WorldWideScience

Sample records for left-edge boundary tone

  1. Prosodic boundary tone classification with voice quality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ran; Choi, Jeung-Yoon

    2013-04-01

    Voice quality features such as harmonic structure and spectral tilt are investigated in classifying vocalic segments into one of five boundary tones in the tones and break indices system. Static and nonstatic features are examined, and performance is compared with features related to duration, pitch, and amplitude, along with adjacent segment characteristics. From statistical tests, voice quality features are found to be significant for classifying prosodic boundary tones, and especially for distinguishing low-tone boundaries. Classification results using features selected from Kruskal-Wallis tests, Akaike information criterion values, and from sequential forward search show that using voice quality features leads to lower balanced error rates.

  2. WPP, No. 109: Prosodic Boundaries and the Taiwanese Tone Sandhi Group

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Grace

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the Taiwanese Tone Sandhi Group domain. Replicating Carlson et al.'s (2005) perception study, an experiment was conducted aiming to see whether Taiwanese listeners were able to predict the occurrence and strength of upcoming boundaries - Word, Tone Sandhi Group and Utterance. Stimuli were selected from a corpus of spontaneous Swedish speech and Taiwanese read speech, so as to vary in Boundary types (no break vs. weak break vs. strong break), Fragment siz...

  3. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary:Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension, and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation...

  4. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how kindergarten-children are differentiated and segregated through vocal practices and processes. The analysis is based on empirical data, which originate from a long ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark. The author presents two different language tones: "a teaching tone...... and an exchange tone" and shows a pattern in the ways the two tones are performed. While the teaching tone is heard in the interaction between the staff and the ethnic minority children, the ethnic majority children (the Danes) are addressed in the exchange tone. Pierre Bourdieu's concepts: "linguistic market......", "habitual inclinations" and "feeling for the game" are used as theoretical framework. When the author interprets and explains the language pattern as unequal distribution of recognition and as continuation of reproduction of a socio-cultural hierarchy among the children she relates to this framework...

  6. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  7. Pure-tone Audiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.

  8. Change of tone

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Staff Association set the tone by leaving the members of the SCC speechless when he read out a solemn declaration For a start, Management invites us to discuss the Five-Yearly Review without having provided any formal text. Concertation Method of analysis and use of data previously adopted by Council. Salaries. Increase. Employment conditions. Family allowances. Crèche. Career perspectives. Referendum.

  9. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  10. Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-speaking Congenital Amusics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ting Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia, whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics and amusics with tone agnosia participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the categorical perception of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 Hz to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical categorical perception of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the categorical perception of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  11. TONE IN MALAWIAN TONGA VERBS1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the forms above, we note that the verb roots vina, lelesya, welenga, peya, samba, thawa, kambula and vwiya which were underlying low toned i.e. had no high tone, now surface with high tones particularly in (3b, c & g). We account for these forms by claiming that in the present progressive tense (which is not morpho-.

  12. Neural signatures of lexical tone reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica P Y; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-01-01

    Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  14. Does Central Bank Tone Move Asset Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeling, Maik; Wagner, Christian

    We explore whether the tone of central bank communication matters for asset prices. Using press conference statements by the ECB, which was the first central bank to establish live press conferences after meetings of its Governing Council, we find that tone changes have a statistically...... fundamentals, these results support the conjecture that central bank tone matters for asset prices through a risk-based channel. Our main findings also apply to U.S. markets, where stock prices and Treasury yields increase when the Fed chair’s tone in the Congressional Testimony becomes more positive....

  15. Perception of tones by bilingual infants learning non-tone languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    This paper examines the ability of bilingual infants who were learning Dutch and another non-tone language to discriminate tonal contrasts. All infants from 5 to 18 months of age succeeded in discriminating a tonal contrast of Mandarin Chinese (Tone 1 versus Tone 4) and showed a U-shaped pattern

  16. From tone to pitch in Sepedi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available nuclei serve as the primary indicator of tone, with the relative frequencies of successive syllables being the most relevant measure. Our analysis also suggests that additional factors may play a role in the production and perception of tone....

  17. Tone as a health concept: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Donald; Emmanuel, Elizabeth; Grace, Sandra; Chaseling, Marilyn

    2017-11-01

    Concept analysis. This paper is a report on the analysis of the concept of tone in chiropractic. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of tone as originally understood by Daniel David Palmer from 1895 to 1914 and to monitor its evolution over time. Data was sourced from Palmer's original work, published between 1895 and 1914. A literature search from 1980 to 2016 was also performed on the online databases CINHAL, PubMed and Scopus with key terms including 'tone', 'chiropractic', 'Palmer', 'vitalism', 'health', 'homeostasis', 'holism' and 'wellness'. Finally hand-searches were conducted through chiropractic books and professional literature from 1906 to 1980 for any references to 'tone'. Rodgers' evolutionary method of analysis was used to categorise the data in relation to the surrogates, attributes, references, antecedents and consequences of tone. A total of 49 references were found: five from publications by Palmer; three from the database searches, and; the remaining 41 from professional books, trade journals and websites. There is no clear interpretation of tone in the contemporary chiropractic literature. Tone is closely aligned with functional neurology and can be understood as an interface between the metaphysical and the biomedical. Using the concept of tone as a foundation for practice could strengthen the identity of the chiropractic profession. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CONSTRUCTION SENSITIVITY IN PINGYAO TONE SANDHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-shan Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates tone sandhi phenomena in Pingyao, a Jin dialect spoken in Shanxi province in China. Pingyao tone sandhi is special in that tone sandhi in bi-syllabic strings is construction sensitive, but tone sandhi in tri-syllabic strings is not fully conditioned by construction types. Based on Optimality Theory (OT, this paper proposes analyses for bi-tonal and tri-tonal sandhi in Pingyao. We show that while bi-tonal sandhi can be accounted for by assuming that there are different grammars associated with different construction types, the lack of construction sensitivity in certain tri-syllabic strings suggests that the association between construction types and phonological grammars can be sacrificed to comply with a higher demand. In Pingyao, the higher demand is to avoid having a tri-tonal string with marked tone sandhi domain from being associated with conflicting grammars.

  19. Fixed Average Spectra of Orchestral Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Plazak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fixed spectrum for an average orchestral instrument tone is presented based on spectral data from the Sandell Harmonic Archive (SHARC. This database contains non-time-variant spectral analyses for 1,338 recorded instrument tones from 23 Western instruments ranging from contrabassoon to piccolo. From these spectral analyses, a grand average was calculated, providing what might be considered an average non-time-variant harmonic spectrum. Each of these tones represents the average of all instruments in the SHARC database capable of producing that pitch. These latter tones better represent common spectral changes with respect to pitch register, and might be regarded as an “average instrument.” Although several caveats apply, an average harmonic tone or instrument may prove useful in analytic and modeling studies. In addition, for perceptual experiments in which non-time-variant stimuli are needed, an average harmonic spectrum may prove to be more ecologically appropriate than common technical waveforms, such as sine tones or pulse trains. Synthesized average tones are available via the web.

  20. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  1. Preattentive cortical-evoked responses to pure tones, harmonic tones, and speech: influence of music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-08-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials, including mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a to pure tones, harmonic complexes, and speech syllables, were examined across groups of trained musicians and nonmusicians. Because of the extensive formal and informal auditory training received by musicians throughout their lifespan, it was predicted that these electrophysiological indicators of preattentive pitch discrimination and involuntary attention change would distinguish musicians from nonmusicians and provide insight regarding the influence of auditory training and experience on central auditory function. A total of 102 (67 trained musicians, 35 nonmusicians) right-handed young women with normal hearing participated in three auditory stimulus conditions: pure tones (25 musicians/15 nonmusicians), harmonic tones (42 musicians/20 nonmusicians), and speech syllables (26 musicians/15 nonmusicians). Pure tone and harmonic tone stimuli were presented in multideviant oddball paradigms designed to elicit MMN and P3a. Each paradigm included one standard and two infrequently occurring deviants. For the pure tone condition, the standard pure tone was 1000 Hz, and the two deviant tones differed in frequency from the standard by either 1.5% (1015 Hz) or 6% (1060 Hz). The harmonic tone complexes were digitally created and contained a fundamental frequency (F0) and three harmonics. The amplitude of each harmonic was divided by its harmonic number to create a natural amplitude contour in the frequency spectrum. The standard tone was G4 (F0 = 392 Hz), and the two deviant tones differed in fundamental frequency from the standard by 1.5% (F0 = 386 Hz) or 6% (F0 = 370 Hz). The fundamental frequencies of the harmonic tones occur within the average female vocal range. The third condition to elicit MMN and P3a was designed for the presentation of speech syllables (/ba/ and /da/) and was structured as a traditional oddball paradigm (one standard/one infrequent deviant). Each speech stimulus was

  2. covert contrast: The acquisition of Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 in L2 production and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Li-Ya

    This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of

  3. Realisations of a single high tone in Northern Sotho | Zerbian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The segmental make-up of the tone-bearing syllable leads to systematic surface variation in tone realisation. By collecting controlled acoustic data on tone realisation, this study provides a ground for cross-dialectal comparison of Southern Bantu tone. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2009, 27(4): ...

  4. Constraints on Tone Sensitivity in Novel Word Learning by Monolingual and Bilingual Infants: Tone Properties Are More Influential than Tone Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Singh, Leher; Mattock, Karen; Woo, Pei J.; Kalashnikova, Marina

    2018-01-01

    This study compared tone sensitivity in monolingual and bilingual infants in a novel word learning task. Tone language learning infants (Experiment 1, Mandarin monolingual; Experiment 2, Mandarin-English bilingual) were tested with Mandarin (native) or Thai (non-native) lexical tone pairs which contrasted static vs. dynamic (high vs. rising) tones or dynamic vs. dynamic (rising vs. falling) tones. Non-tone language, English-learning infants (Experiment 3) were tested on English intonational contrasts or the Mandarin or Thai tone contrasts. Monolingual Mandarin language infants were able to bind tones to novel words for the Mandarin High-Rising contrast, but not for the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast; and they were insensitive to both the High-Rising and the Rising-Falling tone contrasts in Thai. Bilingual English-Mandarin infants were similar to the Mandarin monolinguals in that they were sensitive to the Mandarin High-Rising contrast and not to the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast. However, unlike the Mandarin monolinguals, they were also sensitive to the High Rising contrast in Thai. Monolingual English learning infants were insensitive to all three types of contrasts (Mandarin, Thai, English), although they did respond differentially to tone-bearing vs. intonation-marked words. Findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to tones in word learning contexts depends heavily on tone properties, and that this influence is, in some cases, stronger than effects of language familiarity. Moreover, bilingual infants demonstrated greater phonological flexibility in tone interpretation. PMID:29354077

  5. Jets instabilities producing the slot-tone

    OpenAIRE

    Billon, Alexis; Valeau, Vincent; Sakout, Anas

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the instability governing the self-sustained tones produced by a low Mach number free plane jet impinging on a slotted plate, known as slot-tone, is identified experimentally. The experimental apparatus permits to control the Reynolds number and the distance from the jet outlet to the plate. For a Reynolds number, the shear-layer natural frequency and the jet column mode frequency of the free jet without the obstacle are estimated and compared to the minimal and maximal frequenc...

  6. Deriving bounded tone with layered feet in Harmonic Serialism: The case of Saghala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Breteler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to bounded tone shift and spread as found in Bantu languages. Its core intuition is that the bounding domain is delimited by foot structure. The approach uses layered foot representations to capture ternary phenomena, following Martinez-Paricio & Kager (2015. A set of licensing and structural constraints regulate tone-foot interactions. Harmonic Serialism is adopted as the grammatical framework, to allow for an account of opaque patterns (Prince & Smolensky 1993/2004; McCarthy 2010a. The present approach improves on previous accounts in two ways. Firstly, the size of the tonal bounding domain follows from independently motivated foot representations, rather than being stipulated in the constraint set. Secondly, the approach obviates the need for markedness constraints that refer to underlying structure, because all relevant lexical information is reflected in foot structures. The approach is demonstrated on Saghala (Patin 2009. Saghala shows both shift and spread in a trisyllabic domain. There are six tone patterns, dependent on the contact or near-contact of tones, and the position of word boundaries. An analysis is presented that accounts for all patterns. The success of the analysis shows that the foot-based approach is equipped to deal with a variety of bounded tone phenomena.

  7. Effects of PPARγ ligands on vascular tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ), originally described as a transcription factor for genes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, has been more recently studied in the context of cardiovascular pathophysiology. Here, we review the available data on PPARγ ligands as modulator of vascular tone. PPARγ ligands include: thiazolidinediones (used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus), glitazars (bind and activate both PPARγ and PPARα), and other experimental drugs (still in development) that exploit the chemistry of thiazolidinediones as a scaffold for PPARγ-independent pharmacological properties. In this review, we examine both short (mostly from in vitro data)- and long (mostly from in vivo data)-term effects of PPARγ ligands that extend from PPARγ-independent vascular effects to PPARγ-dependent gene expression. Because endothelium is a master regulator of vascular tone, we have attempted to differentiate between endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent effects of PPARγ ligands. Based on available data, we conclude that PPARγ ligands appear to influence vascular tone in different experimental paradigms, most often in terms of vasodilatation (potentially increasing blood flow to some tissues). These effects on vascular tone, although potentially beneficial, must be weighed against specific cardiovascular warnings that may apply to some drugs, such as rosiglitazone.

  8. Cardiorespiratory optimization during improvised singing and toning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, N F; Snow, S; Peretz, I; Orozco Perez, H D; Sabet-Kassouf, N; Lehmann, A

    2017-08-14

    We evaluated the effect of different forms of singing on cardiorespiratory physiology, and we aimed at disentangling the role of breathing from that of vocal production. Cardiorespiratory recordings were obtained from 20 healthy adults at rest and during: a) singing of familiar slow songs as in the standard form of Western culture; b) improvised vocalization of free vowel sounds, known as toning. To disentangle the role of breathing from that of vocal production, we compared the vocal conditions with matched breathing-only conditions. Toning significantly improved heart rate variability, ventilatory efficiency and slowed respiration to almost exactly six breaths per minute (p Singing songs also positively impacted cardiorespiratory function, although to a lesser extent. The breathing pattern imposed upon participants in the absence of vocal production was sufficient to generate the physiological benefits. The effects of toning are similar to what has been previously described as a result of engaging in formal breathing exercises. Toning and singing may offer an engaging and cost effective tool to trigger beneficial respiratory patterns and the related cardiovascular benefits.

  9. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  10. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... has variously been reported (WHO, 1991; Al-. Saleh and Al-Doush, 1997; Kahatano et al., 1998;. Glahder, 1999). Product Name. Mercury. (µg g-1) ... 0.008. USA. White. Fair & Beautiful (Maxi-Tone). <0.001. Switzerland. Pale brown. Faire Age. 0.008. Unknown. White. Fashion Fair Cream. 0.045. Italy. White.

  11. Influences on tone in Sepedi, a Southern Bantu language

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zerbian, S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tone in Bantu languages is rarely studied experimentally. This paper reports a production study which reveals the intricate interaction of tonal context and morphological structure in surface tone realization in Sepedi, a South African Bantu...

  12. When does the tone of earnings press releases matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; Thewissen, James; Torsin, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    The tone of a firm's financial disclosure is increasingly used as a variable in panel data regressions to predict future performance and explain investors’ reaction at earnings announcement. We investigate when tone is informative, and argue that the informativeness of tone increases with the

  13. Syllabification, Tone Marking, and Minimality in Eleme Ngulube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    This syllable structure is illustrated by the examples in (ii) – (vii) = low tone; mid tone and high tone: ii d ..... Oxford: Basil. Blackwell. Greenberg, J. H. (1966). Languages universals with special reference to feature hierarchies. The Hague: Moulton & CO. Halle, Morris, & Jean-Roger Vergnaud (1987). An essay on stress.

  14. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    existence) of phonological tone in Cibemba following intensive but non exhaustive computer analysis conducted in their Lab. While recognizing the merits of tone awareness among learners and speakers of African languages, the argument of the present writer is that the phenomenon of tone is essentially a phonetic ...

  15. Pitch Ability as an Aptitude for Tone Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Anita R.; Chang, Charles B.; Karuzis, Valerie P.

    2016-01-01

    Tone languages such as Mandarin use voice pitch to signal lexical contrasts, presenting a challenge for second/foreign language (L2) learners whose native languages do not use pitch in this manner. The present study examined components of an aptitude for mastering L2 lexical tone. Native English speakers with no previous tone language experience…

  16. Cardiorespiratory optimization during improvised singing and toning

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, N. F.; Snow, S.; Peretz, I.; Orozco Perez, H. D.; Sabet-Kassouf, N.; Lehmann, A.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of different forms of singing on cardiorespiratory physiology, and we aimed at disentangling the role of breathing from that of vocal production. Cardiorespiratory recordings were obtained from 20 healthy adults at rest and during: a) singing of familiar slow songs as in the standard form of Western culture; b) improvised vocalization of free vowel sounds, known as toning. To disentangle the role of breathing from that of vocal production, we compared the vocal conditi...

  17. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTillmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  18. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  19. Cosmeceuticals: efficacy and influence on skin tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-04-01

    Cosmeceuticals are understood to be active cosmetics that are sold over-the-counter, but have profound effects on skin appearance and functioning. This term has no legal meaning in the United States, because only cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are recognized by regulatory bodies. Cosmeceuticals are carefully developed and tested by the cosmetics industry to deliver consumer-recognizable benefits, with an excellent safety profile. Persons use these products worldwide, including those of African descent, for improvement of skin tone. This article discusses the issues surrounding cosmeceutical use by persons of African descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  1. Umbilical artery tone in maternal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavey Siobhan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity constitutes a major health problem in obstetrics with implications for feto-maternal growth and wellbeing. This study investigated and compared the contractile properties of umbilical arteries excised from obese women, with those excised from women with a normal body mass index (BMI. Methods Sections of umbilical artery were obtained from umbilical cord samples immediately after delivery and mounted for isometric recording in organ tissue baths under physiological conditions. Cumulative additions of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and Prostaglandin F-2alpha (PgF2alpha were added in the concentration range of 1 nmol/L to 10 micromol/L. Control vessels were exposed to Krebs physiological salt solution (PSS only. The resultant effects of each drug addition were measured using the Powerlab hardware unit. Results 5-HT exerted a significant effect on human umbilical artery tone at concentrations of 100 nmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 10 micromol/L in normal (n = 5; P 0.05. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that endogenous regulation of umbilical artery tone is altered in association with maternal obesity. This may be linked to the cardiovascular effects of secretory products of adipose tissue, with implications for the feto-maternal circulation.

  2. Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Werke, Mariana E; Queiroz, Marcelo; Araújo, Rúben S; Bueno, Orlando F A; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for tones, using self-generated sung responses that may be compared to verbal tests. This paradigm was designed according to the same structure of the forward and backward digit span tests, but using digits, pseudowords, and tones as stimuli. The profile of amateur singers and professional singers in these tests was compared in forward and backward digit, pseudoword, tone, and contour spans. In addition, an absolute pitch experimental group was included, in order to observe the possible use of verbal labels in tone memorization tasks. In general, we observed that musical schooling has a slight positive influence on the recall of tones, as opposed to verbal material, which is not influenced by musical schooling. Furthermore, the ability to reproduce melodic contours (up and down patterns) is generally higher than the ability to reproduce exact tone sequences. However, backward spans were lower than forward spans for all stimuli (digits, pseudowords, tones, contour). Curiously, backward spans were disproportionately lower for tones than for verbal material-that is, the requirement to recall sequences in backward rather than forward order seems to differentially affect tonal stimuli. This difference does not vary according to musical expertise.

  3. Classical conditioned responses to absent tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häusler Udo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence for a tight coupling of sensorimotor processes in trained musicians led to the question of whether this coupling extends to preattentively mediated reflexes; particularly, whether a classically conditioned response in one of the domains (auditory is generalized to another (tactile/motor on the basis of a prior association in a second-order Pavlovian paradigm. An eyeblink conditioning procedure was performed in 17 pianists, serving as a model for overlearned audiomotor integration, and 14 non-musicians. Results: During the training session, subjects were conditioned to respond to auditory stimuli (piano tones. During a subsequent testing session, when subjects performed keystrokes on a silent piano, pianists showed significantly higher blink rates than non-musicians. Conclusion These findings suggest a tight coupling of the auditory and motor domains in musicians, pointing towards training-dependent mechanisms of strong cross-modal sensorimotor associations even on sub-cognitive processing levels.

  4. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  5. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  6. Development and evaluation of a new measure for muscle tone of ankle plantar flexors: the ankle plantar flexors tone scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Kuwabara, Takeya; Usuda, Shigeru

    2009-12-01

    Takeuchi N, Kuwabara T, Usuda S. Development and evaluation of a new measure for muscle tone of ankle plantar flexors: the Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale. To develop and evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of a clinically feasible measure for muscle tone of the ankle plantar flexors. Cross-sectional reliability and validity study of the Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale. Department of rehabilitation in a general hospital. Patients (N=74) with cerebrovascular disease. Not applicable. Muscle tone of the ankle plantar flexors was measured using the Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale, the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), quality of muscle reaction with the Modified Tardieu Scale, and passive resistive joint torque with a handheld dynamometer. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed using the Cohen kappa coefficient (kappa). Internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach alpha (alpha). Concurrent validity was assessed with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho). The Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale included 3 items: stretch reflex, middle range resistance, and final range resistance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities and internal consistency of the Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale showed moderate to excellent agreement (kappa=.63-.94; alpha=.81). Concurrent validity of the Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale was low to very high among the 3 items of the Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale and existing measures. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed high to very high correlation between stretch reflex and quality of muscle reaction as indices of the central component (rho=.85-.94). Middle range resistance and final range resistance as indices of the peripheral component had low to moderate correlation with passive resistive joint torque using a handheld dynamometer and MAS (rho=.44-.68). The Ankle Plantar Flexors Tone Scale allows measurement of ankle plantar flexor tone in greater detail than existing subjective measures

  7. Tone Kralj, Illustrator of Printed Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Bezić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition Art Deco in the Croatian Music Institute, which I prepared in 2011 and was staged in Zagreb, presented interesting material from the Institute’s library and archives (sheet music, books, concert programmes, and so on. The artistic focus was on works by 15 artists born in the late 19th century, mainly from Croatia. One exhibit was an exception, however since it comes from my own collection, the edition of Kadar jaz, dekle, umrla bom (When I, a girl, will die, a collection of folk songs arranged for a mixed choir by the Slovenian composer Breda Šček (1893–1968, published in Trieste in 1933. The cover illustration was made by Anton (Tone Kralj (1900–1975, the Slovenian painter, graphic artist and sculptor, who probably met the composer Šček at the beginning of the 1930s. In the period from 1932 to 1954, Kralj made illustrations for 27 scores by seven Slovenian composers: Lojze Bratuž, Ivan Laharnar, Silvester Orel, Stanko Premrl, Breda Šček, Matija Tomc and Vinko Vodopivec. These composers were linked not only by Kralj’s contributions to their scores, but also by their engagement in church music, and most were from the same region of Slovenia, Primorska. The research presented in this paper showed that Breda Šček was probably the key person for Kralj’s involvement in illustrating sheet music. In addition to the list of works published in the book Tone Kralj. Retrospective (ed. by I. Kranjc, Ljubljana 1998, this paper notes five newly discovered works, illustrations for musical scores written by Silvester Orel (4 and Breda Šček (1.

  8. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  9. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...

  10. Perception of coarticulated tones by non-native listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa

    2005-04-01

    Mandarin lexical tones vary in their acoustic realization depending on the surrounding context. Native listeners compensate for this tonal coarticulation when identifying tones in context. This study investigated how native English listeners handle tonal coarticulation by testing native English and Mandarin listeners discrimination of the four Mandarin lexical tones in tri-syllabic sequences in which the middle tone varied while the first and last tones were held constant. Three different such frames were tested. As expected, Mandarin listeners discriminated all pairs in all contexts with a high degree of accuracy. English listeners exhibited poorer discrimination than Mandarin listeners and their discrimination accuracy showed a high degree of context dependency. In addition to assessing accuracy, reactions times to correctly discriminated different trials were entered into a multidimensional scaling analysis. For both listener groups, the arrangement of tones in perceptual space varied depending on the surrounding context suggesting that listeners attend to different acoustic attributes of the target tone depending on the surrounding tones. These results demonstrate the importance for models of cross-language speech perception of including contextual variation when characterizing the perception of non-native prosodic categories. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD

  11. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  12. Empirical measurements on a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the empirical assessments employed on two versions of a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm. This algorithm uses linguistically-defined Sesotho tonal rules to predict the tone labels on the syllables of Sesotho words. The two...

  13. The Intragroup Stigmatization of Skin Tone Among Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard D.; LaBeach, Nicole; Pridgen, Ellie; Gocial, Tammy M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which racial contexts moderate the importance and function of intragroup skin-tone stigma among Black Americans. One hundred and thirty-two Black students were recruited from both a predominantly Black university and a predominantly White university and completed measures on skin tone,…

  14. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  15. The Significance of the Level Tone in Ghanaian English: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data consisting of 13 hours of conversations recorded from 200 Ghanaians were subjected to both auditory and acoustic analyses. Results show that Ghanaians perform other communicative functions with the level tone in addition to what the model posits. Based on the results, it is argued that the level tone performs ...

  16. Realisation of two adjacent high tones: Acoustic evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present findings of a multi-speaker production study that was undertaken to investigate the realisation of two adjacent high tones within the verb word in Northern Sotho, a Southern Bantu language. Experimental tokens are selected to ensure that the high tones originate from different combinations of morphosyntactic ...

  17. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted...

  18. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaute, Hilde; Moonen, Marc

    2005-12-01

    We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT)-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5-10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a "turbo-per-tone equalization" structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12-16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  19. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  20. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    Many people reach adulthood without acquiring significant music performance skills (singing or instrumental playing). A substantial proportion of these adults consider that this has come about because they are "not musical." Some of these people may be "true" congenital amusics, characterized by specific and substantial anomalies in the processing of musical pitch and rhythm sequences, while at the same time displaying normal processing of speech and language. It is likely, however, that many adults who believe that they are unmusical are neurologically normal. We could call these adults "false" amusics. Acquisition of musical competence has multiple personal, social, and environmental precursors. Deficiencies in these areas may lead to lack of musical achievement, despite the fact that an individual possesses the necessary underlying capacities. Adults may therefore self-define as "unmusical" or "tone-deaf" for reasons unconnected to any underlying anomaly. This paper reports on two linked research studies. The first is an interview study with adults defining themselves as tone-deaf or unmusical. The interview schedule was designed to discover what criteria are being used in their self-definitions. Preliminary results suggest that performance criteria (e.g., judging oneself as unable to sing) play a major role, even for people who claim and demonstrate no perceptual deficits. The second study reports progress on the development of new subtests for a revised version of the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, Peretz et al., 2003). This currently contains six tests that allow for the assessment of melodic perception: contour, intervals, scale, rhythm, meter, and recognition memory. The MBEA does not assess two capacities that are generally accepted as central to normal music cognition: harmony and emotion. The development and norming of the emotion subtest will be described. When completed, the MBEA(R) will form a robust screening device for use with

  2. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaridou, S.S.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs,

  3. Cardiac vagal tone, a non-invasive measure of parasympathetic tone, is a clinically relevant tool in Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Jessen, N; Brock, B

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To compare a novel index of parasympathetic tone, cardiac vagal tone, with established autonomic variables and to test the hypotheses that (1) cardiac vagal tone would be associated with established time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and (2) cardiac vagal tone would be lower i...... identification of people with Type 1 diabetes who should undergo formal autonomic function testing....

  4. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home....

  5. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  6. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  7. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disturbs Coronary Tone and Its Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kuzhel, Olga P; Belyaeva, Lyudmila E; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Fred Downey, H; Tseilikman, Olga B; Komelkova, Maria V; Tseilikman, Vadim E

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myocardial injury, but changes in coronary regulatory mechanisms in PTSD have not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of PTSD-inducing stress on coronary tone and its regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and voltage-gated K + channels. PTSD was induced by exposing rats to predator stress, 15 min daily for 10 days, followed by 14 stress-free days. Presence of PTSD was confirmed by the elevated plus-maze test. Coronary tone was evaluated from changes in coronary perfusion pressure of Langendorff isolated hearts. Predator stress induced significant decreases in coronary tone of isolated hearts and in blood pressure of intact rats. L-NAME, a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, but not S-MT, a selective iNOS inhibitor, and increased coronary tone of control rats. In PTSD rats, both L-NAME and S-MT increased coronary tone. Therefore, the stress-induced coronary vasodilation resulted from NO overproduction by both iNOS and eNOS. NOS induction was apparently due to systemic inflammation as evidenced by increased serum interleukin-1β and C-reactive protein in PTSD rats. Decreased corticosterone in PTSD rats may have contributed to inflammation and its effect on coronary tone. PTSD was also associated with voltage-gated K + channel dysfunction, which would have also reduced coronary tone.

  9. A linear programming approach for optimal contrast-tone mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithmic approach of image enhancement via optimal contrast-tone mapping. In a fundamental departure from the current practice of histogram equalization for contrast enhancement, the proposed approach maximizes expected contrast gain subject to an upper limit on tone distortion and optionally to other constraints that suppress artifacts. The underlying contrast-tone optimization problem can be solved efficiently by linear programming. This new constrained optimization approach for image enhancement is general, and the user can add and fine tune the constraints to achieve desired visual effects. Experimental results demonstrate clearly superior performance of the new approach over histogram equalization and its variants.

  10. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  11. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  12. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  13. Stem Tones Pre-activate Suffixes in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated positively with the amplitude of an anterior negative ERP elicited by stem tones. This effect is proposed to reflect suffix pre-activation. Suffixes that were cued by an incorrect tone elicited a left-anterior negativity and a P600, suggesting that the correct processing of the suffix is crucially tied to the activation of the preceding validly associated tone.

  14. Effect of harmonic rank on the streaming of complex tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Dau, Torsten; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the rank of the harmonics on sequential stream segregation of complex tones was investigated for normal-hearing participants with no musical training. It was hypothesized that stream segregation would be greater for tones with high pitch salience, as assessed by fundamental frequency....... There was a significant trend for less stream segregation with increasing harmonic rank. The amount of stream segregation was inversely correlated with the f0 difference limens, consistent with the hypothesis....

  15. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-10-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  16. Mismatch negativity to single and multiple pitch-deviant tones in regular and pseudo-random complex tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Pato, M; Jones, S J; Perez, N; Sprague, L

    2002-04-01

    To determine whether the process responsible for the mismatch negativity (MMN) might be involved in the analysis of temporal sound patterns for information. Synthesized musical instrument tones of 'clarinet' timbre were delivered in a continuous sequence at 16 tones/s, such that there was virtually no N1 potential to each individual tone. The standard sequence comprised 4 or 5 adjacent notes of the diatonic scale, presented either as a regularly repeated, rising pattern or pseudo-randomly. The deviant stimuli were 1-5 consecutive tones of higher pitch than the standards. A MMN was evoked by a single deviant tone, 1 or 5 semitones above the pitch range of the standards. The response to the 5-semitone deviant was significantly larger (mean of 7.3 microV) when the standard pattern was regular as compared with pseudo-random. The MMN latency, on the other hand, was only influenced by the magnitude of pitch deviation. A second MMN was evoked by a second deviant tone, immediately (SOA 62.5 ms) following the first. Further consecutive MMNs were not consistently evoked. The large amplitude of these MMNs can be attributed to the use of complex tones, continuous presentation and a rapid rate of pitch changes, such that no waveform subtraction was required. Over and above the probability with which each individual tone occurs in the standard sequence, the mismatch process is influenced by its temporal structure, i.e. can be regarded as a temporal pattern analyzer. Contrary to the findings of some other groups, we found that two consecutive deviants can evoke an MMN, even at high rates of presentation such that both occur within the postulated 'temporal window of integration' of ca. 170 ms. These findings suggest that the mismatch process might be involved in the extraction of sequential information from repetitive and non-repetitive sound patterns.

  17. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  18. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder... SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.12 Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. Existing two-tone Attention... Attention Signal decoder will no longer be required and the two-tone Attention Signal will be used to...

  19. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  20. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  1. Two-Tone Interference Caused by Active Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Andor, D.; Jülicher, F.

    2003-02-01

    To capture faint sounds, the ear uses an active system of amplification. We and our colleagues have put forward the idea that the amplifier comprises a set of "self-tuned critical oscillators": each hair cell contains a force-generating dynamical system which is maintained at the threshold of an oscillatory instability, or Hopf bifurcation. Our analysis shows that the active response to a pure tone is perfectly suited to the ear's needs, since it provides frequency selectivity, exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range. However, the intrinsic nonlinearity of the mechanism causes tones of different frequency to interfere with one another in the cochlea. In order to provide a framework for understanding how the ear processes the more complex sounds of speech and music, we have examined the response of a critical Hopf oscillator to two tones. Our calculations indicate how the response to one tone is suppressed by the presence of a second tone of similar frequency. They also show how a characteristic spectrum of distortion products is generated. Based on this analysis, we discuss to what extent psychophysical phenomena such as the sensation of dissonance and auditory illusions can be attributed to the physical nature of the peripheral detection apparatus.

  2. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  3. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaute Hilde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a "turbo-per-tone equalization" structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  4. Pitch adaptation in different age groups : boundary tones versus global pitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsenova, M.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Houtepen, V.; Dittrich, H.; Uther, M.; Moore, R.; Cox, S.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic adaptation is a process by which interlocutors adjust their production to their environment. In the context of humancomputer interaction, past research showed that adult speakers adapt to computer speech in various manners but less is known about younger age groups. We report the results

  5. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Hamed; Rietveld, Toni; Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian) on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical) constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory.

  6. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahmani

    Full Text Available A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory.

  7. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  9. Loudness of tone pulses in a free field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of temporal loudness summation of tone pulses have been performed. The investigations comprised equal loudness determinations between pairs of tone pulses with a duration ratio of 1:2, and threshold determinations of the same tone pulses. Pulse durations ranged from 5 to 640 ms....... The frequencies were 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz. All pulses were shaped by means of 1/3 octave filters. For 25 normal hearing observers the investigations were performed at the observer's threshold, and at 35 and 55 dB SPL. Fitting of the experimental data to a single exponential function yields a time constant (tau......) of about 200 ms near and at the threshold, whereas tau is about 100 ms at levels well above threshold. Discrepancies exist, nevertheless, between this single-time-constant model and the experimental data obtained for the pulses of shortest duration. To account for this, a model is proposed comprising...

