipated for various reasons. The aim of the present study was to compare two different real-time 2-dimensional US-guided techniques [short axis view/out-of-plane approach (SAX OOP approach versus long axis view/in-plane approach (LAX IP approach] for internal jugular vein (IJV cannulation. In this prospective study, 90 critical care and hemodialysis patients were assigned for insertion of CVCs using either the real-time US-guided (SAX OOP approach or LAX IP approach or landmark technique (control group. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization, incidence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLA-BSI and demographics of each patient were recorded. There were no significant differences in patient′s demographic characteristics, side of cannulation (right or left or presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation between the three groups of patients. Cannulation of the IJV was achieved in all patients by using US (SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches and in 27 of the patients (90% by using the landmark technique (P = 0.045. Average access time (skin to vein and number of attempts were comparable between the SAX OOP and the LAX IP approaches while significantly reduced in both US groups of patients compared with the landmark group (P <0.001. In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 16.7% of the patients, hematoma in 23.3% of the patients, pneumothorax in 3.3% of the patients and CLA-BSI in 20% of the patients, which were all significantly increased compared with the US group (P <0.05. The findings of this study suggest that the SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches were comparable for cannulation of IJV in critical

  12. Postnatal development of the atlas and axis: CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Sung Su; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sung Tae


    To evaluate normal postnatal development of the atlas and axis by means of CT scanning. We prospectively analyzed CT scans of the developing atlas and axis of 200 normal children aged less than 14, investigating the CT appearance of these regions with particular attenuation to two synchondroses related to the atlas and four synchondroses and one ossification center related to the axis. Fusion varying was categorized as either low (grade1-5) or high (grade4-5), according to the varying degrees of fusion at each synchondrosis of ossification center. Neurocentral synchondrosis of the atlas was low grade in all children less than five, and high grade in all aged nine or more, while posterior synchondrosis of the atlas was low grade in 97% of children less than three and high grade in 99% aged three or more. As for the axis, neurocentral synchondrosis was low grade in all children less than three, and high grade in 97% of children aged five or more. PS of the axis was low grade in both children less than 6 months, and high grade in all aged two years or more. Dentocentral synchondrosis of the axis was low grade in 93% of children less than three and high grade in 96% of those aged at least five. Intradental axial synchondrosis was high grade in all children. Fusion of the terminal ossicle with the remainder of the dens was low in all children less than five and high in 97% of those aged nine of more. CT can help determine the parameters of normal postnatal development of the atlas and axis. A knowledge of normal ossification patterns of these regions may help provide an understanding of developmental anomalies and also help prevent confusion with fractures

  13. The anatomical tibial axis: reliable rotational orientation in knee replacement. (United States)

    Cobb, J P; Dixon, H; Dandachli, W; Iranpour, F


    The rotational alignment of the tibia is an unresolved issue in knee replacement. A poor functional outcome may be due to malrotation of the tibial component. Our aim was to find a reliable method for positioning the tibial component in knee replacement. CT scans of 19 knees were reconstructed in three dimensions and orientated vertically. An axial plane was identified 20 mm below the tibial spines. The centre of each tibial condyle was calculated from ten points taken round the condylar cortex. The tibial tubercle centre was also generated as the centre of the circle which best fitted eight points on the outside of the tubercle in an axial plane at the level of its most prominent point. The derived points were identified by three observers with errors of 0.6 mm to 1 mm. The medial and lateral tibial centres were constant features (radius 24 mm (SD 3), and 22 mm (SD 3), respectively). An anatomical axis was created perpendicular to the line joining these two points. The tubercle centre was found to be 20 mm (SD 7) lateral to the centre of the medial tibial condyle. Compared with this axis, an axis perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis was internally rotated by 6 degrees (SD 3). An axis based on the tibial tubercle and the tibial spines was also internally rotated by 5 degrees (sd 10). Alignment of the knee when based on this anatomical axis was more reliable than either the posterior surfaces or any axis involving the tubercle which was the least reliable landmark in the region.

  14. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.


    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  15. Clinical science workshop: targeting the gut-liver-brain axis. (United States)

    Patel, Vishal C; White, Helen; Støy, Sidsel; Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Shawcross, Debbie L


    A clinical science workshop was held at the ISHEN meeting in London on Friday 11th September 2014 with the aim of thrashing out how we might translate what we know about the central role of the gut-liver-brain axis into targets which we can use in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarises the integral role that inter-organ ammonia metabolism plays in the pathogenesis of HE with specific discussion of the roles that the small and large intestine, liver, brain, kidney and muscle assume in ammonia and glutamine metabolism. Most recently, the salivary and gut microbiome have been shown to underpin the pathophysiological changes which culminate in HE and patients with advanced cirrhosis present with enteric dysbiosis with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and translocation of bacteria and their products across a leaky gut epithelial barrier. Resident macrophages within the liver are able to sense bacterial degradation products initiating a pro-inflammatory response within the hepatic parenchyma and release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 into the systemic circulation. The endotoxemia and systemic inflammatory response that are generated predispose both to the development of infection as well as the manifestation of covert and overt HE. Co-morbidities such as diabetes and insulin resistance, which commonly accompany cirrhosis, may promote slow gut transit, promote bacterial overgrowth and increase glutaminase activity and may need to be acknowledged in HE risk stratification assessments and therapeutic regimens. Therapies are discussed which target ammonia production, utilisation or excretion at an individual organ level, or which reduce systemic inflammation and endotoxemia which are known to exacerbate the cerebral effects of ammonia in HE. The ideal therapeutic strategy would be to use an agent that can reduce hyperammonemia and reduce systemic inflammation or perhaps to adopt a combination of

  16. Evaluating the governance model of hardware-dependent software ecosystems - a case study of the axis ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wnuk, Krzysztof; Manikas, Konstantinos; Runeson, Per


    specifically, we evaluate the governance model applied by Axis, a network video and surveillance camera producer, that is the platform owner and orchestrator of the Application Development Partner (ADP) software ecosystem. We conduct an exploratory case study collecting data from observations and interviews...... opportunities for its actors. This can be explained by the fact that Axis, as the orchestrator and the platform owner, does not address the productivity and robustness of the ecosystem adequately, but has a network of vendors and resellers to support it and some of the governance activities (e.g. communication...

  17. Axis of eye rotation changes with head-pitch orientation during head impulses about earth-vertical. (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C; Clendaniel, Richard A; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S


    The goal of this study was to assess how the axis of head rotation, Listing's law, and eye position influence the axis of eye rotation during brief, rapid head rotations. We specifically asked how the axis of eye rotation during the initial angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) changed when the pitch orientation of the head relative to Earth-vertical was varied, but the initial position of the eye in the orbit and the orientation of Listing's plane with respect to the head were fixed. We measured three-dimensional eye and head rotation axes in eight normal humans using the search coil technique during head-and-trunk (whole-body) and head-on-trunk (head-only) "impulses" about an Earth-vertical axis. The head was initially oriented at one of five pitch angles (30 degrees nose down, 15 degrees nose down, 0 degrees, 15 degrees nose up, 30 degrees nose up). The fixation target was always aligned with the nasooccipital axis. Whole-body impulses were passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 80 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 1000 degrees /s2. Head-only impulses were also passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 150 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 3000 degrees /s2. During whole-body impulses, the axis of eye rotation tilted in the same direction, and by an amount proportional (0.51 +/- 0.09), to the starting pitch head orientation (P rotation could be predicted from vectorial summation of the gains (eye velocity/head velocity) obtained for rotations about the pure yaw and roll head axes. Thus, even when the orientation of Listing's plane and eye position in the orbit are fixed, the axis of eye rotation during the VOR reflects a compromise between the requirements of Listing's law and a perfectly compensatory VOR.

  18. Mechanical impedance of the sitting human body in single-axis compared to multi-axis whole-body vibration exposure. (United States)

    Holmlund, P; Lundström, R


    The study was aimed to investigate the mechanical impedance of the sitting human body and to compare data obtained in laboratory single-axis investigations with multi-axis data from in vehicle measurements. The experiments were performed in a laboratory for single-axis measurements. The multi-axis exposure was generated with an eight-seat minibus where the rear seats had been replaced with a rigid one. The subjects in the multi-axis experiment all participated in the single-axis experiments. There are quite a few investigations in the literature describing the human response to single-axis exposure. The response from the human body can be expected to be affected by multi-axis input in a different way than from a single-axis exposure. The present knowledge of the effect of multiple axis exposure is very limited. The measurements were performed using a specially designed force and accelerometer plate. This plate was placed between the subject and the hard seat. Outcome shows a clear difference between mechanical impedance for multi-axis exposure compared to single-axis. This is especially clear in the x-direction where the difference is very large. The conclusion is that it seems unlikely that single-axis mechanical impedance data can be directly transferred to a multi-axis environment. This is due to the force cross-talk between different directions.

  19. Craniospinal axis irradiation: an improved electron technique for irradiation of the spinal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Li; Vijayakumar, S.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Muller-Runkel, R.


    The authors review dosimetric features of craniospinal axis irradiation in the areas of matching cranial and spinal fields, with reference to normal structures within the spinal field. The implications of the use of photon or electron modalities for the spinal port were evaluated. A novel method of matching the cranial photon and the spinal electron fields involving a computer-aided junction design is presented, involving moving the photon beam in three steps to degrade its penumbra to match that of the electron field. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in a Rando phantom and computed tomography-based dose-volume histogram study for an illustrative paediatric case were used to compare dose to normal structures within the spinal field. Results show that the use of electrons for the spinal field leads to better sparing of deep seated normal structures. For bone marrow, the use of a customized bolus for the spinal field results in an improved dose distribution, making electrons potentially superior to photons for radiobiological reasons. (author)

  20. Diamond Machining of an Off-Axis Biconic Aspherical Mirror (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Preuss, Werner; Sohn, Alex; MacKenty, John


    Two diamond-machining methods have been developed as part of an effort to design and fabricate an off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal, concave aluminum mirror for an infrared spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Beyond this initial application, the methods can be expected to enable satisfaction of requirements for future instrument mirrors having increasingly complex (including asymmetrical), precise shapes that, heretofore, could not readily be fabricated by diamond machining or, in some cases, could not be fabricated at all. In the initial application, the mirror is prescribed, in terms of Cartesian coordinates x and y, by aperture dimensions of 94 by 76 mm, placements of -2 mm off axis in x and 227 mm off axis in y, an x radius of curvature of 377 mm, a y radius of curvature of 407 mm, an x conic constant of 0.078, and a y conic constant of 0.127. The aspect ratio of the mirror blank is about 6. One common, "diamond machining" process uses single-point diamond turning (SPDT). However, it is impossible to generate the required off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal shape by conventional SPDT because (1) rotational symmetry is an essential element of conventional SPDT and (2) the present off-axis biconic mirror shape lacks rotational symmetry. Following conventional practice, it would be necessary to make this mirror from a glass blank by computer-controlled polishing, which costs more than diamond machining and yields a mirror that is more difficult to mount to a metal bench. One of the two present diamond machining methods involves the use of an SPDT machine equipped with a fast tool servo (FTS). The SPDT machine is programmed to follow the rotationally symmetric asphere that best fits the desired off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal surface. The FTS is actuated in synchronism with the rotation of the SPDT machine to generate the difference between the desired surface and the best-fit rotationally symmetric asphere. In order to minimize the required stroke of the FTS

  1. Measurement Axis Searching Model for Terrestrial Laser Scans Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxing Hu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, terrestrial Lidar scans can cover rather a large area; the point densities are strongly varied because of the line-of-sight measurement principle in potential overlaps with scans taken from different viewpoints. Most of the traditional methods focus on registration algorithm and ignore searching model. Sometimes the traditional methods are directly used to align two point clouds; a large critically unsolved problem of the large biases will be created in areas distant from the overlaps while the local overlaps are often aligned well. So a novel measurement axis searching model (MASM has been proposed in this paper. The method includes four steps: (1 the principal axis fitting, (2 the measurement axis generation, (3 low-high-precision search, and (4 result generation. The principal axis gives an orientation to the point cloud; the search scope is limited by the measurement axis. The point cloud orientation can be adjusted gradually until the achievement of the global optimum using low- and high-precision search. We perform some experiments with simulated point clouds and real terrestrial laser scans. The results of simulated point clouds have shown the processing steps of our method, and the results of real terrestrial laser scans have shown the sensitivity of the approach with respect to the indoor and outdoor scenes.

  2. First experiences with an on-axis LDV-system in special application to open-channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, U.; Stein, U.; Pasche, E.


    Non-intrusive simultaneous measurement of the main and transverse velocity component in compound open-channel flow requires the application of two-component on-axis LDV technique. In this paper a modified TSI single color, two-frequency on-axis LDV equipment is described and several alternatives of signal processing are discussed. For a comparative investigation of signal quality power spectra of single Doppler bursts were determined in order to measure mean signal-to-noise ratios at the exit of the system specific signal separation devices. The major objective of these experiment was to examine the LDV-system's applicability to counter-type signal processing with respect to reliable measurement of turbulent quantities. Finally some preliminary experiments are described concerning the application of the on-axis LDV equipment to high and low turbulent open-channel flow

  3. Identification of hepatic niche harboring human acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Kato

    Full Text Available In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients, the bone marrow niche is widely known to be an important element of treatment response and relapse. Furthermore, a characteristic liver pathology observed in ALL patients implies that the hepatic microenvironment provides an extramedullary niche for leukemic cells. However, it remains unclear whether the liver actually provides a specific niche. The mechanism underlying this pathology is also poorly understood. Here, to answer these questions, we reconstituted the histopathology of leukemic liver by using patients-derived primary ALL cells into NOD/SCID/Yc (null mice. The liver pathology in this model was similar to that observed in the patients. By using this model, we clearly demonstrated that bile duct epithelial cells form a hepatic niche that supports infiltration and proliferation of ALL cells in the liver. Furthermore, we showed that functions of the niche are maintained by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, proposing a novel therapeutic approach targeting the extramedullary niche by inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the liver dissemination of leukemia is not due to nonselective infiltration, but rather systematic invasion and proliferation of leukemic cells in hepatic niche. Although the contribution of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is reported in some cancer cells or leukemic niches such as bone marrow, we demonstrated that this axis works even in the extramedullary niche of leukemic cells. Our findings form the basis for therapeutic approaches that target the extramedullary niche by inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  4. Dual axis operation of a micromachined rate gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, T. [BSAC, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pisano, A.P. [Univ. California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Smith, J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Since micromachining technology has raised the prospect of fabricating high performance sensors without the associated high cost and large size, many researchers have investigated micromachined rate gyroscopes. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes, but this paper presents work on a dual input axis micromachined rate gyroscope. The key to successful simultaneous dual axis operation is the quad symmetry of the circular oscillating rotor design. Untuned gyroscopes with mismatched modes yielded random walk as low as 10{degrees}/{radical}hour with cross sensitivity ranging from 6% to 16%. Mode frequency matching via electrostatic tuning allowed performance better than 2{degrees}/{radical}hour, but at the expense of excessive cross sensitivity.

  5. Spin axis offset calibration on THEMIS using mirror modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Frühauff


    Full Text Available A newly developed method for determining spin axis offsets of magnetic field instruments on spacecraft is applied to THEMIS. The formerly used determination method, relying on solar wind Alfvénic fluctuations, was rarely applicable due to the orbital restrictions of the mission. With the new procedure, based on magnetic field observation of mirror modes in the magnetosheath, updated spin axis offsets can be estimated approximately once per year. Retrospective calibration of all THEMIS magnetic field measurements is thereby made possible. Since, up to this point, spin axis offsets could hardly ever be calculated due to the mission's orbits, this update represents a substantial improvement to the data. The approximate offset stability is estimated to be < 0.75 nT year−1 for the complete course of the mission.

  6. Subquadratic medial-axis approximation in $\\mathbb{R}^3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer


    Full Text Available We present an algorithm that approximates the medial axis of a smooth manifold in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ which is given by a sufficiently dense point sample. The resulting, non-discrete approximation is shown to converge to the medial axis as the sampling density approaches infinity. While all previous algorithms guaranteeing convergence have a running time quadratic in the size $n$ of the point sample, we achieve a running time of at most $\\mathcal{O}(n\\log^3 n$. While there is no subquadratic upper bound on the output complexity of previous algorithms for non-discrete medial axis approximation, the output of our algorithm is guaranteed to be of linear size.

  7. Method of making a modular off-axis solar concentrator (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P.; Hall, John C.


    A method of making a solar concentrator may include forming a receiving wall having an elongated wall, a first side wall and a second side wall; attaching the first side wall and the second side wall to a reflecting wall to form a housing having an internal volume with an opening; forming a lip on the receiving wall and the reflecting wall; attaching a cover to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall at the lip to seal the opening into the internal volume, thereby creating a rigid structure; and mounting at least one receiver having at least one photovoltaic cell on the elongated wall to receive solar radiation entering the housing and reflected by the receiving wall, the receiver having an axis parallel with a surface normal of the photovoltaic cell, such that the axis is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the opening.

  8. Role of Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiru, E-mail:; Fisher, Gary J., E-mail: [Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. Despite advances in aggressive multidisciplinary treatments, the 5-year survival rate for this dreadful disease is only 50%, mostly due to high rate of recurrence and early involvement of regional lymph nodes and subsequent metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for invasion and metastasis is one of the most pressing goals in the field of head and neck cancer. Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) family. There is compelling evidence that Met axis is dysregulated and plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in head and neck cancer. We describe in this review current understanding of Met axis in head and neck cancer biology and development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting Met axis.

  9. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl


    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  10. Steroids, stress and the gut microbiome-brain axis. (United States)

    Tetel, M J; de Vries, G J; Melcangi, R C; Panzica, G; O'Mahony, S M


    It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota and, in turn, how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behaviour. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  11. Off-axis and inline electron holography: Experimental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Formanek, Petr; Koch, C.T.; Lubk, Axel


    Electron holography is a very powerful technique for mapping static electric and magnetic potentials down to atomic resolution. While electron holography is commonly considered synonymous with its off-axis variant in the high energy electron microscopy community, inline electron holography is widely applied in low-energy electron microscopy, where the realization of the off-axis setup is still an experimental challenge. This paper demonstrates that both inline and off-axis holography may be used to recover amplitude and phase shift of the very same object, in our example latex spheres of 90 and 200 nm in diameter, producing very similar results, provided the object does not charge under the electron beam.

  12. Hypercholesterolemia promotes bone marrow cell mobilization by perturbing the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis. (United States)

    Gomes, Ana L; Carvalho, Tânia; Serpa, Jacinta; Torre, Cheila; Dias, Sérgio


    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated peripheral blood leukocytes and increased platelet levels, generally attributed to cholesterol-induced proinflammatory cytokines. Bone marrow (BM) cell mobilization and platelet production is achieved by disrupting the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis, namely with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and/or CXCR4 antagonists. Here we show that high cholesterol disrupts the BM SDF-1:CXCR4 axis; promotes the mobilization of B cells, neutrophils, and progenitor cells (HPCs); and creates thrombocytosis. Hypercholesterolemia was achieved after a 30-day high-cholesterol feeding trial, resulting in elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and inversion of the LDL to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Hypercholesterolemic mice displayed lymphocytosis, increased neutrophils, HPCs, and thrombocytosis with a lineage-specific decrease in the BM. Histologic analysis revealed that megakaryocyte numbers remained unaltered but, in high-cholesterol mice, they formed large clusters in contact with BM vessels. In vitro, LDL induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) production, suggesting that megakaryocyte delocalization resulted from an altered SDF-1 gradient. LDL also stimulated B cells and HPC migration toward SDF-1, which was blocked by scavenger receptor class B type I (cholesterol receptor) inhibition. Accordingly, hypercholesterolemic mice had increased peripheral blood SDF-1 levels, increased platelets, CXCR4-positive B lymphocytes, neutrophils, and HPCs. High cholesterol interferes with the BM SDF-1:CXCR4 axis, resulting in lymphocytosis, thrombocytosis, and HPC mobilization.

  13. Do low-calorie drinks 'cheat' the enteral-brain axis? (United States)

    Ferreira, Adaliene V M; Generoso, Simone Vasconcelos; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio


    The consumption of low-calorie beverages has increased worldwide, mainly because of their combination of sweet taste without adding significant calories to the diet. However, some epidemiological studies have linked the higher consumption of low-calorie beverages with increased body weight gain. Although a matter of debate, this paradoxical association between low-calorie beverages and weight gain has been attributed to their effect on the enteral-brain axis. More specifically, artificial sweeteners present in low-calorie beverages could induce appetite increase, probably due to an ambiguous psychobiological signal (uncoupling sweet taste from calorie intake) that confounds the appetite's regulatory mechanisms, promoting overeating and, ultimately, leading to weight gain. However, many studies do not support this assumption, and the mechanisms underlying the interaction between low-calorie beverages and the enteral-brain axis remain to be defined. The understanding of the effects of low-calorie drinks on the enteral-brain axis still remains in its infancy and needs to be unveiled. The consumption of low-calorie beverages reduces the calories from that drink, but compensatory phenomena may increase energy intake, and if so must be recognized and avoided.

  14. Off-axis scatter measurement of the Mars reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Optical Navigation Camera (ONC) (United States)

    Stauder, John L.; Lowman, Andrew E.; Thiessen, Dave; Day, Darryl; Miles, D. O.


    The Optical Navigation Camera (ONC) is part of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) scheduled for an August 2005 launch. The design is a 500 mm focal length, F/8.3 Ritchey-Chretien with a refractive field corrector. Prior to flight, the off-axis performance of the ONC was measured at visible wavelengths in the off-axis scatter facility at the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). This unique facility is designed to minimize scatter from the test setup to prevent data corruption. Testing was conducted in a clean room environment, and the results indicate that no detectable contamination of the optics occurred during testing. Measurements were taken in two time frames to correct an unanticipated stray light path, which occurred just outside of the sensor's field-of-view. The source of the offending path was identified as scatter from the edges of the field corrector lenses. Specifically, scatter from the interface between the flat ground glass and polished surfaces resulted in significant "humps" in the off-axis response centered at +/- 1.5°. Retesting showed the removal of the humps, and an overall satisfactory performance of the ONC. The troubleshooting, correction, and lessons learned regarding the above stray light path was reported on in an earlier paper. This paper discusses the measurement process, results, and a comparison to a software prediction and other planetary sensors. The measurement validated the final stray light design and complemented the software analysis.

  15. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly (United States)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin


    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately.

  16. Vegetally localized Xenopus trim36 regulates cortical rotation and dorsal axis formation. (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Houston, Douglas W


    Specification of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus depends on rearrangements of the egg vegetal cortex following fertilization, concomitant with activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. How these processes are tied together is not clear, but RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis are known to be essential. Despite their importance, few vegetally localized RNAs have been examined in detail. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel localized mRNA, trim36, and characterize its function through maternal loss-of-function experiments. We find that trim36 is expressed in the germ plasm and encodes a ubiquitin ligase of the Tripartite motif-containing (Trim) family. Depletion of maternal trim36 using antisense oligonucleotides results in ventralized embryos and reduced organizer gene expression. We show that injection of wnt11 mRNA rescues this effect, suggesting that Trim36 functions upstream of Wnt/beta-catenin activation. We further find that vegetal microtubule polymerization and cortical rotation are disrupted in trim36-depleted embryos, in a manner dependent on Trim36 ubiquitin ligase activity. Additionally, these embryos can be rescued by tipping the eggs 90 degrees relative to the animal-vegetal axis. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Trim36 in controlling the stability of proteins regulating microtubule polymerization during cortical rotation, and subsequently axis formation.

  17. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin


    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately. (paper)

  18. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for syndromal and subsyndromal common DSM-IV axis I and all axis II disorders. (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Røysamb, Espen; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted


    The authors sought to clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for 22 DSM-IV disorders: 12 common axis I disorders and all 10 axis II disorders. The authors examined syndromal and subsyndromal axis I diagnoses and five categories reflecting number of endorsed criteria for axis II disorders in 2,111 personally interviewed young adult members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. Four correlated genetic factors were identified: axis I internalizing, axis II internalizing, axis I externalizing, and axis II externalizing. Factors 1 and 2 and factors 3 and 4 were moderately correlated, supporting the importance of the internalizing-externalizing distinction. Five disorders had substantial loadings on two factors: borderline personality disorder (factors 3 and 4), somatoform disorder (factors 1 and 2), paranoid and dependent personality disorders (factors 2 and 4), and eating disorders (factors 1 and 4). Three correlated environmental factors were identified: axis II disorders, axis I internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders versus anxiety disorders. Common axis I and II psychiatric disorders have a coherent underlying genetic structure that reflects two major dimensions: internalizing versus externalizing, and axis I versus axis II. The underlying structure of environmental influences is quite different. The organization of common psychiatric disorders into coherent groups results largely from genetic, not environmental, factors. These results should be interpreted in the context of unavoidable limitations of current statistical methods applied to this number of diagnostic categories.

  19. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhang, Qi [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Wang, Wei [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian 710024 (China); Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers.

  20. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu


    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers

  1. ATX-LPA receptor axis in inflammation and cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Shuying; Murph, Mandi; Panupinthu, Nattapon; Mills, Gordon B


    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 1- or 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) mediates a plethora of physiological and pathological activities via interactions with a series of high affinity G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Both LPA receptor family members and autotaxin (ATX/LysoPLD), the primary LPA-producing enzyme, are aberrantly expressed in many human breast cancers and several other cancer lineages. Using transgenic mice expressing either an LPA receptor or ATX, we recently demonstrated that the ATX-LPA receptor axis plays a causal role in breast tumorigenesis and cancer-related inflammation, further validating the ATX-LPA receptor axis as a rich therapeutic target in cancer.

  2. Nearly-off-axis transmissivity of Solc birefringent filters. (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Zhang, Juan; Liu, De'an; Luan, Zhu


    The characteristics of light propagating near the axis of a birefringent filter are studied. A generalized formulation to describe the nearly-off-axis transmissivity of a Solc birefringent filter is derived. On this basis, the polarization conoscopic figures of Solc filters with different numbers of birefringent plates are simulated. Furthermore the variation of spectral transmission with angle of incidence is analyzed, and the field-of-view transmissivity and the spectral transmissivity averaged with respect to the spread of incident light are given. Primary experiments for verification are also demonstrated.

  3. The properties of on-axis coupled structure RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Koike, H; Tanabe, E


    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI) has developed the compact IR FEL device, which adopts a combination of a newly designed RF gun with a thermionic cathode and an alpha-magnet as an injector. The accelerating mode of the S-band RF gun is a pi/2 standing wave mode. The coupling cell is located on the beam axis, the so-called on-axis coupled structure (OCS). The cavity shape was designed by using electromagnetic field analytical codes. The OCS RF gun was manufactured and the electromagnetic properties were measured. The results show good agreement with the simulations.

  4. Research on Parameter Design of Multi - axis Hydrostatic Transmission Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang


    Full Text Available In order to obtain reasonable parameters in the design of driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission vehicle, the working principle of single-side drive of hydrostatic transmission vehicle is introduced. The matching and control of engine and hydraulic pump are analyzed. According to the driving equation of vehicle, The driving force required for driving system is determined, and the parameters of hydraulic motor, hydraulic pump, system working pressure and braking system are designed and calculated, which provides the parameter design for driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission Reliable theoretical basis.

  5. Targeting the gut-liver axis in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn S; Havelund, Troels; Krag, Aleksander


    The gut-liver axis in cirrhosis and portal hypertension is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for progression of liver failure and development of complications such as spontaneous infections and hepatocellular carcinoma. Antibiotics and non-selective β......-blockers (NSBB) intercept this axis and each drug has proven efficacy in clinical trials. A synergistic effect is a hitherto unproven possibility. There is an increasing body of evidence supporting improved outcome with expanded use of NSBB and antibiotic therapy beyond current indications. This review addresses...

  6. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)


    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  7. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei


    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  8. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F


    Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On-axis microscopes for the inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofron, K. J., E-mail:; Cai, Y. Q.; Coburn, D. S.; Antonelli, S.; Suvorov, A. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Flores, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)


    A novel on-axis X-ray microscope with 3 µm resolution, 3x magnification, and a working distance of 600 mm for in-situ sample alignment and X-ray beam visualization for the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) beamline at NSLS-II is presented. The microscope uses reflective optics, which minimizes dispersion, and allows imaging from Ultraviolet (UV) to Infrared (IR) with specifically chosen objective components (coatings, etc.). Additionally, a portable high resolution X-ray microscope for KB mirror alignment and X-ray beam characterization was developed.

  10. On the Turbulent Mixing in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.


    The wake flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine is characterised by lower wind speed and higher turbulence than the free-stream conditions. When clustered in large wind farms, wind turbines regularly operate inside the wake of one or more upstream machines. This is a major cause of energy production

  11. An improved computer controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.; Hall, J.W.; Hutchings, M.T.


    A description is given of the computer-controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer installed at the PLUTO reactor at Harwell. The reasons for an nature of recent major improvements are discussed. Following a general description of the spectrometer, details are then given of the new computerised control system, including the functions of the various programs which are now available to the user. (author)

  12. Evidence of a liver-alpha cell axis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Færch, Kristine; Jensen, Troels M


    in plasma γ-glutamyltransferase levels. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This cross-sectional study supports the existence of a liver-alpha cell axis in humans: glucagon regulates plasma levels of amino acids, which in turn feedback to regulate the secretion of glucagon. With hepatic insulin resistance...

  13. The GH/IGF-1 axis in ageing and longevity (United States)

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Murrey, John W.


    Secretion of growth hormone (GH), and consequently that of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), declines over time until only low levels can be detected in individuals aged ≥60 years. This phenomenon, which is known as the ‘somatopause’, has led to recombinant human GH being widely promoted and abused as an antiageing drug, despite lack of evidence of efficacy. By contrast, several mutations that decrease the tone of the GH/IGF-1 axis are associated with extended longevity in mice. In humans, corresponding or similar mutations have been identified, but whether these mutations alter longevity has yet to be established. The powerful effect of reduced GH activity on lifespan extension in mice has generated the hypothesis that pharmaceutically inhibiting, rather than increasing, GH action might delay ageing. Moreover, mice as well as humans with reduced activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis are protected from cancer and diabetes mellitus, two major ageing-related morbidities. Here, we review data on mouse strains with alterations in the GH/IGF-1 axis and their effects on lifespan. The outcome of corresponding or similar mutations in humans is described, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying increased longevity and the therapeutic benefits and risks of medical disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis in humans. PMID:23591370

  14. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.


    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple

  15. On-axis conoscopic holography without a conjugate image. (United States)

    Mugnier, L M; Sirat, G Y


    We present a method for removing the conjugate image in an incoherent-light holographic technique, namely, on-axis conoscopic holography. The point-spread function that we obtain is that of a complex Gabor zone pattern, which thus should allow good-quality reconstructions of objects. Experimental results are also presented, which confirm the validity of this method.

  16. QRS Axis deviation in Nigeria women during normal pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pregnancy on the heart rate, respiratory rate, QRS axis and QRS complex duration of the ECG was investigated din 41 pregnant compared to 39 non pregnant age and height matched Nigeria subjects. Results obtained show that pregnancy had no significant effect (p>0.05) on heart rate, respiratory rate and ...

  17. The enteroinsular axis in dipeptidyl peptidase IV-negative rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederson, Raymond; Kieffer, T J; Pauly, R


    were used in the current investigation as a model for examining the enteroinsular axis under conditions in which normal inactivation of GIP and GLP-1(7-36) does not occur. This was assessed by comparing GIP and GLP-1(7-36) responses following oral glucose in normal versus DPIV-deficient Fischer rats...

  18. The apolipoprotein m-sphingosine-1-phosphate axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkensteijn, Bas W C; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N


    -receptor-1, affecting the function of endothelial cells, and apoM-deficient mice display impaired endothelial permeability in the lung. This review will focus on the putative biological roles of the new apoM-S1P axis in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, lipid disorders and atherosclerosis....

  19. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ear axis weight (EAW) is one of the important agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L.), related to yield. To understand its genetic basis, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from the cross Mo17 × Huangzao4, was used for quantitative trait locus mapping (QTL) for EAW under high and low nitrogen (N) regimes.

  20. Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD | Nigam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blade is very essential part of HAWT (horizontal axis wind turbine). Forces for Lift and drag on the blade has an important role in the wind turbine performance. The main purpose of this work is to perform CFD analysis of a blade and airfoil of wind turbine using k-ω SST model. In this present study NACA 634 -221 airfoil ...

  1. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.


    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multipl...

  2. Super earth explorer: a coronagraphic off-axis space telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.; Keller, C.U.


    The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of

  3. Analysis of off-axis tension test of wood specimens (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu


    This paper presents a stress analysis of the off-axis tension test of clear wood specimens based on orthotropic elasticity theory. The effects of Poisson's ratio and shear coupling coefficient on stress distribution are analyzed in detail. The analysis also provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of a 10° grain angle in wood specimens for the...

  4. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Bonaz, Bruno


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synucleinopathy that affects all levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Recently, it has been recognized that the brain-gut axis interactions are significantly modulated by the gut microbiota via immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms. Dysregulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in PD may be associated with gastrointestinal manifestations frequently preceding motor symptoms, as well as with the pathogenesis of PD itself, supporting the hypothesis that the pathological process is spread from the gut to the brain. Excessive stimulation of the innate immune system resulting from gut dysbiosis and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability may induce systemic inflammation, while activation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells may contribute to the initiation of alpha-synuclein misfolding. Additionally, the adaptive immune system may be disturbed by bacterial proteins cross-reacting with human antigens. A better understanding of the brain-gut-microbiota axis interactions should bring a new insight in the pathophysiology of PD and permit an earlier diagnosis with a focus on peripheral biomarkers within the enteric nervous system. Novel therapeutic options aimed at modifying the gut microbiota composition and enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in PD patients could influence the initial step of the following cascade of neurodegeneration in PD.

  5. Microbiota-Brain-Gut Axis and Neurodegenerative Diseases. (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M


    The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges. Animal and translational models have incriminated a disturbed gut microbiota in a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson's disease; data from human studies is scanty. While a theoretical basis can be developed for the use of microbiota-directed therapies in neurodegenerative disorders, support is yet to come from high-quality clinical trials. In theory, a role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis is highly plausible; clinical confirmation is awaited.

  6. Microbiota regulation of the Mammalian gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Moloney, Rachel D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F


    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections. Together, it is clear that the gut microbiota can be a key regulator of mood, cognition, pain, and obesity. Understanding microbiota-brain interactions is an exciting area of research which may contribute new insights into individual variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and how they contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism and schizophrenia. Finally, the concept of psychobiotics, bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is also emerging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Minimal Model of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Andersen, Morten; Ottesen, Johnny T.


    from an unstable fixed point with complex eigenvalues with a positive real parts and a non-zero imaginary parts. The first part of the paper describes the general considerations to be obeyed for a mathematical model of the HPA axis. In this paper we only include the most widely accepted mechanisms...

  8. Phytochemicals for taming agitated immune-endocrine-neural axis. (United States)

    Patel, Seema


    Homeostasis of immune-endocrine-neural axis is paramount for human health. If this axis gets agitated due to age, genetic variations, environmental exposures or lifestyle assaults, a cascade of adverse reactions occurs in human body. Cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters, the effector molecules of this axis behave erratically, leading to a gamut of neural, endocrine, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. Current panel of drugs can tackle some of them but not in a sustainable, benign way as a myriad of side effects, causal of them have been documented. In this context, phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants seem beneficial. These bioactive constituents encompassing polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, lignans, stilbenoids (resveratrol), saponins, polysaccharides, glycosides, and lectins etc. have been proven to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, dermatoprotective, and antimicrobial properties, among a litany of other biological effects. This review presents a holistic perspective of common afflictions resultant of immune-endocrine-neural axis disruption, and the phytochemicals capable of restoring their normalcy and mitigating the ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.


    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine...