  10. Hindcasting the paroxysmal eruption of Villarrica using resonant infrasound tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.; Watson, L. M.; Dunham, E. M.; Anderson, J.; Franco, L.; Cardona, C., Sr.; Palma, J.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanoes radiate their most intense sounds in the infrasound band (below 20 Hz), which can be well recorded many kilometers from a vent. Open-vent volcanic systems, with active degassing, are particularly effective at producing infrasound, and they characteristically produce resonant tones controlled by the geometry of their crater. Changes in infrasound resonant tones, and their damping coefficient, thus provide a means to infer crater geometry, including crater volume, depth, and profile. This study analyzes the rapidly varying infrasound tone and quality factor of infrasound at Volcan Villarrica (Chile) leading up to its paroxysmal eruption on 3 March 2015. The changes in infrasound reflected a rise in the lava lake surface starting 100 hours prior to the violent and sudden eruption. We suggest that infrasound surveillance of open-vent resonance is a powerful tool with application for forecasting volcanic unrest at open vent volcanoes.

  11. Two-tone frequency-modulation stimulated Rayleigh spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Gregory W; Markosyan, Ashot; Porter, Christina L; Doshay, Sage

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated two-tone frequency-modulation (FM) stimulated Rayleigh spectroscopy. This method can provide high spectral resolution (∼1  MHz), excellent pump/probe detuning accuracy, and near-shot-noise-limited signal-to-noise ratios using a single narrowband laser as the master oscillator. Pump/probe detuning and FM sideband generation are produced with an electro-optic modulator. A double-pass two-rod Nd:YAG amplifier provides peak powers near 1 kW for the pump beam. Unlike with two-tone FM absorption spectroscopy, the phase signal is retained for two-tone FM Rayleigh spectroscopy. Measurements confirm that the shape of the phase component of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh peak agrees with theory.

  12. An Integrated Tone Mapping for High Dynamic Range Image Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Zhuang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    There are two type tone mapping operators for high dynamic range (HDR) image visualization. HDR image mapped by perceptual operators have strong sense of reality, but will lose local details. Empirical operators can maximize local detail information of HDR image, but realism is not strong. A common tone mapping operator suitable for all applications is not available. This paper proposes a novel integrated tone mapping framework which can achieve conversion between empirical operators and perceptual operators. In this framework, the empirical operator is rendered based on improved saliency map, which simulates the visual attention mechanism of the human eye to the natural scene. The results of objective evaluation prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  13. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range...... complexes, were highly correlated with those from the other tasks. Simulation of these experiments using a model of loudness perception [Moore and Glasberg, J. Hear Res. 188 (70-88)] yielded weights for these stimuli that were highly correlated with specific loudness, but the observed weights did not agree...

  14. Implementation and preliminary evaluation of 'C-tone': A novel algorithm to improve lexical tone recognition in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Wang, Ningyuan; Tang, Guofang; Lu, Thomas; Yin, Li; Tu, Wenhe; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Because of limited spectral resolution, Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving fundamental frequency (F0) cues that are important to lexical tone recognition. To improve Mandarin tone recognition in CI users, we implemented and evaluated a novel real-time algorithm (C-tone) to enhance the amplitude contour, which is strongly correlated with the F0 contour. The C-tone algorithm was implemented in clinical processors and evaluated in eight users of the Nurotron NSP-60 CI system. Subjects were given 2 weeks of experience with C-tone. Recognition of Chinese tones, monosyllables, and disyllables in quiet was measured with and without the C-tone algorithm. Subjective quality ratings were also obtained for C-tone. After 2 weeks of experience with C-tone, there were small but significant improvements in recognition of lexical tones, monosyllables, and disyllables (P C-tone were greater for disyllables than for monosyllables. Subjective quality ratings showed no strong preference for or against C-tone, except for perception of own voice, where C-tone was preferred. The real-time C-tone algorithm provided small but significant improvements for speech performance in quiet with no change in sound quality. Pre-processing algorithms to reduce noise and better real-time F0 extraction would improve the benefits of C-tone in complex listening environments. Chinese CI users' speech recognition in quiet can be significantly improved by modifying the amplitude contour to better resemble the F0 contour.

  15. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  16. Bleeding boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Møller; Petersen, Michael Nebeling

    2018-01-01

    Hook-up apps such as Grindr and Scruff have become important sites for the negotiation of sex between men, in that they shape the ways intimacy cultures are practised and become visible (Mowlabocus, 2010; Race, 2014; Duguay et al., 2016). While such apps enable different intimacy cultures......, they also come paired with anxieties. In the epigraph the interview participant James1 expresses concerns about the how the hook-up app Scruff might restructure the boundaries of privacy and make him vulnerable to exposure. Such technological ambivalence is central to domestication theory, which focuses...

  17. Breaking Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . As a fundamental human experience, liminality transmits cultural practices, codes, rituals, and meanings in-between aggregate structures and uncertain outcomes. As a methodological tool it is well placed to overcome disciplinary boundaries, which often direct attention to specific structures or sectors of society....... Its capacity to provide explanatory accounts of seemingly unstructured situations provides an opportunity to link experience-based and culture-oriented approaches not only to contemporary problems but also to undertake comparisons across historical periods. From a perspective of liminality...

  18. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  19. Phonetic complexity affects children's Mandarin tone production accuracy in disyllabic words: A perceptual study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Strange, Winifred

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones. Children's tones were judged with significantly lower accuracy than mothers' productions. Tone accuracy improved, while cross subject variability in tone accuracy decreased, with age. Children's tone accuracy was affected by the articulatory complexity of phonetic contexts. Children made more errors in tone combinations with more complex fundamental frequency (F0) contours than tone sequences with simpler F0 changes. When producing disyllabic tone sequences with complex F0 contours, children tended to shift the F0 contour of the first tone to reduce the F0 change, resulting in more tone errors in the first syllable than in the second syllable and showing substantially more anticipatory coarticulation than adults. The results provide further evidence that acquisition of lexical tones is a protracted process in children. Tones produced accurately by children in one phonetic context may not be produced correctly in another phonetic context. Children demonstrate more anticipatory coarticulation in their disyllabic productions than adults, which may be attributed to children's immature speech motor control in tone production, and is presumably a by-product of their inability to accomplish complex F0 changes within

  20. Phonetic complexity affects children's Mandarin tone production accuracy in disyllabic words: A perceptual study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puisan Wong

    Full Text Available This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones. Children's tones were judged with significantly lower accuracy than mothers' productions. Tone accuracy improved, while cross subject variability in tone accuracy decreased, with age. Children's tone accuracy was affected by the articulatory complexity of phonetic contexts. Children made more errors in tone combinations with more complex fundamental frequency (F0 contours than tone sequences with simpler F0 changes. When producing disyllabic tone sequences with complex F0 contours, children tended to shift the F0 contour of the first tone to reduce the F0 change, resulting in more tone errors in the first syllable than in the second syllable and showing substantially more anticipatory coarticulation than adults. The results provide further evidence that acquisition of lexical tones is a protracted process in children. Tones produced accurately by children in one phonetic context may not be produced correctly in another phonetic context. Children demonstrate more anticipatory coarticulation in their disyllabic productions than adults, which may be attributed to children's immature speech motor control in tone production, and is presumably a by-product of their inability to accomplish

  1. Ileoanal pouch function is related to postprandial pouch tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Meijerink, W. J.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Masclee, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch

  2. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  3. Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tones by Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Colleen M.; Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Dowell, Richard C.; Vogel, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess Cantonese word recognition and the discrimination of Cantonese tones with manipulated contours by child and adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and a group of peers with normal hearing (NH). It was hypothesized that the CI users would perform more poorly than their counterparts with NH in both…

  4. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  5. Tone Attrition in Mandarin Speakers of Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin-English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method: We tested 72 Mandarin-English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of…

  6. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  7. STEM Tones Pre-Activate Suffixes in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated…

  8. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  9. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  10. Acute effects of gamma irradiation on vascular arterial tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlier, V.; Diserbo, M.; Multon, E.; Verdetti, J.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    In rat aortic rings, we showed an increase in arterial tone during irradiation. This effect is acute reversible. This effect is only observed on pre-contracted rings and needs the integrity of vascular endothelium. The molecular mechanism of this effect is discussed. (author)

  11. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the concept of tone in African languages generally and in the Bantu linguistic group in particular from a pedagogical perspective. Using illustrative examples from Cibemba, the major language of Zambia, with an air of extension in DR Congo, in comparison with Germanic and Romance languages, the ...

  12. Is a Confrontational Tone Necessary in Conjoint Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wile, Daniel B.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the systems model and proposes an alternative approach, the paired bind model. The paired bind orientation retains the major advantage of the systems approach (its focus upon couple and family interactions) while eliminating its major disadvantage (its oppositional tone). (Author)

  13. THE ACQUISITION OF SYNTACTIC TONE: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support for the general claim of autosegmental theory which recognizes the autonomy of tone in ..... subjenctive verb forms, the former signalling negative command and the latter negative permission. 1.1.1.4.1 ... Those utterances signalling both nonpresence and nonexistence were coded as signalling nonexistence for the ...

  14. Tone-corrected metrics for pre-2005 INM helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Of the 21 Helicopters represented in INM 7.0b, only five include the tone-corrected metrics. The calculation of these metrics involves the analysis of 1/3 octave-band data obtained during the source data measurement process, and requires sound-pressu...

  15. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweazea Karen L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed high fat (HFD or high sucrose (HSD diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone that could account for the hypertensive state. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM. Results Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM and catalase (1200 U/mL, also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in

  16. Neuronal Correlates of Auditory Streaming in Monkey Auditory Cortex for Tone Sequences without Spectral Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, Stanislava; Selezneva, Elena; Gorkin, Alexander; Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C; Brosch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase. A previous psychophysical study on humans revealed that when the A and B tones are similar, humans integrate them into a single auditory stream; when the A and B tones are dissimilar, humans segregate them into separate auditory streams. We found that the similarity of neuronal rate responses to the triplets was highest when all A and B tones had cosine phase. Similarity was intermediate when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had alternating phase. Similarity was lowest when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had random phase. The present study corroborates and extends previous reports, showing similar correspondences between neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex and auditory streaming of sound sequences. It also is consistent with Fishman's population separation model of auditory streaming.

  17. Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: evidence from preschool children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.

  18. Neuronal Correlates of Auditory Streaming in Monkey Auditory Cortex for Tone Sequences without Spectral Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Knyazeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase. A previous psychophysical study on humans revealed that when the A and B tones are similar, humans integrate them into a single auditory stream; when the A and B tones are dissimilar, humans segregate them into separate auditory streams. We found that the similarity of neuronal rate responses to the triplets was highest when all A and B tones had cosine phase. Similarity was intermediate when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had alternating phase. Similarity was lowest when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had random phase. The present study corroborates and extends previous reports, showing similar correspondences between neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex and auditory streaming of sound sequences. It also is consistent with Fishman’s population separation model of auditory streaming.

  19. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  20. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1992-01-01

    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  1. Modulation masking produced by complex-tone modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Verhey, J.L.; Dau, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    Thresholds were measured for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation in the presence of a complex-tone masker modulation. Both modulations were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier. Two different masker modulations were used: (i) a pair of components beating at the difference frequency and (ii......) a three-tone complex producing a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the modulation depth at the difference frequency between adjacent components. Both maskers show a periodicity in the waveform that is not contained in the envelope spectrum itself but can be observed when the envelope of the envelope......, referred to as the "venelope" [Ewert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112. 2921-2931 (2002)], is calculated. For a signal frequency equal to the masker-venelope periodicity, modulation depth at threshold was measured as a function of the signal phase relative to the phase of the masker-venelope component...

  2. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... discrimination to that of NH listeners. In the second part of this work, behavioral and objective measures of pitch discrimination were carried out in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance relative to non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result...

  3. Domains of H tone spreading and the noun class prefix in Xitsonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports results from an investigation of domains of H tone spreading in Xitsonga, a southern Bantu language. High (H) tone spreads into toneless syllables but it spreads only to the first syllable if a nominal root has an H tone. Kisseberth (1994) argues that domain structures created by the Pre-High Projection rule ...

  4. Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Although racial inequality is frequently studied in education, skin tone stratification has received less attention from educational researchers. Inequality by skin tone, also known as "colorism", contributes to larger patterns of racial inequality for African Americans and Latina/os. Discrimination by skin tone affects many dimensions…

  5. Perceived Pitch of Violin and Cello Vibrato Tones among Music Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Allen, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived pitch of string vibrato tones. The authors used recordings of acoustic instruments (cello and violin) to provide both vibrato stimulus tones and the nonvibrato tones that listeners adjusted to match the perceived pitch of the vibrato stimuli. We were interested especially in whether there…

  6. The Tonology of Itoman Okinawan: A Phonological Analysis of the Nominal Tone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…

  7. Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Engelhard, Iris M; Klugkist, Irene; Hornsveld, Hellen; Toffolo, Marieke J B; Cath, Danielle C

    2012-05-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, patients make eye movements (EMs) while recalling traumatic memories, but recently therapists have replaced EMs by alternating beep tones. There are no outcome studies on the effects of tones. In an earlier analogue study, tones were inferior to EMs in the reduction of vividness of aversive memories. In a first EMDR session, 12 PTSD patients recalled trauma memories in three conditions: recall only, recall + tones, and recall + EMs. Three competing hypotheses were tested: 1) EMs are as effective as tones and better than recall only, 2) EMs are better than tones and tones are as effective as recall only, and 3) EMs are better than tones and tones are better than recall only. The order of conditions was balanced, each condition was delivered twice, and decline in memory vividness and emotionality served as outcome measures. The data strongly support hypothesis 2 and 3 over 1: EMs outperformed tones while it remained unclear if tones add to recall only. The findings add to earlier considerations and earlier analogue findings suggesting that EMs are superior to tones and that replacing the former by the latter was premature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural Control of Fundamental Frequency Rise and Fall in Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms used in tone rises and falls in Mandarin were investigated. Nine participants were scanned while they named one-character pictures that required rising or falling tone responses in Mandarin: the left insula and right putamen showed stronger activation between rising and falling tones; the left brainstem showed weaker…

  9. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  10. Second Language Perception of Mandarin Vowels and Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yen-Chen

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the discrimination of Mandarin vowels and tones by native English speakers with varying amounts of Mandarin experience, aiming to investigate the relative difficulty of these two types of sounds for English speakers at different learning stages, and the source of their difficulty. Seventeen advanced learners of Mandarin (Ex group), eighteen beginning learners (InEx group), and eighteen English speakers naïve to Mandarin (Naïve group) participated in an AXB discrimination task. The stimuli were two Mandarin vowel contrasts, /li-ly/ and /lu-ly/, and two tonal contrasts, T1-T4 and T2-T3. The predicted difficulty for each contrast was hypothesized based on the assimilation of these sounds to English reported in previous work. The results showed that the Naïve group was more accurate with vowel contrasts than with tones, suggesting that non-tonal language speakers without any Mandarin training are less sensitive to tonal distinction than to vowels. The two learner groups, on the other hand, were highly accurate with all contrasts except for the T2-T3 pair, and achieved significantly higher accuracy than the Naïve group on /li-ly/ and T1-T4. This lends support to the view that experience in Mandarin improves English speakers' sensitivity to tonal distinction, helping them discriminate some tones as accurately as vowels. However, all three groups achieved low accuracy in discriminating T2 and T3, suggesting that this contrast may be inherently difficult and resistant to improvement. This study shows that various factors in addition to the native language experience may affect the perception of non-native vowels and tones.

  11. The use of fractal tones in tinnitus patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Sweetow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of noises have been employed for decades in an effort to facilitate habituation, mask, or suppress tinnitus. Many of these sounds have reportedly provided benefit, but success has not been universal. More recently, musical stimuli have been added as a sound therapy component. The potential advantages of using such stimuli, in particular fractal tones, in combination with amplification are discussed in this paper.

  12. TONE AND IMAGERY IN TENNYSON‟S „TITHONUS‟

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rifqi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying poetry is considered the most difficult by most of the students in my classes in EFL context. This can be understood since poetry in general has a unique form different from other types of literary works. With very limited lines and space provided in poetry, poets are able to put forward their ideas. Such reality enables readers to explore the most possible and acceptable meaning of poetry. However, it seems impossible for readers to find out the poets‘ exact intended meaning through their writings. So, it is notthe readers‘ job to get the poets‘ exact intended meaning but to explore the possible and acceptable meaning by using the clues presented within the poem. In interpreting the poem‘s meaning, readers should consider any poetic devices applied by the poet in expressing his/her ideas. Poets are very intelligent in playing with figures of speech. They use figurative languages more freshly and vividly than common writers. Through this article, I intend to investigate how the tone and imagery are applied in the poem ―Tithonus‖ written by Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892, the most popular poet of Victorian Era. This poem is very rich of imagery. Afterward, the tone will also be scrutinized. As all poetic devices work complementarily and so do tone and imagery to support each other.I will also show how they work intertwiningly together in creating the whole meaning of the poem.

  13. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  14. Purinergic control of vascular tone in the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur, Joanna; Newman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Purinergic control of vascular tone in the CNS has been largely unexplored. This study examines the contribution of endogenous extracellular ATP, acting on vascular smooth muscle cells, in controlling vascular tone in the in vivo rat retina. Retinal vessels were labelled by i.v. injection of a fluorescent dye and imaged with scanning laser confocal microscopy. The diameters of primary arterioles were monitored under control conditions and following intravitreal injection of pharmacological agents. Apyrase (500 units ml−1), an ATP hydrolysing enzyme, dilated retinal arterioles by 40.4 ± 2.8%, while AOPCP (12.5 mm), an ecto-5′-nucleotidase inhibitor that increases extracellular ATP levels, constricted arterioles by 58.0 ± 3.8% (P fluorocitrate (150 μm) dilated retinal vessels by 52.3 ± 1.1% (P < 0.001) and inhibited the vasodilatory response to NF023 (50 μm, 7.9 ± 2.0%; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that vascular tone in rat retinal arterioles is maintained by tonic release of ATP from the retina. ATP acts on P2X1 receptors, although contributions from other P2X and P2Y receptors cannot be ruled out. Retinal glial cells are a possible source of the vasoconstricting ATP. PMID:24277867

  15. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  16. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  17. Predicting utterance pitch targets in Yoruba for tone realisation in speech synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available well studied African tone language of which the linguistic details of the tone system have been thoroughly described. Three level tones, labelled High (H), Mid (M) and Low (L) are associated with syllables and have a high functional load (Courtenay... (see Figure 1). Distinct intra-syllable patterns occurring in Yoru`ba´ are falling and rising pitch contours when L and H tones are realised after H and L tones respectively. downstep downstep H L Figure 1: A simplified illustration of terracing...

  18. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  19. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  20. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2012-10-01

    Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms (a) crossed, (b) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them, and (c) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate, and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (P touch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD, r = -.72 to -.95; controls, r = -.74 to -.85). The authors showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone.

  1. A New View of Language Development: The Acquisition of Lexical Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L

    2016-05-01

    Research in first language development draws disproportionately from nontone languages. Such research is often presumed to reveal developmental universals in spite of the fact that most languages are tone languages. Recent research in the acquisition of tone languages points to a distinct course of development as compared to nontone languages. Our purpose is to provide an integrated review of research on lexical tone acquisition. First, the linguistic properties and origins of tone languages are described. Following this, research on the acquisition of tones in perception and production is reviewed and integrated. Possible reasons for the uniqueness of tone in language acquisition are discussed. Finally, theoretical advances promised by further research on tone acquisition and specific research directions are proposed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Cantonese tone production performance of mainstream school children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karen K L; Lau, Ada H Y; Lam, Joffee H S; Lee, Kathy Y S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment.

  3. How well can anaesthetists discriminate pulse oximeter tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R W; Mohacsi, P J

    2005-08-01

    The ability of experienced anaesthetists to discern oxygen saturation by listening to the tones of a Datex AS3 pulse oximeter was examined. Five-second samples were recorded using a high fidelity patient simulator and replayed singly and in pairs. Whilst the lower saturations were generally recognized as lower, the perceived range was greatly compressed. Median perceived estimates for 70% saturation was 89%, for 80% was 93% and for 94% was 94%. When comparing pairs of samples, the direction of the difference was correctly discerned by 70% of anaesthetists for differences of 2%, rising to 95% for differences of greater than 8% oxygen saturation. The magnitude of the difference was consistently underestimated. With an actual difference of 20%, the median estimate was 5%. The results indicate that while qualitative estimate changes in oxygen saturation are moderately reliable, quantitative estimation is severely limited by a compromised perceived scale. This may lead to underestimation of the severity if the auditory signal is relied on in isolation. A non-linear (musical) scale may prove more appropriate and should be investigated. Testing experienced anaesthetists demonstrated that most could detect the direction, but not the magnitude of a change in saturation by listening to the change in pitch of a Datex AS3 pulse oximeter tone.

  4. Effects of low harmonics on tone identification in natural and vocoded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Tahmina, Qudsia; Hu, Yi

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the contribution of low-frequency harmonics to identifying Mandarin tones in natural and vocoded speech in quiet and noisy conditions. Results showed that low-frequency harmonics of natural speech led to highly accurate tone identification; however, for vocoded speech, low-frequency harmonics yielded lower tone identification than stimuli with full harmonics, except for tone 4. Analysis of the correlation between tone accuracy and the amplitude-F0 correlation index suggested that "more" speech contents (i.e., more harmonics) did not necessarily yield better tone recognition for vocoded speech, especially when the amplitude contour of the signals did not co-vary with the F0 contour.

  5. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  6. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, D.V.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    2008-01-01

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  7. The role of tone and segmental information in visual-word recognition in Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather; Ratitamkul, Theeraporn; Charoensit, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Tone languages represent a large proportion of the spoken languages of the world and yet lexical tone is understudied. Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. We used colour words and their orthographic neighbours as stimuli to investigate facilitation (Experiment 1) and interference (Experiment 2) Stroop effects. Five experimental conditions were created: (a) the colour word (e.g., ขาว /k h ã:w/ [white]), (b) tone different word (e.g., ข่าว /k h à:w/[news]), (c) initial consonant phonologically same word (e.g., คาว /k h a:w/ [fishy]), where the initial consonant of the word was phonologically the same but orthographically different, (d) initial consonant different, tone same word (e.g., หาว /hã:w/ yawn), where the initial consonant was orthographically different but the tone of the word was the same, and (e) initial consonant different, tone different word (e.g., กาว /ka:w/ glue), where the initial consonant was orthographically different, and the tone was different. In order to examine whether tone information per se had a facilitative effect, we also included a colour congruent word condition where the segmental (S) information was different but the tone (T) matched the colour word (S-T+) in Experiment 2. Facilitation/interference effects were found for all five conditions when compared with a neutral control word. Results of the critical comparisons revealed that tone information comes into play at a later stage in lexical processing, and orthographic information contributes more than phonological information.

  8. Exploring the Impact of Skin Tone on Family Dynamics and Race-Related Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Granberg, Ellen M.; Melby, Janet N.

    2013-01-01

    Racism has historically been a primary source of discrimination against African Americans but there has been little research on the role that skin tone plays in explaining experiences with racism. Similarly, colorism within African American families and the ways in which skin tone influences family processes is an understudied area of research. Utilizing data from a longitudinal sample of African American families (N= 767), we assessed whether skin tone impacted experiences with discriminatio...

  9. Spoken word recognition in young tone language learners: Age-dependent effects of segmental and suprasegmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun

    2017-02-01

    The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin’s assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.

  11. Perceptual Reorganization of Lexical Tones: Effects of Age and Experimental Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Götz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the perceptual reorganization of lexical tones are mixed. Some studies report good tone discrimination abilities for all tested age groups, others report decreased or enhanced discrimination with increasing age, and still others report U-shaped developmental curves. Since prior studies have used a wide range of contrasts and experimental procedures, it is unclear how specific task requirements interact with discrimination abilities at different ages. In the present work, we tested German and Cantonese adults on their discrimination of Cantonese lexical tones, as well as German-learning infants between 6 and 18 months of age on their discrimination of two specific Cantonese tones using two different types of experimental procedures. The adult experiment showed that German native speakers can discriminate between lexical tones, but native Cantonese speakers show significantly better performance. The results from German-learning infants suggest that 6- and 18-month-olds discriminate tones, while 9-month-olds do not, supporting a U-shaped developmental curve. Furthermore, our results revealed an effect of methodology, with good discrimination performance at 6 months after habituation but not after familiarization. These results support three main conclusions. First, habituation can be a more sensitive procedure for measuring infants' discrimination than familiarization. Second, the previous finding of a U-shaped curve in the discrimination of lexical tones is further supported. Third, discrimination abilities at 18 months appear to reflect mature perceptual sensitivity to lexical tones, since German adults also discriminated the lexical tones with high accuracy.

  12. Novel negative tone photodefinable low dielectric constant hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Thomas J.; Weigel, Scott J.; Kretz, Chris P.

    2005-05-01

    Multifunctional films have the potential to reduce the number of processing steps to prepare various complex electronic devices and thereby reduce the cost of manufacturing the device and increase the throughput of the process. By combining low dielectric thin film and photoresist technologies into one material, such an advantage could be provided to electronics device markets. Air Products and Chemicals has discovered negative tone photodefinable films having dielectric constant values less than 3.0 that are developable in water and/or aqueous TMAH solutions. The low dielectric films produced via a novel reaction pathway involving the use of photoacid generators (PAGs) provides a versatile link to various feature sizes depending on the choice of radiation source and PAG used. Specific examples of film properties and processing latitude will be presented for these developmental materials.

  13. Memory and hedonic tone: 'personality' or 'mood' congruence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    desRosiers, G; Robinson, D

    1992-02-01

    Four groups of healthy women matched for age and IQ were reliably classified on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire as being either high or low in extraversion or neuroticism. As part of a larger research project, each participant was administered a range of psychometric measures together with three paired-associate learning lists varying in hedonic tone and difficulty levels together with the Beck Depression Inventory. Performance on the hedonic lists covaried with personality categories but, unlike what typically obtains in clinical patients, less association emerged between performance and mood states. Performance was particularly polarized in women scoring high in neuroticism but low in extraversion. Speculations about the apparent correlates of so-called mood congruence in healthy subjects are put forward and parallels are drawn with studies reporting the phenomenon in clinically depressed patients.

  14. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  15. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Background Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. Objective To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Methods Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD, and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms: 1) crossed, 2) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them and 3) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Results Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (ptouch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD: r=− 0.72 to −0.95 and controls: r=−0.74 to−0.85). Conclusions We showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone. PMID:22415944

  16. Vowel and tone recognition in quiet and in noise among Mandarin-speaking amusics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Wang, Xi-Jian; Li, Jia-Qi; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-03-06

    Music and language are two intricately linked communication modalities in humans. A deficit in music pitch processing as manifested in the condition of congenital amusia has been related to difficulties in lexical tone processing for both tone and non-tonal languages. However, it is still unclear whether amusia also affects the perception of vowel phonemes in quiet and in noise. In this study, we examined vowel-plus-tone identification in quiet and noise conditions among Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without speech tone difficulties (tone agnosics and pure amusics, respectively), and IQ- and age-matched controls. Overall, pure amusics showed vowel and tone identification comparable to the controls in both quiet and noise conditions. Compared to pure amusics and controls, tone agnosics showed deficits in tone perception in both quiet and noise conditions. More importantly, their vowel perception was lower than pure amusics and controls in noise conditions, e.g., at a signal-to-noise ratio of -4 dB, although they showed normal-like performance in quiet and at a signal-to-noise ratio of -8 dB. These results suggest that when amusia affected speech tone processing (e.g., tone agnosics), it could also compromise vowel processing in noise. However, amusia alone does not affect tone or vowel perception in Mandarin Chinese either in quiet or in noise. Overall, the current study highlights the necessity of taking heterogeneity within the amusic group into account when considering the related speech deficits in this group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  18. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  19. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  20. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  1. Perception Practice, Production Practice, and Musical Ability in L2 Mandarin Tone-Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; DeKeyser, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the differential effects of systematic perception and production practice and the role of musical ability in learning Mandarin tone-words by native English-speaking adults in a training study. In this study, all participants (N = 38; 19 for each practice group) were first taught declarative knowledge of Mandarin tones and of…

  2. Loudness of brief tones in listeners with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level. Loudness functions derived from these data indicated that the gain required to restore loudness usually is the same for short and long sounds....

  3. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An In Vivo Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Brubaker, B.; Wu, S.M.; MacWhinney, B.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to

  4. Preserved alpha-adrenergic tone in the leg vascular bed of spinal cord-injured individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, H.M.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, P.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supraspinal sympathetic control of leg vascular tone is lost in spinal cord-injured individuals, but this does not result in a reduced leg vascular tone: Leg vascular resistance is even increased. The aim of this study was to assess the alpha-adrenergic contribution to the increased

  5. Effects of diazepam on auditory evoked potentials of rats elicited in a ten-tone paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.L.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Schaijk, W.J. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Dirksen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of diazepam on sensory gating was studied in rats, by measuring diazepam effects on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) elicited in a ten-tone paradigm. Trains of 10 repetitive tone-pip stimuli were presented. Rats (n=8) received 4 mg.kg-1 diazepam s.c. or vehicle, counterbalanced over two

  6. The role of tone and morphology in the syntax of the Ikalanga DP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that Ikalanga DPs are not simple DPs but relative clauses, supporting Koopman's (2003) proposal that the structure of DP is really D CP rather than D NP. The agreement morphology on all three types of DPs discussed in this paper carry a low tone, a feature characteristic of relativisation. The low tone on ...

  7. Pitch perception in the first year of life: A comparison of lexical tones and musical pitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Stevens, Catherine; Kager, R.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains

  8. A typological perspective on Bantu nominal tone: The case of Ikoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, it has been suggested that the lexical tonal contrasts of the southern Mara languages have been greatly reduced or lost altogether, but the data presented in this paper shows that lexical tone systems are still functional in several of these languages and that the area shows great variety in the nominal tone ...

  9. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  10. Effects of muscle tension dysphonia on tone phonation: acoustic and perceptual studies in Vietnamese female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Duy; Kenny, Dianna T

    2009-07-01

    Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) is a hyperfunctional voice disorder commonly seen in professional voice users. To date, published acoustic studies of this disorder have mainly focused on nontonal language speakers, and no publication has documented its impact on lexical tone characteristics. In this study, we examined whether and how this voice disorder affected acoustically and perceptually the characteristics of tones in Vietnamese teachers. Voice data were obtained from 42 Vietnamese female primary school teachers diagnosed with MTD and 30 vocally healthy teachers. Tonal data were analyzed using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL-4300B) and Speech Analyzer. Parameters analyzed included the two most important acoustic cues in Vietnamese tones, that is, tonal fundamental frequency (F(0)) and laryngealization. Tonal F(0) was assessed using a factorial analysis of variance with group and career durations as independent variables. Tonal samples were also perceptually assessed by a panel of native speakers of the same dialect. The results showed that MTD lowered tonal F(0) in high tones and tones with extensive fundamental frequency variation. There was also a significant main effect for career duration; in MTD group, tonal F(0) was lower in teachers with longer career duration. The teachers with MTD showed different patterns of laryngealization compared with the control group. Tone perception was poorer for tones with extensive fundamental frequency variation and without a typical phonation type. The results in this group of teachers supported our hypothesis that MTD impairs lexical tone phonation.

  11. 'Tone at the top': Fighting military corruption in Latin America | Klaus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military ...

  12. On the design of tone-free ΣΔ modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Traditional one-bit ΣΔ modulators used for A/D and D/A conversion produce very predominant tones near half the sample rate which might intermodulate in the analog converter section and cause in-band tones. This paper demonstrates how the use of chaos can substitute dither as a means for extinguis...

  13. Environmentalists without Boundaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2009-03-16

    Mar 16, 2009 ... Environmentalists without Boundaries. Setting Boundaries is a popular strategy in child development programs. But as children mature into young adults, it dawns on many that certain boundaries must be crossed to explore rich opportunities outside the safe closet of their teachers or parents' watchful eyes.

  14. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  15. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension and...... of systemic arterial vascular tone in patients with essential hypertension during the first half of the night compared to normotensive control subjects.......The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension...... systemic vasoconstriction as confirmed by cold pressure tests and a significant correlation between arterial vascular tone and sympathetic nerve activity measured by microneurography from the peroneal nerve. Photoplethysmographic determination of arterial vascular tone demonstrated a significant increase...

  16. Regulation of human penile smooth muscle tone byprostanoid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier; Cuevas, Pedro; La Fuente, Jose M; Pomerol, Jose M; Ruiz-Castañé, Eduardo; Puigvert, Ana; Gabancho, Sonia; Fernández, Argentina; Ney, Peter; Sáenz de Tejada, Iñigo

    2002-01-01

    We have characterized the prostanoid receptors involved in the regulation of human penile arterial and trabecular smooth muscle tone.Arachidonic acid induced relaxation of human corpus cavernosum strips (HCCS) that was blocked by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and augmented by the thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist, SQ29548, suggesting that endogenous production of prostanoids regulates penile smooth muscle tone.TP-receptors mediate contraction of HCCS and penile resistance arteries (HPRA), since the agonist of these receptors, U46619, potently contracted HCCS (EC50 8.3±2.8 nM) and HPRA (EC50 6.2±2.2 nM), and the contractions produced by prostaglandin F2α at high concentrations (EC50 6460±3220 nM in HCCS and 8900±6700 nM in HPRA) were inhibited by the selective TP-receptor antagonist, SQ29548 (0.02 μM).EP-receptors are responsible for prostanoid-induced relaxant effects in HCCS because only prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), prostaglandin E2 and the EP2/EP4-receptor agonist, butaprost, produced consistent relaxation of this tissue (EC50 93.8±31.5, 16.3±3.8 and 1820±1284 nM, respectively). In HPRA, both prostacyclin and PGE1 (EC50 60.1±18.4 and 109.0±30.9 nM, respectively) as well as the selective IP receptor agonist, cicaprost, and butaprost (EC50 25.2±15.2 and 7050±6020 nM, respectively) caused relaxation, suggesting co-existence of IP- and EP-receptors (EP2 and/or EP4).In summary, endogenous production of prostanoids may regulate penile smooth muscle contractility by way of specific receptors. TP-receptors mediate contraction in HCCS and HPRA, while the relaxant effects of prostanoids are mediated by EP2- and/or EP4-receptors in HCCS and by EP- and IP-receptors in HPRA. PMID:11976264

  17. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... between competencies within the organisation; and boundaries between various physical locations of work, in particular between what is done in the office and what is done on site. Maintaining and changing boundaries are the processes through which a particular community sustains its identity and practice...... on the one hand, and where it is confronted with the identity and practices on the other.The organisation being studied employs a multitude of IT systems that support and maintain these boundaries in a particular manner that are in many ways inappropriate to the current needs of the organisation...