  10. Stress responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: age-related features of the vasopressinergic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Dmitrievna Goncharova


    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis plays a key role in adaptation to environmental stresses. Parvicellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus secrete corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP into pituitary portal system; CRH and AVP stimulate ACTH release through specific G protein-coupled membrane receptors on pituitary corticotrophs, CRH1 for CRH and V1b for AVP; the adrenal gland cortex secretes glucocorticoids in response ACTH. The glucocorticoids activate specific receptors in brain and peripheral tissues thereby triggering the necessary metabolic, immune, neuromodulatory and behavioral changes to resist stress. While importance of CRH, as a key hypothalamic factor of HPA axis regulation in basal and stress conditions in most species, is generally recognized, role of AVP remains to be clarified. This review focuses on the role of AVP in the regulation of stress responsiveness of the HPA axis with emphasis on the effects of aging on vasopressinergic regulation of HPA axis stress responsiveness. Under most of the known stressors, AVP is necessary for acute ACTH secretion but in a context-specific manner. The current data on the AVP role in regulation of HPA responsiveness to chronic stress in adulthood are rather contradictory. The importance of the vasopressinergic regulation of the HPA stress responsiveness is greatest during fetal development, in neonatal period, and in the lactating adult. Aging associated with increased variability in several parameters of HPA function including basal state, responsiveness to stressors, and special testing. Reports on the possible role of the AVP/V1b receptor system in the increase of HPA axis hyperactivity with aging are contradictory and requires further research. Many contradictory results may be due to age and species differences in the HPA function of rodents and primates.

  11. Disruptive physiology: olfaction and the microbiome-gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang A; Forsythe, Paul


    This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems. The classical olfactory system is evolutionarily conserved in multiple taxa from insects through to fish, reptiles and mammals, and is represented by the largest gene families in vertebrates. Mice have over 1000 different olfactory receptors and humans about 400. They are distributed throughout the body and are even found in spermatozoa where they function in chemotaxis. Each olfactory receptor has the unique functional capability of high-affinity binding to several different molecular ligands. These and other properties render the cataloguing of odorants (odorome) with specific actions a difficult task. Some ectopic olfactory receptors have been shown to have functional effects in the gut and kidney, highlighting the complexity of the systems engaged by odorants. However, there are, in addition to classical olfactory receptors, at least two other families of receptors involved in olfaction that are also widely found expressed on tissues in many different organs in addition to the nervous system and brain: the trace-amine associated and formyl peptide receptors. Bacteria can make many if not most odorants and are responsible for recognition of species and relative relatedness, as well as predator presence, among many other examples. Activation of different combinations of olfactory receptors

  12. GRB 170817A: a short GRB seen off-axis (United States)

    He, Xin-Bo; Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas; Shen, Rong-Feng


    The angular distribution of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets is not yet clear. The observed luminosity of GRB 170817A is the lowest among all known short GRBs, which is best explained by the fact that our line of sight is outside of the jet opening angle, θ obs > θ j , where θ obs is the angle between our line of sight and the jet axis. As inferred by gravitational wave observations, as well as radio and X-ray afterglow modeling of GRB 170817A, it is likely that θ obs ∼ 20° – 28°. In this work, we quantitatively consider two scenarios of angular energy distribution of GRB ejecta: a top-hat jet and a structured jet with a power law index s. For the top-hat jet model, we get a large θ j (e.g., θ j > 10°), a rather high local (i.e., z 7.5 × 104, keV (∼500, keV for a typical short GRB). For the structured jet model, we use θ obs to give limits on s and θj for typical on-axis luminosity of a short GRB (e.g., 1049 erg s‑1 ∼ 1051 erg s‑1), and a low on-axis luminosity case (e.g., 1049 erg s‑1) gives more reasonable values of s. The structured jet model is more feasible for GRB 170817A than the top-hat jet model due to the rather high local short GRB rate, and the extremely high on-axis E peak,0 almost rules out the top-hat jet model. GRB 170817A is likely a low on-axis luminosity GRB (1049 erg s‑1) with a structured jet.

  13. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis. (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F


    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Computational Model of the Rainbow Trout Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary-Liver Axis. (United States)

    Gillies, Kendall; Krone, Stephen M; Nagler, James J; Schultz, Irvin R


    Reproduction in fishes and other vertebrates represents the timely coordination of many endocrine factors that culminate in the production of mature, viable gametes. In recent years there has been rapid growth in understanding fish reproductive biology, which has been motivated in part by recognition of the potential effects that climate change, habitat destruction and contaminant exposure can have on natural and cultured fish populations. New approaches to understanding the impacts of these stressors are being developed that require a systems biology approach with more biologically accurate and detailed mathematical models. We have developed a multi-scale mathematical model of the female rainbow trout hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-liver axis to use as a tool to help understand the functioning of the system and for extrapolation of laboratory findings of stressor impacts on specific components of the axis. The model describes the essential endocrine components of the female rainbow trout reproductive axis. The model also describes the stage specific growth of maturing oocytes within the ovary and permits the presence of sub-populations of oocytes at different stages of development. Model formulation and parametrization was largely based on previously published in vivo and in vitro data in rainbow trout and new data on the synthesis of gonadotropins in the pituitary. Model predictions were validated against several previously published data sets for annual changes in gonadotropins and estradiol in rainbow trout. Estimates of select model parameters can be obtained from in vitro assays using either quantitative (direct estimation of rate constants) or qualitative (relative change from control values) approaches. This is an important aspect of mathematical models as in vitro, cell-based assays are expected to provide the bulk of experimental data for future risk assessments and will require quantitative physiological models to extrapolate across biological scales.

  15. Extraction of left-ventricular torsion angle from the long-axis view by block-matching algorithm: Comparison with the short-axis view. (United States)

    Arab-Baferani, Zahra; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Roshanali, Farideh


    Due to limitations in measuring the torsion angle in the short-axis view when studying through-plane motion and so it is dependent on reference levels, in this study, we follow myocardial movement along the long-axis of the left ventricle (LV). Then, LV torsion is estimated in the long-axis view and compared with LV torsion in the short-axis view. Two dimensional echocardiographic images of healthy persons were recorded in cine loop format position throughout four cardiac cycles at basal and apical levels in the long- and short-axis views. The motion vectors for reign of interest in the horizontal and vertical directions were obtained by block matching algorithm. Correlation between the values of automated analysis and manual tracing was performed by Pearson correlation analysis. Then, the maximum rotation angles of the short- and long-axis views at basal and apical levels were assessed. Left-ventricular torsion angles in short-axis and long-axis views were calculated and compared based on rotation angles. There was a high correlation between the measured myocardial wall displacement of automated analysis (BM algorithm) and manual tracing (R=0.96, p<0.05). The maximum rotation angles of basal and apical levels in the short-axis view are 7.96±1.57° and 9.49±1.72° and so in the long-axis view are 18.51±3.41° and 14.74±2.91°, respectively. The LV torsion angles and the time to reach peak LV torsion angles in the short-axis views are 17.26±2.53°, 293±26ms and in the long-axis view are 32.26±5.60° and 290±22ms respectively. There was a high correlation between the left-ventricular torsion angle in the short-axis view and the long-axis view (R=0.92, p<0.05). There was also a high correlation between the time to reach peak left-ventricular torsion angle in the short-axis view as compared to the long-axis view (R=0.97, p<0.05). This study suggested that the LVtorsion angles in the short- and long-axis views were significantly correlated. It is concluded that

  16. In vitro characterization and inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis in human uveal melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antecka Emilia


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis may play a critical role in guiding CXCR4+ circulating malignant cells to organ specific locations that actively secrete its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1 such as bone, brain, liver, and lungs. We sought to characterize the presence of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in five uveal melanoma (UM cell lines in vitro. The ability of TN14003, a synthetic peptide inhibitor that targets the CXCR4 receptor complex, to inhibit this axis was also assessed. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed against CXCR4 to confirm expression of this chemokine receptor in all five UM cell lines. Flow cytometry was preformed to evaluate CXCR4 cell surface expression on all five UM cell lines. A proliferation assay was also used to test effects TN14003 would have on cellular proliferation. Inhibition of cellular migration by specifically inhibiting the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis with TN14003 was also investigated. The binding efficacy of TN14003 to the CXCR4 receptor was assessed through flow cytometric methods. Results The CXCR4 receptor was present on all five UM cell lines. All five cell lines expressed different relative levels of surface CXCR4. TN14003 did not affect the proliferation of the five cell lines (p > 0.05. All cell lines migrated towards the chemokine CXCL12 at a level greater than the negative control (p Conclusion Interfering with the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, using TN14003 was shown to effectively down regulate UM cell migration in vitro. Knowing that UM expresses the CXCR4 receptor, these CXCR4+ cells may be less likely to colonize distant organs that secrete the CXCL12 ligand, if treated with an inhibitor that binds CXCR4. Further studies should be pursued in order to test TN14003 efficacy in vivo.

  17. Maternal co-ordinate gene regulation and axis polarity in the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. (United States)

    Wotton, Karl R; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Jaeger, Johannes


    Axis specification and segment determination in dipteran insects are an excellent model system for comparative analyses of gene network evolution. Antero-posterior polarity of the embryo is established through systems of maternal morphogen gradients. In Drosophila melanogaster, the anterior system acts through opposing gradients of Bicoid (Bcd) and Caudal (Cad), while the posterior system involves Nanos (Nos) and Hunchback (Hb) protein. These systems act redundantly. Both Bcd and Hb need to be eliminated to cause a complete loss of polarity resulting in mirror-duplicated abdomens, so-called bicaudal phenotypes. In contrast, knock-down of bcd alone is sufficient to induce double abdomens in non-drosophilid cyclorrhaphan dipterans such as the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus or the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. We investigate conserved and divergent aspects of axis specification in the cyclorrhaphan lineage through a detailed study of the establishment and regulatory effect of maternal gradients in M. abdita. Our results show that the function of the anterior maternal system is highly conserved in this species, despite the loss of maternal cad expression. In contrast, hb does not activate gap genes in this species. The absence of this activatory role provides a precise genetic explanation for the loss of polarity upon bcd knock-down in M. abdita, and suggests a general scenario in which the posterior maternal system is increasingly replaced by the anterior one during the evolution of the cyclorrhaphan dipteran lineage.

  18. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  19. The on axis coupled structure type RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Tanabe, E


    The fundamental design of this newly developed RF gun with a thermionic cathode is the pi/2 mode standing wave structure. It has two accelerating cells and a coupling cell located on the beam axis, a so-called on axis coupled structure (OCS). This structure offers a stable operation for high beam current, owing to high group velocity and wide bandwidth. It is important to reduce damage onto the cathode caused by back bombardment, especially for long macropulse operation, such as in an FEL injector. Back bombardment, as well as output beam profile was simulated by using the electromagnetic field analytical codes 'EMSYS'(2D) and 'MAFIA'(3D). The cavity shape was optimized to reduce back bombardment power without sacrificing beam emittance.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.; Sajaev, V.


    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is being proposed for a future Advanced Photon Source (APS) multi-bend-achromat (MBA) upgrade project. This lattice design pushes for smaller emittance and requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme due to limited dynamic acceptance. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed for the APS upgrade to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow off-axis accumulation. Two such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which target a still-low emittance of 90 pm, are discussed in detail in this paper. Although the single-particle-dynamics performance is good, simulations of collective effects indicate that surprising difficulty would be expected accumulating high single-bunch charge in this lattice. The brightness of the 90-pm lattice is also a factor of two lower than the 67-pm H7BA lattice.

  1. Three-axis neutron spectrometer on the IWW-2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskij, V.I.; Goshchitskij, B.N.; Mirmel'shtejn, A.V.; Mikha lov, Yu.N.; Ponosov, Yu.S.


    A three-axis neutron spectrometer providing for the possibility to change smoothly the neutron scattering angle in the course of measurement was manufactured for studying the dynamics (frequencies and life time of phonons) of a crystalline lattice. This permits to use methods of constant energy and momentum transfer at fixed incident wave length in the scattering angle range of up to 100 deg. Major attention was given to such a substantial characteristic of the three-axis spectrometer as the spectrometer resolution function, which was determined experimentally and theoretically. A knowledge of that function permitted to make a sufficiently exact account of focusing effects when measuring neutron resonance, and to determine the instrumental widths of the resonances observed. A crystal incorporating a helium and nitrogen vessel was made for measurements in the 300-20 K range. A system of protective copper shields surrounding the helium vessel and a sample permits to operate without refilling helium for about 30 hr

  2. Application of one-axis sun tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefa, Ibrahim; Demirtas, Mehmet; Colak, Ilhami


    This paper introduces design and application of a novel one-axis sun tracking system which follows the position of the sun and allows investigating effects of one-axis tracking system on the solar energy in Turkey. The tracking system includes a serial communication interface based on RS 485 to monitor whole processes on a computer screen and to plot data as graphic. In addition, system parameters such as the current, the voltage and the panel position have been observed by means of a microcontroller. The energy collected is measured and compared with a fixed solar system for the same solar panel. The results show that the solar energy collected on the tracking system is considerably much efficient than the fixed system. The tracking system developed in this study provides easy installation, simple mechanism and less maintenance.

  3. Effects of structure flexibility on horizontal axis wind turbine performances (United States)

    Coiro, D. P.; Daniele, E.; Scherillo, F.


    This work illustrates the effects of flexibility of rotor blades and turbine tower on the performances of an horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) designed by our ADAG research group, by means of several example applied on a recent project for a active pitch controlled upwind 60 kW HAWT. The influence of structural flexibility for blade only, tower only and blade coupled with tower configuration is investigated using an aero-elastic computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for horizontal axis wind turbines named FAST developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of USA. For unsteady inflow conditions in front of the isolated HAWT the performances in rigid and flexible operation mode are computed and compared in order to illustrate the limitation included within a classical rigid body approach to wind turbine simulation.

  4. Spin squeezing in a generalized one-axis twisting model (United States)

    Jin, Guang-Ri; Liu, Yong-Chun; Liu, Wu-Ming


    We investigate the dependence of spin squeezing on the polar angle of the initial coherent spin state |θ0, phi0rang in a generalized one-axis twisting model, where the detuning δ is taken into account. We show explicitly that regardless of δ and phi0, previous results of the ideal one-axis twisting are recovered as long as θ0=π/2. For a small departure of θ0 from π/2, however, the achievable variance (V -)min ~N2/3, which is larger than the ideal case N1/3. We also find that the maximal squeezing time tmin scales as N-5/6. Analytic expressions of (V-)min and tmin are presented and they agree with numerical simulations.

  5. Development of a Single-Axis Edge Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.


    A SIP (Societe Genevoise d'Instruments de Physique) Trioptic coordinate measuring machine was modified for calibration of high quality single-axis glass standards to an uncertainty of {+-}0.000020 inch. The modification was accomplished through the addition of a frame grabber board, vision software, a high-resolution camera, stepper motors, a two-axis motor controller, and an HP-IB interface card. An existing temperature system (hygrometer, barometer, laser interferometer system, and optics) was retained as part of the system. An existing Hewlett Packard computer was replaced with a personal computer to accommodate the frame grabber board. Each component was integrated into the existing system using Visual Basic. The system was automated for unattended measurements by creating a machine programming language, which is recognized within the main program.

  6. Efficiency of the DOMUS 750 vertical-axis wind turbine (United States)

    Hallock, Kyle; Rasch, Tyler; Ju, Guoqiang; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando


    The aim of this paper is to present some preliminary results on the efficiency of a wind turbine for an off-grid housing unit. To generate power, the unit uses a photovoltaic solar array and a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The existing VAWT was analysed to improve efficiency and increase power generation. There were found to be two main sources of inefficiency: 1. the 750W DC epicyclic generator performed poorly in low winds, and 2. the turbine blades wobbled, allowing for energy loss due to off-axis rotation. A 12V DC permanent magnet alternator was chosen that met the power requirements of the housing unit and would generate power at lower wind speeds. A support bracket was designed to prevent the turbine blades from wobbling.

  7. From Bench to Bedside: Translating the Prolactin/Vasoinhibin Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Triebel


    Full Text Available The prolactin/vasoinhibin axis defines an endocrine system, in which prolactin (PRL and vasoinhibins regulate blood vessel growth and function, the secretion of other hormones, inflammatory and immune processes, coagulation, and behavior. The core element of the PRL/vasoinhibin axis is the generation of vasoinhibins, which consists in the proteolytic cleavage of their precursor molecule PRL. Vasoinhibins can interact with multiple different partners to mediate their effects in various tissues and anatomical compartments, indicating their pleiotropic nature. Based on accumulating knowledge about the PRL/vasoinhibin axis, two clinical trials were initiated, in which vasoinhibin levels are the target of therapeutic interventions. One trial investigates the effect of levosulpiride, a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, on retinal alterations in patients with diabetic macular edema and retinopathy. The rationale of this trial is that the levosulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia resulting in increased retinal vasoinhibins could lead to beneficiary outcomes in terms of a vasoinhibin-mediated antagonization of diabetes-induced retinal alterations. Another trial investigated the effect of bromocriptine, a dopamine D2-receptor agonist, for the treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The rationale of treatment with bromocriptine is the inhibition of vasoinhibin generation by substrate depletion to prevent detrimental effects on the myocardial microvascularization. The trial demonstrated that bromocriptine treatment was associated with a high rate of left ventricular recovery and low morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic interventions into the PRL/vasoinhibin axis bear the risk of side effects in the areas of blood coagulation, blood pressure, and alterations of the mental state.

  8. Hysteresis Motor Driven One Axis Magnetically Suspended Reaction Sphere


    Zhou, Lei; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L.


    The Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) plays an essential role in the flight control of a spacecraft. This system usually contains a minimum of three reaction wheels (often 4-5 wheels are used for optimization and redundancy). By accelerating the appropriate wheels, the system can produce a zero-mean reaction torque about any axis to the spacecraft, which enables the spacecraft to maneuver on orbit. Meanwhile, the momentum generated by acceleration can be stored in the wheels.

  9. Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer (United States)


    2014.173 INTRODUCTION Despite high survival rates for early-stage breast cancer , it is still the second leading cause of cancer - related deaths in the...164: 285–293. 37 Adams AK, Hallenbeck GE, Casper KA, Patil YJ, Wilson KM, Kimple RJ et al. DEK promotes HPV -positive and -negative head and neck cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0194 TITLE: Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Dr

  10. Inelastic scattering using the three-axis spectrometer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currat, R.


    The three-axis technique is a basic neutron scattering technique for inelastic work on single-crystal specimens. There is, at the moment, a fair degree of complementarity between TAS instruments on steady-state sources and TOF instruments on steady-state or pulsed sources. The technique is described, the issue of TAS versus TOF method is discussed, and investigations relating to the resolution functions are presented. (K.A.)

  11. Gut-Brain Axis in Gastric Mucosal Damage and Protection. (United States)

    Sgambato, Dolores; Capuano, Annalisa; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Romano, Marco


    The gut-brain axis plays a potential role in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. Several substances link stomach with central nervous system. In particular, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thyrotropinreleasing factor-containing nerve fibers and capsaicin-sensitive nerves are principal mediators of the harmful and protective central nervous system-mediated effects on gastric mucosa. Also, existing evidence indicates that nitric oxide, prostaglandins and calcitonin gene-related peptide play a role as final effectors of gastric protection. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peerreviewed research literature with the aim of focusing on the role of gut-brain axis in gastric damage and protection. In particular, we examined manuscripts dealing with the role of steroids, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandins, melatonin, hydrogen sulfide and peptides influencing food intake (i.e. leptin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, central glucagon-like peptide-1, and ghrelin). Also, the role of GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in gastric mucosal protection have been examined. We found and reviewed 61 peer-reviewed papers dealing with the major aspects related to the role of gut brain axis in gastric mucosal damage and protection. A dense neuronal network links stomach with central nervous system and a number of neurotransmitters and peptides functionally and anatomically related to central nervous system play a major role in contributing to gastric mucosal integrity. Exploiting the mechanisms underlying the connection between brain and gut may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of gastric mucosal injury and to an improvement in the prevention and, eventually, management of gastric damage.

  12. Intestinal barrier function and the brain-gut axis. (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Vicario, María; Pigrau, Marc; Lobo, Beatriz; Santos, Javier


    The luminal-mucosal interface of the intestinal tract is the first relevant location where microorganism-derived antigens and all other potentially immunogenic particles face the scrutiny of the powerful mammalian immune system. Upon regular functioning conditions, the intestinal barrier is able to effectively prevent most environmental and external antigens to interact openly with the numerous and versatile elements that compose the mucosal-associated immune system. This evolutionary super system is capable of processing an astonishing amount of antigens and non-immunogenic particles, approximately 100 tons in one individual lifetime, only considering food-derived components. Most important, to develop oral tolerance and proper active immune responses needed to prevent disease and inflammation, this giant immunogenic load has to be managed in a way that physiological inflammatory balance is constantly preserved. Adequate functioning of the intestinal barrier involves local and distant regulatory networks integrating the so-called brain-gut axis. Along this complex axis both brain and gut structures participate in the processing and execution of response signals to external and internal changes coming from the digestive tract, using multidirectional pathways to communicate. Dysfunction of brain-gut axis facilitates malfunctioning of the intestinal barrier, and vice versa, increasing the risk of uncontrolled immunological reactions that may trigger mucosal and brain low-grade inflammation, a putative first step to the initiation of more permanent gut disorders. In this chapter, we describe the structure, function and interactions of intestinal barrier, microbiota and brain-gut axis in both healthy and pathological conditions.

  13. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak


    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  14. Investigating the effect of acute sleep deprivation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis response to a psychosocial stressor. (United States)

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor


    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been previously identified as one potential mechanism that may explain the link between sleep deprivation and negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the direct association between sleep deprivation and HPA-axis functioning, particularly in the context of stress. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between acute sleep deprivation and HPA-axis reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Participants included 40 healthy, young adults between the ages of 18-29. The current protocol included spending two nights in the laboratory. After an adaptation night (night 1), participants were randomized into either a sleep deprivation condition (29 consecutive hours awake) or a control condition (night 2). Following the second night, all participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the TSST. Results indicated that there were significant group differences in cortisol stress reactivity. Specifically, compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the sleep deprivation condition had greater baseline (i.e., pre-stress) cortisol, yet a blunted cortisol response to the TSST. Taken together, a combination of elevated baseline cortisol (and its subsequent effect on HPA-axis regulatory processes) and a relative 'ceiling' on the amount of cortisol a laboratory stressor can produce may explain why participants in the sleep deprivation condition demonstrated blunted cortisol responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycation & the RAGE axis: targeting signal transduction through DIAPH1. (United States)

    Shekhtman, Alexander; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie


    The consequences of chronic disease are vast and unremitting; hence, understanding the pathogenic mechanisms mediating such disorders holds promise to identify therapeutics and diminish the consequences. The ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) accumulate in chronic diseases, particularly those characterized by inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Although first discovered and reported as a receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the expansion of the repertoire of RAGE ligands implicates the receptor in diverse milieus, such as autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, obesity, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Areas covered: This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the ligand families of RAGE and data from human subjects and animal models on the role of the RAGE axis in chronic diseases. The recent discovery that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE binds to the formin homology 1 (FH1) domain, DIAPH1, and that this interaction is essential for RAGE ligand-stimulated signal transduction, is discussed. Finally, we review therapeutic opportunities targeting the RAGE axis as a means to mitigate chronic diseases. Expert commentary: With the aging of the population and the epidemic of cardiometabolic disease, therapeutic strategies to target molecular pathways that contribute to the sequelae of these chronic diseases are urgently needed. In this review, we propose that the ligand/RAGE axis and its signaling nexus is a key factor in the pathogenesis of chronic disease and that therapeutic interruption of this pathway may improve quality and duration of life.

  16. l=1 helical axis heliotron device in Kyoto university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, K.; Sano, F.; Mizuuchi, T.; Hanatani, K.; Okada, H.; Obiki, T.


    Helical systems are an attractive candidate for magnetic fusion reactor. Recently, there has been great progress in theoretical research of three dimensional magnetic field structures, resulting in several kinds of confinement optimization being proposed for toroidal magnetic confinement system. For example, some sophisticated ideas have appeared on stage such as quasi-helical symmetry and quasi-isodynamic system. To find experimentally which way is the best Optimisation, a new helical axis heliotron device, so called 'Heliotron J', is under construction in the Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Japan. In this conference, the basic concept and the present status will be presented. In the conventional plane axis helical system, it was difficult to have both good particle confinement and good MHD stability simultaneously. The goal of Heliotron J project is to clarify their compatibility in the spatial axis toroidal device. The best way for Optimising the helical magnetic field configuration will be explored by investigating the plasma response to the change in the field components. The main subjects for plasma experiment are: demonstration of the existence of good magnetic flux surfaces, reduction of neoclassical transport in collisionless regime, MHD Stabilisation in high β plasma, controllability of bootstrap current, good confinement of high energy particles

  17. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory


    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  18. Searching for cosmological preferred axis using cosmographic approach (United States)

    Salehi, Amin; Setare, Mohammad Reza


    Recent released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. This hints a cosmological privileged axis in our anisotropic expanding universe. This paper proceeds a modified redshift in anisotropic cosmological model as 1+\\tilde{z}(t,\\hat{{p})=a(t_{0)}/a(t)(1-A(\\hat{n}.\\hat{p})) (where A is the magnitude of anisotropy, \\hat{n} is the direction of privileged axis, and \\hat{p} is the direction of each SNe Ia sample to galactic coordinates) along with anisotropic parameter δ =A(\\hat{n}.\\hat{p})/1+A(\\hat{n.\\hat{p})}. The luminosity distance is expanded with model-independent cosmographic parameters as a function of modified redshift \\tilde{z}. As the transformation matrix M(n× n) is obtained to convert the Taylor series coefficients of isotropic luminosity distance to corresponding anisotropic parameters. These results culminate the magnitude of anisotropy about \\mid A\\mid ˜eq 10^{-3} and the direction of preferred axis as (l,b)=( 297^{-34}_{+34},3^{-28}_{+28}) , which are consistent with other studies in 1-σ confidence level.

  19. A Dual-Axis Electrostatically Driven MEMS Microgripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Jia


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a new monolithic two-axis electrostatically actuated MEMS microgripper with integrated capacitive position and force sensors working at the micro-scale level. Each of the two jaws of the microgripper possesses two degrees-of-freedom (DOF and is capable of positioning in both x-and y-axes. Unlike existing works, where one gripper arm is actuated and other one is sensed, both arms of the proposed microgripper are actuated and sensed independently. A sensing scheme is constructed to provide the position and force signals in the noncontact and contact phases, respectively. By applying a 120V driving voltage, the jaw can provide 70 μm x-axis and 18 μm y-axis displacements with the force of 190 μN. By this design, the real-time position and grasping force information can be obtained in the dual sensing mode. Both analytical calculation and finite-element analysis (FEA were performed to verify the performance of the proposed design. A scaled-up prototype is designed, fabricated and tested through the experiment to verify the structure design of the microgripper.

  20. Analytical Methods of Decoupling the Automotive Engine Torque Roll Axis (United States)



    This paper analytically examines the multi-dimensional mounting schemes of an automotive engine-gearbox system when excited by oscillating torques. In particular, the issue of torque roll axis decoupling is analyzed in significant detail since it is poorly understood. New dynamic decoupling axioms are presented an d compared with the conventional elastic axis mounting and focalization methods. A linear time-invariant system assumption is made in addition to a proportionally damped system. Only rigid-body modes of the powertrain are considered and the chassis elements are assumed to be rigid. Several simplified physical systems are considered and new closed-form solutions for symmetric and asymmetric engine-mounting systems are developed. These clearly explain the design concepts for the 4-point mounting scheme. Our analytical solutions match with the existing design formulations that are only applicable to symmetric geometries. Spectra for all six rigid-body motions are predicted using the alternate decoupling methods and the closed-form solutions are verified. Also, our method is validated by comparing modal solutions with prior experimental and analytical studies. Parametric design studies are carried out to illustrate the methodology. Chief contributions of this research include the development of new or refined analytical models and closed-form solutions along with improved design strategies for the torque roll axis decoupling.

  1. [A cadaveric study of relationships among rotational alignment reference axes of distal femur and tibial mechanical axis]. (United States)

    Zhao, Bao-hui; Chen, Bai-cheng; Shao, De-cheng; Wang, Fei; Gao, Shi-jun; Lu, Bo


    To investigate the relationships among rotational alignment reference axes of distal femur and tibial mechanical axis, and determine the safest rotational alignment reference axis. Digital photos were taken of 30 cadaveric lower extremities with knee in extension and flexion at 90 degrees , angles were measured among tibial mechanical axis and a line perpendicular to clinical epicondylar axis, a line perpendicular to surgical epicondylar axis, Whiteside's line and femoral mechanical axis. Statistical analysis of relationships among those axes were performed. The angles among the tibial mechanical axis and a line perpendicular to the clinical epicondylar axis, a line perpendicular to the surgical epicondylar axis, Whiteside's line and femoral mechanical axis were 0.6 degrees varus, 3.9 degrees varus, 0.2 degrees valgus and 3.0 degrees varus respectively. The angle between the femoral mechanical axis and the tibial mechanical axis was significantly larger than the angles among the tibial mechanical axis and a line perpendicular to the clinical epicondylar axis, the Whiteside's line (P axis and the tibial mechanical axis. Angles of the clinical epicondylar axis, the surgical epicondylar axis and the Whiteside's line between knee extension and flexion were 2.3 degrees valgus, 0.9 degrees varus and 3.1 degrees valgus respectively. The surgical epicondylar axis rather than the clinical epicondylar axis or the Whiteside's line is the safest femoral rotational alignment reference axis intraoperatively.

  2. Fast and accurate measurement of on-axis gain and on-axis polarization at a finite distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, S.; Breinbjerg, O.


    In this paper, a technique for fast and accurate measurement of on-axis gain and on-axis polarization characteristics of antennas, such as Standard Gain Horns, compact range feed horns, and near-field probes, is described. The proposed gain determination procedure is a modification of the far......-field substitution technique in which the measurement distance is defined between the phase centres of the antennas. The location of the phase centre of the antenna under test (AUT) is found from a quick pattern measurement consisting of only four cuts including the main and diagonal planes. Additionally, in order...... to reduce the amount of measurement data and thus measurement time, the phase centre location is found on a sparse frequency grid and the values in the intermediate points are found by interpolation. The antenna polarization is determined from the amplitude/phase frequency sweeps with two orthogonal AUT...

  3. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Obesity, and Chronic Stress Exposure: Sleep and the HPA Axis in Obesity


    Lucassen, Eliane A.; Cizza, Giovanni


    Obesity, exposure to stress and inadequate sleep are prevalent phenomena in modern society. In this review we focus on their relationships and critically evaluate causality. In obese individuals, one of the main stress systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is altered, and concentrations of cortisol are elevated in adipose tissue due to elevated local activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1. Short sleep and decreased sleep quality are also associated with obesity....

  4. Microbiota Modulate Anxiety-Like Behavior and Endocrine Abnormalities in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Huo


    Full Text Available Intestinal microbes are an important system in the human body, with significant effects on behavior. An increasing body of research indicates that intestinal microbes affect brain function and neurogenesis, including sensitivity to stress. To investigate the effects of microbial colonization on behavior, we examined behavioral changes associated with hormones and hormone receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis under stress. We tested germ-free (GF mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF mice, divided into four groups. A chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol was utilized to induce external pressure in two stress groups by restraining mice in a conical centrifuge tube for 4 h per day for 21 days. After CRS, Initially, GF restraint-stressed mice explored more time than SPF restraint-stressed mice in the center and total distance of the OFT. Moreover, the CRH, ACTH, CORT, and ALD levels in HPA axis of GF restraint-stressed mice exhibited a significantly greater increase than those of SPF restraint-stressed mice. Finally, the Crhr1 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were increased compared with SPF CRS mice. However, the Nr3c2 mRNA levels of GF CRS mice were decreased compared with SPF CRS mice. All results revealed that SPF mice exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than GF mice under the same external stress. Moreover, we also found that GF mice exhibited significant differences in, hormones, and hormone receptors compared with SPF mice. In conclusion, Imbalances of the HPA axis caused by intestinal microbes could affect the neuroendocrine system in the brain, resulting in an anxiety-like behavioral phenotype. This study suggested that intervention into intestinal microflora may provide a new approach for treating stress-related diseases.

  5. Novel aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and glucocorticoid actions (United States)

    Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Aguilera, Greti; Herman, James P.; Fiedler, Jenny L.; Deak, Terrence; Cordeiro de Sousa, Maria Bernardete


    Normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity leading to rhythmic and episodic release of adrenal glucocorticoids is essential for body homeostasis and survival during stress. Acting through specific intracellular receptors in the brain and periphery, glucocorticoids regulate behavior, metabolic, cardiovascular, immune, and neuroendocrine activities. In contrast to chronic elevated levels, circadian and acute stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids are necessary for hippocampal neuronal survival and memory acquisition and consolidation, through inhibiting apoptosis, facilitating glutamate transmission and inducing immediate early genes and spine formation. In addition to its metabolic actions leading to increasing energy availability, glucocorticoids have profound effects on feeding behavior, mainly through modulation of orexigenic and anorixegenic neuropeptides. Evidence is also emerging that in addition to the recognized immune suppressive actions of glucocorticoids by counteracting adrenergic proinflammatory actions, circadian elevations have priming effects in the immune system, potentiating acute defensive responses. In addition, negative feedback by glucocorticoids involves multiple mechanisms leading to limiting HPA axis activation and preventing deleterious effects of excessive glucocorticoid production. Adequate glucocorticoid secretion to meet body demands is tightly regulated by a complex neural circuitry controlling hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin secretion, the main regulators of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Rapid feedback mechanisms, likely involving non-genomic actions of glucocorticoids, mediate immediate inhibition of hypothalamic CRH and ACTH secretion, while intermediate and delayed mechanisms mediated by genomic actions involve modulation of limbic circuitry and peripheral metabolic messengers. Consistent with their key adaptive roles, HPA axis components are evolutionarily

  6. Wearable Conductive Fiber Sensors for Multi-Axis Human Joint Angle Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asada H Harry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion is one that finds many applications, especially in the medical and rehabilitation fields. There is a lack of acceptable devices available to perform such measurements in the field in a reliable and non-intrusive way over a long period of time. The purpose of this study was therefore to develop such a wearable joint monitoring sensor capable of continuous, day-to-day monitoring. Methods A novel technique of incorporating conductive fibers into flexible, skin-tight fabrics surrounding a joint is developed. Resistance changes across these conductive fibers are measured, and directly related to specific single or multi-axis joint angles through the use of a non-linear predictor after an initial, one-time calibration. Because these sensors are intended for multiple uses, an automated registration algorithm has been devised using a sensitivity template matched to an array of sensors spanning the joints of interest. In this way, a sensor array can be taken off and put back on an individual for multiple uses, with the sensors automatically calibrating themselves each time. Results The wearable sensors designed are comfortable, and acceptable for long-term wear in everyday settings. Results have shown the feasibility of this type of sensor, with accurate measurements of joint motion for both a single-axis knee joint and a double axis hip joint when compared to a standard goniometer used to measure joint angles. Self-registration of the sensors was found to be possible with only a few simple motions by the patient. Conclusion After preliminary experiments involving a pants sensing garment for lower body monitoring, it has been seen that this methodology is effective for monitoring joint motion of the hip and knee. This design therefore produces a robust, comfortable, truly wearable joint monitoring device.

  7. Diurnal cortisol rhythms in Tsimane' Amazonian foragers: new insights into ecological HPA axis research. (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H


    Although a growing body of research has documented important pathways by which the HPA axis mediates the interface between the psychosocial world and individual health, there is a paucity of data from nonwestern populations, particularly from those populations with distinct nutritional and infectious disease ecologies. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to document variation in diurnal cortisol rhythms among the Tsimane', a remote population in the Bolivian Amazon, (2) to explore this variation by age and by gender, and (3) to compare diurnal rhythms from this study to other population based studies of cortisol conducted in industrialized nations. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice daily, immediately upon waking and before bed, for three consecutive days from 303 participants (age 1.6-82 years, 1564 samples) in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS). Cortisol rhythms showed strong age effects across the developmental span, with basal levels and slopes increasing into adulthood, although individuals older than 60 years demonstrated a precipitous flattening of the diurnal slope. Cortisol profiles were elevated in adult females compared to their age-matched male counterparts, and diurnal slopes, as well as mean cortisol concentrations among the Tsimane' were the lowest reported in any population based study of HPA axis function. Although the within-population variation in cortisol profiles was consistent with the established correlates of time of day, age, and sex, the between-population comparisons revealed dramatically lower levels of HPA activity among the Tsimane'. This study provides a benchmark against which to reference cortisol levels from industrialized populations, and expands the range of documented variation in HPA axis function in a nonwestern context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection for growth rate and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in chickens (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Qihua; Dou, Tengfei; Gu, Dahai; Rong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhengtian; Talpur, Mir Zulqarnain; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shanrong; Yan, Shixiong; Tong, Huiquan; Zhao, Sumei; Zhao, Guiping; Su, Zhengchang; Ge, Changrong


    The growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway of the somatotropic axis is the major controller for growth rate and body size in vertebrates, but the effect of selection on the expression of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes and their association with body size and growth performance in farm animals is not fully understood. We analyzed a time series of expression profiles of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes in two chicken breeds, the Daweishan mini chickens and Wuding chickens, and the commercial Avian broilers hybrid exhibiting markedly different body sizes and growth rates. We found that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in Daweishan mini chickens were significantly lower than those in Wuding chickens and Avian broilers. The Wuding and Daweishan mini chickens showed higher levels of plasma GH, pituitary GH mRNA but lower levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than in Avian broilers. Daweishan mini chickens showed significantly lower levels of plasma IGF-1, thigh muscle and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA than did Avian broilers and Wuding chickens. These results suggest that the GH part of the somatotropic axis is the main regulator of growth rate, while IGF-1 may regulate both growth rate and body weight. Selection for growth performance and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in a breed-, age-, and tissue-specific manner, and manner, and alteration of regulatory mechanisms of these genes might play an important role in the developmental characteristics of chickens. PMID:29630644



    Zanarini, Mary C.; Barison, Leah K.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Hudson, James I.