  18. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Philip; Yu, Jiaxin; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Hung, Daisy L.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s) would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Experiment 1: left or right side), pitch discrimination (Experiment 2: high, med, or low tone), and spatial-plus-pitch (Experiment 3: left or right; high, med, or low) discrimination task. In Experiment 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand's reaction time (RT). No effect of hand proximity was found in Experiments 2 or 3, where a choice RT task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results that the perceptual and attentional effect of hand proximity is not limited to one specific modality, but applicable to the entire “space” near the hands, including stimuli of different modality (at least visual and auditory) within that space. While these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. (2006), we also discuss the possibility of a dual mechanism hypothesis to reconcile findings from the multimodal and magno/parvocellular account. PMID:24966839

  19. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  20. Analysis of the Duration of Rising Tone Chorus Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, S.; Tao, X.; Xie, Y.; Zonca, F.; Chen, L.; Fang, W. B.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The duration of chorus elements is an important parameter to understand chorus excitation and to quantify the effects of nonlinear wave-particle interactions on energetic electron dynamics. In this work, we analyze the duration of rising tone chorus elements statistically using Van Allen Probes data. We present the distribution of chorus element duration (τ) as a function of magnetic local time (MLT) and the geomagnetic activity level characterized by auroral electrojet (AE) index. We show that the typical value of τ for nightside and dawnside is about 0.12 s, smaller than that for dayside and duskside by about a factor of 2 to 4. Using a previously developed hybrid code, DAWN, we suggest that the background magnetic field inhomogeneity might be an important factor in controlling the chorus element duration. We also report that τ is larger during quiet times and shorter during moderate and active periods; this result is consistent with the MLT dependence of τ and the occurrence pattern of chorus waves at different levels of geomagnetic activity. We then investigate the correlation between τ and the frequency chirping rate (Γ). We show that, from observation, τ scales with Γ as τ∝Γ-1.1, suggesting that statistically the frequency range of chorus elements (τΓ) should be roughly the same for different elements. These findings should be useful to the further development of a theoretical model of chorus excitation and to the quantification of nonlinear wave-particle interactions on energetic electron dynamics.

  1. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot.

  2. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-12-12

    Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17). Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES), skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth ( b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.07-0.89). A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone ( b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49-1.86), suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males ( b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69-0.72) but not females ( b = 0.06; 95% CI = -0.42-0.55). Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  3. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  4. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  5. Role of Rho-associated protein kinase in tone and calcium sensitivity of cannulated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanBavel, E.; van der Meulen, E. T.; Spaan, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of vascular tone includes modulation of contractile element calcium sensitivity. We tested the involvement of the Rho-associated protein kinase p160ROCK in tone and calcium sensitivity of cannulated rat mesenteric small arteries. These vessels developed basal tone and showed myogenic

  6. Multiple pure tone noise generated by fans at supersonic tip speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofrin, T. G.; Pickett, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of clusters of pure tones at integral multiples of shaft speed has been noted for supersonic-tip-speed operation of fans and compressors. A continuing program to explore this phenomenon, often called combination-tone noise, has been in effect for several years. This paper reviews the research program, which involves a wide range of engines, compressor rigs, and special apparatus. Elements of the aerodynamics of the blade-associated shock waves are outlined and causes of blade-to-blade shock inequalities, responsible for the multiple tones, are described.

  7. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  8. The Evaluation of Digital Rectal Examination for Assessment of Anal Tone in Suspected Cauda Equina Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Katrina Eve; Turner, William; Elsayed, Sherief; Bagouri, M; Baha, L; Boszczyk, Bronek M; McNally, Donal

    2015-08-01

    Seventy-five doctors completed a questionnaire documenting their grade, specialty, and experience in performing digital rectal examination (DRE). A model anus, using a pressure transducer surrounding an artificial canal, was assembled and calibrated. Participants performed 4 DREs on the model (with a break between attempts) and predicted tone as "reduced" or "normal" (35 and 60 mm Hg, respectively), followed by a "squeeze" test. Thirty health care assistants partook as a control group with no training in DRE. Our main objective was to investigate the validity of digital rectal examination (DRE) for assessment of anal tone. Cauda equina syndrome represents the constellation of symptoms and signs resulting from compression of lumbrosacral nerve routes. Combined with subjective neurological findings, a reduction in anal tone is an important sign, deeming further imaging necessary. DRE is an invasive procedure used to assess anal tone despite debated accuracy. A total of 75 doctors from various specialties were asked to fill in a questionnaire detailing their grade, age, and area of expertise. In addition, information was gathered with regard to prior training in performing DRE to assess anal tone and the importance placed on any findings. Thirty hospital health care assistants (HCAs) were used as a control group. HCAs were selected as a control group because they receive no training on the technique and would never be required to perform it in their clinical practice. A model anus was assembled using a modified pediatric sphygmomanometer cuff to act as a sphincter. The cuff could be inflated to simulate a full range of anal tone. The cuff was incorporated into an artificial anal canal, which was, in turn, placed into a model buttock created from plaster of Paris. The apparatus was calibrated across a range of pressures. In each attempt, 60%, 61%, 63%, and 67% of doctors correctly identified the anal tone, respectively (average accuracy: 64%). HCAs had an identical

  9. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version”

  10. Electrical Grounding Improves Vagal Tone in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Rohit; Doheny, Kim K; Gordin, Yuri; Hinssen, Hans; Palmer, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Low vagal tone (VT) is a marker of vulnerability to stress and the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Electric fields produced by equipment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) induce an electric potential measurable on the skin in reference to ground. An electrical connection to ground reduces the skin potential and improves VT in adults. We aimed to measure the electric field strengths in the NICU environment and to determine if connecting an infant to electrical ground would reduce the skin potential and improve VT. We also wished to determine if the skin potential correlated with VT. Environmental magnetic flux density (MFD) was measured in and around incubators. Electrical grounding (EG) was achieved with a patch electrode and wire that extended to a ground outlet. We measured the skin potential in 26 infants and heart rate variability in 20 infants before, during, and after grounding. VT was represented by the high-frequency power of heart rate variability. The background MFD in the NICU was below 0.5 mG, but it ranged between 1.5 and 12.7 mG in the closed incubator. A 60-Hz oscillating potential was recorded on the skin of all infants. With EG, the skin voltage dropped by about 95%. Pre-grounding VT was inversely correlated with the skin potential. VT increased by 67% with EG. After grounding, the VT fell to the pre-grounding level. The electrical environment affects autonomic balance. EG improves VT and may improve resilience to stress and lower the risk of neonatal morbidity in preterm infants. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913

  12. Problems of Analyzing Consonant-tone Interaction in Thai: A Reply to Ruangjaroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ying Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the distribution of tones and syllable types in Thai has been found to be interesting. The absence of the rising contour tone on CVO and CVVO supports the argument that syllables with shorter phonetic duration are bad licensers for the rising contour tone (Zhang 2002. The distributional gaps on CVO and CVVO are also found to be correlated with syllable-final glottalization (Moren & Zsiga 2006. Furthermore, Ruangjaroon (2006 argues that there is the consonant-tone interaction in Thai and analyzes it under the framework of OT. However, I will indicate both theoretical and analytical problems faced by analyses in Ruangjaroon (2006 in this paper.

  13. Effects of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions on pure-tone frequency difference limens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rói; Santurette, Sébastien; Verhulst, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Pure-tone frequency difference limens (FDLs) have been shown to vary in the vicinity of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). As lower FDLs have been observed near SOAEs when measured ipsi- and contralaterally to the emission ear, it has been proposed that prolonged ongoing stimulation...... of nerve cells tuned to the SOAE frequency could lead to a central oversensitivity to that frequency, hence a better frequency-discrimination ability. However, it is also known that tones close in frequency to an SOAE can “entrain” the emission to oscillate at their own frequency. This may instead explain...... were lowest in the SOAE entrainment region and worsened significantly when beating between the external tone and SOAE occurred. FDLs remained unaffected in the non-emission ear and did not alter with continuous ipsilateral or contralateral presentation of a pure tone aimed at emulating an SOAE...

  14. Explaining the Railsback stretch in terms of the inharmonicity of piano tones and sensory dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, N

    2015-10-01

    The perceptual results of Plomp and Levelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 38, 548-560 (1965)] for the sensory dissonance of a pair of pure tones are used to estimate the dissonance of pairs of piano tones. By using the spectra of tones measured for a real piano, the effect of the inharmonicity of the tones is included. This leads to a prediction for how the tuning of this piano should deviate from an ideal equal tempered scale so as to give the smallest sensory dissonance and hence give the most pleasing tuning. The results agree with the well known "Railsback stretch," the average tuning curve produced by skilled piano technicians. The authors' analysis thus gives a quantitative explanation of the magnitude of the Railsback stretch in terms of the human perception of dissonance.

  15. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  16. Pregnancy Downregulates Actin Polymerization and Pressure-Dependent Myogenic Tone in Ovine Uterine Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Daliao; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with significantly decreased uterine vascular tone and increased uterine blood flow. The present study tested the hypothesis that the downregulation of actin polymerization plays a key role in reduced vascular tone of uterine arteries in the pregnant state. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep. Activation of protein kinase C significantly increased the filamentous:globular actin ratio and contractions in the uterine arteries, whi...

  17. Lower cardiac vagal tone in non-obese healthy men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio S. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m², healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications, aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old. Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype, a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles - unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005, sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037 and waist circumference (p<0.001. In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023, while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  18. Preliminary Evidence of Preattentive Distinctions of Frequency-Modulated (FM tones that Convey Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Leitman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing emotion is an evolutionary imperative. An early stage of auditory scene analysis involves the perceptual grouping of acoustic features, which can be based on both temporal coincidence and spectral features such as perceived pitch. Perceived pitch, or fundamental frequency (F0, is an especially salient cue for differentiating affective intent through speech intonation (prosody. We hypothesized that: 1 simple frequency modulated (FM tone abstractions, based on the parameters of actual prosodic stimuli, would be reliably classified as representing differing emotional categories; and 2 that such differences would yield significant mismatch negativities (MMNs - an index of preattentive deviance detection within the auditory environment. We constructed a set of FM tones that approximated the F0 mean and variation of reliably-recognized happy and neutral prosodic stimuli. These stimuli were presented to 13 subjects using a passive listening oddball paradigm. We additionally included stimuli with no frequency modulation (FM and FM tones with identical carrier frequencies but differing modulation depths as control conditions. Following electrophysiological recording, subjects were asked to identify the sounds they heard as happy, sad, angry or neutral. We observed that FM tones abstracted from happy and no expression speech stimuli elicited MMNs. Post-hoc behavioral testing revealed that subjects reliably identified the FM tones in a consistent manner. Finally, we also observed that FM tones and no-FM tones elicited equivalent MMNs. MMNs to FM tones that differentiate affect suggests that these abstractions may be sufficient to characterize prosodic distinctions, and that these distinctions can be represented in pre-attentive auditory sensory memory.

  19. Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin speakers who stutter

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, P.; Jiang, J.; Peng, D.; Lu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. Brain and Language, 121(1), 35–46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional connectivity analysis showed that the connections between the insula and LMC and between the LMC and the putamen differed significantly between PWS and...

  20. Left auditory cortex is involved in pairwise comparisons of the direction of frequency modulated tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eAngenstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating series of complex sounds like those in speech and music requires sequential comparisons to extract task-relevant relations between subsequent sounds. With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we investigated whether sequential comparison of a specific acoustic feature within pairs of tones leads to a change in lateralized processing in the auditory cortex of humans. For this we used the active categorization of the direction (up versus down of slow frequency modulated (FM tones. Several studies suggest that this task is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex. These studies, however, tested only the categorization of the FM direction of each individual tone. In the present study we ask the question whether the right lateralized processing changes when, in addition, the FM direction is compared within pairs of successive tones. For this we use an experimental approach involving contralateral noise presentation in order to explore the contributions made by the left and right auditory cortex in the completion of the auditory task. This method has already been applied to confirm the right-lateralized processing of the FM direction of individual tones. In the present study, the subjects were required to perform, in addition, a sequential comparison of the FM-direction in pairs of tones. The results suggest a division of labor between the two hemispheres such that the FM direction of each individual tone is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex whereas the sequential comparison of this feature between tones in a pair is probably performed in the left auditory cortex.

  1. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  2. COX-1 vs. COX-2 as a determinant of basal tone in the internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Neeru; Rattan, Satish

    2009-02-01

    Prostanoids, produced endogenously via cyclooxygenases (COXs), have been implicated in the sustained contraction of different smooth muscles. The two major types of COXs are COX-1 and COX-2. The COX subtype involved in the basal state of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone is not known. To identify the COX subtype, we examined the effect of COX-1- and COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively, on basal tone in the rat IAS. We also determined the effect of selective deletion of COX-1 and COX-2 genes (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) mice) on basal tone in murine IAS. Our data show that SC-560 causes significantly more efficacious and potent concentration-dependent decreases in IAS tone than rofecoxib. In support of these data, significantly higher levels of COX-1 than COX-2 mRNA were found in the IAS. In addition, higher levels of COX-1 mRNA and protein were expressed in rat IAS than rectal smooth muscle. In wild-type mice, IAS tone was decreased 41.4 +/- 3.4% (mean +/- SE) by SC-560 (1 x 10(-5) M) and 5.4 +/- 2.2% by rofecoxib (P IAS from wild-type mice and significantly less (0.080 +/- 0.015 mN/mg) in the IAS from COX-1(-/-) mice (P IAS tone.

  3. Influences of lexical tone and pitch on word recognition in bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

    2012-08-01

    Infants' abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5months, 9months and 11months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Polysyllabic Sequences of Thai Tones Using a Generative Model of Fundamental Frequency Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresangtakul, Pusadee; Takara, Tomio

    In this paper, the distinctive tones of Thai in running speech are studied. We present rules to synthesize F0 contours of Thai tones in running speech by using the generative model of F0 contours. Along with our method, the pitch contours of Thai polysyllabic words, both disyllabic and trisyllabic words, were analyzed. The coarticulation effect of Thai tones in running speech were found. Based on the analysis of the polysyllabic words using this model, rules are derived and applied to synthesize Thai polysyllabic tone sequences. We performed listening tests to evaluate intelligibility of the rules for Thai tones generation. The average intelligibility scores became 98.8%, and 96.6% for disyllabic and trisyllabic words, respectively. From these result, the rule of the tones' generation was shown to be effective. Furthermore, we constructed the connecting rules to synthesize suprasegmental F0 contours using the trisyllable training rules' parameters. The parameters of the first, the third, and the second syllables were selected and assigned to the initial, the ending, and the remaining syllables in a sentence, respectively. Even such a simple rule, the synthesized phrases/senetences were completely identified in listening tests. The MOSs (Mean Opinion Score) was 3.50 while the original and analysis/synthesis samples were 4.82 and 3.59, respectively.

  5. Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Brody, Gene H; Bryant, Chalandra M; Gibbons, Frederick X; Granberg, Ellen M; Melby, Janet N

    2013-10-01

    Racism has historically been a primary source of discrimination against African Americans, but there has been little research on the role that skin tone plays in explaining experiences with racism. Similarly, colorism within African American families and the ways in which skin tone influences family processes is an understudied area of research. Using data from a longitudinal sample of African American families (n = 767), we assessed whether skin tone impacted experiences with discrimination or was related to differences in quality of parenting and racial socialization within families. Findings indicated no link between skin tone and racial discrimination, which suggests that lightness or darkness of skin does not either protect African Americans from or exacerbate the experiences of discrimination. On the other hand, families displayed preferential treatment toward offspring based on skin tone, and these differences varied by gender of child. Specifically, darker skin sons received higher quality parenting and more racial socialization promoting mistrust compared to their counterparts with lighter skin. Lighter skin daughters received higher quality parenting compared with those with darker skin. In addition, gender of child moderated the association between primary caregiver skin tone and racial socialization promoting mistrust. These results suggest that colorism remains a salient issue within African American families. Implications for future research, prevention, and intervention are discussed.

  6. Music and lexical tone perception in Chinese adult cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Liu, Bo; Dong, Ruijuan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Jing; Qi, Beier; Chen, Xueqing; Han, Demin; Zhang, Luo

    2012-06-01

    The present study's aim was to assess the music perception ability for Chinese adult cochlear implant users and to investigate the correlation between music and Mandarin-Chinese lexical tone perception. Case-control study. Twenty normal-hearing and 21 adult cochlear implant users participated in the Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants (MuSIC) perception test, including six objective and two subjective musical subtests. The comparison of music perception performance was made between normal-hearing and cochlear implant subjects. Sixteen of the 21 cochlear implant users also performed a tone identification test to investigate the correlation between music and tone perception. Cochlear implant users performed significantly worse than normal-hearing subjects on pitch discrimination, instrument identification, and instrument detection tests, whereas close to normal-hearing subjects on melody discrimination, chords discrimination, rhythm discrimination, and emotion and dissonance rating subtests. Lexical tone perception was significantly correlated with pitch discrimination, melody discrimination, and instrument identification tests. Duration of hearing aid use was found to be correlated with pitch discrimination ability of cochlear implant users. Chinese postlingually deafened cochlear implant users performed significantly poorer in pitch discrimination and timbre perception tasks than normal-hearing listeners. Lexical tone perception was found to be significantly correlated with music pitch perception, supporting the notion that tone and music perception may share a similar pitch perception mechanism. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Van Allen Probes observations of whistler-mode chorus with long-lived oscillating tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Chen, Lunjin; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2017-06-01

    Whistler-mode chorus plays an important role in the radiation belt electron dynamics. In the frequency-time spectrogram, chorus often appears as a hiss-like band and/or a series of short-lived (up to ˜1 s) discrete elements. Here we present some rarely reported chorus emissions with long-lived (up to 25 s) oscillating tones observed by the Van Allen Probes in the dayside (MLT ˜9-14) midlatitude (|MLAT|>15°) region. An oscillating tone can behave either regularly or irregularly and can even transform into a nearly constant tone (with a relatively narrow frequency sweep range). We suggest that these highly coherent oscillating tones were generated naturally rather than being related to some artificial VLF transmitters. Possible scenarios for the generation of the oscillating tone chorus are as follows: (1) being nonlinearly triggered by the accompanying hiss-like bands or (2) being caused by the modulation of the wave source. The details of the generation and evolution of such a long-lived oscillating tone chorus need to be investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the future.

  8. Split SR-RLS for the Joint Initialization of the Per-Tone Equalizers and Per-Tone Echo Cancelers in DMT-Based Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, Geert; Vanbleu, Koen; Cuypers, Gert; Moonen, Marc

    2004-12-01

    In asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL), the available bandwidth is divided in subcarriers or tones which are assigned to the upstream and/or downstream transmission direction. To allow efficient bidirectional communication over one twisted pair, echo cancellation is required to separate upstream and downstream channels. In addition, intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference have to be reduced by means of equalization. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm for adaptively initializing the per-tone equalizers (PTEQ) and per-tone echo cancelers (PTEC) is presented. For a given number of equalizer and echo canceler taps per-tone, it was shown that the joint PTEQ/PTEC receiver structure is able to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on each subcarrier and hence also the achievable bit rate. The proposed initialization scheme is based on a modification of the square root recursive least squares (SR-RLS) algorithm to reduce computational complexity and memory requirement compared to full SR-RLS, while keeping the convergence rate acceptably fast. Our performance analysis will show that the proposed method converges in the mean and an upper bound for the step size is given. Moreover, we will indicate how the presented initialization method can be reused in several other ADSL applications.

  9. Split SR-RLS for the Joint Initialization of the Per-Tone Equalizers and Per-Tone Echo Cancelers in DMT-Based Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysebaert Geert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL, the available bandwidth is divided in subcarriers or tones which are assigned to the upstream and/or downstream transmission direction. To allow efficient bidirectional communication over one twisted pair, echo cancellation is required to separate upstream and downstream channels. In addition, intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference have to be reduced by means of equalization. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm for adaptively initializing the per-tone equalizers (PTEQ and per-tone echo cancelers (PTEC is presented. For a given number of equalizer and echo canceler taps per-tone, it was shown that the joint PTEQ/PTEC receiver structure is able to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on each subcarrier and hence also the achievable bit rate. The proposed initialization scheme is based on a modification of the square root recursive least squares (SR-RLS algorithm to reduce computational complexity and memory requirement compared to full SR-RLS, while keeping the convergence rate acceptably fast. Our performance analysis will show that the proposed method converges in the mean and an upper bound for the step size is given. Moreover, we will indicate how the presented initialization method can be reused in several other ADSL applications.

  10. Excessive anterior cervical muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether excessive neck muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing using videofluorography (VF in an unnatural posture in healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 28 healthy adults (12 men, 16 women; mean age, 39.75±9.50 years without any history or present complaints of swallowing disorders. We first established the participant’s posture a reclining wheelchair that was adjusted to a 30-degree angle with the headrest (without excessive neck muscle tone or without headrest (with excessive neck muscle tone, used an electromyogram above the mylohyoid muscle to represent the suprahyoid muscles and above the sternohyoid muscle to represent the infrahyoid muscles to confirm neck muscle tone, and then conducted VF of swallowing measurements. Videofluorographic images were obtained when 5 mL of 50% (w/v barium sulfate was being swallowed, and hyoid bone coordinate (the resting position and the elevated position, extent of horizontal and vertical hyoid bone elevation, as well as duration and velocity of hyoid bone elevation were evaluated (x-axis and y-axis coordinates for the resting position of hyoid bone are referred to as Xr and Yr, respectively; those for the elevated hyoid bone position induced during swallowing are referred to as Xs and Ys, respectively. Results: In the resting position of the hyoid bone, the Yr coordinates in those with excessive neck muscle tone were significantly lower than in those without excessive neck muscle tone. Vertical hyoid bone elevation and hyoid bone elevation velocity were significantly higher with excessive neck muscle tone than without excessive neck muscle tone, whereas horizontal elevation showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Our findings

  11. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  12. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  13. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation...... as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of "circumventing" the science-industry food chain and "sequestering" biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating...

  14. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  15. Brain Plasticity in Speech Training in Native English Speakers Learning Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Christina Carolyn

    The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns

  16. Vagally mediated effects of brain stem dopamine on gastric tone and phasic contractions of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, L; Toti, L; Bove, C; Travagli, R A

    2017-11-01

    Dopamine (DA)-containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e., motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. With the use of microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were 1 ) assess the gastric effects of brain stem DA application, 2 ) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, 3 ) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated. Dopamine microinjection in the DVC decreased gastric tone and motility in both corpus and antrum in 29 of 34 rats, and the effects were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy and fourth ventricular treatment with the selective DA2 receptor antagonist L741,626 but not by application of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist atropine attenuated the inhibition of corpus and antrum tone in response to DA microinjection in the DVC. Conversely, systemic administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester did not alter the DA-induced decrease in gastric tone and motility. Our data provide evidence of a dopaminergic modulation of a brain stem vagal neurocircuit that controls gastric tone and motility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dopamine administration in the brain stem decreases gastric tone and phasic contractions. The gastric effects of dopamine are mediated via dopamine 2 receptors on neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated via inhibition of the postganglionic cholinergic pathway. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. [The application of artificial neural network on the assessment of lexical tone production of pediatric cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y T; Chen, Z M; Xu, L

    2017-08-07

    Objective: The present study was carried out to explore the tone production ability of the Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CI) by using an artificial neural network model and to examine the potential contributing factors underlining their tone production performance. The results of this study might provide useful guidelines for post-operative rehabilitation processes of pediatric CI users. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight prelingually deafened children who received unilateral CI participated in this study. As controls, 170 similarly-aged children with normal hearing (NH) were recruited. A total of 36 Chinese monosyllabic words were selected as the tone production targets. Vocal production samples were recorded and the fundamental frequency (F0) contour of each syllable was extracted using an auto-correlation algorithm followed by manual correction. An artificial neural network was created in MATLAB to classify the tone production. The relationships between tone production and several demographic factors were evaluated. Results: Pediatric CI users produced Mandarin tones much less accurately than did the NH children (58.8% vs. 91.5% correct). Tremendous variability in tone production performance existed among the CI children. Tones 2 and 3 were produced less accurately than tones 1 and 4 for both groups. For the CI group, all tones when in error tended to be judged as tone 1. The tone production accuracy was negatively correlated with age at implantation and positively correlated with CI use duration with correlation coefficients ( r ) of -0.215 ( P =0.003) and 0.203 ( P =0.005), respectively. Age was one of the determinants of tonal ability for NH children. Conclusions: For children with severe to profound hearing loss, early implantation and persistent use of CI are beneficial to their tone production development. Artificial neural network is a convenient and reliable assessment tool for the development of tonal ability of hearing

  18. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  19. Allegheny County Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the Allegheny County boundary. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  20. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  1. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  2. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  3. Relationships, not boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2002-01-01

    The authors find it more useful to pay attention to relationships than to boundaries. By focusing attention on bounded, individual psychological issues, the metaphor of boundaries can distract helping professionals from thinking about inequities of power. It oversimplifies a complex issue, inviting us to ignore discourses around gender, race, class, culture, and the like that support injustice, abuse, and exploitation. Making boundaries a central metaphor for ethical practice can keep us from critically examining the effects of distance, withdrawal, and non-participation. The authors describe how it is possible to examine the practical, moral, and ethical effects of our participation in relationships by focusing on just relationships rather than on boundaries. They give illustrations and clinical examples of relationally-focused ethical practices that derive from a narrative approach to therapy.

  4. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  5. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  6. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  7. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  8. Attraction, with Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Avik; Krishnan, Chethan

    2012-01-01

    We study the basin of attraction of static extremal black holes, in the concrete setting of the STU model. By finding a connection to a decoupled Toda-like system and solving it exactly, we find a simple way to characterize the attraction basin via competing behaviors of certain parameters. The boundaries of attraction arise in the various limits where these parameters degenerate to zero. We find that these boundaries are generalizations of the recently introduced (extremal) subtracted geomet...

  9. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    complexion transitions occur often in doped titanates, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, and have been utilized to tailor microstructural develop- ment [275,276...Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 Despite decades of research, efforts to identify grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals via...evidence suggesting grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals has existed for decades. For example, researchers have reported anomalies and

  10. Boundary Migration in Rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliss, S.R.; Ravishankar, N.; Farrer, J.K.; Carter, C.B.

    2003-08-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a vital material in several technologies including, photocatalysis, gas sensing, biomaterials and optical coatings. Among the several crystal structures of this oxide, rutile has the highest density and microhardness, the highest index of refraction and the highest temperature stability. The processing of dense polycrystalline materials often includes the addition of a liquid-forming phase at higher temperatures. This technique is known as liquid-phase sintering and has been studied extensively. Rutile boundaries containing an amorphous phase have been used to study boundary migration and grain-boundary grooving. Visible-light (VLM), scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in addition to electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a focused-ion beam (FIB) tool were used to characterize boundary migration in rutile. EBSD analysis was carried out on a Philips XL30 FEG SEM equipped with a DigiView 1612 high-resolution, high-speed CCD camera. A 2.5 cm sample-to-camera distance was used and {approx}70{sup o} sample tilt. A Philips CM30 operated at 300 kV was used for TEM characterization and an FEI DB235 was used for FIB work. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has been used to deposit thin films ({approx}100 nm thick) of silica glass on single-crystals of rutile. The film/substrate assembly is then fabricated into bicrystals of known boundary-plane orientation by hot pressing. Bicrystals were fabricated with boundary planes of nominal surface orientation of (001) and (110). After diffusion bonding a surface perpendicular to the interface is cut and polished. Bicrystals are then heat treated in air at 1650 C for varying lengths of time. Figure 1 is a VLM image of a rutile bicrystal which as been heat treated for 4 hours. During this heat treatment migration of the boundary initiates at parallel grooves contained in the crystal on the right-hand side. EBSD analysis shows that this parallel set of grooves is due to the presence of 3{sup

  11. Relationships among choral tone and intensity and the spectra of bass singing voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Charles Warren

    The purpose of this spectrographic study was to compare mean formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4 , F5) of three vowels---[a], [o], and [i]---as bass singers (N = 36) performed identical musical phrases in an authentic choral music performance environment. Two types of choral tone, a "blended" sound with minimal vibrato and an opera-chorus-like sound with free vibrato, and two levels of intensity, piano and forte, were employed in a fully crossed 2 x 2 x 3 multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) design. A panel of experts verified the tone type and intensity in the subject trials. MANOVA results revealed significant differences among formant frequencies for the main effects of vowel, intensity, and tone type, and interaction effects for vowel by intensity and intensity by tone type. Numerous significant differences were found among the five formant univariate effects. Contrast analysis led to the retention of the null hypothesis (H0) of no significant difference between tone types in F1, and the rejection of H 0 for F2, F3, F4, and F5. The H0 of no significant difference between intensifies was retained for F3, and rejected for all other formants. H0 was rejected for all formants except F5 for the main effect vowel. The null hypotheses for the three two-way interactions were rejected for all formants except vowel by intensity in F3. H0 was rejected for each of the five formants for the interaction of vowel by intensity by tone type. The influence of tone type was eliminated as a factor in F1. F2 was influenced mostly by vowel. Intensity was subordinate to tone type and vowel in F3. F4, the most unstable of all the formants, was subject to differences throughout all the combined effects. Vowel had little or no effect on F5 in all combined effect analyses. Contrast analyses resulted in numerous other findings. The study outcomes affirm the influence of tongue and mouth shape on vowel stability measured in F1 and F2. Results further indicate that aurally identifiable

  12. Band-specific temporal periodicity enhancement for Cantonese tone perception with noise-excited vocoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Lee, Tan; Yuen, Kevin C P; Soli, Sigfrid D; Tong, Michael C F; van Hasselt, Charles A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study on the effectiveness of expanding the temporal envelope and periodicity component (TEPC) for Cantonese tone perception. The ultimate goal is to develop speech processing techniques that can improve speech perception of hearing prosthesis users. Cantonese is a popular Chinese dialect with a complex lexical tone system. TEPCs are extracted from a few predefined frequency bands. A nonlinear expansion method is applied to increase the modulation depth of the TEPCs, in order to make the temporal periodicity information more salient. To simulate the speech processing procedures of a cochlear implant, the TEPC is used to modulate a noise carrier. Psychophysical listening tests on Cantonese lexical tone identification are carried out with expanded and unexpanded TEPCs. The experimental results show that: (1) expansion of TEPC from high-frequency band leads to noticeable improvement on tone identification accuracy; (2) the effectiveness of TEPC expansion is more significant for female voice than male voice; (3) the presence of noise carrier in low-frequency band negatively affects tone identification accuracy.

  13. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  14. Positive tone cross-linked resists based on photoacid inhibition of cross linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Chun, Jun Sung; Neisser, Mark; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2014-03-01

    A resist imaging design that utilizes photoacid inhibition of cationic polymerization and cross-linking during a postexposure bake step has been studied. The key to the design approach is the use of two different polymerization catalysts/initiators: (1) a photoacid produced from a photoacid generator (PAG) upon exposure of the resist that can result in polymerization and cross-linking of the resist matrix and (2) a thermal cross-linking catalyst (TCC) designed to thermally catalyze epoxide-phenol cross-linking. The TCC can be chosen from a variety of compounds such as triphenylphosphine (TPP) or imidazole. When only one of these catalysts (e.g TPP or photoacid) is present in an epoxide and phenol containing resist matrix, it will individually catalyze cross-linking. When they are present together, they effectively quench one another and little to no cross-linking occurs. This approach can be used to switch the tone of a resist from negative (photoacid catalyzed) to positive (TCC catalyzed and photoacid inhibited). The effect of the ratio of TCC:PAG was examined and the optimal ratio for positive tone behavior was determined. Resist contrast can be modified by optimization of epoxide:phenol ratio in the formulation. Dual tone behavior with positive tone at low dose and negative tone at higher doses can be observed in certain formulation conditions. Initial EUV patterning shows poor results, but the source of the poor imaging is not yet understood.

  15. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  16. Lexical Tones in Mandarin Chinese Infant-Directed Speech: Age-Related Changes in the Second Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengru Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tonal information is essential to early word learning in tone languages. Although numerous studies have investigated the intonational and segmental properties of infant-directed speech (IDS, only a few studies have explored the properties of lexical tones in IDS. These studies mostly focused on the first year of life; thus little is known about how lexical tones in IDS change as children’s vocabulary acquisition accelerates in the second year (Goldfield and Reznick, 1990; Bloom, 2001. The present study examines whether Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS addressing 18- and 24-month-old children—at which age children are learning words at a rapid speed—vs. adult-directed speech (ADS. Thirty-nine Mandarin Chinese–speaking mothers were tested in a semi-spontaneous picture-book-reading task, in which they told the same story to their child (IDS condition and to an adult (ADS condition. Results for the F0 measurements (minimum F0, maximum F0, and F0 range of tone in the speech data revealed a continuum of differences among IDS addressing 18-month-olds, IDS addressing 24-month-olds, and ADS. Lexical tones in IDS addressing 18-month-old children had a higher minimum F0, higher maximum F0, and larger pitch range than lexical tones in ADS. Lexical tones in IDS addressing 24-month-old children showed more similarity to ADS tones with respect to pitch height: there were no differences in minimum F0 and maximum F0 between ADS and IDS. However, F0 range was still larger. These results suggest that lexical tones are generally hyperarticulated in Mandarin Chinese IDS addressing 18- and 24- month-old children despite the change in pitch level over time. Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS when talking to toddlers and potentially facilitate tone acquisition and word learning.

  17. Trellis Tone Modulation Multiple-Access for Peer Discovery in D2D Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwoo Lim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new non-orthogonal multiple-access scheme, trellis tone modulation multiple-access (TTMMA, is proposed for peer discovery of distributed device-to-device (D2D communication. The range and capacity of discovery are important performance metrics in peer discovery. The proposed trellis tone modulation uses single-tone transmission and achieves a long discovery range due to its low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. The TTMMA also exploits non-orthogonal resource assignment to increase the discovery capacity. For the multi-user detection of superposed multiple-access signals, a message-passing algorithm with supplementary schemes are proposed. With TTMMA and its message-passing demodulation, approximately 1.5 times the number of devices are discovered compared to the conventional frequency division multiple-access (FDMA-based discovery.