    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revi...

  10. Gut-brain axis: Role of lipids in the regulation of inflammation, pain and CNS diseases. (United States)

    Russo, Roberto; Cristiano, Claudia; Avagliano, Carmen; De Caro, Carmen; La Rana, Giovanna; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Canani, Roberto Berni; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio


    The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites. Many studies have focused on delineating a role for this axis in health and disease, ranging from stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson Disease, Alzheimer Disease etc. Based on this background, and considering the relevance of alteration of the symbiotic state between host and microbiota, this review focuses on the role and the involvement of bioactive lipids, such as the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) family whose main members are N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoilethanolamide (OEA), and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, belonging to a large group of bioactive lipids able to modulate peripheral and central pathologic processes. It is well established their effective role in inflammation, acute and chronic pain, obesity and central nervous system diseases. It has been shown a possible correlation between these lipids and gut microbiota through different mechanisms. Indeed, systemic administration of specific bacteria can reduce abdominal pain through the involvement of cannabinoid receptor 1 in rat; on the other hand, PEA reduces inflammation markers in a murine model of inflammatory bowel

  11. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach (United States)

    Graf, Eveline S.; Wright, Ian C.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.


    The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location. PMID:22666303

  12. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline S. Graf


    Full Text Available The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location.

  13. Mitigating HPA Axis Dysregulation Associated With Placement Changes in Foster Care (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Gunnar, Megan R.


    Summary Maltreated foster children often exhibit alterations in diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that are characterized by lower cortisol levels upon waking and smaller declines in morning-to-evening cortisol levels. Previous research has shown that this dysregulated pattern is associated with high caregiver stress levels over the course of foster care placements. In contrast, therapeutic interventions that emphasize consistent and responsive caregiving have been associated with more regulated cortisol rhythms. In this paper, two related issues were explored: whether placement changes (i.e., moving between foster homes or from a foster home to a permanent placement) were associated with more blunted daily cortisol rhythms and whether a caregiver-based intervention exerted a protective effect in this context. Because the intervention program has components specifically designed to prepare foster children for placement changes and to maintain consistent parenting techniques despite them, a prevention effect on HPA axis dysregulation during placement changes was hypothesized. The results of linear mixed modeling analyses showed that placement changes predicted dysregulation in cortisol rhythms in the regular foster care group but not in the intervention foster care group. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for child welfare policy and practice. PMID:20888698

  14. Artificial immune algorithm implementation for optimized multi-axis sculptured surface CNC machining (United States)

    Fountas, N. A.; Kechagias, J. D.; Vaxevanidis, N. M.


    This paper presents the results obtained by the implementation of an artificial immune algorithm to optimize standard multi-axis tool-paths applied to machine free-form surfaces. The investigation for its applicability was based on a full factorial experimental design addressing the two additional axes for tool inclination as independent variables whilst a multi-objective response was formulated by taking into consideration surface deviation and tool path time; objectives assessed directly from computer-aided manufacturing environment A standard sculptured part was developed by scratch considering its benchmark specifications and a cutting-edge surface machining tool-path was applied to study the effects of the pattern formulated when dynamically inclining a toroidal end-mill and guiding it towards the feed direction under fixed lead and tilt inclination angles. The results obtained form the series of the experiments were used for the fitness function creation the algorithm was about to sequentially evaluate. It was found that the artificial immune algorithm employed has the ability of attaining optimal values for inclination angles facilitating thus the complexity of such manufacturing process and ensuring full potentials in multi-axis machining modelling operations for producing enhanced CNC manufacturing programs. Results suggested that the proposed algorithm implementation may reduce the mean experimental objective value to 51.5%

  15. HGF/c-MET Axis in Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Spina


    Full Text Available Tumor metastases are responsible for approximately 90% of all cancer-related deaths. Metastasis formation is a multistep process that requires acquisition by tumor cells of a malignant phenotype that allows them to escape from the primary tumor site and invade other organs. Each step of this mechanism involves a deep crosstalk between tumor cells and their microenvironment where the host cells play a key role in influencing metastatic behavior through the release of many secreted factors. Among these signaling molecules, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF is released by many cell types of the tumor microenvironment to target its receptor c-MET within the cells of the primary tumor. Many studies reveal that HGF/c-MET axis is implicated in various human cancers, and genetic and epigenetic gain of functions of this signaling contributes to cancer development through a variety of mechanisms. In this review, we describe the specific types of cells in the tumor microenvironment that release HGF in order to promote the metastatic outgrowth through the activation of extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation, migration, angiogenesis, and invasion. We dissect the potential use of new molecules that interfere with the HGF/c-MET axis as therapeutic targets for future clinical trials in cancer disease.

  16. Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.

  17. The HPA – immune axis and the immunomodulatory actions of glucocorticoids in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre eBellavance


    Full Text Available In response to physiological and psychogenic stressors, the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis orchestrates the systemic release of glucocorticoids (GCs. By virtue of nearly ubiquitous expression of the GC receptor (GR and the multifaceted metabolic, cardiovascular, cognitive and immunologic functions of GCs, this system plays an essential role in the response to stress and restoration of an homeostatic state. GCs act on almost all types of immune cells and were long recognized to perform salient immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions through various genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. These renowned effects of the steroid hormone have been exploited in the clinic for the past 70 years and synthetic GC derivatives are commonly used for the therapy of various allergic, autoimmune, inflammatory and haematological disorders. The role of the HPA axis and GCs in restraining immune responses across the organism is however still debated in light of accumulating evidence suggesting that GCs can also have both permissive and stimulatory effects on the immune system under specific conditions. Such paradoxical actions of GCs are particularly evident in the brain, where substantial data support either a beneficial or detrimental role of the steroid hormone. In this review, we examine the roles of GCs on the innate immune system with a particular focus on the CNS compartment. We also dissect the numerous molecular mechanisms through which GCs exert their effects and discuss the various parameters influencing the paradoxical immunomodulatory functions of GCs in the brain.

  18. Extracting the orbital axis from gravitational waves of precessing binary systems (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masaru


    We present a new method for extracting the instantaneous orbital axis only from gravitational wave strains of precessing binary systems observed from a particular observer direction. This method enables us to reconstruct the coprecessing frame waveforms only from observed strains for the ideal case with the high signal-to-noise ratio. Specifically, we do not presuppose any theoretical model of the precession dynamics and coprecessing waveforms in our method. We test and measure the accuracy of our method using the numerical relativity simulation data of precessing binary black holes taken from the SXS Catalog. We show that the direction of the orbital axis is extracted within ≈0.07 rad error from gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral phase. The coprecessing waveforms are also reconstructed with high accuracy; the mismatch (assuming white noise) between them and the original coprecessing waveforms is typically a few times 10-3 including the merger-ringdown phase, and can be improved by an order of magnitude focusing only on the inspiral waveform. In this method, the coprecessing frame waveforms are not only the purely technical tools for understanding the complex nature of precessing waveforms but also direct observables.

  19. The brain-gut axis dysfunctions and hypersensitivity to food antigens in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Dzikowski, Michał; Pelczarska, Agnieszka; Dzikowska, Izabela; Juchnowicz, Dariusz


    Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i.e. 1. intestinal microbiome (intestinal microbiota), 2. permeable intestine (leaky gut syndrome), 3. hypersensitivity to food antigens, including gluten and casein of cow's milk. Research results seem to be very promising and indicate the possibility of improved clinical outcomes in some patients with schizophrenia by modifying diet, use of probiotics, and the implementation of antibiotic therapy of specific treatment groups. However, further research is needed on links between the intestinal microbiome and intestinal function as factors mediating the activation of the immune system and the development and further course of schizophrenia.

  20. Specific phobia. (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K; Moreno, Jacqueline


    This article describes specific phobia of childhood and its clinical presentation, discusses issues related to the differential diagnosis of specific phobia, considers the issue of comorbidity among phobic and anxiety disorders and developmental trends in the manifestation of fears, summarizes the epidemiology, causes, and course of specific phobia, and presents assessment and treatment issues. Finally, a case study is offered that serves to illuminate the major topics outlined in the article.

  1. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.


    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  2. H I Kinematics along the Minor Axis of M82 (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Leroy, Adam K.; Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Bolatto, Alberto; Keating, Katie M.; Sandstrom, Karin; Walter, Fabian


    M82 is one of the best-studied starburst galaxies in the local universe, and is consequently a benchmark for studying star formation feedback at both low and high redshift. We present new VLA H I observations that reveal the cold gas kinematics along the minor axis in unprecedented detail. This includes the detection of H I up to 10 kpc along the minor axis toward the south and beyond 5 kpc to the north. A surprising aspect of these observations is that the line-of-sight H I velocity decreases substantially from about 120 to 50 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from 1.5 to 10 kpc off the midplane. The velocity profile is not consistent with the H I gas cooling from the hot wind. We demonstrate that the velocity decrease is substantially greater than the deceleration expected from gravitational forces alone. If the H I consists of a continuous population of cold clouds, some additional drag force must be present, and the magnitude of the drag force places a joint constraint on the ratio of the ambient medium to the typical cloud size and density. We also show that the H I kinematics are inconsistent with a simple conical outflow centered on the nucleus, but instead require the more widespread launch of the H I over the ∼1 kpc extent of the starburst region. Regardless of the launch mechanism for the H I gas, the observed velocity decrease along the minor axis is sufficiently great that the H I may not escape the halo of M82. The inferred H I outflow rate at 10 kpc off the midplane is much less than 1 {M}ȯ yr‑1.

  3. Endocannabinoid Signaling and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J; Beatka, Margaret; Sarvaideo, Jenna


    The elucidation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half-century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system. A primary function of the endocannabinoid signaling system is to maintain or recover homeostasis following psychological and physiological threats. We provide a brief introduction to the endocannabinoid signaling system and its role in synaptic plasticity. The majority of the article is devoted to a summary of current knowledge regarding the role of endocannabinoid signaling as both a regulator of endocrine responses to stress and as an effector of glucocorticoid and corticotrophin-releasing hormone signaling in the brain. We summarize data demonstrating that cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) signaling can both inhibit and potentiate the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stress. We present a hypothesis that the inhibitory arm has high endocannabinoid tone and also serves to enhance recovery to baseline following stress, while the potentiating arm is not tonically active but can be activated by exogenous agonists. We discuss recent findings that corticotropin-releasing hormone in the amygdala enables hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation via an increase in the catabolism of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonylethanolamine. We review data supporting the hypotheses that CB1R activation is required for many glucocorticoid effects, particularly feedback inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, and that glucocorticoids mobilize the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. These features of endocannabinoid signaling make it a tantalizing therapeutic target for treatment of stress-related disorders but to date, this promise is largely unrealized. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1-15, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Optical diffraction tomography: accuracy of an off-axis reconstruction (United States)

    Kostencka, Julianna; Kozacki, Tomasz


    Optical diffraction tomography is an increasingly popular method that allows for reconstruction of three-dimensional refractive index distribution of semi-transparent samples using multiple measurements of an optical field transmitted through the sample for various illumination directions. The process of assembly of the angular measurements is usually performed with one of two methods: filtered backprojection (FBPJ) or filtered backpropagation (FBPP) tomographic reconstruction algorithm. The former approach, although conceptually very simple, provides an accurate reconstruction for the object regions located close to the plane of focus. However, since FBPJ ignores diffraction, its use for spatially extended structures is arguable. According to the theory of scattering, more precise restoration of a 3D structure shall be achieved with the FBPP algorithm, which unlike the former approach incorporates diffraction. It is believed that with this method one is allowed to obtain a high accuracy reconstruction in a large measurement volume exceeding depth of focus of an imaging system. However, some studies have suggested that a considerable improvement of the FBPP results can be achieved with prior propagation of the transmitted fields back to the centre of the object. This, supposedly, enables reduction of errors due to approximated diffraction formulas used in FBPP. In our view this finding casts doubt on quality of the FBPP reconstruction in the regions far from the rotation axis. The objective of this paper is to investigate limitation of the FBPP algorithm in terms of an off-axis reconstruction and compare its performance with the FBPJ approach. Moreover, in this work we propose some modifications to the FBPP algorithm that allow for more precise restoration of a sample structure in off-axis locations. The research is based on extensive numerical simulations supported with wave-propagation method.

  5. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique


    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  6. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis. (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G


    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress & the gut-brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A. Foster


    Full Text Available The importance of the gut–brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of the early life gut microbiota in shaping later health outcomes also is emerging. Results from preclinical studies indicate that alterations of the early microbial composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, birth by Caesarean section, infection, stress exposure, and other environmental influences - coupled with the influence of host genetics - can result in long-term modulation of stress-related physiology and behaviour. The gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of stress-related conditions including anxiety, depression and irritable bowel syndrome, although this is largely based on animal studies or correlative analysis in patient populations. Additional research in humans is sorely needed to reveal the relative impact and causal contribution of the microbiome to stress-related disorders. In this regard, the concept of psychobiotics is being developed and refined to encompass methods of targeting the microbiota in order to positively impact mental health outcomes. At the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop in Newport Beach, CA, a group of experts presented the symposium “The Microbiome: Development, Stress, and Disease”. This report summarizes and builds upon some of the key concepts in that symposium within the context of how microbiota might influence the neurobiology of stress.

  8. Wake Development of a Model Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (United States)

    Kadum, Hawwa; Friedman, Sasha; Camp, Elizabeth; Cal, Rau'l.


    At the Portland State University wind tunnel facility, an experiment is conducted to observe the downstream development of the wake past a model vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The flow domain is composed of streamwise-spanwise planes at mid-height of the VAWT rotor and data is obtained via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The flow field is assessed by analyzing contours of mean velocities and the full Reynolds stress tensor. Furthermore, profiles of the aforementioned quantities and flow parameters are discussed in the context of downstream evolution/flow development.

  9. Double tearing reconnection and the off-axis sawteeth crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ding


    A theoretical model is developed for the onset of the off-axis sawteeth crash observed in TFTR reversed magnetic shear experiments. The dispersion relation of the double tearing mode is obtained from the solution structure of the ideal external kink equation. The onset of 'annular crash' is due to the fast reconnection of the hot and cold islands, triggered by the interaction of both branches of the double tearing mode. The onset of 'core crash' is mainly due to the coalescence between the hot islands, triggered by the explosive growth of the inner branch and the rapid expansion of the hot islands. (author)

  10. Three-axis atomic magnetometer based on spin precession modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. C.; Dong, H. F., E-mail:; Hu, X. Y.; Chen, L.; Gao, Y. [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    We demonstrate a three-axis atomic magnetometer with one intensity-modulated pump beam and one orthogonal probe beam. The main field component is measured using the resonance of the pumping light, while the transverse field components are measured simultaneously using the optical rotation of the probe beam modulated by the spin precession. It is an all-optical magnetometer without using any modulation field or radio frequency field. Magnetic field sensitivity of 0.8 pT/Hz{sup 1∕2} is achieved under a bias field of 2 μT.

  11. Numerical Modeling of a Precise Dual Axis Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Augustinavičius


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a precise dual axis flexure-based positioning system for micro-positioning uses. The positioning system is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-based joints and ultra fine adjustment screws. Its workspace has been evaluated via analytical approaches. Reduction mechanism is optimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioning system has been derived and verified by resorting to finite element analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEA models are helpful for reliable architecture optimization and performance improvement in the positioning system.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Excitation of the earth's rotational axis by recent glacial discharges (United States)

    Gasperini, P.; Sabadini, R.; Yuen, D. A.


    The effects of present-day glacial discharges and the growth of the Antarctic ice sheet on exciting the earth's rotational axis are studied. Glacial forcing could cause a maximum change in J2 of about one-third of the observed amount, for the Maxwell rheology and for Burgers' body models with a long-term, lower-mantle viscosity greater than about 10 to the 23rd P. For transient rheologies the amount of excitation due to glacial melting decreases. Polar wander is not much excited by recent glacial melting for the various types of rheologies examined.

  13. [Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in chronic alcoholic patients]. (United States)

    Rallo, R; Fermoso, J; Ramos, F; González-Calvo, V; Marañón, Y A


    Eleven male chronic alcoholics without cirrhosis but with clinical features of alcoholism were studied. Ten healthy men of similar age served as controls. After suppressing hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-beta-oestradiol (E2) and testosterone were determined in basal conditions and after administration of clomiphene citrate in each case. Basal levels of FSH, LH and E2 were higher and the testosterone level lower in the alcoholic group. After stimulation, there was no difference in gonadal hormone levels between both groups, suggesting a normal hypothalamic-pituitary axis with an adequate gonadal response.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction using triple-axis spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als-Nielsen, J.


    High resolution X-ray diffraction studies of (i) monolayers of the noble gases Kr and Ar physiosorbed on graphite (ii) smectic A fluctuations in the nematic and the smectic A phases of liquid crystals are described. The apparatus used is a triple axis spectrometer situated at the storage ring DORIS at Hasylab, DESY, Hamburg. A monochromatic, well collimated beam is extracted from the synchrotron radiation spectrum by Bragg reflection from perfect Si or Ge crystals. The direction of the beam scattered from the sample is determined by Bragg reflection from a perfect Si or Ge crystal. High intensities even with resolution extending beyond the wavelength of visible light can be obtained. (Auth.)