  18. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  19. Presbycusis occurs after cochlear implantation also: a retrospective study of pure tone thresholds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Samuel; Matusik, Deanna Kattah; Ferro, Lia; Gao, Weihua; Saadia-Redleaf, Miriam

    2012-12-01

    To assess aided soundfield pure tone thresholds after cochlear implantation in adults over time. Retrospective case review. Academic tertiary care center. Seventy-seven severe-to-profoundly deafened adults implanted with one of 5 different internal devices. Cochlear implantation. Outcome measures were cochlear implant aided soundfield pure tone thresholds at 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz. For the 77 adult patients in the study, pure tone aided thresholds deteriorated over time at 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz at rates ranging from 0.54 to 0.86 dB per year with the implant (p presbycusis, this deterioration is most prominent at the highest frequencies; however, the incidence and rate of deterioration is higher than that seen in presbycusis. These physiologic changes are not indicative of device failure and do not mean that performance measures will necessarily deteriorate.

  20. Congenital amusics use a secondary pitch mechanism to identify lexical tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Oliver; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-09-01

    Amusia is a pitch perception disorder associated with deficits in processing and production of both musical and lexical tones, which previous reports have suggested may be constrained to fine-grained pitch judgements. In the present study speakers of tone-languages, in which lexical tones are used to convey meaning, identified words present in chimera stimuli containing conflicting pitch-cues in the temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope, and which therefore conveyed two distinct utterances. Amusics were found to be more likely than controls to judge the word according to the envelope pitch-cues. This demonstrates that amusia is not associated with fine-grained pitch judgements alone, and is consistent with there being two distinct pitch mechanisms and with amusics having an atypical reliance on a secondary mechanism based upon envelope cues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Quam

    Full Text Available Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58, regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28, but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  2. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  3. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  4. The effect of L1 prosodic backgrounds of Cantonese and Japanese speakers on the perception of Mandarin tones after training

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigated to what extent ones' L1 prosodic backgrounds affect their learning of a new tonal system. The question as to whether native speakers of a tone language perform differently from those of a pitch accent language will be addressed. Twenty native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese (a tone language) and Japanese (a pitch accent language) were assigned to two groups. All of them had had no prior knowledge of Mandarin, and had never received any form of musical training before they participated in the study. Their performance of the identification of Mandarin tones before and after a short-term training was compared. Analysis of listeners' tonal confusions in the pretest, posttest, and generalization tests revealed that both Cantonese and Japanese listeners had more confusion for two contrastive tone pairs: Tone 1-Tone 4, and Tone 2-Tone 3. Moreover, Cantonese speakers consistently had greater difficulty than Japanese speakers in distinguishing the tones in each pair. These imply that listeners L1 prosodic backgrounds are at work during the process of learning a new tonal system. The findings will be further discussed in terms of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995). [Work supported by SSHRC.

  5. Musicianship and Tone Language Experience Are Associated with Differential Changes in Brain Signal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Stefanie; Carpentier, Sarah M; Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-12-01

    Musicianship has been associated with auditory processing benefits. It is unclear, however, whether pitch processing experience in nonmusical contexts, namely, speaking a tone language, has comparable associations with auditory processing. Studies comparing the auditory processing of musicians and tone language speakers have shown varying degrees of between-group similarity with regard to perceptual processing benefits and, particularly, nonlinguistic pitch processing. To test whether the auditory abilities honed by musicianship or speaking a tone language differentially impact the neural networks supporting nonlinguistic pitch processing (relative to timbral processing), we employed a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV) analysis. BSV is a metric of information processing capacity and holds great potential for understanding the neural underpinnings of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we measured BSV in electroencephalograms of musicians, tone language-speaking nonmusicians, and English-speaking nonmusicians (controls) during passive listening of music and speech sound contrasts. Although musicians showed greater BSV across the board, each group showed a unique spatiotemporal distribution in neural network engagement: Controls had greater BSV for speech than music; tone language-speaking nonmusicians showed the opposite effect; musicians showed similar BSV for both domains. Collectively, results suggest that musical and tone language pitch experience differentially affect auditory processing capacity within the cerebral cortex. However, information processing capacity is graded: More experience with pitch is associated with greater BSV when processing this cue. Higher BSV in musicians may suggest increased information integration within the brain networks subserving speech and music, which may be related to their well-documented advantages on a wide variety of speech-related tasks.

  6. Long-term Relationships between Cholinergic Tone, Synchronous Bursting and Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A.; Ziv, Noam E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited. PMID:22911726

  7. Recovery of 3D volume from 2-tone images of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C; Cavanagh, P

    1998-07-01

    In 2-tone images (e.g., Dallenbach's cow), only two levels of brightness are used to convey image structure-dark object regions and shadows are turned to black and light regions are light regions are turned white. Despite a lack of shading, hue and texture information, many 2-tone images of familiar objects and scenes are accurately interpreted, even by naive observers. Objects frequently appear fully volumetric and are distinct from their shadows. If perceptual interpretation of 2-tone images is accomplished via bottom-up processes on the basis of geometrical structure projected to the image (e.g., volumetric parts, contour and junction information) novel objects should appear volumetric as readily as their familiar counterparts. We demonstrate that accurate volumetric representations are rarely extracted from 2-tone images of novel objects, even when these objects are constructed from volumetric primitives such as generalized cones (Marr, D., Nishihara, H.K., 1978. Proceedings of the Royal Society London 200, 269-294; Biederman, I. 1985. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 32, 29-73), or from the rearranged components of a familiar object which is itself recognizable as a 2-tone image. Even familiar volumes such as canonical bricks and cylinders require scenes with redundant structure (e.g., rows of cylinders) or explicit lighting (a lamp in the image) for recovery of global volumetric shape. We conclude that 2-tone image perception is not mediated by bottom-up extraction of geometrical features such as junctions or volumetric parts, but may rely on previously stored representations in memory and a model of the illumination of the scene. The success of this top-down strategy implies it is available for general object recognition in natural scenes.

  8. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  9. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of circumventing the science-industry food chain and sequestering biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating......Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation....... Drawing on interviews with the head of a research center in plant biology, this article argues that biology and biotech are symbionts. In order to be viable and productive, symbiosis needs to be carefully managed and given room for divergence within mutual dependence. This process does not take place...

  10. INFLUENCE OF MUSICAL TONES, IN THE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF PREFERENCE OF GEOMETRICAL FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILSON LÓPEZ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This research intended to create preferences on geometric figures using a classical conditioning procedurewhere 2 specific variations of musical structure were used -mayor and dissonant tones- as unconditionedstimulus. 24 university students with an age average of 23 years were exposed to stimular conditionswhere 2 geometric figures (CS+, were matched with mayor tones (UCS+ and other 2 (CS- withdissonant (UCS-; subsequently the figures were rated on a scale (where +10 = very pleasant and -10 =very unpleasant. According with the formulated hypothesis and the previous discoveries in both basicand applied research, three of the four conditions tested showed significant values using the Wilcoxonsign ranks test.

  11. Fenomena Musik Ring Back Tone (RBT): Kapitalisme, Budaya Popular, dan Gaya Hidup

    OpenAIRE

    Rosta Minawati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   RBT music is a phenomenon enjoyed by millions  of fans.  RBT, better known as ring back tones  have become part of the lifestyle  of subscribers.  Ring back tones have sound meanings  (as music) which are experienced by callers after placing their calls. The music is heard by callers till the phone is answered.  The phenomena of RBT is capable of gaining  the interest  of a million customers. In Indonesia  cellphone use has become widespread, cheap and available.  The  func...

  12. Heightened Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone and Altered Contractility in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Khalifé, Samir; Ouellet, Stéphane; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions are reported to be involved in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Although heightened PFM tone has been suggested, the relative contribution of active and passive components of tone remains misunderstood. Likewise, alterations in PFM contractility have been scarcely studied. To compare PFM tone, including the relative contribution of its active and passive components, and muscular contractility in women with PVD and asymptomatic controls. Fifty-six asymptomatic women and 56 women with PVD participated in the study. The PVD diagnosis was confirmed by a gynecologist based on a standardized examination. PFM function was evaluated using a dynamometric speculum combined with surface electromyography (EMG). PFM general tone was evaluated in static conditions at different vaginal apertures and during repeated dynamic cyclic stretching. The active contribution of tone was characterized using the ratio between EMG in a static position and during stretching and the proportion of women presenting PFM activation during stretching. Contribution of the passive component was evaluated using resting forces, stiffness, and hysteresis in women sustaining a negligible EMG signal during stretching. PFM contractility, such as strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance, also was assessed during voluntary isometric efforts. Greater PFM resting forces and stiffness were found in women with PVD compared with controls, indicating an increased general tone. An increased active component also was found in women with PVD because they presented a superior EMG ratio, and a larger proportion of them presented PFM activation during stretching. Higher passive properties also were found in women with PVD. Women with PVD also showed decreased strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance compared with controls. Findings provide further evidence of the contribution of PFM alterations in the etiology of PVD. These alterations should be

  13. Linear combination of auditory steady-state responses evoked by co-modulated tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Up to medium intensities and in the 80–100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used...... for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Ui of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different...

  14. The boundary is mixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Haggard, Hal M.; Rovelli, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    We show that in Oeckl's boundary formalism the boundary vectors that do not have a tensor form represent, in a precise sense, statistical states. Therefore the formalism incorporates quantum statistical mechanics naturally. We formulate general-covariant quantum statistical mechanics in this language. We illustrate the formalism by showing how it accounts for the Unruh effect. We observe that the distinction between pure and mixed states weakens in the general covariant context, suggesting that local gravitational processes are naturally statistical without a sharp quantal versus probabilistic distinction.

  15. Limits on Monolingualism? A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Abilities to Integrate Lexical Tone in Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Poh, Felicia L. S.; Fu, Charlene S. L.

    2016-01-01

    To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English–Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12–13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12–13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17–18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language. PMID:27242584

  16. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children’s performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults’ performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants’ difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts’ similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  17. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Lee, Meg Mei Ling; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  18. Suprasegmental Features Are Not Acquired Early: Perception and Production of Monosyllabic Cantonese Lexical Tones in 4- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Tsz-Tin Leung, Carrie

    2018-04-27

    Previous studies reported that children acquire Cantonese tones before 3 years of age, supporting the assumption in models of phonological development that suprasegmental features are acquired rapidly and early in children. Yet, recent research found a large disparity in the age of Cantonese tone acquisition. This study investigated Cantonese tone development in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty-eight 4- to 6-year-old Cantonese-speaking children and 28 mothers of the children labeled 30 pictures representing familiar words in the 6 tones in a picture-naming task and identified pictures representing words in different Cantonese tones in a picture-pointing task. To control for lexical biases in tone assessment, tone productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Five judges categorized the tones in filtered stimuli. Tone production accuracy, tone perception accuracy, and correlation between tone production and perception accuracy were examined. Children did not start to produce adultlike tones until 5 and 6 years of age. Four-year-olds produced none of the tones with adultlike accuracy. Five- and 6-year-olds attained adultlike productions in 2 (T5 and T6) to 3 (T4, T5, and T6) tones, respectively. Children made better progress in tone perception and achieved higher accuracy in perception than in production. However, children in all age groups perceived none of the tones as accurately as adults, except that T1 was perceived with adultlike accuracy by 6-year-olds. Only weak association was found between children's tone perception and production accuracy. Contradicting to the long-held assumption that children acquire lexical tone rapidly and early before the mastery of segmentals, this study found that 4- to 6-year-old children have not mastered the perception or production of the full set of Cantonese tones in familiar monosyllabic words. Larger development was found in children's tone perception than tone production. The higher tone perception

  19. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  20. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning: wh...

  1. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  2. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  3. Transport, boundary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18 th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of transport and boundary physics will be summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: H-mode physics, Internal Transport Barrier formation, transport studies, Radiative Improved modes and impurity seeding, divertor and He exhaust, new configurations. (author)

  4. Skin Tone, Racism, Locus of Control, Hostility, and Blood Pressure in Hispanic College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Brandy; Ernst, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence that blood pressure is higher in persons with darker skin tone but the reasons for this remain unclear. When seen in minorities, the positive relationship between darkness of skin and blood pressure invites hypotheses about potential mediators of the relationship. We investigated the relationship in Hispanics of primarily…

  5. Speaking a Tone Language Enhances Musical Pitch Perception in 3-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D.; Lee, Kang

    2018-01-01

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared…

  6. [The role of temporal fine structure in tone recognition and music perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Gu, X; Liu, B

    2017-11-07

    The sound signal can be decomposed into temporal envelope and temporal fine structure information. The temporal envelope information is crucial for speech perception in quiet environment, and the temporal fine structure information plays an important role in speech perception in noise, Mandarin tone recognition and music perception, especially the pitch and melody perception.

  7. Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-ling; Yeh, Pei-wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball…

  8. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian Camoro; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video...

  9. Measurement of effects on tone with lip-protecting music splints for wind instrument players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katada, Chigusa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Imai, Miharu; Kawamoto, Masayuki; Shima, Yuko; Tamagawa, Hiroo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ohboshi, Naoki; Toda, Tadao

    2004-05-01

    To protect against lip trauma from wind instruments, music splints that cover the sharp edges of incisor teeth are often manufactured by dentists. Wind instrument players who have installed these custom-made music splints often express not only their lip comfort but also changes in their tone quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of the splints to the tone quality. We recorded three types of trumpet sounds such as long tones, arpeggios with perfect fifth, and tonguing tones with and without using a splint, respectively, by a professional trumpet player in an anechoic room. After fast Fourier transform, the higher harmonics was observed more in the splint group than in the nonsplint group, with sharp peaks from 5000 to 8000 Hz. We also examined the differences of these sound groups with recognition tests by two groups of listeners such as professional musicians and nonprofessional persons. Though sound-pressure levels of higher harmonics in two sound groups were lower than those at 400 to 2000 Hz, the musically trained persons recognized the difference perfectly. These results suggest the target of measurement to evaluate the effect of music splints.

  10. Negative temporal summation of the responses to pairs of tone bursts in albino mice inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, Nikolay G.; Cai, Chen Qi; Jie, Tang

    2003-10-01

    The extracellular activities of single units in an inferior colliculus of narcotized albino mice have been studied. As a stimuli pairs of best frequency (BF) tone bursts with different duration have been used and forward masking has been studied. The test tone usually has a 40 ms duration at intensity 5 dB above threshold. The intensity and duration of the masker could be changed. It was shown that the forward masking essentially depends upon the duration of the first burst. In many cases, the negative temporal summation can be seen. The increase in the duration of first burst (or masker) leads to the decrease in the whole response. Moreover, the BF tone burst which did not evoke any spike response could inhibit the response to the second (test) tone in some cases. Therefore in many units the inhibitory threshold was lower than the excitatory threshold even at the best frequency. The local application of bicuculline through a multibarrel-electrode increased the pulse activity considerably. However, the effect of forward masking usually left even after an inhibitory antagonist (bicuculline) application. [Work supported by grants 39970251 from NSFC, T010360056 from the Foreign Expert Bureau of the State Council of China, and 02-04-3900 from RFBR-NSFC.

  11. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions: body position effects with simultaneous presentation of tone pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Atcherson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three different body positions on distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitude and noise levels with multiple primary tone pairs simultaneously-presented to 36 normal-hearing female human adults. Other studies have demonstrated that the simultaneously presented tone pairs method shows clinical promise as a screener, but the sequential method remains in widespread clinical use. Postural changes have been suggested to have an effect not only on DPOAEs, but also transient-evoked OAEs and stimulus- frequency OAEs. DPOAE amplitude and noise levels were recorded in seated, supine, and side-lying positions to the following order of simultaneously-presented tone pairs relative to the f2 frequencies: 1187, 2375, and 4812 Hz; 1500, 3000, and 6062 Hz; and 1875, 3812, and 7625 Hz. No DPOAE could be detected reliably at 7625 Hz as result of poor signal-to-noise ratio. For remaining DPOAEs, statistical analyses revealed that amplitudes were not significantly different among the three body positions. However, at 1500 Hz and below, body position did have a statistically significant effect on noise levels though they are likely clinically negligible. Except at 7625 Hz, results suggest that DPOAEs recorded using a simultaneously presented tone pairs appear to be comparably recorded regardless of an individual’s body position.

  12. 47 CFR 73.4275 - Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tone clusters; audio attention-getting devices. 73.4275 Section 73.4275 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... clusters; audio attention-getting devices. See Public Notice, FCC 76-610, dated July 2, 1976. 60 FCC 2d 920...

  13. Using Adaptive Tone Mapping to Enhance Edge-Preserving Color Image Automatically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Min-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One common characteristic of most high-contrast images is the coexistence of dark shadows and bright light source in one scene. It is very difficult to present details in both dark and bright areas simultaneously on most display devices. In order to resolve this problem, a new method utilizing bilateral filter combined with adaptive tone-mapping method is proposed to improve image quality. First of all, bilateral filter is used to decompose image into two layers: large-scale layer and detail layer. Then, the large-scale layer image is divided into three regions: bright, mid-tone, and dark region. Finally, an appropriate tone-mapping method is chosen to process each region according to its individual property. Only large-scale layer image is enhanced by using adaptive tone mapping; therefore, the details of the original image can be preserved. The experiment results demonstrate the success of proposed method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also avoid posterization produced by methods using histogram equalization.

  14. Interaction and notation of tone, stress and intonation in Ika Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prominence has been proved by both acoustic and perceptual analyses. Hence in Ika, every intonation group (or tonal intonation group) has a nucleus (a stressed syllable) and it is this nucleus that bears the intonation. This is how stress interacts with intonation in Ika. Tone, on its part, is also affected by this interaction ...

  15. Relationship Between Mandarin Speech Reception Thresholds and Pure-tone Thresholds in the Geriatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Chien

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study established the agreement between Mandarin SRTs and PTTs in the low tone area of speech frequencies in the geriatric population. In clinical settings, SRT test can be rapidly and easily performed and is relatively inexpensive. It is a vital indicator of the accuracy of PTT measurement.

  16. Cues for Lexical Tone Perception in Children: Acoustic Correlates and Phonetic Context Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine; Burnham, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children. Method: Eight minimum pairs of tonal contrasts were presented in either an identical phonetic context…

  17. Auditory Pattern Recognition and Brief Tone Discrimination of Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marianna M.; Givens, Gregg D.; Cranford, Jerry L.; Holbert, Don; Walker, Letitia

    2006-01-01

    Auditory pattern recognition skills in children with reading disorders were investigated using perceptual tests involving discrimination of frequency and duration tonal patterns. A behavioral test battery involving recognition of the pattern of presentation of tone triads was used in which individual components differed in either frequency or…

  18. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  19. A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzogara, Ekeoma E; Lee, Hedwig; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Jackson, James S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men. Research suggests that through negative African American stereotypes, out-group members (Whites) perceive light-skinned African Americans favorably and dark-skinned African Americans unfavorably. However, it is unclear how treatment by in-group members (other African Americans) uniquely affects men. Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2003 National Survey of American Life, we investigated these relationships among African American men representing a wide range of socioeconomic groups. We found that African American men's perceptions of out-group and in-group treatment, respectively, were similar across time. Light-skinned men perceived the least out-group discrimination while dark-skinned men perceived the most out-group discrimination. In appraisals of skin tone discrimination from in-group members, medium-skinned men perceived the least discrimination while both light- and dark-skinned men perceived more in-group discrimination. Additionally, men of lower social economic groups were more affected by skin tone bias than others. Future research should explore the influence of these out- and in-group experiences of skin tone discrimination on social and psychological functioning of African American men.

  20. Pre-attentive modulation of brain responses to tones in coloured-hearing synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäncke Lutz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coloured-hearing (CH synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which an acoustic stimulus (the inducer initiates a concurrent colour perception (the concurrent. Individuals with CH synesthesia "see" colours when hearing tones, words, or music; this specific phenomenon suggesting a close relationship between auditory and visual representations. To date, it is still unknown whether the perception of colours is associated with a modulation of brain functions in the inducing brain area, namely in the auditory-related cortex and associated brain areas. In addition, there is an on-going debate as to whether attention to the inducer is necessarily required for eliciting a visual concurrent, or whether the latter can emerge in a pre-attentive fashion. Results By using the EEG technique in the context of a pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN paradigm, we show that the binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is associated with increased MMN amplitudes in response to deviant tones supposed to induce novel concurrent colour perceptions. Most notably, the increased MMN amplitudes we revealed in the CH synesthetes were associated with stronger intracerebral current densities originating from the auditory cortex, parietal cortex, and ventral visual areas. Conclusions The automatic binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is accompanied by an early pre-attentive process recruiting the auditory cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as ventral occipital areas.

  1. Endothelin-1 Regulation of Exercise-Induced Changes in Flow: Dynamic Regulation of Vascular Tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Rapoport

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although endothelin (ET-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at least under physiologic conditions is supported by findings that potential ET-1 constriction is minimized by the release of the vasodilator and ET-1 synthesis inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO. Indeed, ET-1 release and constriction is self-limited by ET-1-induced, endothelial ETB receptor-mediated release of NO. Moreover, even if the balance between ET-1 and NO were reversed as the result of lowered NO activity, as occurs in a number of pathophysiologies associated with endothelial dysfunction, the well-known resistance of ET-1 constriction to reversal (as determined with exogenous ET-1 precludes ET-1 in the dynamic, i.e., moment-to-moment, regulation of vascular tone. On the other hand, and as presently reviewed, findings of ET-1-dependent modulation of organ blood flow with exercise under physiologic conditions demonstrate the dynamic regulation of vascular tone by ET-1. We speculate that this regulation is mediated at least in part through changes in ET-1 synthesis/release caused by pulsatile flow-induced shear stress and NO.

  2. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q

    2017-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t...

  3. The impact of tone language and non-native language listening on measuring speech quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebem, D.U.; Beerends, J.G.; Vugt, J. van; Schmidmer, C.; Kooij, R.E.; Uguru, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which the modeling used in objective speech quality algorithms depends on the cultural background of listeners as well as on the language characteristics using American English and Igbo, an African tone language is investigated. Two different approaches were used in order to separate

  4. A Population Study of Children's Acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese Consonants, Vowels, and Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated children's acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese. Method: Participants were 1,726 children ages 2;4 to 12;4 (years;months). Single-word speech samples were collected to examine 4 measures: initial consonants, final consonants, vowels/diphthongs, and lexical tones. A 2-way analysis of variance was performed to examine…

  5. A Meta-Analytic Study of the Neural Systems for Auditory Processing of Lexical Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica P Y; Dan, Guo; Yakpo, Kofi; Matthews, Stephen; Fox, Peter T; Li, Ping; Tan, Li-Hai

    2017-01-01

    The neural systems of lexical tone processing have been studied for many years. However, previous findings have been mixed with regard to the hemispheric specialization for the perception of linguistic pitch patterns in native speakers of tonal language. In this study, we performed two activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses, one on neuroimaging studies of auditory processing of lexical tones in tonal languages (17 studies), and the other on auditory processing of lexical information in non-tonal languages as a control analysis for comparison (15 studies). The lexical tone ALE analysis showed significant brain activations in bilateral inferior prefrontal regions, bilateral superior temporal regions and the right caudate, while the control ALE analysis showed significant cortical activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus and left temporo-parietal regions. However, we failed to obtain significant differences from the contrast analysis between two auditory conditions, which might be caused by the limited number of studies available for comparison. Although the current study lacks evidence to argue for a lexical tone specific activation pattern, our results provide clues and directions for future investigations on this topic, more sophisticated methods are needed to explore this question in more depth as well.

  6. Effects of cochlear compression and frequency selectivity on pitch discrimination of complex tones with unresolved harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated pitchdiscriminat...

  7. Effects of election news coverage: how visibility and tone influence party choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmann, D.N.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.; Albæk, E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a party's election results can depend on visibility and tone in the media. Using daily content data from the major news bulletins and daily survey data from the 2007 national election campaign in Denmark (N = 5,083), our analysis improves upon two central aspects of

  8. Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, J.M.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between road and rail traffic noise with pre-ejection period (PEP) and with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during sleep, as indices of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tone, were investigated in the field (36 subjects, with 188 and 192 valid subject nights

  9. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  10. Developing a corpus to verify the performance of a tone labelling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on a study that involved the development of a corpus used to verify the performance of two tone labelling algorithms, with one algorithm being an improvement on the other. These algorithms were developed for speech synthesis...

  11. Oh what a beautiful morning! The time of day effect on the tone and market impact of conference calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Demers, E.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using textual analysis software, we examine whether and how the tone of the question and answer ("Q&A") portion of earnings-related conference calls varies with the time of day. We find that the tone of the conversations between analysts and managers becomes significantly more negative as the day

  12. Can't Sing? Won't Sing? Aotearoa/New Zealand "Tone-Deaf" Early Childhood Teachers' Musical Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Singing is an important part of teaching for early childhood teachers. However, some teachers find this difficult and may even identify themselves as "tone-deaf". We invited a group of early childhood teachers who self-identified as "tone-deaf" to participate in a study to investigate their beliefs and behaviours about singing…

  13. Thresholds of Tone Burst Auditory Brainstem Responses for Infants and Young Children with Normal Hearing in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Lee

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on the published research and our study, we suggest setting the normal criterion levels for infants and young children in Taiwan of the tone burst auditory brainstem response to air-conducted tones as 30 dB nHL for 500 and 1000 Hz, and 25 dB nHL for 2000 and 4000 Hz.

  14. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  15. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  16. Dissociation of Detection and Discrimination of Pure Tones following Bilateral Lesions of Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R.; Koh, Christine K.; Braida, Louis D.; Tramo, Mark Jude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5±2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5±1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6±0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7±0.19 dB). The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed. PMID:22957087

  17. Representation of acoustic signals in the eighth nerve of the Tokay gecko: I. Pure tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F; Capranica, R R

    1994-06-01

    A systematic study of the encoding properties of 146 auditory nerve fibers in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko, L) was conducted with respect to pure tones and two-tone rate suppression. Our aim was a comprehensive understanding of the peripheral encoding of simple tonal stimuli and their representation by temporal synchronization and spike rate codes as a prelude to subsequent studies of more complex signals. Auditory nerve fibers in the Tokay gecko have asymmetrical, V-shaped excitatory tuning curves with best excitatory frequencies that range from 200-5100 Hz and thresholds between 4-35 dB SPL. A low-frequency excitatory 'tail' extends far into the low-frequency range and two-tone suppression is present only on the high frequency side of the tuning curve. The response properties to pure tones at different loci within a tuning curve can differ greatly, due to evident interactions between the representations of temporal, spectral and intensity stimulus features. For frequencies below 1250 Hz, pure tones are encoded by both temporal synchronization and spike rate codes, whereas above this frequency a fiber's ability to encode the waveform periodicity is lost and only a rate code predominates. These complimentary representations within a tuning curve raise fundamental issues which need to be addressed in interpreting how more complex, bioacoustic communication signals are represented in the peripheral and central auditory system. And since auditory nerve fibers in the Tokay gecko exhibit tonal sensitivity, selective frequency tuning, and iso-intensity and iso-frequency contours that seem comparable to similar measures in birds and mammals, these issues likely apply to most higher vertebrates in general. The simpler wiring diagram of the reptilian auditory system, coupled with the Tokay gecko's remarkable vocalizations, make this animal a good evolutionary model in which to experimentally explore the encoding of more complex sounds of communicative significance.

  18. ERP Correlates of Pitch Error Detection in Complex Tone and Voice Auditory Feedback with Missing Fundamental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pitch of a sound is perceived in the absence of its fundamental frequency (F0), suggesting that a distinct mechanism may resolve pitch based on a pattern that exists between harmonic frequencies. The present study investigated whether such a mechanism is active during voice pitch control. ERPs were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch shifts in the auditory feedback of self-vocalizations and complex tones with and without the F0. The absence of the fundamental induced no difference in ERP latencies. However, a right-hemisphere difference was found in the N1 amplitudes with larger responses to complex tones that included the fundamental compared to when it was missing. The P1 and N1 latencies were shorter in the left hemisphere, and the N1 and P2 amplitudes were larger bilaterally for pitch shifts in voice and complex tones compared with pure tones. These findings suggest hemispheric differences in neural encoding of pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. Data from the present study suggest that the right cortical auditory areas, thought to be specialized for spectral processing, may utilize different mechanisms to resolve pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. The left hemisphere seems to perform faster processing to resolve pitch based on the rate of temporal variations in complex sounds compared with pure tones. These effects indicate that the differential neural processing of pitch in the left and right hemispheres may enable the audio-vocal system to detect temporal and spectral variations in the auditory feedback for vocal pitch control. PMID:22386045

  19. Electrophysiological measurement of binaural beats: effects of primary tone frequency and observer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Mamo, Sara K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the electrophysiological binaural beat steady state response as a gauge of temporal fine structure coding, particularly as it relates to the aging auditory system. The hypothesis was that the response would be more robust in a lower, than in a higher, frequency region and in younger, than in older, adults. Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured the 40 Hz binaural beat steady state response elicited by tone pairs in two frequency regions: lower (390 and 430 Hz tone pair) and higher (810 and 850 Hz tone pair). Frequency following responses (FFRs) evoked by the tones were also recorded. Ten young adults with normal hearing participated. The second experiment measured the binaural beat and FFRs in older adults but only in the lower frequency region. Fourteen older adults with relatively normal hearing participated. Response metrics in both experiments included response component signal-to-noise ratio (F statistic) and magnitude-squared coherence. Experiment 1 showed that FFRs were elicited in both frequency regions but were more robust in the lower frequency region. Binaural beat responses elicited by the lower frequency pair of tones showed greater amplitude fluctuation within a participant than the respective FFRs. Experiment 2 showed that older adults exhibited similar FFRs to younger adults, but proportionally fewer older participants showed binaural beat responses. Age differences in onset responses were also observed. The lower prevalence of the binaural beat response in older adults, despite the presence of FFRs, provides tentative support for the sensitivity of this measure to age-related deficits in temporal processing. However, the lability of the binaural beat response advocates caution in its use as an objective measure of fine structure coding.

  20. Dissociation of detection and discrimination of pure tones following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R; Koh, Christine K; Braida, Louis D; Tramo, Mark Jude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5 ± 2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5 ± 1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6 ± 0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7 ± 0.19 dB). The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.

  1. Dissociation of detection and discrimination of pure tones following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dykstra

    Full Text Available It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5 ± 2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5 ± 1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6 ± 0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7 ± 0.19 dB. The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.

  2. Resolved lower limb muscle tone abnormalities in children with HIV encephalopathy receiving standard antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa N; Donald, Kirsten A; Walker, Kathleen G; Langerak, Nelleke G

    2015-01-01

    This short report arose from a follow-up study of children previously diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy and spastic diplegia and is among the first to describe that increased lower limb muscle tone in children with a confirmed HIV encephalopathy diagnosis may resolve over time in some cases. Of 19 children previously diagnosed with HIV encephalopathy and increased lower limb muscle tone, some were found to have resolved muscle tone abnormalities during a follow-up physical examination [resolved group, n = 13, median age 9 years 7 months (interquartile range 7 years 3 months-10 years 9 months)] whereas others continued to show increased lower limb muscle tone at follow-up [unresolved group, n = 6 median age 8 years 6 months (interquartile range 7 years 9 months-9 years 7 months)]. A review of clinical records showed no significant differences in age or follow-up time between the resolved and unresolved groups. However, the unresolved group appeared to have severe disease at an earlier age than the resolved group, based on the age at antiretroviral treatment initiation [median age at start of treatment 2 years 3 months (interquartile range 7 months-5 years 3 months) vs. 8 months (interquartile range 6-12 months), p = 0.08] and had more severe neurological signs at the initial assessment. It is anticipated that this information may be of immediate value to those involved in the treatment of children with HIV encephalopathy and increased lower limb muscle tone whilst awaiting the outcome of future controlled clinical trials.

  3. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Vessières

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO and control mother offspring (CMO aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life.

  4. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  5. Tone burst evoked otoacoustic emissions in neonates Emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo "tone burst" em neonatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Costa Soares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A potential research project in otoacoustic emissions is the use tone bursts - frequency-specific stimulus. AIM:to study otoacoustic emission responses evoked by tone bursts in neonates with hearing loss risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 neonates with risk factors for hearing loss (study group and 30 neonates without these risk factors (control group were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions at the frequency range of 2,000 and 4,000 hertz. STUDY: Clinical and experimental. RESULTS: There was a right ear advantage in female individuals and in the control group, although without statistical significance. Mean "Response" values at 2,000 hertz were 17.73 dB in the control group and 16.55 dB in the study group for female subjects; and 16.63 dB in the control group and 16.12 dB in the study group for male subjects. At 4,000 hertz, the values were 14.63 dB in the control group and 15.09 dB in the study group for female subjects; and 18.57 dB in the control group and 15.06 dB in the study group for male subjects. CONCLUSION: Tone bursts may help evaluate cochlear function in neonates.Uma possibilidade de pesquisa em emissões otoacústicas é utilização do estímulo de frequência específica "tone burst". OBJETIVO: Verificar as respostas das emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo "tone burst" em neonatos com indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 21 neonatos com indicadores de risco para perda auditiva (grupo estudo e 30 neonatos sem indicadores (grupo controle por meio das emissões otoacústicas nas frequências de 2000 e 4000 hertz. ESTUDO: Clínico e experimental. RESULTADOS: Houve vantagem da orelha direita, do gênero feminino e do grupo controle, embora sem significância estatística. Os valores médios de "Response" em 2000 hertz foram 17,73 dB no grupo controle e 16,55 dB no grupo estudo, para o gênero feminino e 16,63 dB no grupo controle e 16,12 dB no grupo estudo, para o g

  6. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training ...