  15. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)


    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  16. Neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis in the brain: master regulation by nitric oxide and consequences in aging and neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Lourenço, Cátia F; Ledo, Ana; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João


    The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O 2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. This axis incorporates and links previously independent processes that need to be coordinated in the normal brain. We here review evidence supporting the role of neuronal-derived nitric oxide ( • NO) as the master regulator of this axis. Nitric oxide is produced in tight association with glutamatergic activation and, diffusing several cell diameters, may interact with different molecular targets within each cell type. Hemeproteins such as soluble guanylate cyclase, cytochrome c oxidase and hemoglobin, with which • NO reacts at relatively fast rates, are but a few of the key in determinants of the regulatory role of • NO in the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. Accordingly, critical literature supporting this concept is discussed. Moreover, in view of the controversy regarding the regulation of catabolism of different neural cells, we further discuss key aspects of the pathways through which • NO specifically up-regulates glycolysis in astrocytes, supporting lactate shuttling to neurons for oxidative breakdown. From a biomedical viewpoint, derailment of neurovascular-neuroenergetic axis is precociously linked to aberrant brain aging, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we summarize current knowledge of how both neurovascular and neuroenergetic coupling are compromised in

  17. Anatomic relation between the medial collateral ligament of the elbow and the humero-ulnar joint axis. (United States)

    Ochi, N; Ogura, T; Hashizume, H; Shigeyama, Y; Senda, M; Inoue, H


    The anatomic relation between the proximal attachment of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint and the humero-ulnar joint axis has not been clearly shown in a published study. We examined cadaveric specimens to find the exact relation between them. The medial collateral ligament was microscopically dissected to isolate specific fiber bundles. The length of each bundle was measured with a charge-coupled device camera system that faced the medial side of the elbow joint. The measurements indicated that the projected length of the deep middle bundle of the anterior oblique ligament, which is the strong cord-like part of the medial collateral ligament, is isometric during elbow flexion. The proximal end of the deep middle bundle was thus considered to be located almost on the humero-ulnar joint axis.

  18. Off-axis viewing of radiation emission by long wiggler sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, L.; Yin, Z.


    When high-brilliance radiation is needed for experiments, insertion device sources are generally viewed on-axis. Off-axis emission of flux can be prodigious especially from wiggler sources having large emission fans. The on-axis and off-axis radiation emission characteristics from insertion device sources have been calculated extensively and are well known, but experimental verifications of some characteristics, particularly those associated with off-axis emission, are relatively few. Here measurements of the flux spectrum and apparent source size are described, as a function of horizontal emission angle, from the former X25 hybrid wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS).

  19. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.


    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  20. PRIGo: a new multi-axis goniometer for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltersperger, Sandro; Olieric, Vincent, E-mail:; Pradervand, Claude [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Glettig, Wayne [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et Microtechnique SA, Neuchâtel 2002 (Switzerland); Salathe, Marco; Fuchs, Martin R.; Curtin, Adrian; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Ebner, Simon; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Weinert, Tobias [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schulze-Briese, Clemens [Dectris Ltd, Baden 5400 (Switzerland); Wang, Meitian, E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    The design and performance of the new multi-axis goniometer PRIGo developed at the Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute is described. The Parallel Robotics Inspired Goniometer (PRIGo) is a novel compact and high-precision goniometer providing an alternative to (mini-)kappa, traditional three-circle goniometers and Eulerian cradles used for sample reorientation in macromolecular crystallography. Based on a combination of serial and parallel kinematics, PRIGo emulates an arc. It is mounted on an air-bearing stage for rotation around ω and consists of four linear positioners working synchronously to achieve x, y, z translations and χ rotation (0–90°), followed by a ϕ stage (0–360°) for rotation around the sample holder axis. Owing to the use of piezo linear positioners and active correction, PRIGo features spheres of confusion of <1 µm, <7 µm and <10 µm for ω, χ and ϕ, respectively, and is therefore very well suited for micro-crystallography. PRIGo enables optimal strategies for both native and experimental phasing crystallographic data collection. Herein, PRIGo hardware and software, its calibration, as well as applications in macromolecular crystallography are described.

  1. Social deprivation and the HPA axis in early development. (United States)

    Koss, Kalsea J; Hostinar, Camelia E; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R


    Growing evidence suggests that early social deprivation impacts the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Early adverse care in the form of institutional or orphanage care provides a human model for early social deprivation. The present study examined changes in diurnal cortisol during the transition to family care in the first 2 years post-adoption. Children adopted between 15 and 36 months from institutional care were examined four times during their first 2 years post-adoption (N=58). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N=50) and children adopted during their first year from overseas foster care (N=47). Children provided daily cortisol samples at roughly 2, 9, 17, and 25 months post-adoption. Post-institutionalized and post-foster care children exhibited less steep diurnal cortisol compared to non-adopted same-aged peers; these differences did not diminish across the 2 year period. For post-institutionalized children, lower social care quality in institutions was associated with less steep cortisol slopes. Lastly, shallower diurnal cortisol was a mediator between adoption status and increased behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. Consistent with the non-human primate literature, early social deprivation may contribute to early programming of the HPA axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Off-axis self-interference incoherent digital holographic microscopy (United States)

    Jeon, Philjun; Lee, Heejung; So, Byunghwy; Hwang, Wonsang; Bae, Yoonsung; Kim, Dugyoung


    3D imaging is demanding technology required in fluorescence microscopy. Even though holography is a powerful technique, it could not be used easily in fluorescence microscopy because of low coherence of fluorescence light. Lately, several incoherent holographic methods such as scanning holography, Fresnel in coherent correlation holography (FINCH), and self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) have been proposed. However, these methods have many problems to be overcome for practical applications. For example, DC term removal, twin image ambiguity, and phase unwrapping problems need to be resolved. Off-axis holography is a straightforward solution which can solve most of these problems. We built an off-axis SIDH system for fluorescence imaging, and investigated various conditions and requirements for practical holographic fluorescence microscopy. Our system is based on a modified Michelson interferometer with a flat mirror at one arm and a curved mirror at the other arm of the interferometer. We made a phantom 3D fluorescence object made of 2 single-mode fibers coupled to a single red LED source to mimic 2 fluorescence point sources distributed by a few tens of micrometers apart. A cooled EM-CCD was used to take holograms of these fiber ends which emit only around 180 nW power.

  3. Computational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine arrays (United States)

    Bremseth, J.; Duraisamy, K.


    Canonical problems involving single, pairs, and arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated numerically with the objective of understanding the underlying flow structures and their implications on energy production. Experimental studies by Dabiri (J Renew Sustain Energy 3, 2011) suggest that VAWTs demand less stringent spacing requirements than their horizontal axis counterparts and additional benefits may be obtained by optimizing the placement and rotational direction of VAWTs. The flowfield of pairs of co-/counter-rotating VAWTs shows some similarities with pairs of cylinders in terms of wake structure and vortex shedding. When multiple VAWTs are placed in a column, the extent of the wake is seen to spread further downstream, irrespective of the direction of rotation of individual turbines. However, the aerodynamic interference between turbines gives rise to regions of excess momentum between the turbines which lead to significant power augmentations. Studies of VAWTs arranged in multiple columns show that the downstream columns can actually be more efficient than the leading column, a proposition that could lead to radical improvements in wind farm productivity.

  4. Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Prader Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia S. Edgar


    Full Text Available Purpose: Prader Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic condition that has concurrent endocrinological insufficiencies. The presence of growth hormone deficiency has been well documented, but adrenal insufficiency (AI is not widely reported. A review was conducted to investigate its prevalence and relevance in PWS in both adults and children. Methodology: A literature review was performed with the search terms “Prader-Willi syndrome” and “adrenal insufficiency”. Results: The review found studies disagree on the prevalence and method of investigation of AI in PWS. Case studies demonstrate that patients with PWS are at risk of premature death, often secondary to respiratory infections. The possibility that this may be the result of the inability to mount an effective cortisol response has been studied, with some evidence confirming AI in PWS patients. Most reports agreed AI is present in PWS, however, Farholt et al. showed no HPA axis dysfunction in adults, suggesting that perhaps it is rare in adults, and children should be the focus of further studies. Conclusion: AI is present in some patients with PWS. Further research is required to ensure optimal treatment can be implemented and to prevent premature deaths related to adrenal insufficiency. Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing the adrenal axis and considering treatment for adrenal insufficiency in PWS patients.

  5. Analytic representation of electron central-axis depth dose data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jette, D.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.; Pagnamenta, A.


    We have examined a number of analytic representations of electron central-axis depth dose data current in the literature, testing them against sets of standard depth dose data. One of them, a two-parameter model of Shabason and Hendee, is recommended in situations in which good accuracy (approx.2%) is desired, with the values of the parameters determined by an approximation formula which we have developed elsewhere. For higher accuracy, we have developed a polynomial model which gives, typically, a standard deviation of the fitting polynomial from the data points of 1%, and a maximum deviation of 2%. Fitting polynomials obtained with this method possess the property of having zero slope at the position of actual maximum dose, and generally a fifth-order polynomial (requiring four nonzero coefficients) provided the most acceptable fit. The four parameters involved are determined through inversion of a 4 x 4 matrix, and we have tabulated these four coefficients for the standard data sets. The polynomial model is designed for interpolation in the range between the 100% dose depth and the 10% dose depth, and another fitting curve of the same type can be adjoined to cover depths less than the 100% dose depth. Key words: electron teletherapy, central-axis depth dose, polynomial model, interpolation

  6. The methods of the LHC magnets' magnetic axis location measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottura, L.; Buzio, M.; Deferne, G.; Sievers, P.; Smirnov, N.; Villar, F.P.; Walckiers, L.


    More than 8 thousands LHC magnets of various types will be extensively measured during series magnetic test at both room and superfluid helium temperature. The precise knowledge of the magnetic axis positioning is vital for the alignment of those magnets in the tunnel. The most efficient and cost effective method with rotating pick up coil is chosen currently as a baseline for series measurement. The position of the measuring coil axis herewith is measured with a dedicated optical system. The deflection of the light beam in the air due to temperature gradient either passing through the cold bore when the magnet excited for warm measurement or through the anti-cryostat during cold measurement can reach magnitudes significantly exceeding tolerance and therefore is a critical issue. We present studies of the light deflection in 10 m long dipole at warm and cold and propose means to reduce it. The result of the dipole centring powered in Quadrupole Configured Dipole (QCD) or 'ugly quad' configuration and correlation with centring based on high order harmonics are presented as well. (authors)

  7. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)


    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  8. Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mental Health. (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F


    The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications that enable gut microbes to communicate with the brain and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and preclinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders. Most published studies in the field are preclinical, and there is so far a lack of clinical studies. Preliminary studies in psychiatric populations support the view of a dysbiosis in some conditions, but studies are often small scale and marred by potential confounding variables. Preclinical studies support the view that psychobiotics ("bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts have a positive mental health benefit") might be of use in treating some patients with mental health difficulties. To date, we have no well-conducted studies in clinical populations, although there are some studies in healthy volunteers. A cocktail of probiotics has been shown to alter brain activity as monitored by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and Bifidobacterium longum was reported to alter brain electrical activity. It has yet to be convincingly demonstrated that the exciting findings of psychobiotic efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models of psychiatric illness will translate to patients.

  9. Brain-gut-microbiota axis: challenges for translation in psychiatry. (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G


    The accruing data linking the gut microbiome to the development and function of the central nervous system has been proposed as a paradigm shift in neuroscience. The gut microbiota can communicate with the brain via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways comprising the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Dysfunctional neuroimmune pathways are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Using depression as our primary example, we review both the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the possible role played by the gut microbiota in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We consider how this can inform future treatment strategies and outline the challenges and necessary studies for moving the field forward. The role played by the gut microbiota has not been fully elucidated in psychiatric populations. Although tempting to speculate that psychiatric patients may benefit from therapeutic modulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis, the translational applications of the results obtained in rodent studies have yet to be demonstrated. Evidence of altered gut microbiota composition and function in psychiatric patients is limited and cannot be regarded as proven. Moreover the efficacy of targeting the gut microbiota has not yet been established, and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome: A microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder? (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard


    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  11. Off-Axis Undulator Radiation for CLIC Drive Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, A; Welsch, CP


    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) will use a novel acceleration scheme in which energy extracted from a very intense beam of relatively low-energy electrons (the Drive Beam) is used to accelerate a lower intensity Main Beam to very high energy. The high intensity of the Drive Beam, with pulses of more than 1015 electrons, poses a challenge for conventional profile measurements such as wire scanners. Thus, new non-invasive profile measurements are being investigated. In this paper we propose the use of relatively inexpensive permanent-magnet undulators to generate off-axis visible Synchrotron Radiation from the CLIC Drive Beam. The field strength and period length of the undulator should be designed such that the on-axis undulator wavelength is in the ultra-violet. A smaller but still useable amount of visible light is then generated in a hollow cone. This light can be reflected out of the beam pipe by a ring-shaped mirror placed downstream and imaged on a camera. In this contribution, results of SRW and ZEMA...

  12. Permanent magnet generator for direct drive for vertical axis turbine; Gerador de imas permanentes de acionamento direto para turbina de eixo vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Sandra; Semberg, Tobias; Bernhoff, Hans; Leijon, Mats [Universidade de Uppsala (Sweden)


    The design and construction of a synchronous generator specifically designed to be directly driven by a vertical axis wind turbine are described here. The generator is unique in many respects: it has several poles, large diameter, relatively high voltage, low speed and high overload capability. Among other important aspects, the article discusses the differences between the simulated geometry and the obtained.

  13. Dopant profiling of focused ion beam milled semiconductors using off-axis electron holography; reducing artifacts, extending detection limits and reducing the effects of gallium implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Ailliot, Cyril; Barnes, Jean-Paul


    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is one of the few specimen preparation techniques that can be used to prepare parallel-sided specimens with nm-scale site specificity for examination using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, FIB milling results...... thickness is dependent on both the operating voltage and type of ion used during FIB milling....

  14. Optical performance of inclined south-north single-axis tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Runsheng


    To investigate optical performance of the inclined south-north single-axis (ISN-axis, in short) tracked solar panels, a mathematical procedure to estimate the annual collectible radiation on fixed and tracked panels was suggested based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. For solar panels tracking about ISN-axis, the yearly optimal tilt-angle of ISN-axis for maximizing annual solar gain was about 3 o deviating from the site latitude in most of China except in areas with poor solar resources, and the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISN-axis tracked panels was about 97-98% of that on dual-axis tracked panels; whereas for ISN-axis tracked panels with the tilt-angle of ISN-axis being adjusted four times in a year at three fixed tilt-angles, the annual collectible radiation was almost close to that on dual-axis tracked panels, the optimum date of tilt-angle adjustment of ISN-axis was 23 days from the equinoxes, and the optimum tilt-angle adjustment value for each adjustment was about 22 o . Compared to fixed south-facing solar panels inclined at an optimal tilt-angle, the increase in the annual solar gain due to using ISN-axis sun tracking was above 30% in the areas with abundant solar resources and less than 20% in the areas with poor solar resources.

  15. The Mechanical Axis of the First Ray: A Radiographic Assessment in Hallux Abducto Valgus Evaluation. (United States)

    LaPorta, Guido A; Nasser, Ellianne M; Mulhern, Jennifer L; Malay, D Scot


    The present report describes a new method of hallux abducto valgus deformity correction planning using the mechanical axis of the medial column (mechanical axis planning). This method of radiographic evaluation identifies an ideal position for the first metatarsal after correction and is useful regardless of the surgical procedure chosen. We retrospectively reviewed 200 radiographs to identify a "normal" value for the mechanical axis angle. We reviewed 100 radiographs of patients with hallux abducto valgus deformity (deformity group) and 100 radiographs of patients without hallux abducto valgus deformity (control group). The deformity group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 13.5° ± 2.83° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.58° ± 1°. The control group revealed an M1-M2 anatomic axis angle of 7.5° ± 1.76° and an M1-M2 mechanical axis angle of 11.19° ± 0.9°. The differences in the M1-M2 anatomic axis angle and M1-M2 mechanical axis angle were statistically significant between the control and deformity groups. We sought to provide a reliable method for planning hallux abducto valgus deformity correction by aligning the mechanical axis of the medial column and the mechanical axis of the first ray to the "normal" value of 11° to reduce the deformity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An additional reference axis for determining rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Won, Ye-Yeon; Cui, Wen-Quan; Baek, Myong-Hyun; Yun, Tae-Bong; Han, Seung-Ho


    No studies have examined the trochlear line connecting the most anterior projections of the lateral and medial femoral condyles in relation to the surgical epicondylar axis. To determine if the trochlear line is more consistent relative to the transepicondylar axis than the posterior condylar axis and the Whiteside's line, the angles between the surgical epicondylar axis and each of the 3 axes in 50 knees of cadavers were measured using computed tomography scans. The results showed that the variability in the trochlear line for referencing the transepicondylar axis was comparable to those of the Whiteside line and the posterior condylar axis. The trochlear line may be considered as an additional reference axis for determining the rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

  17. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method (United States)

    Cassidy, Kelly


    A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes. An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis. The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis.

  18. On steady rotations of a rigid body bearing a single-axis powered gyroscope whose precession axis is parallel to a principal plane of inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amel'kin, N. I.

    The set of steady motions of the system named in the title is represented parametrically via the gyro gimbal rotation angle for an arbitrary position of the gimbal axis. We study the set of steady motions for a system in which the gyro gimbal axis is parallel to a principal plane of inertia as well

  19. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and its interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debonne, M.; Baarendse, P.J.J.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.; Bruggeman, V.; Decuypere, E.


    The emergence of thermoregulation in avian species is a complex matter in which neural as well as hormonal processes are involved. In a previous paper, the neural aspects of primary avian thermoregulation were discussed. In this paper the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT-axis)

  20. Next force sensing technology for robots: multi-axis resonant sensors (United States)

    Castano-Cano, Davinson; Grossard, Mathieu; Hubert, Arnaud


    The aim of this paper is to present a novel resonant multi-axis force sensor with applications in robotics. A resonant force sensor is characterized by the use of a frequency output signal to estimate the applied forces, instead of using its amplitude as it is often the case for the other existing technologies used in robotics. The advantages of resonant force sensing for robotics are discussed, especially for the safety requirements in the collaborative field. We extend our analysis to show the main similarities and differences between more classical sensors (based on strain gages for instance) and resonant ones, with a focus on their design. More specifically, we detail the way the design of the sensitive element, which essentially transduces the applied forces into frequencies, plays a major role on its performances.