  8. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  9. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  10. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  11. Human neuromagnetic steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated tones, speech, and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminmäki, Satu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Auditory steady-state responses that can be elicited by various periodic sounds inform about subcortical and early cortical auditory processing. Steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated pure tones have been used to scrutinize binaural interaction by frequency-tagging the two ears' inputs at different frequencies. Unlike pure tones, speech and music are physically very complex, as they include many frequency components, pauses, and large temporal variations. To examine the utility of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) steady-state fields (SSFs) in the study of early cortical processing of complex natural sounds, the authors tested the extent to which amplitude-modulated speech and music can elicit reliable SSFs. MEG responses were recorded to 90-s-long binaural tones, speech, and music, amplitude-modulated at 41.1 Hz at four different depths (25, 50, 75, and 100%). The subjects were 11 healthy, normal-hearing adults. MEG signals were averaged in phase with the modulation frequency, and the sources of the resulting SSFs were modeled by current dipoles. After the MEG recording, intelligibility of the speech, musical quality of the music stimuli, naturalness of music and speech stimuli, and the perceived deterioration caused by the modulation were evaluated on visual analog scales. The perceived quality of the stimuli decreased as a function of increasing modulation depth, more strongly for music than speech; yet, all subjects considered the speech intelligible even at the 100% modulation. SSFs were the strongest to tones and the weakest to speech stimuli; the amplitudes increased with increasing modulation depth for all stimuli. SSFs to tones were reliably detectable at all modulation depths (in all subjects in the right hemisphere, in 9 subjects in the left hemisphere) and to music stimuli at 50 to 100% depths, whereas speech usually elicited clear SSFs only at 100% depth.The hemispheric balance of SSFs was toward the right hemisphere for tones and speech, whereas

  12. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  13. Anisotropy across Superplume Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottaar, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sdiff data sets are presented for paths that run parallel to the African and the Pacific superplume boundaries. Objective clustering of waveforms illustrates sharp changes across these boundaries. The African plume shows a sharp offset in travel times in the SHdiff phase, while a more gradual offset towards slower arrivals is seen in the case of the Pacific superplume. Additionally, Pdiff phases display no offset around the African plume and a weak one around the Pacific plume. Here we focus mainly on another striking feature observed in both cases: outside of the superplume the Sdiff particle motion is strongly elliptical, but becomes linear within the superplume (first noticed by To et al. 2005 in the African superplume case). For the African plume we argue that these observations of delayed SV at large distances (~120 degrees) are indicative of the occurrence of azimuthal anisotropy. The SV arrivals have similar polarity as SH, opposite from what their radiation pattern predicts. Azimuthal anisotropy causes SH energy to be converted to SV (Maupin, 1994), explaining the travel time, polarity and amplitude. Forward modeling through different isotropic and anisotropic models supports this statement, although there are trade-offs between direction and magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy. The strong elliptical particle motions are also observed outside the Pacific plume, but at shorter distances (95-105 degrees). Elliptical motions can occur in the absence of anisotropy when strong velocity deviations or layering occurs close to the CMB, which, based on velocity profiles with depth in global tomographic models would be more likely within the superplume rather than on the fast side. The elliptical particle motions here can be modelled with a simple transverse isotropic model with VSH>VSV, but azimuthal anisotropy cannot be ruled out. The complexities within the Pacific superplume, including strong amplitude drop and existence of a post-cursor, are likely caused by an

  14. Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children's English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer. We administered multiple measures of Cantonese tone sensitivity, English stress sensitivity, segmental phonological awareness in Cantonese and English, nonverbal ability, and English word reading to 123 Cantonese-English bilingual children ages 7 and 8 years. Structural equation modeling revealed a longitudinal prediction of Cantonese tone sensitivity to English word reading between 8 and 9 years of age. This relation was realized through two parallel routes. In one, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English stress sensitivity, and English stress sensitivity, in turn, significantly predicted English word reading, as postulated by the prosodic hypothesis. In the second, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English word reading through the transfer of segmental phonological awareness between Cantonese and English, as predicted by segmental phonological transfer. These results support a unified model of phonological transfer, emphasizing the role of tone in English word reading for Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  15. Contribution of low-frequency harmonics to Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and six-talker babble background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Bhandary, Moulesh; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and multi-talker babble conditions for normal-hearing listeners. Tone identification was measured with speech stimuli and stimuli with low and/or high harmonics that were embedded in three Mandarin vowels with two fundamental frequencies. There were six types of stimuli: all harmonics (All), low harmonics (Low), high harmonics (High), and the first (H1), second (H2), and third (H3) harmonic. Results showed that, for quiet conditions, individual harmonics carried frequency contour information well enough for tone identification with high accuracy; however, in noisy conditions, tone identification with individual low harmonics (e.g., H1, H2, and H3) was significantly lower than that with the Low, High, and All harmonics. Moreover, tone identification with individual harmonics in noise was lower for a low F0 than for a high F0, and was also dependent on vowel category. Tone identification with individual low-frequency harmonics was accounted for by local signal-to-noise ratios, indicating that audibility of harmonics in noise may play a primary role in tone identification.

  16. Complex-Tone Pitch Discrimination in Listeners With Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated pitch-discrimination...... performance in listeners with SNHL. Pitch-discrimination thresholds were obtained for 14 normal-hearing (NH) and 10 hearing-impaired (HI) listeners for sine-phase (SP) and random-phase (RP) complex tones. When all harmonics were unresolved, the HI listeners performed, on average, worse than NH listeners...... in the RP condition but similarly to NH listeners in the SP condition. The increase in pitch-discrimination performance for the SP relative to the RP condition (F0DL ratio) was significantly larger in the HI as compared with the NH listeners. Cochlear compression and auditory-filter bandwidths were...

  17. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  18. The Effect of Modeling Qualities, Tones and Gages in Ceramic Supply Chains' Master Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel MUNDI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic production processes are characterized by providing quantities of the same finished goods that differ in qualities, tones and gages. This aspect becomes a problem for ceramic supply chains (SCs that should promise and serve customer orders with homogeneous quantities of the same finished good. In this paper a mathematical programming model for the cen-tralized master planning of ceramic SC is proposed. Inputs to the master plan include demand forecasts in terms of customer order classes based on their order size and splitting percentages of a lot into homogeneous sub-lots. Then, the master plan defines the size and loading of lots to production lines and their distribution with the aim of maximizing the number of customer orders fulfilled with homogeneous quantities in the most efficient manner for the SC. Finally, the effect of modeling qualities, tones and gages in master planning is assessed.

  19. The Dissociation between Polarity, Semantic Orientation, and Emotional Tone as an Early Indicator of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Tapia, Susana A.; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael; Gómez, Héctor F.; Hernández del Salto, Víctor; Sánchez Guerrero, Javier; Mocha-Bonilla, J. A.; Barbosa Corbacho, José; Khan, Azizudin; Chicaiza Redin, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify early cognitive impairment through the efficient use of therapies that can improve the quality of daily life and prevent disease progress. We propose a methodology based on the hypothesis that the dissociation between oral semantic expression and the physical expressions, facial gestures, or emotions transmitted in a person's tone of voice is a possible indicator of cognitive impairment. Experiments were carried out with phrases, analyzing the semantics of the message, and the tone of the voice of patients through unstructured interviews in healthy people and patients at an early Alzheimer's stage. The results show that the dissociation in cognitive impairment was an effective indicator, arising from patterns of inconsistency between the analyzed elements. Although the results of our study are encouraging, we believe that further studies are necessary to confirm that this dissociation is a probable indicator of cognitive impairment. PMID:27683555

  20. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  1. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency complex tones containing only unresolved harmonic components with a frequency spacing Δf usually evoke a low pitch equal to Δf. However, for inharmonic components, the low pitch is often found to deviate slightly from Δf. Whether this pitch shift relies exclusively on temporal fine...... structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones...... with unresolved inharmonic components is determined by (A) the time intervals between the most prominent TFS peaks in their waveform (multimodal distribution of matches around subharmonics of the carrier frequency fc), (B) the timing between peaks in their envelope (unimodal distribution of matches around...

  2. Ecofriendly ethanol-developable processes for electron beam lithography using positive-tone dextrin resist material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Sugino, Naoto; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2017-07-01

    From the viewpoints of the utilization of agricultural resources and advanced use of biomass, this study is aimed at expanding the resolution limits of ecofriendly ethanol-developable processes for electron-beam lithography using a positive-tone dextrin resist material with high hydrophilicity on a cellulose-based underlayer. The images of 20-nm-hole and 40-nm-line patterns with an exposure dose of approximately 1800 µC/cm2 were provided by ecofriendly ethanol-developable processes instead of the common development processes using tetramethylammonium hydroxide and organic solvents. The CF4 etching selectivity of the positive-tone dextrin resist material was approximately 10% lower than that of the polymethyl methacrylate used as a reference resist material.

  3. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q; Møller, H J; Pfeiffer Jensen, M; Drewes, A M; Farmer, A D

    2017-05-01

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t-VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which warrants further evaluation in larger controlled studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Beckett, C

    1989-09-01

    Eighteen musicians with absolute pitch (AP) confirmed by screening tests participated in tonal and verbal short-term-retention tasks. In the tonal task, subjects identified three successive piano tones by their letter names. Recall of these note names after 18 sec of counting backwards was near perfect. Recall after an 18-sec delay filled with random piano tones was also near perfect. In contrast, the same subjects demonstrated significant forgetting when required to retain letter trigrams while counting backwards for 18 sec. These results were essentially replicated in a second experiment using longer (27 sec) retention intervals, a more demanding verbal interference task, and an active musical interference task (singing a descending scale). We interpret these results as indicating that retention of note names by possessors of AP is not limited to verbal encoding; rather, multiple codes (e.g., auditory, kinesthetic, and visual imagery) are probably used.

  5. Parenting behaviors and vagal tone at six months predict attachment disorganization at twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holochwost, Steven J; Gariépy, Jean-Louis; Propper, Cathi B; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Moore, Ginger A

    2014-09-01

    The authors investigated the relationships among parenting behaviors, infant vagal tone, and subsequent attachment classification. Vagal tone was assessed among 6-month olds (n = 95) during the still-face paradigm (SFP) via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), while attachment security and disorganization were measured at 12 months during the strange situation procedure (SSP). Infants demonstrating higher levels of RSA during the normal interaction and reunion episodes of the SFP whose mothers were also rated as negative-intrusive exhibited higher levels of attachment disorganization at 12 months, while infants with lower RSA and mothers who were negative-intrusive did not exhibit higher levels of disorganization. These results suggest that high levels of RSA may not be adaptive within the context of negative-intrusive parenting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nanoimprint Lithography of 20-nm-Pitch Dot Array Pattern Using Tone Reversal Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootera, Yasuaki; Sugawara, Katsuya; Kanamaru, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ryousuke; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Kihara, Naoko; Kamata, Yoshiyuki; Kikitsu, Akira

    2013-10-01

    The nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of a hexagonal dot array pattern with 20 nm pitch was demonstrated using a tone reversal process. The dot array was formed by the self-assembled polystyrene-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) diblock copolymer. The dot pattern was transferred to a hole pattern on the imprint resist layer by a UV-NIL process. The hole pattern was filled with spin-on-glass (SOG). By removing the imprint resist matrix, the SOG dot pattern was formed as a final mask layer. The surface tension of the imprint resist was adjusted to achieve high-quality pattern transfer and demolding. The standard deviation of the diameter and pitch of the dot pattern suffered about 1% drop through the UV-NIL and tone reversal process.

  7. Who Do You Love, Your Mother or Your Horse? An Event-Related Brain Potential Analysis of Tone Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2004-01-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, word meaning is partially determined by lexical tone (Wang, 1973). Previous studies suggest that lexical tone is processed as linguistic information and not as pure tonal information (Gandour, 1998; Van Lanker & Fromkin, 1973). The current study explored the online processing of lexical tones. Event-related potentials were…

  8. Affective tone of mothers’ statements to restrict their children’s eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H.; Miller, Alison L.; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers’ statements intended to restrict their children’s eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers’ restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child’s intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children’s responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  9. Hidden Markov modeling of frequency-following responses to Mandarin lexical tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Fernando; Xie, Zilong; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2017-11-01

    The frequency-following response (FFR) is a scalp-recorded electrophysiological potential reflecting phase-locked activity from neural ensembles in the auditory system. The FFR is often used to assess the robustness of subcortical pitch processing. Due to low signal-to-noise ratio at the single-trial level, FFRs are typically averaged across thousands of stimulus repetitions. Prior work using this approach has shown that subcortical encoding of linguistically-relevant pitch patterns is modulated by long-term language experience. We examine the extent to which a machine learning approach using hidden Markov modeling (HMM) can be utilized to decode Mandarin tone-categories from scalp-record electrophysiolgical activity. We then assess the extent to which the HMM can capture biologically-relevant effects (language experience-driven plasticity). To this end, we recorded FFRs to four Mandarin tones from 14 adult native speakers of Chinese and 14 of native English. We trained a HMM to decode tone categories from the FFRs with varying size of averages. Tone categories were decoded with above-chance accuracies using HMM. The HMM derived metric (decoding accuracy) revealed a robust effect of language experience, such that FFRs from native Chinese speakers yielded greater accuracies than native English speakers. Critically, the language experience-driven plasticity was captured with average sizes significantly smaller than those used in the extant literature. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of HMM in assessing the robustness of neural pitch. Machine-learning approaches can complement extant analytical methods that capture auditory function and could reduce the number of trials needed to capture biological phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bøder til ordblinde men hvad med de tonedøve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Man skulle tro, regeringen var tonedøv i sagen om bøder til sløsede patienter, der udebliver. Regeringen har siden 2004 overhørt de systematiske, advarende toner fra regioner, patientforeninger og læger. Der er meget lidt viden og alt for meget folkevid og politisk tåge, når politikerne drøfter...

  11. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. White Matter Changes Associated with Resting Sympathetic Tone in Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F Mendez

    Full Text Available Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD and other frontally-predominant disorders.To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs, an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer's disease (AD, where it is not.This study analyzed bvFTD (n = 14 patients and a comparison group with early-onset AD (n = 19. We compared their resting SCLs with gray matter and white matter regions of interest and white matter measures of fiber integrity on magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.As expected, bvFTD patients, compared to AD patients, had lower SCLs, which correlated with an apathy measure, and more gray matter loss and abnormalities of fiber integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in frontal-anterior temporal regions. After controlling for group membership, the SCLs were significantly correlated with white matter volumes in the cingulum and inferior parietal region in the right hemisphere.Among dementia patients, SCLs, and resting sympathetic tone, may correlate with quantity of white matter, rather than with gray matter or with white matter fiber integrity. Loss of white matter volumes, especially involving a right frontoparietal network, may reflect chronic loss of cortical axons that mediate frontal control of resting sympathetic tone, changes that could contribute to the apathy and inertia of bvFTD and related disorders.

  13. Modulation of vagal tone enhances gastroduodenal motility and reduces somatic pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøkjaer, J B; Bergmann, S; Brock, C; Madzak, A; Farmer, A D; Ellrich, J; Drewes, A M

    2016-04-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system, whose main neural substrate is the vagus nerve, exerts a fundamental antinociceptive role and influences gastrointestinal sensori-motor function. Our research question was to whether combined electrical and physiological modulation of vagal tone, using transcutaneous electrical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) and deep slow breathing (DSB) respectively, could increase musculoskeletal pain thresholds and enhance gastroduodenal motility in healthy subjects. Eighteen healthy subjects were randomized to a subject-blinded, sham-controlled, cross-over study with an active protocol including stimulation of auricular branch of the vagus nerve, and breathing at full inspiratory capacity and forced full expiration. Recording of cardiac derived parameters including cardiac vagal tone, moderate pain thresholds to muscle, and bone pressure algometry, conditioned pain modulation using a cold pressor test and a liquid meal ultrasonographic gastroduodenal motility test were performed. Cardiac vagal tone increased during active treatment with t-VNS and DSB compared to sham (p = 0.009). In comparison to sham, thresholds to bone pain increased (p = 0.001), frequency of antral contractions increased (p = 0.004) and gastroduodenal motility index increased (p = 0.016) with active treatment. However, no effect on muscle pain thresholds and conditioned pain modulation was seen. This experimental study suggests that this noninvasive approach with combined electrical and physiological modulation of vagal tone enhances gastroduodenal motility and reduces somatic pain sensitivity. These findings warrant further investigation in patients with disorders characterized with chronic pain and gastrointestinal dysmotility such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fundamental tone of minimal hypersurfaces with finite index in hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keomkyo Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let M be a complete minimal hypersurface in hyperbolic space H n + 1 ( − 1 $\\mathbb {H}^{n+1}(-1$ with constant sectional curvature −1. We prove that if M has a finite index and finite L 2 $L^{2}$ norm of the second fundamental form, then the fundamental tone λ 1 ( M $\\lambda_{1} (M$ is bounded above by n 2 $n^{2}$ .

  15. Spasmogenic Effects of the Proteasome Inhibitor Carfilzomib on Coronary Resistance, Vascular Tone and Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Chen-Scarabelli

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: CFZ increased CPP, resting vasoconstricting tone and the spasmogenic effect of different agents. Preincubation with CFZ decreased the anti-spasmogenic activity of NTG and NFP, as well as reduced by over 50% the vasodilating effect of Ach, suggesting that CFZ can impair vasodilation via an endothelium dependent mechanism. Further studies are warranted to establish its clinical safety in patients with known CAD and prior history of coronary spasm.

  16. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik

    2013-04-01

    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  17. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions: comparison of sequential vs. simultaneous presentation of primary tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, U Ajith; Maruthy, Sandeep; Chandrakant, Vishwakarma

    2009-03-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions are one form of evoked otoacoustic emissions. DPOAEs provide the frequency specific information about the hearing status in mid and high frequency regions. But in most screening protocols TEOAEs are preferred as it requires less time compared to DPOAE. This is because, in DPOAE each stimulus is presented one after the other and responses are analyzed. Grason and Stadler Incorporation 60 (GSI-60) offer simultaneous presentation of four sets of primary tones at a time and checks for the DPOAE. In this mode of presentation, all the pairs are presented at a time and following that response is extracted separately whereas, in sequential mode primaries are presented in orderly fashion one after the other. In this article simultaneous and sequential protocols were used to compare the Distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude, noise floor and administration time in individuals with normal hearing and mild sensori-neural (SN) hearing loss. In simultaneous protocols four sets of primary tones (i.e. 8 tones) were presented together whereas, in sequential presentation mode one set of primary tones was presented each time. Simultaneous protocol was completed in less than half the time required for the completion of sequential protocol. Two techniques yielded similar results at frequencies above 1000 Hz only in normal hearing group. In SN hearing loss group simultaneous presentation yielded signifi cantly higher noise floors and distortion product amplitudes. This result challenges the use of simultaneous presentation technique in neonatal hearing screening programmes and on other pathologies. This discrepancy between two protocols may be due to some changes in biomechanical process in the cochlear and/or due to higher distortion/noise produced by the system during the simultaneous presentation mode.

  18. Excessive anterior cervical muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Tohara, Haruka; Hara, Koji; Nakane, Ayako; Wakasugi, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether excessive neck muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing using videofluorography (VF) in an unnatural posture in healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 28 healthy adults (12 men, 16 women; mean age, 39.75±9.50 year...

  19. The spatial and temporal representation of a tone on the guinea pig basilar membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, K. E.; Russell, I. J.

    2000-10-01

    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer Brighton, BN1 9QG, United Kingdom In the mammalian cochlea, the basilar membrane's (BM) mechanical responses are amplified, and frequency tuning is sharpened through active feedback from the electromotile outer hair cells (OHCs). To be effective, OHC feedback must be delivered to the correct region of the BM and introduced at the appropriate time in each cycle of BM displacement. To investigate when OHCs contribute to cochlear amplification, a laser-diode interferometer was used to measure tone-evoked BM displacements in the basal turn of the guinea pig cochlea. Measurements were made at multiple sites acrossthe width of the BM, which are tuned to the same characteristic frequency (CF). In response to CF tones, the largest displacements occur in the OHC region and phase lead those measured beneath the outer pillar cells and adjacent to the spiral ligament by about 90°. Postmortem, responses beneath the OHCs are reduced by up to 65 dB, and all regions across the width of the BM move in unison. We suggest that OHCs amplify BM responses to CF tones when the BM is moving at maximum velocity. In regions of the BM where OHCs contribute to its motion, the responses are compressive and nonlinear. We measured the distribution of nonlinear compressive vibrations along the length of the BM in response to a single frequency tone and estimated that OHC amplification is restricted to a 1.25- to 1.40-mm length of BM centered on the CF place.

  20. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary...... of responsibilities entailed in shared care projects. Rather than seeking to connect all actors in an unbounded space, shared care might instead suggest a space for patients and professionals to experiment with new roles and responsibilities. Practical implications – When designing coordination tools for health care...

  1. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker's processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

  2. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  3. Developmental changes in mismatch responses to mandarin consonants and lexical tones from early to middle childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Liu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN, positive mismatch response (p-MMR, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development.

  4. The Psychophysics of Harmony Perception: Harmony is a Three-Tone Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Cook

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In line with musical “common sense” (but contrary to the century-old tradition of musical psychophysics, we show that harmony is an inherently three-tone phenomenon. Previous attempts at explaining the affective response to major/minor chords and resolved/unresolved chords on the basis of the summation of interval dissonance have been notably unsuccessful, but consideration of the relative size of the intervals contained in triads leads directly to solutions to these historical problems. At the heart of our model is Leonard Meyer’s idea from 1956 concerning “intervallic equidistance” – i.e., the perception of “tension” inherent to any three-tone combination that has two intervals of equivalent size (e.g., the augmented chord. By including the effects of the upper partials, a psychophysical explanation of the perceived sonority of the triads (major>minor>diminished>augmented and the affective valence of major and minor chords is easily achieved. We conclude that the perceptual regularities of traditional diatonic harmony are neither due to the summation of interval effects nor simply arbitrary, learned cultural artifacts, but rather that harmony has a psychophysical basis dependent on three-tone combinations.

  5. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  6. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  7. Alteration of frequency range for binaural beats in acute low-tone hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Shotaro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Ito, Ken; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-01-01

    The effect of acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL) on the interaural frequency difference (IFD) required for perception of binaural beats (BBs) was investigated in 12 patients with unilateral ALHL and 7 patients in whom ALHL had lessened. A continuous pure tone of 30 dB sensation level at 250 Hz was presented to the contralateral, normal-hearing ear. The presence of BBs was determined by a subjective yes-no procedure as the frequency of a loudness-balanced test tone was gradually adjusted around 250 Hz in the affected ear. The frequency range in which no BBs were perceived (FRNB) was significantly wider in the patients with ALHL than in the controls, and FRNBs became narrower in the recovered ALHL group. Specifically, detection of slow BBs with a small IFD was impaired in this limited (10 s) observation period. The significant correlation between the hearing level at 250 Hz and FRNBs suggests that FRNBs represent the degree of cochlear damage caused by ALHL.

  8. Clinical measurement of muscle tone using a velocity-corrected modified Ashworth scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A W; Jamshidi, M; Lo, S K

    2002-03-01

    To develop a new form of the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for muscle-tone assessment that combines the MAS score with the passive muscle-stretching velocity during the assessment of muscle tone, resulting in a measure that has higher intertester reliability than the MAS. Twenty-two volunteer subjects with spinal cord injuries at a tertiary care outpatient and inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation center affiliated with a university were recruited for this study. A decision tree in which V-MAS scores were obtained was developed. The data obtained from three independent raters, when adjusted by means of the V-MAS, showed an excellent interrater reliability. Results indicated that the V-MAS is a more reliable measure. In addition, the resulting units of the V-MAS, ranging from 0 to 1, are of the same form as pendulum test data. The V-MAS method is quite simple to use because the rater need only measure the angular range and duration of the passive movement to calculate average velocity during the MAS assessment in addition to the normal MAS rating of muscle tone.

  9. Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. A modified tone injection scheme for PAPR reduction using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Cheol Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the capability to provide a wide variety of intelligent behaviors, cognitive radio (CR has become a promising technology to improve spectrum utilization efficiently. One of the popular techniques which adapt CR concept to multi-carrier systems is known as tone injection scheme. This scheme is a sort of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR reduction methods deployable to multi-carrier systems such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. However, a conventional tone injection scheme might increase averaged transmit power attributed to expanding the size of constellation on purpose to get optimal PAPR reduction. Based on a weighted-sum genetic algorithm to resolve multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP, the modified tone injection scheme exploits the agility of CR technology to rapidly adapt operating parameters in order to fulfill PAPR reduction as well as mitigation of power increase optimally. The simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is flexible because it could not only control the performance of PAPR reduction, but also alleviate power increase by steering weight values at the expense of relatively low complexity comparing with other conventional method.

  11. Relating Pitch Awareness to Phonemic Awareness in Children: Implications for Tone-Deafness and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one’s own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of 7 and 9 were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis.

  12. The differences in brain activity between narrow band noise and pure tone tinnitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vanneste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an auditory sensation characterized by the perception of sound or noise in the absence of any external sound source. Based on neurobiological research, it is generally accepted that most forms of tinnitus are attributable to maladaptive plasticity due to damage to auditory system. Changes have been observed in auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus, the thalamus and the auditory cortex as well as in non-auditory brain areas. However, the observed changes show great variability, hence lacking a conclusive picture. One of the reasons might be the selection of inhomogeneous groups in data analysis. METHODOLOGY: The aim of the present study was to delineate the differences between the neural networks involved in narrow band noise and pure tone tinnitus conducting LORETA based source analysis of resting state EEG. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrated that narrow band noise tinnitus patients differ from pure tone tinnitus patients in the lateral frontopolar (BA 10, PCC and the parahippocampal area for delta, beta and gamma frequency bands, respectively. The parahippocampal-PCC current density differences might be load dependent, as noise-like tinnitus constitutes multiple frequencies in contrast to pure tone tinnitus. The lateral frontopolar differences might be related to pitch specific memory retrieval.

  13. Using a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter to detect changes in sympathetic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Suzanne M; McGrath, Susan P; Akay, Metin; Blike, George T

    2004-01-01

    The extreme conditions of combat and multi-casualty rescue often make field triage difficult and put the medic or first responder at risk. In an effort to improve field triage, we have developed an automated remote triage system called ARTEMIS (automated remote triage and emergency management information system) for use in the battlefield or disaster zone. Common to field injuries is a sudden change in arterial pressure resulting from massive blood loss or shock. In effort to stabilize the arterial pressure, the sympathetic system is strongly activated and sympathetic tone is increased. This preliminary research seeks to empirically demonstrate that a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter is a viable sensor for detecting sudden changes in sympathetic tone. We performed the classic supine-standing experiment and collected the raw waveform, the photoplethysmogram (PPG), continuously using a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter. The resulting waveform was processed in Matlab using various spectral analysis techniques (FFT and AR). Our preliminary results show that a relative ratio analysis (low frequency power/high frequency power) for both the raw PPG signal and its derived pulse statistics (height, beat-to-beat interval) is a useful technique for detecting change in sympathetic tone resulting from positional change.

  14. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  15. Collaboration in Healthcare Through Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2015-01-01

    . In highly specialized, knowledge-intensive organizations such as healthcare organizations, organizational, professional, and disciplinary boundaries mark the formal structure and division of work. Collaboration and coordination across these boundaries are essential to minimizing gaps in patient care......, but also may be challenging to achieve in practice. By drawing on data from an ethnographic study of two hospital wards, this article investigates practices of cross-disciplinary and professional collaboration and adds to our knowledge of how this kind of boundary work is produced in context. Moreover......, it adds to existing boundary literature by exploring the fast-paced, situational, micro-interactions in which boundaries are drawn, maintained, and dissolved. These mundane, brief exchanges are essential to the practice of collaboration through boundary work. I consider the implications of these findings...

  16. Hearing Tests Based on Biologically Calibrated Mobile Devices: Comparison With Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-10

    Hearing screening tests based on pure-tone audiometry may be conducted on mobile devices, provided that the devices are specially calibrated for the purpose. Calibration consists of determining the reference sound level and can be performed in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. In the case of devices provided by the manufacturer, together with bundled headphones, the reference sound level can be calculated once for all devices of the same model. This study aimed to compare the hearing threshold measured by a mobile device that was calibrated using a model-specific, biologically determined reference sound level with the hearing threshold obtained in pure-tone audiometry. Trial participants were recruited offline using face-to-face prompting from among Otolaryngology Clinic patients, who own Android-based mobile devices with bundled headphones. The hearing threshold was obtained on a mobile device by means of an open access app, Hearing Test, with incorporated model-specific reference sound levels. These reference sound levels were previously determined in uncontrolled conditions in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. An audiologist-assisted self-measurement was conducted by the participants in a sound booth, and it involved determining the lowest audible sound generated by the device within the frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The results were compared with pure-tone audiometry. A total of 70 subjects, 34 men and 36 women, aged 18-71 years (mean 36, standard deviation [SD] 11) participated in the trial. The hearing threshold obtained on mobile devices was significantly different from the one determined by pure-tone audiometry with a mean difference of 2.6 dB (95% CI 2.0-3.1) and SD of 8.3 dB (95% CI 7.9-8.7). The number of differences not greater than 10 dB reached 89% (95% CI 88-91), whereas the mean absolute difference was obtained at 6.5 dB (95% CI 6.2-6.9). Sensitivity and specificity for a mobile

  17. Assessment of Cardiac Autonomic Tone Following Long Sudarshan Kriya Yoga in Art of Living Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Lakshmi; Kharya, Chhaya; Deepak, K K; Kochupillai, Vinod

    2017-09-01

    The breathing processes are known to modulate cardiac autonomic tone and improve psychological status. We investigated cardiac autonomic tone following long Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) using heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty healthy volunteers (age 28.3 ± 8.4 years; 23 M: 7 F) participated in the study. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and SCL were recorded for 5 min each, before and after long SKY. Long SKY is a combination of pranayama and cyclic rhythmic breathing and is performed by following the guided audio instructions. HRV analysis was used for the assessment of cardiac autonomic tone. Time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were calculated by using RR interval of ECG. SCL was acquired using Galvanic skin response (GSR) amplifier of PowerLab in microSeimens (μS). Time domain parameters of HRV, including mean RR interval (p = 0.000), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) (p = 0.037), standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN) (p = 0.013), NN50 count divided by the total number of all NN intervals (pNN50) (p = 0.004), and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) (p = 0.002) increased, and mean heart rate decreased (p = 0.000) following long SKY. In frequency domain analysis, power of low-frequency (LF) component (p = 0.010) and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.008) decreased significantly, whereas power of high frequency (HF) significantly increased (p = 0.010). SCL decreased following long SKY, although it did not attain statistical significance. The results suggest that long SKY induces significant oscillations in cardiac autonomic tone. Parasympathetic activity increases and sympathetic activity decreases and sympathovagal balance improves following long SKY. Decrease in sympathetic activity is also demonstrated by decrease in conductance although it did not reach statistical significance. From this study it can be concluded that long

  18. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader......To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...

  19. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  20. Further studies of static to flight effects on fan tone noise using inlet distortion control for source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Current experimental investigations have linked static inflow distortion phenomena such as the ground vortex, atmospheric turbulence, and teststand structure interference to the generation of fan tone noise at the blade passing frequency. Since such distortions do not exist in flight, it is important to remove them from the static test environment and thereby improve the static-to-flight tone-noise correlation. In the course of providing evidence for this position, a recent investigation used a distortion control inlet with a modern day turbofan engine to assess atmospheric turbulence effects. Although the initial results were encouraging, they were incomplete. The present investigation continues this work and shows more completely the effect of atmospheric turbulence on tone-noise generation. Further, use is made of the distortion control inlet to identify other competing tone-noise sources in the test engine such as a rotor-core stator interaction which was confirmed by engine modifications.

  1. The efficacy of tone-reducing features in orthotics on the gait of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, S; Herzog, R; Castagno, P; Richards, J; Miller, F; Michaloski, G; Moran, E

    2000-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of tone-reducing features in ankle-foot orthotics (AFOs) on the gait of eight children (ages 4-11 years) with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. A standard gait analysis was performed on each subject in each of three trial orthotics and in a baseline shoes-only condition. A 4-week accommodation period was allotted for each of the three devices: a standard hinged AFO, an AFO with tone-reducing features, and a supramalleolar orthotic with tone-reducing features. Most significant differences were at the ankle, between free-ankle and plantar flexion-limiting conditions. No significant functional changes in gait were evident with the addition of tone-reducing properties to a standard articulating AFO.

  2. Complex mismatch negativity to tone pair deviants in long-term schizophrenia and in the first-episode schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential to stimulus change. MMN to infrequent deviant tones that differs in a simple physical parameter from repetitive standard tones is reduced in patients with long-term schizophrenia (Sz; d=~1). However, this simple MMN is not uniformly reduced at the first-episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis (FESz; d<0.1 for pitch; <0.4 for duration). Deviant stimuli that violate pattern rules also evoke MMN. This complex MMN is evoked by deviations in the relation of sounds to each other. The simplest pattern involves tone pairs. Although the pitch of first tone in the pair varies, the second tone's pitch always follows a rule (e.g., always 3 semitones higher). We measured complex MMN to deviant tone pairs that descended in pitch among standard tone pairs that ascended in pitch, never before examined in Sz or in FESz. Experiment 1 showed significant reductions in complex MMN in 20 Sz compared to 22 matched controls. Experiment 2 replicated smaller complex MMN in a shorter protocol in 24 Sz compared to 21 matched controls, but showed no significant complex MMN reduction in 21 FESz compared to 21 matched controls. Although reduced in Sz, indicating deficits in generation of a simple acoustic pattern rule, the tone pair complex MMN was within normal limits in FESz. This suggests that more complex perceptual pattern analysis processes are, at least partially, still intact at the first break. Future work will determine at what point of pattern complexity subtle auditory perception pathophysiology will be revealed in FESz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Grain boundary melting in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wilen, L. A.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentr...

  4. Conformal boundaries of warped products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2006-01-01

    In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....

  5. Effects of virtual reality-based ankle exercise on the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom, Changho; Cho, Hwi-Young; Lee, ByoungHee

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based ankle exercise on the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait ability of stroke subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty persons who were in the chronic stroke subjects of this study and they were included and assigned to two groups: experimental (VRAE; Virtual Reality-based Ankle Exercise group) (n=10) and control groups (n=10). The VRAE group performed virtual environment system ankle exercise, and the control group watched a video. Both groups performed their respective interventions for 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week over a 6-week period. To confirm the effects of the intervention, dynamic balance, muscle tone, and spatiotemporal gait were evaluated. [Results] The results showed that the dynamic balance and muscle tone was significantly more improved after the intervention compared to before in the VRAE group (dynamic balance: 5.50±2.57; muscle tone: 0.90±0.39), and the improvements were more significant than those in the control (dynamic balance: 1.22±2.05; muscle tone: 0.10±0.21). Spatiotemporal gait measures were significantly more increased in the paretic limb after the intervention compared to before in the VRAE group and the improvements were more significant than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that virtual reality-based ankle exercise effectively improves the dynamic balance, muscle tone, and gait ability of stroke patients.

  6. The Analysis for Activations in the Brain during Hearing the Amplitude-Modulated Tone by fMRI Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Saito, Yoichi

    In audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) is widely used. However, it shows low accuracy in low frequency band. Meanwhile, AMFR (Amplitude-Modulation-Following Response), the response during hearing an amplitude-modulated tone, has high frequency specificity and is brought to attention. As the first step to clinical application of AMFR, we investigated the activated areas in a brain when the subjects hear SAM tone (Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated tone) with both ears. We measured following two signals. One is the difference of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal between hearing SAM tone vs. silence, the other is the difference of BOLD signal between hearing SAM tone vs. unmodulated tone. As a result, in the case of SAM vs. silence, the bilaterally auditory cortex (Broadmann Area 41, 42), the biratelally BA 10, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were activated (pgyrus (BA 6) and precuneus (BA 7), neighboring area including the bilaterally inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were activated (pgyrus and inferior parietal lobule was the part related to perception of amplitude-modulation.