  1. Numerical Simulations of the Aeroelastic Behavior of Large Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines: The Drivetrain Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebhardt, Cristian; Veluri, Badrinath; Preidikman, Sergio


    loads and their evolution in the space and the time domains, considering multiple aerodynamic interactions among blades, wakes, hub, nacelle, support tower, ground and land–surface boundary layer. All these in combination affect substantially the total efficiency of the turbine. In addition, a flexible......In this work an aeroelastic model that describes the interaction between aerodynamics and drivetrain dynamics of a large horizontal–axis wind turbine is presented. Traditional designs for wind turbines are based on the output of specific aeroelastic simulation codes. The output of these codes gives...... implies that vibrations of these internal drive train components are not taken into account and, as a consequence, dynamic loads on these components cannot be simulated. In this effort an aerodynamical model based on the non–linear and unsteady vortex–lattice method is used to compute the aerodynamic...

  2. Gut-liver axis at the frontier of host-microbial interactions. (United States)

    Brandl, Katharina; Kumar, Vipin; Eckmann, Lars


    Liver and intestine are tightly linked through the venous system of the portal circulation. Consequently, the liver is the primary recipient of gut-derived products, most prominently dietary nutrients and microbial components. It functions as a secondary "firewall" and protects the body from intestinal pathogens and other microbial products that have crossed the primary barrier of the intestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal barrier enhances microbial exposure of the liver, which can have detrimental or beneficial effects in the organ depending on the specific circumstances. Conversely, the liver also exerts influence over intestinal microbial communities via secretion of bile acids and IgA antibodies. This mini-review highlights key findings and concepts in the area of host-microbial interactions as pertinent to the bilateral communication between liver and gut and highlights the concept of the gut-liver axis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. A Three-Axis Force Sensor for Dual Finger Haptic Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Salsedo


    Full Text Available In this work we present the design process, the characterization and testing of a novel three-axis mechanical force sensor. This sensor is optimized for use in closed-loop force control of haptic devices with three degrees of freedom. In particular the sensor has been conceived for integration with a dual finger haptic interface that aims at simulating forces that occur during grasping and surface exploration. The sensing spring structure has been purposely designed in order to match force and layout specifications for the application. In this paper the design of the sensor is presented, starting from an analytic model that describes the characteristic matrix of the sensor. A procedure for designing an optimal overload protection mechanism is proposed. In the last part of the paper the authors describe the experimental characterization and the integrated test on a haptic hand exoskeleton showing the improvements in the controller performances provided by the inclusion of the force sensor.

  4. Manufacturing and Test Results of Off-Axis Parabolic Cylinder Mirror for FIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-S. Ryu


    Full Text Available Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS is the main payload of the first Korean scientific satellite, KAISTSAT-4, which will be launched in 2002. Among the optical parts, parabolic cylinder mirror does not have any heritage from previous astronomical missions, so the manufacturing and testing process itself is a challenging issue. We describe the method of manufacturing and measuring of the off-axis parabolic cylinder mirror and our initial experiments to establish the entire manufacturing process. Using the method, the profile error can meet the specification of ~λ per cm which is closely related with the astronomical performances. In case of the surface roughness, temperature controlled pitch polishing reduces Rq under 1 nm implying that scattering in the entire spectral range of FIMS is less than 2% of the incident UV light.

  5. The LXR–Idol axis differentially regulates plasma LDL levels in primates and mice (United States)

    Hong, Cynthia; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Graham, Mark; Layne, Joseph D.; Cai, Lei; Scotti, Elena; Boyadjian, Rima; Kim, Jason; Chamberlain, Brian T.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.; Jung, Michael E.; Fong, Loren; Lee, Richard; Young, Stephen G.; Temel, Ryan E.; Tontonoz, Peter


    Summary The LXR-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL controls LDLR receptor stability independent of SREBP and PCSK9, but its relevance to plasma lipid levels is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effects of the LXR–IDOL axis are both tissue- and species-specific. In mice, LXR agonist induces Idol transcript levels in peripheral tissues but not in liver, and does not change plasma LDL levels. Accordingly, Idol-deficient mice exhibit elevated LDLR protein levels in peripheral tissues but not in the liver. By contrast, LXR activation in cynomolgus monkeys induces hepatic IDOL expression, reduces LDLR protein levels, and raises plasma LDL levels. Knockdown of IDOL in monkeys with an antisense oligonucleotide blunts the effect of LXR agonist on LDL levels. These results implicate IDOL as a modulator of plasma lipid levels in primates and support further investigation into IDOL inhibition as a potential strategy for LDL lowering in humans. PMID:25440061

  6. The LXR-Idol axis differentially regulates plasma LDL levels in primates and mice. (United States)

    Hong, Cynthia; Marshall, Stephanie M; McDaniel, Allison L; Graham, Mark; Layne, Joseph D; Cai, Lei; Scotti, Elena; Boyadjian, Rima; Kim, Jason; Chamberlain, Brian T; Tangirala, Rajendra K; Jung, Michael E; Fong, Loren; Lee, Richard; Young, Stephen G; Temel, Ryan E; Tontonoz, Peter


    The LXR-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL controls LDLR receptor stability independent of SREBP and PCSK9, but its relevance to plasma lipid levels is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effects of the LXR-IDOL axis are both tissue and species specific. In mice, LXR agonist induces Idol transcript levels in peripheral tissues but not in liver, and does not change plasma LDL levels. Accordingly, Idol-deficient mice exhibit elevated LDLR protein levels in peripheral tissues, but not in the liver. By contrast, LXR activation in cynomolgus monkeys induces hepatic IDOL expression, reduces LDLR protein levels, and raises plasma LDL levels. Knockdown of IDOL in monkeys with an antisense oligonucleotide blunts the effect of LXR agonist on LDL levels. These results implicate IDOL as a modulator of plasma lipid levels in primates and support further investigation into IDOL inhibition as a potential strategy for LDL lowering in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pendulous Heart with Alternating Axis: A Suspicious Clue for Diagnosis of a Rare Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rafighdoust


    Full Text Available Absence of pericardium is a rare type of pericardial disorders. Left sided pericardial absence is more common than the right one. This disorder may present with a variety of signs and symptoms or abnormalities in electrocardiography and echocardiography. In this report, we discussed diagnosis of partial absence of pericardium in a 52-year-old man presented with a dull left-sided chest pain from 4 months ago with special electrocardiographic features. The axis deviations in his serial electrocardiograms led us to further evaluations with possible diagnosis of pericardial absence. His echocardiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI confirmed the suspicion of pericardial absence. Suspicion of potentially life-threatening cardiac abnormalities should remain even while facing atypical chest pain or other non-specific symptoms. In this case, abnormal electrocardiographic and chest X-Ray findings together with echocardiography were all helpful in referring the patient for cardiac MRI as the imaging modality of choice in such cases.

  8. Duplex ultrasonography in the detection of celiac axis stenosis: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Min; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Young Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Chung, Jin Wook [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the predictive value of duplex ultrasonography in the detection of celiac axis (CA) stenosis. In 127 patients designated for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), lateral aortography for the evaluation of CA stenosis was performed between January and October 2001. Thirty-nine of these patients [M:F=30:9; age, 44-75 (mean, 62) years] underwent CA duplex scanning in the supine position using 2-4 MHz convex probes. CA diameters obtained at lateral aortography were subsequently measured by two radiologists, unaware of the duplex results, and the original duplex velocity values were determined using velocity criteria such as peak systolic velocity (PSV), peak diastolic velocity (PDV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV). CA stenosis was confirmed at lateral aortography in 13 patients (M:F=10:3), in all of whom CA stenosis was greater than 50%. PSV in the CA stenosis group (n=13) was 283{+-}96 cm/sec, PDV was 85{+-}49 cm/sec, and EDV was 55{+-}33 cm/sec, while the corresponding values in the normal CA group were 161{+-}55 cm/sec, 59{+-}21 cm/sec, and 32{+-}9 cm/sec, respectively. PSV was significantly different between the normal and stenosis groups (p<0.01). A threshold of PSV > 250 cm/sec provided high diagnostic accuracy in terms of sensitivity (77%), specificity (85%), positive predictive valve (71%), negative predictive value (88%) and accuracy (82%). EDV > 50 cm/sec provided lower sensitivity (46%), but higher specificity (96%). The most accurate predictive factor for celiac axis (CA) stenosis was increased PSV. Duplex ultrasonography can be used prior to angiographic evaluation as a screening test for patients in whom CA stenosis is suspected.

  9. Vertical Axis Rotational Motion Cues in Hovering Flight Simulation (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Walter W.; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)


    representative of the AH-64 pilot location. Six test pilots flew three tasks that were specifically designed to represent a broad class of situations in which both lateral and yaw motion cues may be useful. For the first task, the pilot controlled only the yaw axis and was required to rapidly acquire a North heading from 15 deg yaw offsets to either the East or West. This task allowed for full, or 1:1, motion to be used in all axes (yaw, lateral, and longitudinal). The second task was a 10 sec., 180 deg. pedal turn over a runway, but with the pilot only controlling the yaw degree-of-freedom. The position of the vehicle's center-of-mass remained fixed. This maneuver was taken from a current U.S. Army rotary wing design standard5 and is representative of a maneuver performed for acceptance of military helicopters; however, it does not allow for full 1:1 motion, since the simulator cab cannot rotate 180 deg. The third task required the pilot to perform a rapid 9 ft climb at a constant heading. This task was challenging, because rapid collective lever movement in the unaugmented AH64 results in a substantial yawing moment (due to engine torque) that must be countered by the pilot. This task also had full motion in all axes, but, in this case, the pilot had two axes to control simultaneously, rather than one as in the previous tasks. Four motion configurations were examined for each task: full motion (except for the 180 deg turn, for which the motion system was configured to provide as much motion as possible), full linear with no yaw motion, full yaw with no linear motion, and no motion. Each configuration was flown four times in a randomized test matrix, and the pilots were not informed of the configuration given. Vehicle state data were recorded for objective performance comparisons, and pilots provided subjective comments and ratings. As part of the pilots' evaluation, they were asked to rate the compensation required, the overall fidelity of the motion as compared to real flight


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina


    Full Text Available Mirror systems make it possible to reduce device dimensions and its weight while preserving high input aperture and these systems are characterized by a number of other advantages. Their significant disadvantage is a central screening of an entrance pupil that leads to lower image quality. The paper contains description of the investigations on afocal systems formed by eccentrically cut-out mirror paraboloids (off-axis mirrors where aperture diaphragm is displaced in the meridian plane for a defined value and a central field point is located on the optical axis. The canonic Mersenne systems are accepted as base schemas (modules for these compositions. The paper considers two types of such systems: visible increases – Г > 0 and Г < 0. Algorithms for calculation of centered afocal systems with two and four reflections have been written in the paper and the systems are free from spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism when an input pupil is located in superimposed focal planes of all parabolic mirrors. An aberration in curvature image has been additionally corrected in three-mirror quart-parabolic scheme which is a combination of two classical telescopic Mersenne systems. The paper presents schemes and calculation results. Two-mirror schemes with non-screened input pupil have been studied in the paper and in this case all the system remains centered and an aperture diaphragm is decentered for the distance Cm which is commensurable with the diaphragm size. The paper contains description of the investigated afocal schemes with four reflections from off-axis mirror paraboloids, a prepared algorithm for calculation, the obtained formulas for making combination of canonic afocal systems formed by two mirrors. Computer simulation in software environment Opal and Zemax has been carried out in the paper. Basic description has been prepared while using two alternative methods for the class of decentered systems and aberration characteristics and

  11. Guy cable design and damping for vertical axis wind turbines (United States)

    Carne, T. G.


    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibrations of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed, and a technique for damping cable vibrations was mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  12. Dual-axis resonance testing of wind turbine blades (United States)

    Hughes, Scott; Musial, Walter; White, Darris


    An apparatus (100) for fatigue testing test articles (104) including wind turbine blades. The apparatus (100) includes a test stand (110) that rigidly supports an end (106) of the test article (104). An actuator assembly (120) is attached to the test article (104) and is adapted for substantially concurrently imparting first and second forcing functions in first and second directions on the test article (104), with the first and second directions being perpendicular to a longitudinal axis. A controller (130) transmits first and second sets of displacement signals (160, 164) to the actuator assembly (120) at two resonant frequencies of the test system (104). The displacement signals (160, 164) initiate the actuator assembly (120) to impart the forcing loads to concurrently oscillate the test article (104) in the first and second directions. With turbine blades, the blades (104) are resonant tested concurrently for fatigue in the flapwise and edgewise directions.

  13. Computer simulation for horizontal axis wind turbine rotor optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehfooz, O.; Ullah, I.


    Wind turbine design is a complex process that includes multiple and conflicting criteria like maximizing energy production and minimizing the cost incurred. Often, such problems are solved using optimization techniques. A computer simulation is essential in analyzing the performance of a wind turbine rotor and determining suitable values of various design variables. The simulation will work with a design optimizer to optimize the design. In this paper, the problem of optimal rotor design is formulated and a computer simulation presented to analyze the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor of a given airfoil over a range of rotor tip speed ratios. The MATLAB simulation takes inputs of blade twist angle and chord solidity along the rotor radius as well as wind speed distribution; it provides output in the form of plots of coefficient of performance against tip speed ratio, variation of induction factors, angle of attack and coefficients of lift and drag with blade radial positions. (author)

  14. GRIN planar waveguide concentrator used with a single axis tracker. (United States)

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon


    It is generally accepted that small to medium level concentrators could be used as cost-competitive replacements for tracked solar panels. The objective is to design a system that can reach a good level of sun concentration with only one sun-tracking axis and is cheap to fabricate. As the most critical parameter for all concentrator designs, optical efficiency needed improvement to reduce the cost of power produced by our system. By using a graded-index planar waveguide with an index profile similar to SELFOC fiber, the ray's path can be controlled. Also, the concentrator can be fabricated in a single block, which reduces Fresnel reflections. Overall, the optical efficiency can be improved by as much as 33% compared to the same system made with a homogeneous waveguide. Furthermore, the ability to cost-effectively fabricate the concentrator by molding can be preserved, making it possible to reduce the cost of the solar power produced.

  15. Interferometric system with tracking refractometry capability in the measuring axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, J; Holá, M; Číp, O; Hrabina, J; Oulehla, J


    We present a combined interferometric arrangement designed for measurement of one-axis displacement over a specified measuring range with mechanical referencing. This concept allows simultaneous measurement of the carriage position from both sides together with monitoring of the overall range. This can be used in configuration with in-line monitoring of the fluctuations of the refractive index-–tracking refractometry. Similarly, the wavelength of the laser source can be stabilized over the measuring range, effectively compensating for the refractive index changes. Otherwise, monitoring of length of the measuring range can give information about the thermal dilatation effects of frame of the whole measuring setup. This technique can find its way into high-precision positioning systems in nanometrology. (technical design note)

  16. A Development of Computer Controlled 5 Axis Ultrasonic Testing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, J. G.; Park, J. C.; Kim, N. I.


    A computer controlled 5 axis ultrasonic testing system is developed in order to detect flaws in special parts with complex shape. The various kinds of ultrasonic test can be performed automatically using computer program which was developed by DHI(Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd.). By use of this computer program, the detector location can be programed and the amplitude signal of echo can be processed digitally. The test results can be plotted graphically on a high resolution display monitor in real time base. The test data can be also saved in magnetic memory devices(HDD or FDD) as well as in the form of hard copy through color printer. The computer software contains c- scan, c+a scan processing programs as well as statistical analysis for test data

  17. Status of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M.J.; Allison, P.W.; Carlson, R.L.; Downing, J.N.; Moir, D.C.; Shurter, R.P.


    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test (DARHT) Facility will employ two electron linear induction accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x-ray pulses for flash radiography with sub-millimeter spatial resolution of very dense (attentuations>10{sup 5}), dynamic objects. We will produce an intense x-ray pulse using a 19.75-MeV, 3.5-4 kA, 60-ns flattop electron beam focused on a tungsten target. A 3.75-MeV injector with either a cold velvet cathode or a laser-driven photocathode will produce a beam to be accelerated through a series of 64 ferrite-loaded induction cells with solenoid focusing. Accelerator technology demonstrations have been underway for several years at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand and results including beam energy, emittance, and beam breakup measurements are discussed.

  18. Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability (United States)

    Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.


    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.

  19. Computed tomographic angiography of the liver via the coeliac axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, C.; Goetberg, S.; Lunderquist, A.; Stridbeck, H.; Ekberg, H.

    Sixty computed tomographic angiographic (CTA) examinations of the liver were performed with contrast injection into the coeliac axis. Data from both an arterial and a portal venous phase were recorded. In 41 patients it was possible to compare the results of CTA with palpation of the liver during laparotomy. The results from CTA and laparotomy were the same in 35 patients (85%). In one patient CTA disclosed verified liver lesions not diagnosed at laparotomy. There were 2 false negative and 3 false positive CTA examinations. In the remaining 19 patients, a clinical follow-up period of at least 6 months was used to evaluate the results of CTA. In the 7 patients in whom CTA showed benign lesions or a normal liver parenchyma, the clinical follow-up revealed to evidence of tumour growth in the liver.

  20. Analise elasto-acustica de casos axi-simetricas


    Jose Nilton Martini


    Resumo: Neste trabalho estuda-se o problema elasto-acústico de cascas axisimétricas interagindo com fluido interior. Os modelos matemáticos para casca axi-simétrica, para fluido e para acoplamento são apresentados na forma de equações diferenciais. A partir das equações diferenciais são obtidas formas integrais associadas, utilizando o método dos resíduos ponderados. Assume-se uma solução harmônica para o problema. O Método dos Elementos Finitos, (MEF), aplicado as equações integrais, é utili...