  7. Computer-aided assessment of tone production: A case of Zimbabwean students learning Chinese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mushangwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of Zimbabwe studying Chinese and this was part of a continuous assessment for the students’ pronunciation of Chinese tones. This method which was used by teachers to assess students’ tones was found to be easy to follow such that students could also utilize it for their own pronunciation practice. We argued that the use of computer-aided assessment makes assessment of students’ tone acquisition lesser arbitrary than when the teacher merely gives comments based on his or her individual perception. This is because this assessment method gives PRAAT acoustic pictures which show the tone structures for each student; hence, both the student and the teacher can visualize the errors. Since PRAAT can provide a platform to compare the student’s pronunciation with that of the native speaker and at the same time can help the teacher to explain why student’s pronunciation is wrong, this paper concludes that PRAAT can be a useful tool in assessing and teaching Chinese tones.

  8. Boundary Spanners in Global Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    managers’ boundary-spanning activities and a context-sensitive understanding of their boundary work. The study applies Bourdieu’s concept of capital (economic, cultural, social, and symbolic) not only in its analysis of the two powerful partners but also in its discussion of the boundary......-spanning activities that are reported. The analysis demonstrates the coexistence of transactive and transformative modes of collaboration in the studied case. It reveals both the importance of partner status and the impact of that status on the forms of boundary-spanning activities in which the partners engage...

  9. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  10. Boundary-Layer & health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  11. Berlyne revisited: Evidence for the multifaceted nature of hedonic tone in the appreciation of paintings and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Maria Marin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal book on aesthetics, Berlyne (1971 posited an inverted-U relationship between complexity and hedonic tone in arts appreciation, however, converging evidence for his theory is still missing. The disregard of the multidimensionality of complexity may explain some of the divergent results. Here, we argue that definitions of hedonic tone are manifold and systematically examined whether the nature of the relationship between complexity and hedonic tone is determined by the specific measure of hedonic tone. In Experiment 1, we studied three picture categories with similar affective and semantic contents: 96 affective environmental scenes, which were also converted into 96 cartoons, and 96 representational paintings. Complexity varied along the dimension of elements. In a between-subjects design, each stimulus was presented for 5 s to 206 female participants. Subjective ratings of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking, arousal, complexity and familiarity were collected in three conditions per stimulus set. Complexity and arousal were positively associated in all conditions, with the strongest association observed for paintings. For environmental scenes and cartoons, there was no significant association between complexity and hedonic tone, and the three measures of hedonic tone were highly correlated (all rs >.85. As predicted, in paintings the measures of hedonic tone were less strongly correlated (all rs >.73, and when controlling for familiarity, the association with complexity was significantly positive for beauty (rs = .26, weakly negative for pleasantness (rs = -.16 and not present for liking. Experiment 2 followed a similar approach and 77 female participants, all non-musicians, rated 92 musical excerpts (15 s in three conditions of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking. Results indicated a strong relationship between complexity and arousal (all rs >.85. When controlling for familiarity effects, the

  12. Berlyne Revisited: Evidence for the Multifaceted Nature of Hedonic Tone in the Appreciation of Paintings and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M.; Lampatz, Allegra; Wandl, Michaela; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In his seminal book on esthetics, Berlyne (1971) posited an inverted-U relationship between complexity and hedonic tone in arts appreciation, however, converging evidence for his theory is still missing. The disregard of the multidimensionality of complexity may explain some of the divergent results. Here, we argue that definitions of hedonic tone are manifold and systematically examined whether the nature of the relationship between complexity and hedonic tone is determined by the specific measure of hedonic tone. In Experiment 1, we studied three picture categories with similar affective and semantic contents: 96 affective environmental scenes, which were also converted into 96 cartoons, and 96 representational paintings. Complexity varied along the dimension of elements. In a between-subjects design, each stimulus was presented for 5 s to 206 female participants. Subjective ratings of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking), arousal, complexity and familiarity were collected in three conditions per stimulus set. Complexity and arousal were positively associated in all conditions, with the strongest association observed for paintings. For environmental scenes and cartoons, there was no significant association between complexity and hedonic tone, and the three measures of hedonic tone were highly correlated (all rs > 0.85). As predicted, in paintings the measures of hedonic tone were less strongly correlated (all rs > 0.73), and when controlling for familiarity, the association with complexity was significantly positive for beauty (rs = 0.26), weakly negative for pleasantness (rs = -0.16) and not present for liking. Experiment 2 followed a similar approach and 77 female participants, all non-musicians, rated 92 musical excerpts (15 s) in three conditions of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking). Results indicated a strong relationship between complexity and arousal (all rs > 0.85). When controlling for familiarity effects, the

  13. Tone-assisted time delay interferometry on GRACE Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Sutton, Andrew J.; de Vine, Glenn; Ware, Brent; Spero, Robert E.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2015-07-01

    We have demonstrated the viability of using the Laser Ranging Interferometer on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) space mission to test key aspects of the interspacecraft interferometry proposed for detecting gravitational waves. The Laser Ranging Interferometer on GRACE-FO will be the first demonstration of interspacecraft interferometry. GRACE-FO shares many similarities with proposed space-based gravitational wave detectors based on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept. Given these similarities, GRACE-FO provides a unique opportunity to test novel interspacecraft interferometry techniques that a LISA-like mission will use. The LISA Experience from GRACE-FO Optical Payload (LEGOP) is a project developing tests of arm locking and time delay interferometry (TDI), two frequency stabilization techniques, that could be performed on GRACE-FO. In the proposed LEGOP TDI demonstration one GRACE-FO spacecraft will have a free-running laser while the laser on the other spacecraft will be locked to a cavity. It is proposed that two one-way interspacecraft phase measurements will be combined with an appropriate delay in order to produce a round-trip, dual one-way ranging (DOWR) measurement independent of the frequency noise of the free-running laser. This paper describes simulated and experimental tests of a tone-assisted TDI ranging (TDIR) technique that uses a least-squares fitting algorithm and fractional-delay interpolation to find and implement the delays needed to form the DOWR TDI combination. The simulation verifies tone-assisted TDIR works under GRACE-FO conditions. Using simulated GRACE-FO signals the tone-assisted TDIR algorithm estimates the time-varying interspacecraft range with a rms error of ±0.2 m , suppressing the free-running laser frequency noise by 8 orders of magnitude. The experimental results demonstrate the practicability of the technique, measuring the delay at the 6 ns level in the presence of a

  14. Domain-general neural correlates of dependency formation: Using complex tones to simulate language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilmayer, Ingmar; Sassenhagen, Jona; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the P600 event-related potential component following syntactic anomalies reflects syntactic processes per se, or if it is an instance of the P300, a domain-general ERP component associated with attention and cognitive reorientation. A direct comparison of both components is challenging because of the huge discrepancy in experimental designs and stimulus choice between language and 'classic' P300 experiments. In the present study, we develop a new approach to mimic the interplay of sequential position as well as categorical and relational information in natural language syntax (word category and agreement) in a non-linguistic target detection paradigm using musical instruments. Participants were instructed to (covertly) detect target tones which were defined by instrument change and pitch rise between subsequent tones at the last two positions of four-tone sequences. We analysed the EEG using event-related averaging and time-frequency decomposition. Our results show striking similarities to results obtained from linguistic experiments. We found a P300 that showed sensitivity to sequential position and a late positivity sensitive to stimulus type and position. A time-frequency decomposition revealed significant effects of sequential position on the theta band and a significant influence of stimulus type on the delta band. Our results suggest that the detection of non-linguistic targets defined via complex feature conjunctions in the present study and the detection of syntactic anomalies share the same underlying processes: attentional shift and memory based matching processes that act upon multi-feature conjunctions. We discuss the results as supporting domain-general accounts of the P600 during natural language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An offset tone based gain stabilization technique for mixed-signal RF measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gopal; Motiwala, Paresh D.; Randale, G.D.; Singh, Pitamber; Agarwal, Vivek; Kumar, Girish

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a gain stabilization technique for a RF signal measurement system. A sinusoidal signal of known amplitude, phase and close enough in frequency is added to the main, to be measured RF signal at the input of the analog section. The system stabilizes this offset tone in the digital domain, as it is sampled at the output of the analog section. This process generates a correction factor needed to stabilize the magnitude of the gain of the analog section for the main RF signal. With the help of a simple calibration procedure, the absolute amplitude of the main RF signal can be measured. The technique is especially suited for a system that processes signals around a single frequency, employs direct signal conversion into the digital domain, and processes subsequent steps in an FPGA. The inherent parallel signal processing in an FPGA-based implementation allows a real time stabilization of the gain. The effectiveness of the technique is derived from the fact, that the gain stabilization stamped to the main RF signal measurement branch requires only a few components in the system to be inherently stable. A test setup, along with experimental results is presented from the field of RF instrumentation for particle accelerators. Due to the availability of a phase synchronized RF reference signal in these systems, the measured phase difference between the main RF and the RF reference is also stabilized using this technique. A scheme of the signal processing is presented, where a moving average filter has been used to filter out not only the unwanted frequencies, but also to separate the main RF signal from the offset tone signal. This is achieved by a suitable choice of sampling and offset tone frequencies. The presented signal processing scheme is suitable to a variety of RF measurement applications

  16. An offset tone based gain stabilization technique for mixed-signal RF measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Gopal, E-mail: gjos@barc.gov.in [BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Motiwala, Paresh D.; Randale, G.D.; Singh, Pitamber [BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Agarwal, Vivek; Kumar, Girish [IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2015-09-21

    This paper describes a gain stabilization technique for a RF signal measurement system. A sinusoidal signal of known amplitude, phase and close enough in frequency is added to the main, to be measured RF signal at the input of the analog section. The system stabilizes this offset tone in the digital domain, as it is sampled at the output of the analog section. This process generates a correction factor needed to stabilize the magnitude of the gain of the analog section for the main RF signal. With the help of a simple calibration procedure, the absolute amplitude of the main RF signal can be measured. The technique is especially suited for a system that processes signals around a single frequency, employs direct signal conversion into the digital domain, and processes subsequent steps in an FPGA. The inherent parallel signal processing in an FPGA-based implementation allows a real time stabilization of the gain. The effectiveness of the technique is derived from the fact, that the gain stabilization stamped to the main RF signal measurement branch requires only a few components in the system to be inherently stable. A test setup, along with experimental results is presented from the field of RF instrumentation for particle accelerators. Due to the availability of a phase synchronized RF reference signal in these systems, the measured phase difference between the main RF and the RF reference is also stabilized using this technique. A scheme of the signal processing is presented, where a moving average filter has been used to filter out not only the unwanted frequencies, but also to separate the main RF signal from the offset tone signal. This is achieved by a suitable choice of sampling and offset tone frequencies. The presented signal processing scheme is suitable to a variety of RF measurement applications.

  17. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger eGeis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10-24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6-21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms.

  18. How to standardize vasomotor tone in serial studies based on quantitation of coronary dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, S; Nolte, C W; Sturm, M; Hausleiter, J; Hausmann, D

    1998-12-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease including those after coronary bypass graft operation and heart transplantation intervention studies based on serial quantitative coronary angiography, in part combined with intravascular ultrasound, are of increasing relevance. Since vasomotor tone of epicardial coronary arteries is influenced by a variety of factors, angiographic follow-up studies require standardization of coronary tone by induction of maximal dilation. We reviewed the effects of the most potent coronary vasodilatory drug groups, calcium antagonists and nitrocompounds, on coronary diameters. Intravenous or intracoronary injections of verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, nicardipine, and nisoldipine can cause profound coronary dilation which has been shown to be maximal with verapamil and nisoldipine. Shortcomings of calcium antagonists include short or unknown duration of action after bolus administration, severe drop in blood pressure, and lack of commercial availability of solutions for injection of many substances. Isosorbide dinitrate induces profound coronary dilation; however, after sublingual administration marked blood pressure decrease can occur, and the duration of action and ideal dose of intracoronary isosorbide dinitrate has not been investigated yet. Injections of molsidomine and its active metabolite, SIN-1, cause longlasting, reproducible, maximal coronary dilation, although only after a waiting period of at least 10 minutes; unfortunately, SIN-1 is only commercially available in France. Nitroglycerin induces reproducible maximal coronary dilation and is easy to administer sublingually or as intracoronary bolus injection with rapid onset of action and no major side effects. The short duration of action may require repeated administrations. To date, repeated intracoronary bolus injections of 0.1 mg nitroglycerin every 10 minutes seem to be the optimal known regimen for standardization of coronary vasomotor tone in serial angiographic studies

  19. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries are the zones where most earth dynamics are focussed. The complexity of tectonic boundaries draws attention to them as the largest earthquakes are felt in these areas and they elicit the natural hazard of ...

  20. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  1. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries ...

  2. Modulation of vagal tone enhances gastroduodenal motility and reduces somatic pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, J B; Bergmann, S; Brock, C

    2016-01-01

    algometry, conditioned pain modulation using a cold pressor test and a liquid meal ultrasonographic gastroduodenal motility test were performed. KEY RESULTS: Cardiac vagal tone increased during active treatment with t-VNS and DSB compared to sham (p = 0.009). In comparison to sham, thresholds to bone pain...... increased (p = 0.001), frequency of antral contractions increased (p = 0.004) and gastroduodenal motility index increased (p = 0.016) with active treatment. However, no effect on muscle pain thresholds and conditioned pain modulation was seen. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: This experimental study suggests...

  3. Individual cochlear delays measured with tone-burst-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigasse, Gilles; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    Methods to estimate cochlear delay in humans have been traditionally based on either phase-derived group delays from otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), or auditory brainstem responses (ABR). These methods demonstrate large variability in cochlear delay estimates, and are derived from across subject...... averages. This work aims to assess the individual variability in cochlear delay. Tone-burst evoked otoacoustic emissions (TBOAEs) are used in this study to estimate cochlear delay. The OAE is analysed by separating the non-linear components of cochlear origin, and the linear reflection in the time domain...

  4. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs......) with approximate 300 MHz linewidth are used as transmitters and local oscillators for coherent detection of optical DP-QPSK signals. The proposed system, with central wavelength at 1540.68 nm, operates at 40 Gb/s over 80 km single mode fiber (SMF) as part of a passive optical network (PON). The deployment of pilot...

  5. Ends, fundamental tones and capacity of minimal submanifolds via extrinsic comparison theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimeno, Vicent; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We study the volume of extrinsic balls and the capacity of extrinsic annuli in minimal submanifolds which are properly immersed with controlled radial sectional curvatures into an ambient manifold with a pole. The key results are concerned with the comparison of those volumes and capacities with ...... with the corresponding entities in a rotationally symmetric model manifold. Using the asymptotic behavior of the volumes and capacities we then obtain upper bounds for the number of ends as well as estimates for the fundamental tone of the submanifolds in question....

  6. Songbirds use pulse tone register in two voices to generate low-frequency sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Cooper, Brenton G.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    , the syrinx, is unknown. We present the first high-speed video records of the intact syrinx during induced phonation. The syrinx of anaesthetized crows shows a vibration pattern of the labia similar to that of the human vocal fry register. Acoustic pulses result from short opening of the labia, and pulse...... generation alternates between the left and right sound sources. Spontaneously calling crows can also generate similar pulse characteristics with only one sound generator. Airflow recordings in zebra finches and starlings show that pulse tone sounds can be generated unilaterally, synchronously...

  7. Boundary dynamics in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mukherji, S.

    1994-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the boundary in two dimensional dilaton gravity coupled to N massless scalars. We rederive the boundary conditions of [1] and [3] in a way which makes the requirement of reparametrization invariance and the role of conformal anomaly explicit. We then study the semiclassical behaviour of the boundary in the N=24 theory in the presence of an incoming matter wave with a constant energy flux spread over a finite interval. There is a critical value of the matter energy density below which the boundary is stable and all the matter is reflected back. For energy densities greater than this critical value there is a similar behaviour for small values of the total energy thrown in. However, when the total energy exceeds another critical value the boundary exhibits a runaway behaviour and the spacetime develops in singularities and horizons. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  8. Boundary Drawing in Clinical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    The aim of this paper is to show how health care professionals temporarily dissolve and redraw boundaries in their everyday work, in order to coordinate clinical work and facilitate collaboration in patient pathways. Boundaries are social constructions that help us make sense of our complex, social...... world. In health care, formal boundaries are important distinctions that separate health care practitioners into medical specialties, professions and organizational departments. But clinical work also relies on the ability of health care practitioners to collaborate around patients in formal...... arrangements or emergent, temporary teams. Focusing on the cognitive and social boundaries we draw to establish identity and connection (to a profession, team or person) the paper shows how health care professionals can use inter-personal relationships to temporarily dismiss formal boundaries. By redrawing...

  9. Reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale and the modified Ashworth scale as clinical tools for assessing poststroke spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, J M; Leathley, M; Moore, A P; Sharma, A K; Smith, T L; Watkins, C L

    1999-09-01

    To establish reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale and modified Ashworth scale in acute stroke patients. A North Liverpool university hospital. Eighteen men and 14 women admitted with acute stroke and still in hospital at the study start date (median age, 74 yrs; median Barthel score, 8). The modified Ashworth scale and the Tone Assessment Scale. The 32 patients were examined with both scales on the same occasion by two raters (interrater comparison) and on two occasions by one rater (intrarater comparison). The reliability of the modified Ashworth scale was very good (kappa = .84 for interrater and .83 for intrarater comparisons). The reliability of the Tone Assessment Scale was not as strong as the modified Ashworth scale, with marked variability in the assessment of posture (kappa = .22 to .50 for interrater and .29 to .55 for intrarater comparisons) and associated reaction (kappa/kappaW = -.05 to .79 for interrater and .19 to .83 for intrarater comparisons). However, those aspects of the Tone Assessment Scale that addressed response to passive movement and that are scored similarly to the modified Ashworth scale showed good to very good interrater reliability (kappaW = .79 to .92) and good to very good intrarater reliability (kappaW = .72 to .86), except for the question related to movement at the ankle where agreement was only moderate (kappaW = .59). The modified Ashworth scale is reliable. The section of the Tone Assessment Scale relating to response to passive movement is reliable at various joints, except the ankle. It may assist in studies on the prevalence of spasticity after stroke and the relationship between tone and function. Further development of a measure of spasticity at the ankle is required. The Tone Assessment Scale is not reliable for measuring posture and associated reactions.

  10. Choral Singing: Using Gestures as an Aid to Intonation and Tone Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weider Martins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The work of tone quality and intonation is a fundamental task of the conductor; and body movements associated with learning are favorable attitudes to effective learning. The objective of this article is to describe self-perception in the use of gesture for intonation and tone quality for singers in different contexts. The sample consisting of 45 volunteers divided into two groups, amateur group (N=30 and layman group (N=15, that underwent an evaluation by means of the Voice and Corporal Expression Protocol, as well as to a trial of the methodology used by conductors Henry Leck and  Randy Stenson (2012. The results showed on average improved body awareness of 87% of cases; just over 85% improved intonation and respiratory control; 80% asserted it easier to reach higher notes; 56% (layman group and 73% (amateur group felt less strain to sing. In both groups, the findings of this study confirm that the use of corporal gesture is beneficial, whether in a context of amateurs or laymen, improving intonation, resonance, respiratory support and less strain.

  11. Euler vector for search and retrieval of gray-tone images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnu, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Bhargab B; Kundu, Malay K; Murthy, C A; Acharya, Tinku

    2005-08-01

    A new combinatorial characterization of a gray-tone image called Euler Vector is proposed. The Euler number of a binary image is a well-known topological feature, which remains invariant under translation, rotation, scaling, and rubber-sheet transformation of the image. The Euler vector comprises a 4-tuple, where each element is an integer representing the Euler number of the partial binary image formed by the gray-code representation of the four most significant bit planes of the gray-tone image. Computation of Euler vector requires only integer and Boolean operations. The Euler vector is experimentally observed to be robust against noise and compression. For efficient image indexing, storage and retrieval from an image database using this vector, a bucket searching technique based on a simple modification of Kd-tree, is employed successfully. The Euler vector can also be used to perform an efficient four-dimensional range query. The set of retrieved images are finally ranked on the basis of Mahalanobis distance measure. Experiments are performed on the COIL database and results are reported. The retrieval success can be improved significantly by augmentiong the Euler vector by a few additional simple shape features. Since Euler vector can be computed very fast, the proposed technique is likely to find many applications to content-based image retrieval.

  12. Necessity of resist model in source mask optimization for negative tone development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijun; Dong, Lisong; Chen, Wenhui; Wei, Yayi; Ye, Tianchun; Yue, Liwan; Jiang, Yuntao; Wu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    As the semiconductor technology node comes to 14 nm and below, using bright-field exposure with negative tone development (NTD) has been a dominant lithographic solution for metal and contact layers, which has benefits of larger process windows and higher image contrasts than positive tone development (PTD). For PTD, a resist model is usually optional in source mask optimization (SMO) because optical models with aerial image blur can predict resist behaviors in most cases. However, NTD has much stronger resist effects, such as resist shrinkage and two-dimensional-effect-induced local stress. It has been suggested that the calibrated resist model is strongly required in the SMO of NTD process. We clarify this issue-the necessity of resist model in SMO for NTD process. First, we analyze the mismatch between simulation and experimental data when the aerial image blur is only used to simulate resist effects. Second, we present the calibration flow of resist model. Finally, we use the calibrated resist model to check the test pattern and run the SMO. The result demonstrates that the simulation data have the same tendency with experimental data, and the model has a good prediction on NTD resist behaviors under different conditions.

  13. Forward and backward tone mapping of high dynamic range images based on subband architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Ines; Ouled Zaid, Azza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel High Dynamic Range (HDR) tone mapping (TM) system based on sub-band architecture. Standard wavelet filters of Daubechies, Symlets, Coiflets and Biorthogonal were used to estimate the proposed system performance in terms of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) image quality and reconstructed HDR image fidelity. During TM stage, the HDR image is firstly decomposed in sub-bands using symmetrical analysis-synthesis filter bank. The transform coefficients are then rescaled using a predefined gain map. The inverse Tone Mapping (iTM) stage is straightforward. Indeed, the LDR image passes through the same sub-band architecture. But, instead of reducing the dynamic range, the LDR content is boosted to an HDR representation. Moreover, in our TM sheme, we included an optimization module to select the gain map components that minimize the reconstruction error, and consequently resulting in high fidelity HDR content. Comparisons with recent state-of-the-art methods have shown that our method provides better results in terms of visual quality and HDR reconstruction fidelity using objective and subjective evaluations.

  14. Simultaneous masking additivity for short Gaussian-shaped tones: spectral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laback, Bernhard; Necciari, Thibaud; Balazs, Peter; Savel, Sophie; Ystad, Sølvi

    2013-08-01

    Laback et al. [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 888-897] investigated the additivity of nonsimultaneous masking using short Gaussian-shaped tones as maskers and target. The present study involved Gaussian stimuli to measure the additivity of simultaneous masking for combinations of up to four spectrally separated maskers. According to most basilar membrane measurements, the maskers should be processed linearly at the characteristic frequency (CF) of the target. Assuming also compression of the target, all masker combinations should produce excess masking (exceeding linear additivity). The results for a pair of maskers flanking the target indeed showed excess masking. The amount of excess masking could be predicted by a model assuming summation of masker-evoked excitations in intensity units at the target CF and compression of the target, using compressive input/output functions derived from the nonsimultaneous masking study. However, the combinations of lower-frequency maskers showed much less excess masking than predicted by the model. This cannot easily be attributed to factors like off-frequency listening, combination tone perception, or between-masker suppression. It was better predicted, however, by assuming weighted intensity summation of masker excitations. The optimum weights for the lower-frequency maskers were smaller than one, consistent with partial masker compression as indicated by recent psychoacoustic data.

  15. Segmented correlation measurements on superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator with and without input tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, John F; Lee, Hae-Seung; Hong, Merit Y; Misewich, James A; Ketchen, Mark B

    2003-01-01

    Segmented correlation is a useful technique for testing a superconducting analogue-to-digital converter, as it allows the output spectrum to be estimated with fine frequency resolution even when data record lengths are limited by small on-chip acquisition memories. Previously, we presented segmented correlation measurements on a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator sampling at 40.2 GHz under idle channel (no input) conditions. This paper compares the modulator output spectra measured by segmented correlation with and without an input tone. Important practical considerations of calculating segmented correlations are discussed in detail. Resolution enhancement by segmented correlation does reduce the spectral width of the input tone in the desired manner, but the signal power due to the input increases the variance of the spectral estimate near the input frequency, hindering accurate calculation of the in-band noise. This increased variance, which is predicted by theory, must be considered carefully in the application of segmented correlation. Methods for obtaining more accurate estimates of the quantization noise spectrum which are closer to those measured with no input are described

  16. Multimodal perceptual organization of speech: Evidence from tone analogs of spoken utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remez, Robert E.; Fellowes, Jennifer M.; Pisoni, David B.; Goh, Winston D.; Rubin, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and practical motives alike have prompted recent investigations of multimodal speech perception. Theoretically, multimodal studies have extended the conceptualization of perceptual organization beyond the familiar modality-bound accounts deriving from Gestalt psychology. Practically, such investigations have been driven by a need to understand the proficiency of multimodal speech perception using an electrocochlear prosthesis for hearing. In each domain, studies have shown that perceptual organization of speech can occur even when the perceiver’s auditory experience departs from natural speech qualities. Accordingly, our research examined auditor-visual multimodal integration of videotaped faces and selected acoustic constituents of speech signals, each realized as a single sinewave tone accompanying a video image of an articulating face. The single tone reproduced the frequency and amplitude of the phonatory cycle or of one of the lower three oral formants. Our results showed a distinct advantage for the condition pairing the video image of the face with a sinewave replicating the second formant, despite its unnatural timbre and its presentation in acoustic isolation from the rest of the speech signal. Perceptual coherence of multimodal speech in these circumstances is established when the two modalities concurrently specify the same underlying phonetic attributes. PMID:21423823

  17. Objective evaluation of naturalness, contrast, and colorfulness of tone-mapped images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasula, Lukáš; Fliegel, Karel; Le Callet, Patrick; Klíma, Miloš

    2014-09-01

    The main obstacle preventing High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging from becoming standard in image and video processing industry is the challenge of displaying the content. The prices of HDR screens are still too high for ordinary customers. During last decade, a lot of effort has been dedicated to finding ways to compress the dynamic range for legacy displays with simultaneous preservation of details in highlights and shadows which cannot be achieved by standard systems. These dynamic range compression techniques are called tone-mapping operators (TMO) and introduce novel distortions such as spatially non-linear distortion of contrast or naturalness corruption. This paper provides an analysis of objective no-reference naturalness, contrast and colorfulness measures in the context of tone-mapped images evaluation. Reliable measures of these features could be further merged together into single overall quality metric. The main goal of the paper is to provide an initial study of the problem and identify the potential candidates for such a combination.

  18. Sleep disturbances due to exposure to tone pulses throughout the night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y

    1987-10-01

    Sleep electroencephalograms (EEGs) and subjective reports data were obtained from six subjects (male college students) during 2 nights of baseline observation and 5 experimental nights of exposure to a 90-100 dB, 25 ms, 1,000 c/s tone pulse with various interstimulus intervals. The first of the 5 experimental nights started with an intertone interval of 80 s. On each of the following 4 nights, the intertone interval was fixed at 40-, 10-, 2.5-, or 1-s intervals, respectively. With the intensification of noise stimulus by shortening the intervals of tone pulses, a progressive disruption of nightly EEG sleep patterns was observed as follows: (a) increased frequency of awakenings and sleep stage changes during the night, (b) prolonged sleep latency, and (c) increased percentage of time spent in stage 1 sleep. However, total sleep time, REM latency, inter-REM intervals, and the percentages of time in stages 2, 3, 4, and REM sleep did not change significantly. The degree of subjective sleep disturbance was highly associated with objective measures of nightly EEG sleep patterns.

  19. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the 'context' condition as opposed to the 'no context' condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.

  20. Simultaneous Life Detection and Localization Using a Wideband Chaotic Signal with an Embedded Tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid life detection radar system which transmits a wideband chaotic signal containing an embedded single-tone is proposed. The chaotic signal is used for target localization by the time-domain correlation method and synthetic aperture technique, and the single-tone signal is used to measure the frequencies of breathing and heartbeat based on an on-chip split-ring integrated sensor and Michelson interference principle. Experimental results in free space and in through-wall scenarios demonstrate that the system can realize human detection and localization simultaneously with high range resolution, high sensitivity, and large dynamic range without complex signal processing. The range resolution is about 10 cm, and the dynamic range is 35 dB for the respiration signal detection and 25 dB for the heartbeat signal detection. Due to its good immunity to interference/jamming and high spectrum efficiency, the proposed system is suitable for post-disaster rescue, elder/infant/patient vitality monitoring, and anti-terrorism enforcement applications.

  1. Relationship between pure-tone audiogram findings and speech perception among older Japanese persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukihide; Takao, Soshi; Sugaya, Akiko; Kataoka, Yuko; Kariya, Shin; Tanaka, Satomi; Nagayasu, Rie; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2018-02-01

    To clarify how the pure-tone threshold (PTT) on the PTA predicts speech perception (SP) in elderly Japanese persons. Data on PTT and SP were cross-sectionally analyzed in Japanese persons (656 ears in 353 patients, aged ≥65 years). Correlations of SP and average PTT in all tested frequencies were evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. After adjusting for sex, laterality of ears, and age, the relationship of average and frequency-specific PTT with impaired SP ≤50% was estimated by logistic regression models. SP correlated well (r = -0.699) with the average PTT of all tested frequencies. On the other hand, the correlation between patient age and SP was weak, especially among ≤85-year-old persons (r = -0.092). Linear regression showed that the average PTT corresponding to SP of 50% was 76.4 dB nHL. Odds ratios for impaired SP were highest for PTT at 2000 Hz. Odds ratios were higher for middle (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (4000, 8000 Hz) than low frequencies (125, 250 Hz). The PTT on the pure-tone audiogram (PTA) is a good predictor of SP by speech audiometry among older persons, which could provide clinically important information for hearing aid fitting and cochlear implantation.

  2. 17beta-estradiol modulates baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, T M; Connell, B J

    2000-05-12

    The following experiments examine the role of estrogen as a central modulator of autonomic tone and baroreflex sensitivity in the female rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then supplemented daily for 7 days with a fixed dose of estrogen (5 microg/kg; sc) to produce a stable level of estrogen similar to that present at proestrous (17 pg/ml). The rats were then anaesthetized with sodium thiobutabarbital (100 mg/kg) and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate and both vagal and renal efferent nerve activities. The sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex was tested using intravenous injection of multiple doses of either phenylephrine hydrochloride or sodium nitroprusside. Estrogen-supplemented female rats exhibited a significantly enhanced BRS as compared to male rats from a previous study (0.78 vs. 0.5). Furthermore, bolus injection of estrogen (1x10(-2) mg/kg; iv) in estrogen-supplemented female rats produced a significant increase in vagal nerve activity and a significant decrease in renal nerve activity which together resulted in a further enhancement of the BRS (0.78 vs. 2.4). Injection of the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, into nucleus ambiguus and the intrathecal space of the spinal cord blocked the respective changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities indicating that intravenously administered estrogen modulates baseline autonomic tone via the activation of central estrogen receptors.

  3. Memory for musical tones: The impact of tonality and the creation of false memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique T. Vuvan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics.

  4. Social inequalities in pure-tone hearing assessed using occupational stratification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gablenz, Petra; Holube, Inga

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of two occupational stratification approaches and the impact of social position on adult hearing. The prevalence of hearing impairment, pure-tone averages (PTA) and prevalence ratios (PR) for relative hearing loss, which focuses on the position of one's PTA in the age- and gender-specific distribution, were compared in groups defined by ISCO Skill Level and the International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI). About 1571 subjects aged 30-89, including 677 highly screened adults, from the cross-sectional study HÖRSTAT. ISCO Skill Level and ISEI yielded qualitatively the same results. The prevalence difference between the socially least and most advantaged group ranges between 10 and 16%, varying with the scheme applied. Low- and high-frequency PTA and PR for relative hearing loss confirm the gradient. Screening reduced, but did not negate the social differences. The prevalence difference dropped to 6-7% in the otologically normal subsample. Social groups defined by hierarchical, occupational measures differ in their pure-tone hearing, even if the main risk factors are controlled for. This underlines the need for population-based sampling, the relevance of reporting the study group's social composition and the importance of advancing the discussion on appropriate social measures in hearing research.

  5. Effects of tones associated with drilling activities on bowhead whale calling rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna B Blackwell

    Full Text Available During summer 2012 Shell performed exploratory drilling at Sivulliq, a lease holding located in the autumn migration corridor of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus, northwest of Camden Bay in the Beaufort Sea. The drilling operation involved a number of vessels performing various activities, such as towing the drill rig, anchor handling, and drilling. Acoustic data were collected with six arrays of directional recorders (DASARs deployed on the seafloor over ~7 weeks in Aug-Oct. Whale calls produced within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and localized using triangulation. A "tone index" was defined to quantify the presence and amplitude of tonal sounds from industrial machinery. The presence of airgun pulses originating from distant seismic operations was also quantified. For each 10-min period at each of the 40 recorders, the number of whale calls localized was matched with the "dose" of industrial sound received, and the relationship between calling rates and industrial sound was modeled using negative binomial regression. The analysis showed that with increasing tone levels, bowhead whale calling rates initially increased, peaked, and then decreased. This dual behavioral response is similar to that described for bowhead whales and airgun pulses in earlier work. Increasing call repetition rates can be a viable strategy for combating decreased detectability of signals arising from moderate increases in background noise. Meanwhile, as noise increases, the benefits of calling may decrease because information transfer becomes increasingly error-prone, and at some point calling may no longer be worth the effort.

  6. Assessment of changes in cardiac autonomic tone resulting from inflammatory response to the influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, S; Jones, E

    2012-11-01

    A total of 71 healthy volunteers opting to have a routine influenza vaccination were investigated for potential changes in cardiovascular autonomic tone resulting from the temporary inflammatory effects of an influenza vaccination. A number of temporal and frequency domain parameters of heart rate and breathing were assessed 2-5 days prior to vaccination and 1-4 days postvaccination. Three lead electrocardiograph (ECG), beat-to-beat finger blood pressure and chest plethysmography signals were measured. After an extended resting period, patients performed metronome-guided breathing at six breaths per min for a period of 2 min. Standard Ewing tests of autonomic function were also performed. All volunteers completed a vaccine symptom questionnaire. A subgroup of 15 volunteers who reported significant symptomatic reaction to the vaccination for at least 24 h following vaccination were identified based on the results of the questionnaire. A significant reduction in measures of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained during metronome-guided breathing was noted following vaccination in the subgroup of 15 symptomatic volunteers. No significant changes were observed in standard Ewing assessment, fractal dimension analysis, baroreflex sensitivity assessment or resting HRV. There was no evidence of significant reduction in autonomic tone following vaccination in the full sample of 71 volunteers. Results suggest a significant change in HRV response to a small inflammatory provocation and suggest further investigation of the inflammatory causes of dysautonomia is of value. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of HDR tone-mapping operators for photogrammetric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Suma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of High Dynamic Range (HDR imaging to capture the full range of lighting in a scene has meant that it is being increasingly used for Cultural Heritage (CH applications. Photogrammetric techniques allow the semi-automatic production of 3D models from a sequence of images. Current photogrammetric methods are not always effective in reconstructing images under harsh lighting conditions, as significant geometric details may not have been captured accurately within under- and over-exposed regions of the image. HDR imaging offers the possibility to overcome this limitation, however the HDR images need to be tone mapped before they can be used within existing photogrammetric algorithms. In this paper we evaluate four different HDR tone-mapping operators (TMOs that have been used to convert raw HDR images into a format suitable for state-of-the-art algorithms, and in particular keypoint detection techniques. The evaluation criteria used are the number of keypoints, the number of valid matches achieved and the repeatability rate. The comparison considers two local and two global TMOs. HDR data from four CH sites were used: Kaisariani Monastery (Greece, Asinou Church (Cyprus, Château des Baux (France and Buonconsiglio Castle (Italy.

  9. You 'Have' to Hear This: Using Tone of Voice to Motivate Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Zougkou, Konstantina; Paulmann, Silke

    2017-11-20

    The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content. Findings from subsequent studies also showed that an autonomy-supportive as compared with a controlling tone facilitated positive personal (perceived choice and lower perceived pressure, well-being) and interpersonal (closeness to others and prosocial behaviors) outcomes commonly linked to this type of motivation. Results inform both the social psychology (in particular motivation) and psycho-linguistic (in particular prosody) literatures and offer a first description of how motivational tone alone can shape listeners' experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    of voltage-operated calcium (Ca(V)) channels Ca(V)3.1 (T-type), Ca(V)3.2 (T-type), and Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) in cremaster arterioles (n = 3 rats). Amplification products were observed only in the presence of reverse transcriptase and cDNA. Concentration-response curves of the relatively specific L-type blocker...... verapamil and the relatively specific T-type blockers mibefradil and nickel were made on cannulated vessels with either myogenic tone (75 mmHg) or a similar level of constriction induced by 30 mM K(+) at 35 mmHg. Mibefradil and nickel were, respectively, 162-fold and 300-fold more potent in inhibiting...... myogenic tone compared with K(+)-induced constriction [log(IC(50), M): mibefradil, basal -7.3 +/- 0.2 (n = 9) and K(+) -5.1 +/- 0.1 (n = 5); nickel, basal -4.1 +/- 0.2 (n = 5) and K(+) -1.6 +/- 0.5 (n = 5); means +/- SE]. Verapamil had a 17-fold more potent effect [log(IC(50), M): basal -6.6 +/- 0.1 (n = 5...

  11. Multimodal vaginal toning for bladder symptoms and quality of life in stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Sarah; Miller, Larry E

    2017-08-01

    Treatment options for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have limitations. We hypothesized that multimodal vaginal toning therapy would improve bladder symptoms and quality of life in women with postpartum SUI and sexual function complaints. Patients self-administered 24 sessions of multimodal vaginal toning therapy lasting 10 min each over 50 days. Outcomes included 1-h pad weight test, Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (IIQ-7), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised 2005 (FSDS-R), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), pelvic floor muscle strength, patient satisfaction, and adverse events. Of the 55 patients enrolled (safety population), 48 completed the study per-protocol (PP population). A total of 38 (79%) patients had a positive 1-h pad weight test at baseline. In this group, urine leakage was moderate or severe in 82% of patients at baseline, but in only 18% after treatment. Treatment success was 84%, defined as >50% improvement in pad weight relative to baseline. In the PP population, mean UDI-6 score improved by 50% (p life improved by 54% for FSDS-R and 15% for FSFI (both p life in women with SUI.

  12. Pure-tone audiograms and hearing loss in the white whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Dear, Randall; Belting, Traci; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2003-10-01

    A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure pure-tone audiograms for two white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Tests were conducted over a 20 month period at the Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium, in Tacoma, Washington. Subjects consisted of two males, aged 8-10 and 9-11 during the course of the study. Subjects were born in an oceanarium and had been housed together for all of their lives. Hearing thresholds were measured using a modified up/down staircase procedure and acoustic response paradigm where subjects were trained to whistle in response to hearing test tones and to remain quiet otherwise. Test frequencies ranged from approximately 2 to 130 kHz. Best sensitivities ranged from 40 to 50 dB re: 1 Pa. Both subjects had traditional U-shaped mammalian audiograms; however, one subject exhibited significant high-frequency hearing loss, above approximately 37 kHz. The experimental setup and procedure will be presented and the measured hearing thresholds compared to those previously measured in white whales. The potential role of ototoxic antibiotics in the observed hearing loss will be discussed. [Work supported by ONR Marine Mammal S&T Program and the U.S. Navy CNO(N45).

  13. Pure tone audiograms and possible aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Dear, Randall; Belting, Traci; McBain, Jim; Dalton, Les; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2005-06-01

    A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure pure-tone hearing sensitivities in two belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Tests were conducted over a 20-month period at the Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium, in Tacoma, WA. Subjects were two males, aged 8-10 and 9-11 during the course of the study. Subjects were born in an oceanarium and had been housed together for all of their lives. Hearing thresholds were measured using a modified up/down staircase procedure and acoustic response paradigm where subjects were trained to produce audible responses to test tones and to remain quiet otherwise. Test frequencies ranged from approximately 2 to 130 kHz. Best sensitivities ranged from approximately 40 to 50 dB re 1 μPa at 50-80 kHz and 30-35 kHz for the two subjects. Although both subjects possessed traditional ``U-shaped'' mammalian audiograms, one subject exhibited significant high-frequency hearing loss above 37 kHz compared to previously published data for belugas. Hearing loss in this subject was estimated to approach 90 dB for frequencies above 50 kHz. Similar ages, ancestry, and environmental conditions between subjects, but a history of ototoxic drug administration in only one subject, suggest that the observed hearing loss was a result of the aminoglycoside antibiotic amikacin. .

  14. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  15. Regular aerobic exercise reduces endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Brunjes, Danielle L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults have been studied, little is known regarding ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine the following: (i) whether regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so, (ii) whether the reduction in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in this population. Forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to intra-arterial infusion of selective ET A receptor blockade (BQ-123, 100 nmol min -1 for 60 min), acetylcholine [4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] in the absence and presence of ET A receptor blockade and sodium nitroprusside [1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] were determined before and after a 3 month aerobic exercise training intervention in 25 (16 men and nine women) overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 ± 0.5 kg m -2 ) adults. The vasodilator response to BQ-123 was

  16. Endothelial dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea measured by peripheral arterial tone response in the finger to reactive hyperemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Sarah; Lavie, Lena; Pillar, Giora; Tal, Galit; Lavie, Peretz

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial functioning in sleep apnea patients using a novel plethysmographic device that monitors peripheral arterial tone response in the finger to reactive hyperemia induced by forearm ischemia. Forty-six sleep apnea patients, 74.0% men, mean age 46.8 +/- 9.3 years, and 17 control subjects without sleep apnea, 64.7% men, mean age 47.1 +/- 6.7 years. Eight-bed Technion Sleep Medicine Center in Haifa, Israel. Endothelial functioning assessed by the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tone index was measured twice, before sleep and after waking from sleep monitored by polysomnography in the laboratory. The reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tone index was calculated as the average amplitude of the peripheral arterial tone signal after the cuff deflation divided by the average amplitude before the cuff inflation. Morning index of endothelial functioning was significantly lower in patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index > or = 30) than in patients with mild sleep apnea (30 disease had significantly lower morning and evening indexes of endothelial functioning than patients without such a history. Multivariate analysis revealed that apnea-hypopnea index and sleep efficiency were significant predictors of the morning index. Measurements of the response of the peripheral arterial tone in the finger to reactive hyperemia can be used as a substitute for the brachial artery ultrasound technique to measure endothelial functioning in patients with sleep apnea.

  17. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-07-01

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction in upper-extremity tone after lumbar selective dorsal rhizotomy in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Paul; McDowell, Michael M; Bruce, Samuel S; Chirelstein, Genevieve; Chiriboga, Claudia A; Dutkowsky, Joseph; Fontana, Elizabeth; Hyman, Joshua; Kim, Heakyung; Morgan, Dean; Pearson, Toni S; Roye, Benjamin D; Roye, David P; Ryan, Patricia; Vitale, Michael; Anderson, Richard C E

    2013-12-01

    Randomized clinical trials have established that lumbar selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) reduces lower-extremity tone and improves functional outcome in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Significant data exist to support a secondary effect on upper-extremity function in patients with upper-extremity spasticity. The effects of SDR on upper-extremity tone, however, are not well characterized. In this report, the authors sought to assess changes in upper-extremity tone in individual muscle groups after SDR and tried to determine if these changes could be predicted preoperatively. The authors retrospectively reviewed 42 children who underwent SDR at Columbia University Medical Center/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-five had upper-extremity spasticity. All underwent pre- and postoperative examination for measuring tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) and assessing functional outcome. Follow-up examinations with therapists were performed at least once at a minimum of 2 months postoperatively (mean 15 months). In the upper extremities, 23 (92%) of 25 patients had improvements of at least 1 Ashworth point in 2 or more independent motor groups on the Modified Ashworth Scale, and 12 (71%) of 17 families surveyed reported increases in motor control or spontaneous movement. The mean Modified Ashworth Scale scores for all upper-extremity muscle groups demonstrated an improvement from 1.34 to 1.22 (p Ashworth Scale upper-extremity score of 1.25-1.75 may encounter the greatest reduction in upper-extremity tone.

  19. Acute injection of 17beta-estradiol enhances cardiovascular reflexes and autonomic tone in ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, T M; Connell, B J; Saleh, M C

    2000-10-30

    Among the many benefits of long-term hormone replacement therapy to postmenopausal women is a significant reduction in risk for and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, long-term estrogen replacement therapy has been associated with several undesirable, and likely dose-dependent, side-effects. There is some evidence to suggest that the dose of estrogen which confers optimal beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system is much lower than that which is currently prescribed for postmenopausal women. The following experiments were conducted to determine the dose-response relationship of acutely administered estrogen on autonomic tone and reflex control of heart rate in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley female rats. Rats were anaesthetized with sodium thiobutabarbital (100 mg/kg) and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate and efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities. The sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex was tested using intravenous injection of either phenylephrine hydrochloride (0.025-0.1 mg/kg) or sodium nitroprusside (0.0025-0.01 mg/kg). Intravenous injection of estrogen produced dose-dependent increases in the magnitude of the baroreflex sensitivity and parasympathetic tone while reducing sympathetic tone with a maximal effect observed at 1 x 10(-3) mg/kg. Prior administration of the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 blocked the estrogen-induced changes in baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone. These results demonstrate that acutely administered, low-dose estrogen has beneficial effects on autonomic tone and cardiovascular reflexes.

  20. Effects of regularity on the processing of sound omission in a tone sequence in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Altmann, Christian F

    2013-09-01

    Numerous studies have reported that perceptual grouping affects the pre-attentive processing of sound omission in a sequence of tones. However, it remains unclear whether or not the perceptual grouping and musical experience affect the attentive processing of sound omission. To this end, we created a sequence of loud (L) and soft (S) tones grouped as 'LLSLLS…' and a random sequence of the L and S tones. The omission of the L tones was inserted pseudo-randomly in the random sequence, and there were two positions at which it was inserted. For within-group omission, the omission was after the first L tone within the 'LLS' pattern. For between-group omission, the omission was inserted between the patterns. The brain response to the omission in musicians and non-musicians was measured using magnetoencephalography. During the magnetoencephalography measurement, the subjects' performance in a task to detect the omission was faster in the random sequence than in the group sequence. Source analysis showed that the omission in the random sequence caused greater activity than that in the group sequence. The increase was found in the right inferior parietal lobe in musicians, whereas it was found in the left superior temporal gyrus in non-musicians. These results suggest that the attentive processing of perceptual grouping might implicate the left superior temporal gyrus or right inferior parietal lobe, depending on musical experience. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A new Tone's method in APOLLO3® and its application to fast and thermal reactor calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a newly developed resonance self-shielding method based on Tone's method in APOLLO3® for fast and thermal reactor calculations. The new method is based on simplified models, the narrow resonance approximation for the slowing down source and Tone's approximation for group collision probability matrix. It utilizes mathematical probability tables as quadrature formulas in calculating effective cross-sections. Numerical results for the ZPPR drawer calculations in 1,968 groups show that, in the case of the double-column fuel drawer, Tone's method gives equivalent precision to the subgroup method while markedly reducing the total number of collision probability matrix calculations and hence the central processing unit time. In the case of a single-column fuel drawer with the presence of a uranium metal material, Tone's method obtains less precise results than those of the subgroup method due to less precise heterogeneous–homogeneous equivalence. The same options are also applied to PWR UOX, MOX, and Gd cells using the SHEM 361-group library, with the objective of analyzing whether this energy mesh might be suitable for the application of this methodology to thermal systems. The numerical results show that comparable precision is reached with both Tone's and the subgroup methods, with the satisfactory representation of intrapellet spatial effects.

  2. Grain boundary melting in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Wilen, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentration. Although we understand that the interfacial surface charge densities qs and solute concentrations can potentially dominate the film thickness, we cannot directly measure them within a given grain boundary. Therefore, as a framework for interpreting the data we consider two appropriate qs dependent limits; one is dominated by the colligative effect and other is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

  3. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  4. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  5. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  6. HUC 8-11 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  7. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  8. The laminar boundary layer equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curle, N

    2017-01-01

    Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.

  9. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  10. Recognition of boundary feedback systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A system that has been the object of intense research is outlined. In view of that and recent progress of the theory of pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus, the author describes some features that could prove to be interesting in connection with the problems of boundary feedback...... stabilizability. It is shown that it is possible to use the calculus to consider more general feedback systems in a variational setup....

  11. Fuzzy Boundary and Fuzzy Semiboundary

    OpenAIRE

    M. Athar; B. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    We present several properties of fuzzy boundary and fuzzy semiboundary which have been supported by examples. Properties of fuzzy semi-interior, fuzzy semiclosure, fuzzy boundary, and fuzzy semiboundary have been obtained in product-related spaces. We give necessary conditions for fuzzy continuous (resp., fuzzy semicontinuous, fuzzy irresolute) functions. Moreover, fuzzy continuous (resp., fuzzy semicontinuous, fuzzy irresolute) functions have been characterized via fuzzy-derived (resp., fuzz...

  12. Embodied representation of tool-use action verbs and hand action verbs: evidence from a tone judgment task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2011-04-15

    Many studies have found that language comprehension involves sensory-motor system. However, the relationship between word form and embodied semantic representation still lacks evidence. The current fMRI study used Chinese tool-use action verbs, hand action verbs and a Mandarin lexical tone task to explore the issue. In the tone task, all verbs showed strong effects in hand motor areas. However, the contrasts between the hand action verbs and the tool-use action verbs yielded differences mainly in tone processing areas, and the hand action verbs had stronger effects. The ROI analyses indicated consistent result pattern with the contrast analyses. In short, these results revealed that word processing involves basic sensory-motor information automatically, whereas the fine grained information which distinguishes among different semantics can be hindered by the processing of word form. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The effects of muscle-tendon surgery on dynamic electromyographic patterns and muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, T; Brunner, R; Vegvari, D; Heitzmann, D; Gantz, S; Maier, M W; Braatz, F; Wolf, S I

    2013-06-01

    During multilevel surgery, muscle-tendon lengthening (MTL) is commonly carried out in children with cerebral palsy. However, it is unclear if MTL also modifies increased muscle tone and if pathologic activation patterns are changed as an indirect effect of the biomechanical changes. Since investigations addressing this issue are limited, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of MTL on muscle tone and activation pattern. Forty-two children with spastic diplegia who were treated by MTL underwent standardized muscle tone testing (modified Ashworth and Tardieu test), dynamic EMG and three-dimensional gait analysis before, one and three years after MTL. For the evaluation of muscle activation patterns the norm-distance of dynamic EMG data was analyzed. Range of motion and joint alignment in clinical examination were found to be significantly improved one year after MTL. However, deterioration of these parameters was noted after three years. Muscle tone was significantly reduced one year postoperatively but showed an increase after three years. Joint kinematics were found significantly closer to reference data of age matched controls initially after surgery, but deteriorated until three years postoperatively. However, the EMG patterns of the muscles which were surgically addressed were found to be unchanged in either follow-up. These findings suggest that despite the influence of MTS on biomechanics and physiology (muscle tone reduction and improvements of joint mobility and gait pattern) MTS does not change abnormal patterns of muscle activation. Recurrence of increased muscle tone and deterioration of kinematic parameters three years after surgery may be attributed to these persistent pathologic activation patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant Treatment Reverts Increased Arterial Basal Tone and Oxidative Stress in Nephrectomized (5/6 Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O. Marañón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonischemic 5/6 nephrectomized rat (NefR is a model of chronic kidney disease. However, little is known about vascular dysfunction and its relation with hypertension in NefR. Aims. To evaluate possible alterations of endothelial function, NO-bioavailability, and basal tone in aorta from NefR and the role of oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into sham rats (SR, NefR, and NefR treated with tempol (NefR-T. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal function were determined. In isolated aortic rings the following was measured: 1-endothelial function, 2-basal tone, 3-NO levels, 4-membrane potential (MP, and 5-oxidative stress. NefR increased MAP (SR: 119 ± 4 mmHg; n=7; NefR: 169 ± 6; n=8; P<0.001. Tempol did not modify MAP (NefR-T: 168 ± 10; n=6; P<0.001. NefR showed endothelial dysfunction, increased basal tone and decreased NO levels (SR: 32 ± 2 nA; n=7, NefR: 10 ± 2; n=8; P<0.001. In both in vitro and in vivo tempol improves basal tone, NO levels, and MP. Oxidative stress in NefR was reverted in NefR-T. We described, for the first time, that aorta from NefR presented increased basal tone related to endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO-bioavailability. The fact that tempol improves NO-contents and basal tone, without decrease MAP, indicates that oxidative stress could be implicated early and independently to hypertension, in the vascular alterations.

  15. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  16. Estimating Accurate Relative Spacecraft Angular Position from DSN VLBI Phases Using X-Band Telemetry or DOR Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.; Majid, Walid

    2009-01-01

    At present spacecraft angular position with Deep Space Network (DSN) is determined using group delay estimates from very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) phase measurements employing differential one way ranging (DOR) tones. As an alternative to this approach, we propose estimating position of a spacecraft to half a fringe cycle accuracy using time variations between measured and calculated phases as the Earth rotates using DSN VLBI baseline(s). Combining fringe location of the target with the phase allows high accuracy for spacecraft angular position estimate. This can be achieved using telemetry signals of at least 4-8 MSamples/sec data rate or DOR tones.

  17. Connecting science and the musical arts in teaching tone quality: Integrating Helmholtz motion and master violin teachers' pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cheri D.

    Is it possible for students to achieve better tone quality from even their factory-made violins? All violins, regardless of cost, have a common capacity for good tone in certain frequencies. These signature modes outline the first position range of a violin (196-600 hertz). To activate this basic capacity of all violins, the string must fully vibrate. To accomplish this the bow must be pulled across the string with enough pressure (relative to its speed and contact point) for the horsehairs to catch. This friction permits the string to vibrate in Helmholtz Motion, which produces a corner that travels along the edge of the string between the bridge and the nut. Creating this corner is the most fundamental technique for achieving good tone. The findings of celebrated scientists Ernest Chladni, Hermann von Helmholtz, and John Schelleng will be discussed and the tone-production pedagogy of master teachers Carl Flesch, Ivan Galamian, Robert Gerle, and Simon Fischer will be investigated. Important connections between the insights of these scientists and master teachers are evident. Integrating science and art can provide teachers with a better understanding of the characteristics of good tone. This can help their students achieve the best possible sound from their instruments. In the private studio the master teacher may not use the words "Helmholtz Motion." Yet through modeling and listening students are able to understand and create a quality tone. Music teachers without experience in string performance may be assigned to teach strings in classroom and ensembles settings. As a result modeling good tone is not always possible. However, all teachers and conductors can understand the fundamental behavior of string vibration and adapt their instruction strategies towards student success. Better tonal quality for any string instrument is ultimately achieved. Mastery and use of the Helmholtz Motion benefits teachers and students alike. Simple practice exercises for teaching

  18. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... with vasospastic arterial disease. It implies an underestimation of palmar arch systolic pressure measured indirectly on the fingers. FSP measured under these circumstances may be taken as an estimate of the vascular tone, and can be employed in diagnosis and quantification of vasospastic disorders....

  19. The effects of tone-reducing orthotics on walking of an individual after incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara; Roller, Joellen M; Parker, Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Most literature about the efficacy of tone-reducing orthotics pertains to adults and children with central nervous system (CNS) pathology. There is relatively little mention of using this type of orthotic with adults after spinal cord injury (SCI). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether tone-reducing orthotics have an effect on gait including electromyographic (EMG) activity, velocity, step length, time in double-limb support, and SCI-Functional Ambulation Inventory (SCI-FAI) scores for an individual with incomplete SCI and spasticity. We used a single case design. The subject was a 25-year-old white male who was 16 months post-injury with a diagnosis of T6 left/T9 right sensory, L3 motor American Spinal Injury Association C incomplete SCI. Five different walking conditions were tested during each of two separate sessions: barefoot, shoes, foot plates, one ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) with a joint, and one with a tone-reducing AFO, and tone-reducing AFOs bilaterally. Surface EMG was used to record electrical activity of four muscle groups bilaterally. Step length, gait velocity, and time in double limb support were calculated for all five walking conditions. Gait parameters were further analyzed with video analysis using the SCI-FAI. Mean EMG was relatively constant in all muscle groups under all walking conditions with the exception of the gastrocnemius. In this muscle group, EMG activity with the use of tone-reducing orthotics was better modulated than the other conditions. Gait velocity and step length both increased with tone-reducing orthotics, whereas double limb support time decreased, thus improving the corresponding SCI-FAI score accordingly. The subject showed improvement in the control of his lower extremities while wearing bilateral tone-reducing AFOs as evidenced by an increased step length and gait velocity and a decrease in the amount of time spent in double limb support. Electromyographic data were less conclusive, although

  20. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Locating outcrops of sedimentary rock on Mars is an important step toward deciphering the planet's geologic and climatologic record. Sedimentary rock representing the earliest martian environments, are of particular interest in this context. This is a report about a vast exposure of material proposed to be martian sedimentary rock. The outcrops cover an area (approximately sq 300,000 km) roughly the size of the Colorado Plateau in North America (approximately 260,000 sq km). The materials occur in northern Terra Meridiani, near of one of the four sites being considered for a 2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing. The landing ellipse, centered at deg S, deg W, lies in a region exhibiting smooth and rough (at meter scale) dark-toned surfaces, with scattered light-toned patches. Stratigraphically, the dark-toned materials at the MER site lie unconformably on top of a previously-eroded, light-toned surface; the light-toned patches in the landing ellipse are geologic windows down to this lower stratigraphic unit. North of the landing ellipse, the light-toned materials are well-exposed because the darker materials have been removed, stranding outlier remnants in a few locations. The light-toned materials are layered, vertically heterogeneous, and exhibit lateral continuity over hundreds of kilometers. Eroded layers produce cliffs; some outcrops are expressed as mesas, buttes, and spires; and impact craters ranging in diameter from a few meters to tens of kilometers are interbedded with the layers. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of greater than 6 years of photogeologic investigation into the nature of the light-toned outcrops of northern Terra Meridiani. The work is a 'snapshot' of progress made toward eventual geologic mapping and establishment of the stratigraphic sequence for the materials through 30 September 2002, a day prior to the first release of Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to the NASA Planetary Data

  1. The hot body issue: Weight and caption tone in celebrity gossip magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Andrea; Lin, Linda

    2016-09-01

    While representations of bodies and weight have been studied in regards to fashion and fitness magazines, little research exists that examines such representations in celebrity gossip magazines. Using data collected through content analysis of 262 photo-caption units published in June 2015 issues of American celebrity gossip magazines, this study examines representations of bodies within the genre and the relationship between the gender, race, and body size of pictured celebrities and the tone of accompanying captions. Results indicate that celebrity gossip magazines critique the bodies of both female and male subjects, but that women are more likely to be the subject of negative comments than men. Underweight women and overweight men are especially targeted for criticism. Latinos are praised more often than other racial groups. The implications of these representations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fenomena Musik Ring Back Tone (RBT: Kapitalisme, Budaya Popular, dan Gaya Hidup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosta Minawati

    2016-03-01

    ABSTRAK   Musik RBT merupakan fenomena yang digemari berjuta pelanggan. RBT atau yang lebih dikenal dengan   nada sambung menjadi gaya hidup para pelanggannya. Nada sambung (ring back tone memiliki arti suara (musik yang di dengar lewat jalur telepon oleh pihak penelepon setelah melakukan pemanggilan. Musik tersebut dapat di dengar pihak yang menghubungi sampai telepon dijawab.Fenomena RBT mampu meraih berjuta pelanggan. Di Indonesia, pengguna Hp menjadi sangat umum, murah dan terjangkau. Fungsi telepon seluler akan lebih memfasilitasi pemenuhan kebutuhan pemiliknya. Secara umum, kota-kota urban di dunia akan membentuk jaringan sosial, kapitalisme, budaya popular, dan gaya hidup. Perkembagan fenomena ini tidak terlepas karena adanya kapitalisme.Melalui RBT, para konsumen dengan mudah mendownloadlagu-lagu yang digemari. Berkaitan dengan fenomena tersebut, kapitalisme, budaya pop(ular dan gaya hidup merupakan tiga serangkai yang tidak dapat dipisahkan.   Kata kunci: Kapitalisme, Budaya Populer, Gaya Hidup

  3. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  4. Masking functions and fixed-signal functions for low-level 1000-Hz tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Hautus, Michael J; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-06-01

    Masking functions and fixed-signal functions were constructed using a narrow range of pedestal intensities for 10-ms, 1000-Hz gated tones. Data from three experiments agreed with previously reported data, clearly demonstrating negative masking and the pedestal effect. The data extend earlier findings by showing (1) the resilience of the pedestal effect when a background noise masker is introduced; (2) a possible indifference of the fixed-signal function to stimulus duration; (3) the ability of a set of psychometric functions to produce both masking and fixed-signal functions; (4) depending on method, the impact of unit choice on the interpretation of both the pedestal effect and negative masking data. Results are discussed in relation to current psychophysical models, and suggest that accounting for the auditory system's sensitivity to differences in low-level sounds remains a challenge.

  5. Real-time photographic local tone reproduction using summed-area tables

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Paulo Berteli Slomp

    2008-01-01

    A síntese de imagens com alta faixa dinâmica é uma prática cada vez mais comum em computação gráfica. O desafio consiste em relacionar o grande conjunto de intensidades da imagem sintetizada com um sub-conjunto muito inferior suportado por um dispositivo de exibição, evitando a perda de detalhes contrastivos. Os operadores locais de reprodução de tons (local tone-mapping operators) são capazes de realizar tal compressão, adaptando o nível de luminância de cada pixel com respeito à sua vizinha...

  6. EEG synchronization to modulated auditory tones in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Colleen A; Sporns, Olaf; Lysaker, Paul H; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2003-12-01

    The authors tested whether neural synchronization deficits were present in subjects with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Amplitude-modulated tones were used to evaluate auditory steady-state evoked potential entrainment in a combined group of 21 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 11 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder, and 22 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. The schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder group exhibited decreased power compared to the schizotypal personality disorder and nonpsychiatric comparison groups. There were no differences between groups in N100 amplitude. Subjects with schizophrenia but not subjects with schizotypal personality disorder have deficits in steady-state responses to periodic stimuli, despite an intact response to sensory-evoked potentials (N100). These deficits reflect aberrant neural synchronization or resolution and may contribute to disturbed perceptual and cognitive integration in schizophrenia.

  7. PAPR reduction based on tone reservation scheme for DCO-OFDM indoor visible light communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jurong; Li, Yong; Yi, Yang; Cheng, Wei; Du, Huimin

    2017-10-02

    High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) leads to out-of-band power and in-band distortion in the direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) systems. In order to effectively reduce the PAPR with faster convergence and lower complexity, this paper proposes a tone reservation based scheme, which is the combination of the signal-to-clipping noise ratio (SCR) procedure and the least squares approximation (LSA) procedure. In the proposed scheme, the transmitter of the DCO-OFDM indoor visible light communication (VLC) system is designed to transform the PAPR reduced signal into real-valued positive OFDM signal without doubling the transmission bandwidth. Moreover, the communication distance and the light emitting diode (LED) irradiance angle are taking into consideration in the evaluation of the system bit error rate (BER). The PAPR reduction efficiency of the proposed scheme is remarkable for DCO-OFDM indoor VLC systems.

  8. Pure tone hearing thresholds and leisure noise: Is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warwick; Carter, Lyndal; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the examination of the relationship between self-reported historical noise exposure during leisure activities and audiological indicators: Measured hearing threshold levels (HTLs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). The research was conducted by a cross-sectional survey of 1,432 individuals whose ages ranged from 11 years to 35 years. Methodology included a comprehensive audiometric assessment including otoscopy, pure tone audiometry (PTA) (air- and bone-conduction), OAEs, and tympanometry. A comprehensive questionnaire gathered information on demographics, hearing health status, and participation in work, non-work, and leisure activities. Using the history of work, non-work, and leisure noise exposure, a cumulative lifetime noise exposure was estimated. No correlation was found between cumulative lifetime noise exposure and audiometric PTA or OAE parameters.

  9. Pure tone hearing thresholds and leisure noise: Is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the examination of the relationship between self-reported historical noise exposure during leisure activities and audiological indicators: Measured hearing threshold levels (HTLs and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs. The research was conducted by a cross-sectional survey of 1,432 individuals whose ages ranged from 11 years to 35 years. Methodology included a comprehensive audiometric assessment including otoscopy, pure tone audiometry (PTA (air- and bone-conduction, OAEs, and tympanometry. A comprehensive questionnaire gathered information on demographics, hearing health status, and participation in work, nonwork, and leisure activities. Using the history of work, nonwork, and leisure noise exposure, a cumulative lifetime noise exposure was estimated. No correlation was found between cumulative lifetime noise exposure and audiometric PTA or OAE parameters.

  10. Problem of Passage Tone and Approaches to Solve at Voice Training Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Helvacı

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Voice training is very complex and difficult process that vary from person to person. Just a fingerprint, everyone have different voice thus requires a different implementation of education for everyone except main issues. This aspect of voice training can be considered to have a privileged place in other branches of education. The methods and exercises which successfully on a student may be ineffective on another student and many specific problems may be encountered. This article discussed the problem of tone of the passage which considered one of these problems and expert opinions are reviewed at different sources. In addition gathered to approaches on this topic from sound educators, compared with expert opinion, discussed and finalized.

  11. Cortical pitch representations of complex tones in musicians and non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    Musicians typically show enhanced pitch-discrimination ability compared to non-musicians, consistent with the fact that musicians are more sensitive to some acoustic features critical for both speech and music processing. However, it is still unclear which mechanisms underlie this perceptual...... enhancement. In a previous behavioral study, musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance for both resolved and unresolved complex tones suggesting an enhanced neural representation of pitch at central stages of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to clarify whether musicians show...... difficulty across conditions and participants. A significant effect of processing demand, i.e., task demand estimated from both stimulus resolvability and task difficulty, was observed in both auditory cortices, with a larger neural activation in the right auditory region. Additionally, no differential...

  12. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music.

  13. Decoding Different Patterns in Various Grey Tones Incorporated in the QR Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Cvitić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using colors in bar codes causes errors that may adversely affect their readability (Tan etal. 2010, given that the contrast between data and background modules is reduced. Due to the unreliability of using color bar codes, most designers still keep to the limitations placed by Pira International (Smithers Pira in 2002 (Williams, 2004. Since the contrast between data modules and background modules is the most important aspect in the process of reliable bar code decoding, this paper explores the dependence of reliable decoding of QR codes incorporated with combinations of grey tones on the technical characteristics of the cameras on smartphones that were marketed in the period between 2008 and 2012.

  14. Active noise control in a pure tone diffuse sound field using virtual sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D J; Ghan, J; Cazzolato, B S; Zander, A C

    2009-06-01

    Local active noise control systems generate a zone of quiet at the physical error sensor using one or more secondary sources to cancel acoustic pressure and its spatial derivatives at the sensor location. The resulting zone of quiet is generally limited in size and as such, placement of the error sensor at the location of desired attenuation is required, which is often inconvenient. Virtual acoustic sensors overcome this by projecting the zone of quiet away from the physical sensor to a remote location. The work described here investigates the effectiveness of using virtual sensors in a pure tone diffuse sound field. Stochastically optimal virtual microphones and virtual energy density sensors are developed for use in diffuse sound fields. Analytical expressions for the controlled sound field generated with a number of control strategies are presented. These expressions allow the optimal control performance to be predicted. Results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements made in a reverberation chamber are also presented and compared.

  15. A cross-linguistic PET study of tone perception in Mandarin Chinese and English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Zatorre, R J; Milner, B; Zhao, V

    2001-04-01

    PET was used in a cross-linguistic study to determine whether neural mechanisms subserving pitch perception differ as a function of linguistic relevance. We compared tone perception in 12 native Mandarin speakers, who use tonal patterns to distinguish lexical meaning, with that of 12 native speakers of a nontone language, English. Subjects were scanned under two conditions: a silent resting baseline and a tonal task involving discrimination of pitch patterns in Mandarin words. Both groups showed common regions of CBF increase, but only Mandarin speakers showed additional activation in frontal, parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of the left hemisphere; this latter finding indicates that language experience may influence brain circuitry in the processing of auditory cues. In contrast, only the English group showed activity in the right inferior frontal cortex, consistent with a right-hemispheric role in pitch perception. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. The pattern of autonomic tone disorder and its correction in children with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysregulation is one of the leading components in the pathogenesis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. These disorders lead to diverse changes in the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems with disordered release of mediators (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, hormones of the adrenal cortex and other endocrine glands, a number of biologically active substances (polypeptides, prostaglandins, as well as to the impaired sensitivity of vascular a- and p-adrenoceptors. Children with dysuria concurrently develop visceral, CNS, and circulatory system dysfunctions and metabolic disturbances. The paper describes the clinical trial of children with overactive bladder, which demonstrates the autonomic tone in these patients (и=44. The findings point to the important involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of the disease and provide a rationale for the incorporation of vegetotropic drugs normalizing the autonomic nervous system into the combination therapy of overactive bladder.