  1. Hormonal control of aging in rodents: The somatotropic axis (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M.


    There is a growing body of literature focusing on the somatotropic axis and regulation of aging and longevity. Many of these reports derive data from multiple endocrine mutants, those that exhibit both elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) or deficiencies in one or both of these hormones. In general, both spontaneous and genetically engineered GH and IGF-1 deficiencies have lead to small body size, delayed development of sexual maturation and age-related pathology, and life span extension. In contrast, characteristics of high circulating GH included larger body sizes, early puberty and reproductive senescence, increased cancer incidence and reduced life span when compared to wild-type animals with normal plasma hormone concentrations. This information, along with that found in multiple other species, implicates this anabolic pathway as the major regulator of longevity in animals. PMID:18674587

  2. Aerodynamic Interactions between Pairs of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (United States)

    Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John


    Increased power production has been observed in downstream vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) when positioned offset from the wake of upstream turbines. This effect was found to exist in both laboratory and field environments with pairs of co- and counter-rotating turbines. It is hypothesized that the observed power production enhancement is due to flow acceleration adjacent to the upstream turbine caused by bluff body blockage, which increases the incident freestream velocity on appropriately positioned downstream turbines. This type of flow acceleration has been observed in computational and laboratory studies of VAWTs and will be further investigated here using 3D-PTV measurements around pairs of laboratory-scale VAWTs. These measurements will be used to understand the mechanisms behind the performance enhancement effect and seek to determine optimal separation distances and angles between turbines based on turbine design parameters. These results will lead to recommendations for optimizing the power production of VAWT wind farms which utilize this effect.

  3. Evolutionary Origin of Body Axis Segmentation in Annelids and Arthropods (United States)

    Shankland, S. Martin


    During the period of this report, we have made a number of important discoveries. To date this work has led to 4 peer-reviewed publications in primary research journals plus 1 minireview and 1 chapter in the proceedings of a meeting. Publications resulting from this grant support are enumerated at the end of the report. Two additional, on-going studies also described. 1. Using laser cell ablation, we have obtained evidence that an annelid - the leech Helobdella robusta - patterns the anteroposterior (AP) polarity of its nascent segment primordia independent of cell interactions oriented along the AP axis. 2. We cloned a Helobdella homologue (hro-hh) of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog, and used in situ hybridization and northern blots to characterize its expression in the embryo. 3. We have used laser cell ablations to examine the possible role of cell interactions during the developmental patterning of the 4 rostralmost "head" segments of the leech Helobdella robusta.

  4. 4963 Kanroku: Asteroid with a possible precession of rotation axis (United States)

    Sokova, Iraida A.; Marchini, Alessandro; Franco, Lorenzo; Papini, Riccardo; Salvaggio, Fabio; Palmas, Teodora; Sokov, Eugene N.; Garlitz, Joe; Knight, Carl R.; Bretton, Marc


    Based on photometric observations of 4963 Kanroku as part of a campaign to measure its light-curve, changes of the light-curve profile have been detected. These changes are of a periodic nature, i.e. the profiles change with a detected period P = 16.4032 h. Based on simulations of the shape of the asteroid and using observational data, we make the assumption that such changes of the light-curve of the asteroid could be caused by the existence of a precession force acting on the axis of rotation of the asteroid. Simulations of the 4963 Kanroku light-curve, taking into account the detected precession, and the parameters for the shape of the asteroid, the modeled light-curves are in good agreement with the light-curves obtained from the observation campaign. Thus, the detected precession force may indicate a possible satellite of the asteroid 4963 Kanroku.

  5. Three axis rotational maneuver and vibration stabilization of elastic spacecraft (United States)

    Singh, Sahjendra N.


    A control law for three-axis rotational maneuvers of a spacecraft beam-tip body configuration based on non-linear inversion and modal velocity feedback is presented. A decoupling attitude control law is presented such that in the closed-loop system the attitude angles of the spacecraft are independently controlled, using the control moments acting on the space vehicle. This controller asymptotically decouples the flexible dynamics from the rigid one and also allows the decomposition of the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse deflections of the beam in two orthogonal planes. These low-order subsystems are used for the derivation of a modal velocity feedback stabilizer using the force and moment actuators at the end body. Simulation results are presented to show the capability of the controller.

  6. A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope (United States)

    Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying


    A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

  7. User's guide for the triple-axis spectrometer HB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlak, W.A.H.M.; Frikkee, E.


    This report serves as a manual for the users of the triple-axis spectrometer installed at beamport HB3 of the High Flux Reactor in Petten. The main part of the text is devoted to the control of the spectrometer operation and the data handling by means of a PDP 11/23 computer. The various options are implemented in a collection of menu-driven and command-driven programs which utilise the flexibility of the RSX-11M operating system without requiring detailed knowledge of the user about this system. For the convenience of the experienced user, who might wish to update or extend the software, a technical supplement is included. (Auth.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Aparicio López


    Full Text Available This article introduces a methodology to identify the presence of the environmental axis in educational programs in Bachelors in the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Mexico. It is sustained on competency-based education and constructionism, due to they appeal to humanism to deal current problems. It is composed of four phases: committee conformation, theoretical and conceptual concerning analysis, construction and application of instruments on a PE, and identification of the cross-curricular theme level. Even though the proposed methodology is applied to the environment, it is feasible to adapt to other axes, such as human rights, multiculturalism, and poverty, relevant to the educational context of the state of Guerrero.

  9. Brain-Pituitary Axis Development In The CEBAS Minimodule (United States)

    Schreibman, Martin P.; Magliulo-Cepriano, Lucia


    The CEBAS minimodule system is a man-made aquatic ecological system that incorporates animals, plants, snails, and microorganisms. It has been proposed that CEBAS will lead to a multigenerational experimental facility for utilization in a space station as well as for the development of an aquatic CELSS to produce animal and plant biomass for human nutrition. In this context, research on the reproductive biology of the organisms within the system should receive the highest priority. 1bus, the goals of our proposal were to provide information on space-flight-induced changes in the brain-pituitary axis and in the organs that receive information from the environment in the vertebrate selected for the CEBAS Minimodule program, the freshwater teleost Xiphophorus helleri (the swordtail). We studied the development of the brain- pituitary axis in neonates, immature and mature swordtails using histology, cytology, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, and in situ histochemistry to evaluate the synthesis, storage, and release of neurotransmitters, neuroregulatory peptides, neurohormones, and pituitary hormones as well as the structure of the organs and cells that produce, store, or are the target organs for these substances. We flew experiments in the CEBAS-minimodule on two shuttle missions, STS-89 and STS-90. In both flights four gravid females and about 200 juvenile (7 days old) swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) constituted the aquatic vertebrates to be studied, in addition to the plants and snails that were studied by other team members. In a sample sharing agreement developed with Dr. Volker Bluem, organizer of the CEBAS research program, we received a small number of the juveniles and shared the brains of two adult females.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in asthmatic school children. (United States)

    Zöllner, Ekkehard Werner; Lombard, Carl J; Galal, Ushma; Hough, F Stephen; Irusen, Elvis M; Weinberg, Eugene


    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression (HPAS) when treating children with corticosteroids is thought to be rare. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of and predictive factors for various degrees of HPAS. Clinical features of HPAS, doses, adherence, asthma score, and lung functions were recorded in 143 asthmatic children. The overnight metyrapone test was performed if morning cortisol was >83 nmol/L. Spearman correlations coefficients (r) were calculated between 3 postmetyrapone outcomes and each continuous variable. A multiple linear regression model of √postmetyrapone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a logistic regression model for HPAS were developed. Hypocortisolemia was seen in 6.1% (1.8-10.5), hypothalamic-pituitary suppression (HPS) in 22.2% (14.5-29.9), adrenal suppression in 32.3% (23.7-40.9), HPAS in 16.3% (9.3-23.3), and any hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in 65.1% (56.5-72.9). Log daily nasal steroid (NS) dose/m(2) was associated with HPAS in the logistic regression model (odds ratio = 3.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.6]). Daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) + NS dose/m(2) predicted HPAS in the univariate logistic regression model (P = .038). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity HPAS (odds ratio = 4.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-14.8]). Daily ICS + NS/m(2) dose was correlated with the postmetyrapone ACTH (r = -0.29, P HPAS are NS use, BMI, and adherence to ICS and NS.

  11. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients. (United States)

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Role of thymulin on the somatotropic axis in vivo. (United States)

    Reggiani, Paula C; Martines, Eliana V; Camihort, Gisela A; Poch, Brenda; Goya, Rodolfo G; Cónsole, Gloria M


    There is clear evidence for the existence of a bi-directional thymus-somatotropic axis and several studies suggest that the thymic peptide thymulin may be involved in this communication. We undertook to assess the impact of serum thymulin immunoneutralization in C57BL/6 mice and that of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) in nude mice on body weight (BW) gain and on the histomorphometric profile of the somatotrope population. Immunoneutralization of thymulin was done from postnatal day 1 to 35 by i.p. injections of rabbit anti-thymulin serum (α-FTS) and normal rabbit serum (NRS) in controls. NTGT was implemented in nudes using an adenoviral vector expressing a synthetic gene for thymulin (RAd-FTS). On postnatal day 1, heterozygous (nu/+) and homozygous (nu/nu) pups received a single bilateral i.m. injection either RAd-FTS or RAd-GFP (a control vector expressing green fluorescent protein). BW gain was recorded and at the end of the study the pituitaries were immunostained for growth hormone (GH). Serum GH and thymulin were determined by radioimmunoassay and bioassay, respectively. Thymulin immunoneutralization induced a significant decrease in BW gain, serum GH and somatotrope cell density as well as an increase in somatotrope cell size. NTGT markedly increased BW gain, serum thymulin (P<0.01) and somatotrope cell and volume density in nu/nu mice. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiological role on the thymus-somatotropic axis in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gut-Brain Axis and Metabolism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. (United States)

    Saydam, Basak Ozgen; Yildiz, Bulent O


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrine disorder, often accompanied and complicated by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and obesity. Gut, brain and metabolism are highly related with each other in obesity and diabetes as well as in PCOS. Central nervous system regulates food intake through complex interactions of homeostatic and hedonic systems while gastrointestinal system contributes to food intake and metabolism via orexigenic and anorexigenic gastrointestinal hormones. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone whereas anorexigenic peptides include glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Compared to healthy women, patients with PCOS show decreased or unaltered fasting ghrelin levels, along with decreased or unaltered postprandial suppression of this hormone. GLP-1, PYY and CCK show unaltered or decreased levels both in fasting and postprandial states in PCOS whereas fasting levels of another gut hormone, GIP is either unaltered or increased. Dietary interventions associated with weight loss or short term oral contraceptive use in PCOS do not alter fasting or postprandial levels of these hormones. However use of metformin is associated with an increase in ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and GIP in women with PCOS. GLP-1 agonists and bariatric surgery, both having a significant impact on gut-brain axis, appear to be effective therapeutic options in obese women with PCOS. Finally, alterations in gut microbiota and possible interactions with gut-brain axis in PCOS is a topic of interest. Understanding the relationship between PCOS and homeostatic and hedonic systems, gastrointestinal hormones, and gut microbiota as well as potential effects of different therapeutic interventions on these systems will provide further understanding and novel treatment opportunities for this syndrome.

  14. Chronic HPA Axis Response to Stress in Temporomandibular Disorder (United States)

    Lambert, Cynthia Ann; Sanders, Anne; Wilder, Rebecca S.; Slade, Gary D.; Van Uum, Stan; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Maixner, William


    Purpose Perceived stress is associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but whether cortisol levels are elevated in individuals with TMD is unknown. We hypothesized that cortisol concentration, a biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, was elevated in TMD cases relative to controls, and that perceived stress was positively correlated with cortisol concentration. Methods In this case control study, TMD case status was determined by examiners using TMD Research Diagnostic Criteria. Participants (n=116) aged 18 to 59 years were recruited from within a 50 mile radius of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Following examination, cases (n=45) and controls (n=71) completed the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale using a reference interval of the past 3 months. Approximately 100 strands of hair were cut from the posterior vertex segment of their scalp. The 3 centimeters of hair most proximal to the scalp was analyzed with a commercially available salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay adapted for hair cortisol. This length corresponds to the last 3 months of systemic HPA axis activity. Results TMD cases perceived higher stress than controls (p=0.001). However, hair cortisol concentration was lower in TMD cases than controls (pstress and hair cortisol concentration (p=0.044). In analysis stratified by case status, the relationship of perceived stress and hair cortisol concentration was non-significant for cases (p=0.169) and controls (p=0.498). Conclusion Despite greater perceived stress, TMD cases had lower hair cortisol concentrations than controls and the 2 measures of stress were weakly and negatively correlated. PMID:23986140

  15. Radiologic Evaluation of the Renal Axis in Patients with an Accessory Renal Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Eun Ha


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between an accessory renal artery (ARA) and the renal axis seen on radiographs. The MDCT axial images of 428 patients were used to detect the presence of an ARA and its location. The plain radiographs were used to measure the renal axis angle, which was the angle between the longitudinal spinal axis and the renal axis. We correlated these results to determine the association between an ARA and the renal axis. Of the 856 kidneys (428 patients), 19 kidneys had an ARA in the upper pole, 63 kidneys had an ARA in the hilum and 20 kidneys had an ARA in the lower pole. The mean renal axis angles of these three groups were 16.7 degrees, 15.9 degrees and 11.2 degrees respectively. The mean renal axis angle without an ARA was 16.8 degrees. The renal axis angles with an ARA in the upper pole or hilum showed no significant differences compared to those without an ARA. However, the renal axis angle with an ARA in the lower pole was significantly smaller than those without an ARA. On plain radiographs, the axis of kidneys with an ARA in the lower pole maybe more vertical than those without an ARA

  16. Failure of the PTEN/aPKC/Lgl Axis Primes Formation of Adult Brain Tumours in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Paglia


    Full Text Available Different regions in the mammalian adult brain contain immature precursors, reinforcing the concept that brain cancers, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, may originate from cells endowed with stem-like properties. Alterations of the tumour suppressor gene PTEN are very common in primary GBMs. Very recently, PTEN loss was shown to undermine a specific molecular axis, whose failure is associated with the maintenance of the GBM stem cells in mammals. This axis is composed of PTEN, aPKC, and the polarity determinant Lethal giant larvae (Lgl: PTEN loss promotes aPKC activation through the PI3K pathway, which in turn leads to Lgl inhibition, ultimately preventing stem cell differentiation. To find the neural precursors responding to perturbations of this molecular axis, we targeted different neurogenic regions of the Drosophila brain. Here we show that PTEN mutation impacts aPKC and Lgl protein levels also in Drosophila. Moreover, we demonstrate that PI3K activation is not sufficient to trigger tumourigenesis, while aPKC promotes hyperplastic growth of the neuroepithelium and a noticeable expansion of the type II neuroblasts. Finally, we show that these neuroblasts form invasive tumours that persist and keep growing in the adult, leading the affected animals to untimely death, thus displaying frankly malignant behaviours.

  17. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.


    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  18. Short-axis epicardial volume change is a measure of cardiac left ventricular short-axis function, which is independent of myocardial wall thickness. (United States)

    Ugander, Martin; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan


    Fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography is considered to represent the short-axis contribution to the stroke volume (SV), also called short-axis function. However, FS is mathematically coupled to the amount of myocardium, since it rearranges during atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD). The SV is the sum of the volumes generated by 1) reduction in outer volume of the heart, and 2) inner AVPD. The long-axis contribution to the SV is generated by AVPD, and thus the short-axis contribution is the remaining outer volume change of the heart, which should be unrelated to myocardial wall thickness. We hypothesized that both endocardial and midwall shortening indexed to SV are dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas epicardial volume change (EVC) indexed to SV is not. Twelve healthy volunteers (normals), 12 athletes, and 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction EVC was defined as SV minus long-axis function. Endocardial and midwall shortening were measured in a midventricular short-axis slice. Endocardial shortening/SV and midwall shortening/SV both varied in relation to end-diastolic myocardial wall thickness (R(2) = 0.16, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.14, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas EVC/SV did not (R(2) = 0.00, P = 0.37). FS is dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas EVC is not and therefore represents true short-axis function. This is not surprising considering that FS is mainly caused by rearrangement of myocardium secondary to long-axis function. FS is therefore not synonymous with short-axis function.

  19. Systematic evaluation of Axis-I DSM diagnoses in delayed sleep phase disorder and evening-type circadian preference. (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Jaksa, Ashley A; Eisengart, Julie B; Baron, Kelly G; Lu, Brandon; Kane, Peter; Kang, Joseph; Zee, Phyllis C


    Alterations in circadian rhythms can have profound effects on mental health. High co-morbidity for psychiatric disorders has been observed in patients with circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), and in those with an evening-type circadian preference. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the prevalence and type of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM IV) Axis-I disorders in those with DSPD compared to evening-type controls. Forty-eight DSPD and 25 evening-type participants took part in this study. Sleep and wake parameters were assessed with actigraphy, diary and questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ). Evening-type preference was defined by the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire. DSPD was determined by an interview according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria. Current and past diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were assessed with a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders. DSPD was associated with a later wake time, longer sleep time, higher PSQI score and lower Horne-Ostberg and FOSQ scores compared to evening-types. There were no significant differences in the prevalence or type of Axis-I disorders between those with DSPD or evening-type preference. Over 70% of participants met criteria for at least one past Axis-I disorder. Approximately 40% of both the DSPD and evening-types met criteria for a past diagnosis of mood, anxiety (most frequently phobia) or substance-use disorders. Evening types were more likely to have a past diagnosis of more than one Axis-I disorder. These results highlight the important link between circadian rhythms and mental disorders. Specifically, an evening circadian chronotype regardless of DSPD status is associated with a risk for anxiety, depressive or substance-use disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rotational profile of lower limb and axis for tibial component alignment in varus osteoarthritic knees. (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Shahnawaz; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo


    The purposes of this study were to describe the changes in tibial torsion and knee rotation in varus osteoarthritic knees and to check the reliability of reference axis, for tibial component placement, based on femoral transepicondylar axis in these patients. A secondary goal was to determine which reference axis based on proximal tibia is most accurate for determining tibial component rotation. Fifty-two varus osteoarthritic knees and 20 normal knees were analyzed using computed tomographic scan. Tibial torsion and knee rotation were significantly reduced in patients with osteoarthritis. Reference axis based on posterior tibial condyles was most accurate and least variable for tibial component alignment. A significant negative correlation was found between knee rotation and tibial axis based on transepicondylar axis (r = -0.485). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.