  17. Use of discrete chromatic space to tune the image tone in a color image mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; Li, Zhijiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Zheng, Li

    2003-09-01

    Color image process is a very important problem. However, the main approach presently of them is to transfer RGB colour space into another colour space, such as HIS (Hue, Intensity and Saturation). YIQ, LUV and so on. Virutally, it may not be a valid way to process colour airborne image just in one colour space. Because the electromagnetic wave is physically altered in every wave band, while the color image is perceived based on psychology vision. Therefore, it's necessary to propose an approach accord with physical transformation and psychological perception. Then, an analysis on how to use relative colour spaces to process colour airborne photo is discussed and an application on how to tune the image tone in colour airborne image mosaic is introduced. As a practice, a complete approach to perform the mosaic on color airborne images via taking full advantage of relative color spaces is discussed in the application.

  18. T-type voltage-gated calcium channels regulate the tone of mouse efferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian B; Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Cribbs, Leanne L

    2011-01-01

    tone. We used microdissected perfused mouse efferent arterioles and found a transient vasoconstriction in response to depolarization with potassium; an effect abolished by removal of extracellular calcium. The T-type voltage-gated calcium channel antagonists mibefradil and nickel blocked this potassium......Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for the regulation of renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate. Excitation-contraction coupling in afferent arterioles is known to require activation of these channels and we studied their role in the regulation of cortical efferent arteriolar....... Low concentrations of nickel, an agent that blocks Ca(v)3.2, had a similar effect. Thus, T-type voltage-gated calcium channels are functionally important for depolarization-induced vasoconstriction and subsequent dilatation in mouse cortical efferent arterioles.Kidney International advance online...

  19. Polarization-interleave-multiplexed discrete multi-tone modulation with direct detection utilizing MIMO equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Gao, Yuliang; Sui, Qi; Dong, Zhenghua; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Liang; Long, Keping; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-04-06

    Discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation is an attractive modulation format for short-reach applications to achieve the best use of available channel bandwidth and signal noise ratio (SNR). In order to realize polarization-multiplexed DMT modulation with direct detection, we derive an analytical transmission model for dual polarizations with intensity modulation and direct diction (IM-DD) in this paper. Based on the model, we propose a novel polarization-interleave-multiplexed DMT modulation with direct diction (PIM-DMT-DD) transmission system, where the polarization de-multiplexing can be achieved by using a simple multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) equalizer and the transmission performance is optimized over two distinct received polarization states to eliminate the singularity issue of MIMO demultiplexing algorithms. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed PIM-DMT-DD system are investigated via theoretical analyses and simulation studies.

  20. Elimination of variable vasomotor tone in studies with repeated quantitative coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, S; Rafflenbeul, W; Reil, G H; Trappe, H J; Gulba, D; Hecker, H; Gerhardt, U; Knop, I

    1990-01-01

    In quantitative coronary angiographic studies, unintentional changes of coronary vasomotor tone may have a significant influence on the coronary artery diameters, thereby increasing the variability in the measurements. To obtain objective data on these measurement variabilities, two protocols were designed to assess the influences of ionic and nonionic radiographic contrast media on the mean diameters of angiographically normal coronary arteries. The vessel sizes were determined with the CAAS using automated edge detection techniques. In 21 patients (study no. I), coronary angiograms were taken in identical angiographic projections before (control), and immediately following several (at average 7) subsequent diagnostic dye injections administered over a period of about 7 min. The ionic contrast agent diatrizoate 76% induced a coronary dilation of 19 +/- 7% (mean +/- s.d., p less than 0.001; n = 10); the nonionic agent iopromide 370 increased the coronary artery diameters by only 6 +/- 4% (p less than 0.01; n = 11). In another 11 patients (study no. II) coronary angiograms were obtained using the nonionic contrast medium iopamidol 300 at 5, 8, 10 and 11 min after the control acquisition; this protocol was repeated in the same patients with diatrizoate 76%. With iopamidol, coronary diameter changes were not significant at any time; with diatrizoate, however, coronary dilation was measured at 10 min (2 +/- 2%; p less than 0.01) and at 11 min (10 +/- 3%; p less than 0.001). In a third study it was tested, whether standardization of coronary vasomotor tone (e.g. in coronary angiographic follow-up studies) is possible by the induction of a reproducible maximum coronary dilation with nitrocompounds. In 12 patients, the mean diameters of angiographically normal coronary segments were analyzed before and at various times after i.v. administration (over 4 min) of 0.025 mg SIN-1/kg bodyweight. Coronary dilation was maximal at 10 or 15 min after the onset of the SIN-1-infusion

  1. Regulation of rat intrapulmonary arterial tone by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 during hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoliang Yan

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (AA and its metabolites, prostaglandins (PG are known to be involved in regulation of vascular homeostasis including vascular tone and vessel wall tension, but their potential role in Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of AA and PGE2 on the hypoxic response in isolated rat intrapulmonary arteries (IPAs.We carried out the investigation on IPAs by vessel tension measurement. Isotetrandrine (20 µM significantly inhibited phase I, phase IIb and phase IIc of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Both indomethacin (100 µM and NS398 attenuated KPSS-induced vessel contraction and phase I, phase IIb and phase IIc of HPV, implying that COX-2 plays a primary role in the hypoxic response of rat IPAs. PGE2 alone caused a significant vasoconstriction in isolated rat IPAs. This constriction is mediated by EP4. Blockage of EP4 by L-161982 (1 µM significantly inhibited phase I, phase IIb and phase IIc of hypoxic vasoconstriction. However, AH6809 (3 µM, an antagonist of EP1, EP2, EP3 and DP1 receptors, exerted no effect on KPSS or hypoxia induced vessel contraction. Increase of cellular cAMP by forskolin could significantly reduce KPSS-induced vessel contraction and abolish phase I, phase II b and phase II c of HPV.Our results demonstrated a vasoconstrictive effect of PGE2 on rat IPAs and this effect is via activation of EP4. Furthermore, our results suggest that intracellular cAMP plays dual roles in regulation of vascular tone, depending on the spatial distribution of cAMP and its coupling with EP receptor and Ca(2+ channels.

  2. The link between negative affect, vagal tone, and visceral sensitivity in quiescent Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Pellissier, S; Picot, A; Dantzer, C; Bonaz, B

    2014-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction and mood disorders are frequently described in Crohn's disease (CD) and are known to influence visceral sensitivity. We addressed the link between vagal tone, negative affect, and visceral sensitivity in CD patients without concomitant features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Rectal distensions to a discomfort threshold of 70% and onset of pain were performed in nine CD patients in remission and eight healthy controls. Autonomic parameters were evaluated with heart rate variability and electrodermal reactivity. We showed that CD patients had (i) higher scores of depressive symptomatology (12 ± 3 in patients vs 4 ± 1 in controls on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; p = 0.038), (ii) reduced vagal tone (HF 257 ± 84 ms(2) vs 1607 ± 1032 ms(2) , p = 0.043; LF 455 ± 153 ms(2) vs 1629 ± 585 ms(2) , p = 0.047), (iii) decreased sympathetic reactivity during an aversive stimulus, and (iv) higher tolerance to rectal distension pressures (43 ± 3 mmHg vs 30 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.002) and low sensitivity index scores. In conclusion, our results provide preliminary evidence that patients with quiescent CD, in the absence of IBS, are hyposensate to experimental rectal distension. These data provide further evidence that anxiety and depressive symptomatology in addition to autonomic dysfunction modulate visceral pain perception in quiescent CD patients in the absence of IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR.

  4. The effects of ethnicity, musicianship, and tone language experience on pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Samuel, Arthur G

    2018-02-01

    Language and music are intertwined: music training can facilitate language abilities, and language experiences can also help with some music tasks. Possible language-music transfer effects are explored in two experiments in this study. In Experiment 1, we tested native Mandarin, Korean, and English speakers on a pitch discrimination task with two types of sounds: speech sounds and fundamental frequency (F0) patterns derived from speech sounds. To control for factors that might influence participants' performance, we included cognitive ability tasks testing memory and intelligence. In addition, two music skill tasks were used to examine general transfer effects from language to music. Prior studies showing that tone language speakers have an advantage on pitch tasks have been taken as support for three alternative hypotheses: specific transfer effects, general transfer effects, and an ethnicity effect. In Experiment 1, musicians outperformed non-musicians on both speech and F0 sounds, suggesting a music-to-language transfer effect. Korean and Mandarin speakers performed similarly, and they both outperformed English speakers, providing some evidence for an ethnicity effect. Alternatively, this could be due to population selection bias. In Experiment 2, we recruited Chinese Americans approximating the native English speakers' language background to further test the ethnicity effect. Chinese Americans, regardless of their tone language experiences, performed similarly to their non-Asian American counterparts in all tasks. Therefore, although this study provides additional evidence of transfer effects across music and language, it casts doubt on the contribution of ethnicity to differences observed in pitch perception and general music abilities.

  5. Do KV7.1 channels contribute to control of arterial vascular tone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Kaßmann, Mario; Tano, Jean‐Yves; Chen, Lan; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Voelkl, Jakob; Lang, Florian; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose KV7.1 voltage‐gated potassium channels are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of diverse arteries, including mesenteric arteries. Based on pharmacological evidence using R‐L3 (KV7.1 channel opener), HMR1556, chromanol 293B (KV7.1 channel blockers), stimulation of these channels has been suggested to evoke profound relaxation in various vascular beds of rats. However, the specificity of these drugs in vivo is uncertain. Experimental Approach We used Kcnq1 −/− mice and pharmacological tools to determine whether KV7.1 channels play a role in the regulation of arterial tone. Key Results R‐L3 produced similar concentration‐dependent relaxations (EC50 ~ 1.4 μM) of arteries from wild‐type (Kcnq1 +/+) and Kcnq1 −/− mice, pre‐contracted with either phenylephrine or 60 mM KCl. This relaxation was not affected by 10 μM chromanol 293B, 10 μM HMR1556 or 30 μM XE991 (pan‐KV7 channel blocker). The anti‐contractile effects of the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) were normal in Kcnq1 −/− arteries. Chromanol 293B and HMR1556 did not affect the anti‐contractile effects of (PVAT). Isolated VSMCs from Kcnq1 −/− mice exhibited normal peak KV currents. The KV7.2–5 channel opener retigabine caused similar relaxations in Kcnq1 −/− and wild‐type vessels. Conclusion and Implications We conclude that KV7.1 channels were apparently not involved in the control of arterial tone by α1‐adrenoceptor agonists and PVAT. In addition, R‐L3 is an inappropriate pharmacological tool for studying the function of native vascular KV7.1 channels in mice. PMID:28000293

  6. Inactivation of serum response factor contributes to decrease vascular muscular tone and arterial stiffness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Labat, Carlos; Mericskay, Mathias; Aissa, Karima Ait; Blanc, Jocelyne; Retailleau, Kevin; Bourhim, Mustapha; Coletti, Dario; Loufrani, Laurent; Gao-Li, Jacqueline; Feil, Robert; Challande, Pascal; Henrion, Daniel; Decaux, Jean-François; Regnault, Véronique; Lacolley, Patrick; Li, Zhenlin

    2013-03-29

    Vascular smooth muscle (SM) cell phenotypic modulation plays an important role in arterial stiffening associated with aging. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor regulating SM genes involved in maintenance of the contractile state of vascular SM cells. We investigated whether SRF and its target genes regulate intrinsic SM tone and thereby arterial stiffness. The SRF gene was inactivated SM-specific knockout of SRF (SRF(SMKO)) specifically in vascular SM cells by injection of tamoxifen into adult transgenic mice. Fifteen days later, arterial pressure and carotid thickness were lower in SRF(SMKO) than in control mice. The carotid distensibility/pressure and elastic modulus/wall stress curves showed a greater arterial elasticity in SRF(SMKO) without modification in collagen/elastin ratio. In SRF(SMKO), vasodilation was decreased in aorta and carotid arteries, whereas a decrease in contractile response was found in mesenteric arteries. By contrast, in mice with inducible SRF overexpression, the in vitro contractile response was significantly increased in all arteries. Without endothelium, the contraction was reduced in SRF(SMKO) compared with control aortic rings owing to impairment of the NO pathway. Contractile components (SM-actin and myosin light chain), regulators of the contractile response (myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor) and integrins were reduced in SRF(SMKO). SRF controls vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries via vascular SM cell phenotypic modulation linked to changes in contractile protein gene expression. SRF-related decreases in vasomotor tone and cell-matrix attachment increase arterial elasticity in large arteries.

  7. Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hales Tim G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hedonic reward, dependence and addiction are unwanted effects of opioid analgesics, linked to the phasic cycle of μ opioid receptor activation, tolerance and withdrawal. In vitro studies of recombinant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs over expressed in cell lines reveal an alternative tonic signaling mechanism that is independent of agonist. Such studies demonstrate that constitutive GPCR signaling can be inhibited by inverse agonists but not by neutral antagonists. However, ligand-independent activity has been difficult to examine in vivo, at the systems level, due to relatively low levels of constitutive activity of most GPCRs including μ receptors, often necessitating mutagenesis or pharmacological manipulation to enhance basal signaling. We previously demonstrated that the absence of β-arrestin 2 (β-arr2 augments the constitutive coupling of μ receptors to voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons from β-arr2-/- mice. We used this in vitro approach to characterize neutral competitive antagonists and inverse agonists of the constitutively active wild type μ receptors in neurons. We administered these agents to β-arr2-/- mice to explore the role of constitutive μ receptor activity in nociception and hedonic tone. This study demonstrates that the induction of constitutive μ receptor activity in vivo in β-arr2-/- mice prolongs tail withdrawal from noxious heat, a phenomenon that was reversed by inverse agonists, but not by antagonists that lack negative efficacy. By contrast, the aversive effects of inverse agonists were similar in β-arr2-/- and β-arr2+/+ mice, suggesting that hedonic tone was unaffected.

  8. Solution of moving boundary problems with implicit boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm that solves numerically a model for studying one dimensional moving boundary problems, with implicit boundary condition, is described. Landau's transformation is used, in order to work with a fixed number of nodes at each instant. Then, it is necessary to deal with a parabolic partial differential equation, whose diffusive and convective terms have variable coefficients. The partial differential equation is implicitly discretized, using Laasonen's scheme, always stable, instead of employing Crank-Nicholson sheme, as it has been done by Ferris and Hill. Fixed time and space steps (Δt, Δξ) are used, and the iteration is made with variable positions of the interface, i.e. varying δs until a boundary condition is satisfied. The model has the same features of the oxygen diffusion in absorbing tissue. It would be capable of estimating time variant radiation treatments of cancerous tumors. (Author) [es

  9. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  10. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    The digital age has seen the rise of service systems involving highly distributed, heterogeneous, and resource-integrating actors whose relationships are governed by shared institutional logics, standards, and digital technology. The cocreation of service within these service systems takes place...... in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...

  11. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cousteix, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

  12. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

  13. Gaussian Pulse-Based Two-Threshold Parallel Scaling Tone Reservation for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Guan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone Reservation (TR is a technique proposed to combat the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR problem of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM signals. However conventional TR suffers from high computational cost due to the difficulties in finding an effective cancellation signal in the time domain by using only a few tones in the frequency domain. It also suffers from a high cost of hardware implementation and long handling time delay issues due to the need to conduct multiple iterations to cancel multiple high signal peaks. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach, called two-threshold parallel scaling, for implementing a previously proposed Gaussian pulse-based Tone Reservation algorithm. Compared to conventional approaches, this technique significantly reduces the hardware implementation complexity and cost, while also reducing signal processing time delay by using just two iterations. Experimental results show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals with only a very small number of reserved tones and with limited usage of hardware resources. This technique is suitable for any OFDM-based communication systems, especially for Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB systems employing large IFFT/FFT transforms.

  14. The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A

    2000-01-01

    between the half amplitude points of the rise and fall course. The pure tone signals were generated from disk files. The thresholds were determined with the Bracketing Method (ISO 8253-1) using a step size of 5 dB. The results are in good agreement with ISO 389-7 and with other recent determinations...

  15. [Comparison of tone burst evoked auditory brainstem responses with different filter settings for referral infants after hearing screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wen-wen; Ni, Dao-feng; Li, Feng-rong; Shang, Ying-ying

    2011-03-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) evoked by tone burst is an important method of hearing assessment in referral infants after hearing screening. The present study was to compare the thresholds of tone burst ABR with filter settings of 30 - 1500 Hz and 30 - 3000 Hz at each frequency, figure out the characteristics of ABR thresholds with the two filter settings and the effect of the waveform judgement, so as to select a more optimal frequency specific ABR test parameter. Thresholds with filter settings of 30 - 1500 Hz and 30 - 3000 Hz in children aged 2 - 33 months were recorded by click, tone burst ABR. A total of 18 patients (8 male/10 female), 22 ears were included. The thresholds of tone burst ABR with filter settings of 30 - 3000 Hz were higher than that with filter settings of 30 - 1500 Hz. Significant difference was detected for that at 0.5 kHz and 2.0 kHz (t values were 2.238 and 2.217, P Hz was smoother than that with filter settings of 30 - 3000 Hz at the same stimulus intensity. Response curve of the latter appeared jagged small interfering wave. The filter setting of 30 - 1500 Hz may be a more optimal parameter of frequency specific ABR to improve the accuracy of frequency specificity ABR for infants' hearing assessment.

  16. Sildenafil reduces neuroinflammation in cerebellum, restores GABAergic tone, and improves motor in-coordination in rats with hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, Ana; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Balzano, Tiziano; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Ibañez-Grau, Andrea; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Fustero, Santos; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    Patients with liver disease may develop hepatic encephalopathy (HE), with cognitive impairment and motor in-coordination. Rats with HE due to portacaval shunts (PCS) show motor in-coordination. We hypothesized that in PCS rats: (i) Motor in-coordination would be due to enhanced GABAergic tone in cerebellum; (ii) increased GABAergic tone would be due to neuroinflammation; (iii) increasing cGMP would reduce neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone and restore motor coordination. To assess these hypotheses, we assessed if (i) treatment with sildenafil reduces neuroinflammation; (ii) reduced neuroinflammation is associated with reduced GABAergic tone and restored motor coordination. Rats were treated with sildenafil to increase cGMP. Microglia and astrocytes activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, extracellular GABA by microdialysis, and motor coordination in the beam walking. PCS rats show neuroinflammation in cerebellum, with microglia and astrocytes activation, increased IL-1b and TNF-a and reduced YM-1 and IL-4. Membrane expression of the GABA transporter GAT1 is reduced, while GAT3 is increased. Extracellular GABA and motor in-coordination are increased. Sildenafil treatment eliminates neuroinflammation, microglia and astrocytes activation; changes in membrane expression of GABA transporters; and restores motor coordination. This study supports an interplay between cGMP-neuroinflammation and GABAergic neurotransmission in impairing motor coordination in PCS rats. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Tachykinin-Immunoreactive Neurons in Developing Feline Neostriatum: Somatodendritic Morphogenesis Demonstrated by Combined Immunohistochemistry/Golgi Impregnation-Gold Toning

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Robin; Boylan, Marea

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was designed to survey and characterize the development of a key link between chemically mediated neurotransmission and neuronal cytoarchitecture in mammalian basal ganglia. Peroxidase immunohistochemical and Golgi impregnation/gold toning methods were combined to doubly label the tachykinin neuromodulator signature and somatodendritic structure of neostriatal neurons in late fetal, postnatal and adult cats. The results supported 3 conclusions of considerable significance. ...

  18. Hypothesis for the pathophysiology of delirium: role of baseline brain network connectivity and changes in inhibitory tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Robert D

    2011-07-01

    Normal brain function is facilitated by a highly organized and interconnected structure allowing complex integration of sensory information and motor responses. The acute confusional state of delirium is characterized by a fluctuating disturbance in consciousness, arousal level and cognition-memory; as such, delirium represents a failure in the integration and appropriate processing of information. The pathogenesis of this cognitive disintegration is unclear; herein a hypothesis is proposed that delirium results from an acute breakdown in network connectivity within the brain. The hypothesis predicts that the extent to which the network connectivity breaks down is dependent on two factors: (i) the baseline connectivity within the brain and (ii) the level of inhibitory tone. Baseline connectivity is the connectivity of neural networks within the brain before the precipitating insult provoking delirium. Many non-modifiable risk factors for delirium influence baseline connectivity such as age, cognitive impairment, dementia and depression. Precipitant events that provoke delirium (modifiable risk factors) are hypothesized to further, and acutely, breakdown network connectivity by increasing inhibitory tone within the brain. Modifiable risk factors include inflammation, metabolic abnormalities, sleep deprivation and medication such as benzodiazepines. An important role for GABAergic neurotransmission is implicated in increasing the inhibitory tone to produce delirium. This theory accounts for the various forms of delirium, hypoactive, hyperactive and mixed. The form of delirium that ensues will depend upon how and which networks breakdown (dependent on both the individual's baseline network connectivity and the degree change in inhibitory tone produced). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  20. Infant diet, gender and the development of vagal tone stability during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnatal nutrition influences neurodevelopment, including autonomic nervous system components associated with cardiac control. In this study resting vagal tone (V) was measured quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 146 breast-fed, 143 milk formula-fed, and 137 soy formula-fed infants. Stabilit...

  1. Overexposure effects of a 1-kHz tone on the distortion product otoacoustic emission in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    The effects of overexposure on the properties of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are investigated. In total, 39 normal-hearing humans were monaurally exposed to a 1-kHz tone lasting for 3 min at an equivalent threshold sound-pressure level of 105.5 dB. The effects of overexposure...

  2. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Giuliano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  3. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Contributes to Tone Generation in Porcine Lower Esophageal Sphincter Via Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Bai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Endogenous H2S regulates the LES myogenic tone by maintaining the basal [Ca2+]i via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. H2S-generating enzymes may be a potential therapeutic target for esophageal motility disorders, such as achalasia.

  4. Acute physiological and electrical accentuation of vagal tone has no effect on pain or gastrointestinal motility in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Jacob; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Søren S; Madzak, Adnan; Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim; Frøkjær, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2017-01-01

    The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility. Thus, the aims were to investigate whether t-VNS and DSB could enhance the parasympathetic tone, decrease pain sensitivity and improve gut motility in CP. A total of 20 patients (12 males, mean age=61 years, range: 50-78 years) with CP were randomized to short-term (60 minutes) t-VNS and DSB, or their placebo equivalent, in a crossover design. Cardiometrically derived parameters of autonomic tone, quantitative sensory testing of bone and muscle pain pressure, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and assessments of gastroduodenal motility with ultrasound were performed. In comparison to sham, t-VNS and DSB increased cardiac vagal tone (CVT) ( P t-VNS and DSB increased CVT in patients with CP. However, this short-lasting increase did not affect pain sensitivity to musculoskeletal pain or gastroduodenal motility. The chronic pain in CP patients is complex, and future trials optimizing neuromodulation for pain relief and improved motility are needed.

  5. Musicians and Tone-Language Speakers Share Enhanced Brainstem Encoding but Not Perceptual Benefits for Musical Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological transfer effects from music experience to language processing are well-established but it is currently unclear whether or not linguistic expertise (e.g., speaking a tone language) benefits music-related processing and its perception. Here, we compare brainstem responses of English-speaking musicians/non-musicians…

  6. Change detection technique for muscle tone during static stretching by continuous muscle viscoelasticity monitoring using wearable indentation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Naomi; Kobayashi, Yo; Sugano, Shigeki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2017-07-01

    Static stretching is widely performed to decrease muscle tone as a part of rehabilitation protocols. Finding out the optimal duration of static stretching is important to minimize the time required for rehabilitation therapy and it would be helpful for maintaining the patient's motivation towards daily rehabilitation tasks. Several studies have been conducted for the evaluation of static stretching; however, the recommended duration of static stretching varies widely between 15-30 s in general, because the traditional methods for the assessment of muscle tone do not monitor the continuous change in the target muscle's state. We have developed a method to monitor the viscoelasticity of one muscle continuously during static stretching, using a wearable indentation tester. In this study, we investigated a suitable signal processing method to detect the time required to change the muscle tone, utilizing the data collected using a wearable indentation tester. By calculating a viscoelastic index with a certain time window, we confirmed that the stretching duration required to bring about a decrease in muscle tone could be obtained with an accuracy in the order of 1 s.

  7. Auditory Brainstem Responses to Bone-Conducted Brief Tones in Young Children with Conductive or Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hatton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone-conduction (BC tone ABR has been used clinically for over 20 years. The current study formally evaluated the test performance of the BC tone-evoked ABR in infants with hearing loss. Method. By comparing BC-ABR results to follow-up behavioural results, this study addressed two questions: (i whether the BC tone ABR was successful in differentiating children with conductive versus sensorineural hearing loss (Study A; conductive: 68 ears; SNHL: 129 ears and (ii the relationship between BC ABR and behavioural hearing loss severity (Study B: 2000 Hz: 104 ears; 500 Hz: 47 ears. Results. Results demonstrate that the “normal” BC-ABR levels accurately differentiated normal versus elevated cochlear sensitivity (accuracy: 98% for 2000 Hz; 98% for 500 Hz. A subset of infants in Study A with elevated BC-ABR (i.e., no response at normal level had additional testing at higher intensities, which allowed for categorization of the degree of cochlear impairment. Study B results indicate that the BC ABR accurately categorizes the degree of cochlear hearing loss for 2000 Hz (accuracy = 95.2%. A preliminary dBnHL-to-dBHL correction factor of “0 dB” was determined for 2000 Hz BC ABR. Conclusions. These findings further support the use of BC tone ABR for diagnostic ABR testing.

  8. Auditory Brainstem Responses to Bone-Conducted Brief Tones in Young Children with Conductive or Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Jennifer L.; Janssen, Renée M.; Stapells, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The bone-conduction (BC) tone ABR has been used clinically for over 20 years. The current study formally evaluated the test performance of the BC tone-evoked ABR in infants with hearing loss. Method. By comparing BC-ABR results to follow-up behavioural results, this study addressed two questions: (i) whether the BC tone ABR was successful in differentiating children with conductive versus sensorineural hearing loss (Study A; conductive: 68 ears; SNHL: 129 ears) and (ii) the relationship between BC ABR and behavioural hearing loss severity (Study B: 2000 Hz: 104 ears; 500 Hz: 47 ears). Results. Results demonstrate that the “normal” BC-ABR levels accurately differentiated normal versus elevated cochlear sensitivity (accuracy: 98% for 2000 Hz; 98% for 500 Hz). A subset of infants in Study A with elevated BC-ABR (i.e., no response at normal level) had additional testing at higher intensities, which allowed for categorization of the degree of cochlear impairment. Study B results indicate that the BC ABR accurately categorizes the degree of cochlear hearing loss for 2000 Hz (accuracy = 95.2%). A preliminary dBnHL-to-dBHL correction factor of “0 dB” was determined for 2000 Hz BC ABR. Conclusions. These findings further support the use of BC tone ABR for diagnostic ABR testing. PMID:22988461

  9. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...

  10. Boundary Spanners as supports of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....

  11. Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we discuss about some basic things of boundary value problems. Secondly, we study boundary conditions involving derivatives and obtain finite difference approximations of partial derivatives of boundary value problems. The last section is devoted to determine an approximate solution for boundary value ...

  12. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  13. Second-Order Boundary Value Problem with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto JuanJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear alternative of the Leray Schauder type and the Banach contraction principle are used to investigate the existence of solutions for second-order differential equations with integral boundary conditions. The compactness of solutions set is also investigated.

  14. The effect of topical thiocolchicoside in preventing and reducing the increase of muscle tone, stiffness, and soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Marco; Sisti, Davide; Benelli, Piero; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Rocchi, Marco B.L.; Lanata, Luigi; Bagnasco, Michela; Tonti, Andrea; Vilberto, Stocchi; Sestili, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In professional road cyclists, the majority of overuse injuries affect the lower limbs and are mostly represented by contractures or muscle shortening, characterized by an increase of tone and stiffness and a variation of elasticity. Treatment and prevention of these specific conditions may include physical, supplementary, and pharmacologic support. The aim of this real-life study was to determine: first, the alterations of tone, stiffness, elasticity, and soreness of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in top class cyclists engaged in 3 multistage races, and second, whether any variable in the management of the athletes may affect the prevention and/or reduction of such alterations. Twenty-three professional cyclists competing in 3 international, cycling stage races were assessed. Athletes could receive, upon the approval of the medical staff, physical, dietary, and/or pharmacological management which could include treatments with topical over-the-counter myorelaxants to prevent and/or reduce muscle contractures. MyotonPro was used to daily measure tone, stiffness, and elasticity in RF and BF in relaxed and contracted state after every stage. In parallel, BF and RF soreness was also assessed with a Likert scale. All athletes received the same general massage management; none of them received dietary supplements; some of the athletes were treated with a topical myorelaxant thiocolchicoside (TCC 0.25%) foam 3 times daily. TCC was identified as the only variable able to affect these muscle parameters in the cyclists. Tone, stiffness (regardless of the state), and soreness significantly increased over time either in BF or RF in all athletes. In the group of athletes that used TCC (n = 11; TCC+) the increase in tone, stiffness, and soreness was significantly lower than in the group not receiving TCC (n = 12; No-TCC). Elasticity varied coherently with tone and stiffness. A very intense and protracted sport activity increases muscular tone

  15. Boundary effect in electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X L; Yang, F; Xuan, S H; Zong, L H; Zhu, W; Jiang, W Q

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the boundary friction coefficient on the rheological properties of the electrorheological (ER) fluids in quasistatic and dynamic states is investigated by computer simulation. The relation between the shear stress and the boundary friction coefficient in quasistatic and dynamic states is discussed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the trend matches the previously reported experimental results well. The flow curves of ER fluids, under different friction coefficients, are calculated, and it is found that the friction coefficient affects the flow curves. In two dimensions, the transitions in structure corresponding to the shear stress variations are presented to understand the mechanism of ER fluids.

  16. Boundaries, work and the rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    summarize ways of doing that. From an understanding of the groups and communities involved, rather than from an understanding of the “places” of home and work, or from pre-perceived qualities of the two, can we understand the boundary drawing and how it is supported through collaborative technologies......This position paper takes its starting point in the definitions of work, and of boundaries often found in CSCW and HCI literature. By looking back at the case of parental leave planning and on my writings from the past 10 years, I discuss how these definitions need to be reconsidered, and I...

  17. Prediction of dislocation boundary characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    orientation of the grain [1]. For selected boundaries it has been experimentally verified that the boundaries consist of fairly regular networks of dislocations, which come from the active slip systems [2]. The networks have been analyzed within the framework of Low-Energy-Dislocation-Structures (LEDS......, such as the dislocation content and misorientation. The prediction is based on the expected active slip systems and assumptions of mutual stress screening. In general, networks of dislocations with three linearly independent Burgers vectors fulfilling the criterion of mutual stress screening may form on any plane...

  18. Switching from Contextual to Tone Fear Conditioning and Vice Versa: The Key Role of the Glutamatergic Hippocampal-Lateral Septal Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandreau, Ludovic; Desgranges, Bertrand; Jaffard, Robert; Desmedt, Aline

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to directly assess the role of the glutamatergic hippocampal-lateral septal (HPC-LS) neurotransmission in tone and contextual fear conditioning. We found that pretraining infusion of glutamatergic acid into the lateral septum promotes tone conditioning and concomitantly disrupts contextual conditioning.…

  19. The perception of speech modulation cues in lexical tones is guided by early language-specific experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurianne eCabrera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies showed that infants reorganize their perception of speech sounds according to their native language categories during their first year of life. Still, information is lacking about the contribution of basic auditory mechanisms to this process. This study aimed to evaluate when native language experience starts to noticeably affect the perceptual processing of basic acoustic cues (i.e., frequency-modulation (FM and amplitude-modulation (AM information known to be crucial for speech perception in adults. The discrimination of a lexical-tone contrast (rising versus low was assessed in 6- and 10-month-old infants learning either French or Mandarin using a visual habituation paradigm. The lexical tones were presented in two conditions designed to either keep intact or to severely degrade the FM and fine spectral cues needed to accurately perceive voice-pitch trajectory. A third condition was designed to assess the discrimination of the same voice-pitch trajectories using click trains containing only the FM cues related to the fundamental-frequency (F0 in French- and Mandarin-learning 10-month-old infants. Results showed that the younger infants of both language groups and the Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds discriminated the intact lexical-tone contrast while French-learning 10-month-olds failed. However, only the French 10-month-olds discriminated degraded lexical tones when FM, and thus voice-pitch cues were reduced. Moreover, Mandarin-learning 10-month-olds were found to discriminate the pitch trajectories as presented in click trains better than French infants. Altogether, these results reveal that the perceptual reorganization occurring during the first year of life for lexical tones is coupled with changes in the auditory ability to use speech modulation cues.

  20. Combination of binaural and harmonic masking release effects in the detection of a single component in complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Hennig, Martin; Dietz, Mathias; Hohmann, Volker

    2018-03-01

    Both harmonic and binaural signal properties are relevant for auditory processing. To investigate how these cues combine in the auditory system, detection thresholds for an 800-Hz tone masked by a diotic (i.e., identical between the ears) harmonic complex tone were measured in six normal-hearing subjects. The target tone was presented either diotically or with an interaural phase difference (IPD) of 180° and in either harmonic or "mistuned" relationship to the diotic masker. Three different maskers were used, a resolved and an unresolved complex tone (fundamental frequency: 160 and 40 Hz) with four components below and above the target frequency and a broadband unresolved complex tone with 12 additional components. The target IPD provided release from masking in most masker conditions, whereas mistuning led to a significant release from masking only in the diotic conditions with the resolved and the narrowband unresolved maskers. A significant effect of mistuning was neither found in the diotic condition with the wideband unresolved masker nor in any of the dichotic conditions. An auditory model with a single analysis frequency band and different binaural processing schemes was employed to predict the data of the unresolved masker conditions. Sensitivity to modulation cues was achieved by including an auditory-motivated modulation filter in the processing pathway. The predictions of the diotic data were in line with the experimental results and literature data in the narrowband condition, but not in the broadband condition, suggesting that across-frequency processing is involved in processing modulation information. The experimental and model results in the dichotic conditions show that the binaural processor cannot exploit modulation information in binaurally unmasked conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.