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Sample records for left ventral occipito-temporal

  1. Treatment for Alexia with Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling

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    Kim, Esther S.; Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Damage to left ventral occipito-temporal cortex can give rise to written language impairment characterized by pure alexia/letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, as well as surface alexia and agraphia. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of a combined treatment approach to address concurrent LBL reading with surface…

  2. Top-down and bottom-up influences on the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex during visual word recognition: an analysis of effective connectivity.

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    Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Crone, Julia; Richlan, Fabio; Klackl, Johannes; Wimmer, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    The functional role of the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT) in visual word processing has been studied extensively. A prominent observation is higher activation for unfamiliar but pronounceable letter strings compared to regular words in this region. Some functional accounts have interpreted this finding as driven by top-down influences (e.g., Dehaene and Cohen [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:254-262; Price and Devlin [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:246-253), while others have suggested a difference in bottom-up processing (e.g., Glezer et al. [2009]: Neuron 62:199-204; Kronbichler et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1584-1594). We used dynamic causal modeling for fMRI data to test bottom-up and top-down influences on the left vOT during visual processing of regular words and unfamiliar letter strings. Regular words (e.g., taxi) and unfamiliar letter strings of pseudohomophones (e.g., taksi) were presented in the context of a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does the item sound like a word?"). We found no differences in top-down signaling, but a strong increase in bottom-up signaling from the occipital cortex to the left vOT for pseudohomophones compared to words. This finding can be linked to functional accounts which assume that the left vOT contains neurons tuned to complex orthographic features such as morphemes or words [e.g., Dehaene and Cohen [2011]: Trends Cogn Sci 15:254-262; Kronbichler et al. [2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1584-1594]: For words, bottom-up signals converge onto a matching orthographic representation in the left vOT. For pseudohomophones, the propagated signals do not converge, but (partially) activate multiple orthographic word representations, reflected in increased effective connectivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Efficient visual object and word recognition relies on high spatial frequency coding in the left posterior fusiform gyrus: evidence from a case-series of patients with ventral occipito-temporal cortex damage.

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    Roberts, Daniel J; Woollams, Anna M; Kim, Esther; Beeson, Pelagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-11-01

    Recent visual neuroscience investigations suggest that ventral occipito-temporal cortex is retinotopically organized, with high acuity foveal input projecting primarily to the posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG), making this region crucial for coding high spatial frequency information. Because high spatial frequencies are critical for fine-grained visual discrimination, we hypothesized that damage to the left pFG should have an adverse effect not only on efficient reading, as observed in pure alexia, but also on the processing of complex non-orthographic visual stimuli. Consistent with this hypothesis, we obtained evidence that a large case series (n = 20) of patients with lesions centered on left pFG: 1) Exhibited reduced sensitivity to high spatial frequencies; 2) demonstrated prolonged response latencies both in reading (pure alexia) and object naming; and 3) were especially sensitive to visual complexity and similarity when discriminating between novel visual patterns. These results suggest that the patients' dual reading and non-orthographic recognition impairments have a common underlying mechanism and reflect the loss of high spatial frequency visual information normally coded in the left pFG.

  4. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: Individual variability or false positives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Nicholas D.; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read r !sults in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In tl e first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in >= 1 left OT voxel for word:

  5. Selective Activation Around the Left Occipito-Temporal Sulcus for Words Relative to Pictures: Individual Variability or False Positives?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge ARB; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second experiment, another 9/15 subjects performing a semantic decision task activated ?1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at thi...

  6. Effective Connectivity between Ventral Occipito-Temporal and Ventral Inferior Frontal Cortex during Lexico-Semantic Processing. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

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    Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dorsal and ventral pathways support distinct aspects of language processing. Yet, the full extent of their involvement and their inter-regional connectivity in visual word recognition is still unknown. Studies suggest that they might reflect the dual-route model of reading, with the dorsal pathway more involved in grapho-phonological conversion during phonological tasks, and the ventral pathway performing lexico-semantic access during semantic tasks. Furthermore, this subdivision is also suggested at the level of the inferior frontal cortex, involving ventral and dorsal parts for lexico-semantic and phonological processing, respectively. In the present study, we assessed inter-regional brain connectivity and task-induced modulations of brain activity during a phoneme detection and semantic categorization tasks, using fMRI in healthy subject. We used a dynamic causal modeling approach to assess inter-regional connectivity and task demand modulation within the dorsal and ventral pathways, including the following network components: the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC; dorsal and ventral, the superior temporal gyrus (STG; dorsal, the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG; dorsal, and the ventral IFG (vIFG; ventral. We report three distinct inter-regional interactions supporting orthographic information transfer from vOTC to other language regions (vOTC -> STG, vOTC -> vIFG and vOTC -> dIFG regardless of task demands. Moreover, we found that (a during semantic processing (direct ventral pathway the vOTC -> vIFG connection strength specifically increased and (b a lack of modulation of the vOTC -> dIFG connection strength by the task that could suggest a more general involvement of the dorsal pathway during visual word recognition. Results are discussed in terms of anatomo-functional connectivity of visual word recognition network.

  7. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of "Green" Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex.

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    Rauscher, Franziska G; Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength ("red") and middle wavelength ("green") regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient's results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both "red/green" and "yellow/blue" directions in colour space, the subject's lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in "red/green" thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the "green" region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of "green" but not "red" sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent.

  8. Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: individual variability or false positives?

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    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2008-08-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in > or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P or =1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at this low statistical threshold false positives need to be excluded. The semantic decision paradigm was therefore repeated, within subject, in two different scanners (1.5 and 3 T). Both scanners consistently localised left OT activation for words relative to fixation and pictures relative to words, but there were no consistent effects for words relative to pictures. Finally, in a third experiment, we minimised the voxel size (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 mm(3)) and demonstrated a striking concordance between the voxels activated for words and pictures, irrespective of task (naming vs. one-back) or script (English vs. Hebrew). In summary, although we detected differential activation for words relative to pictures, these effects: (i) do not withstand statistical rigour; (ii) do not replicate within or between subjects; and (iii) are observed in voxels that also respond to pictures of objects. Our findings have implications for the role of left OT activation during reading. More generally, they show that studies using low statistical thresholds in single subject analyses should correct the statistical threshold for the number of comparisons made or replicate effects within subject. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of “Green” Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Franziska G.; Plant, Gordon T.; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength (“red”) and middle wavelength (“green”) regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient’s results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both “red/green” and “yellow/blue” directions in colour space, the subject’s lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in “red/green” thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the “green” region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of “green” but not “red” sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent. PMID:27956924

  10. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

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    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  11. Dynamic spatial organization of the occipito-temporal word form area for second language processing.

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    Gao, Yue; Sun, Yafeng; Lu, Chunming; Ding, Guosheng; Guo, Taomei; Malins, Jeffrey G; Booth, James R; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li

    2017-08-01

    Despite the left occipito-temporal region having shown consistent activation in visual word form processing across numerous studies in different languages, the mechanisms by which word forms of second languages are processed in this region remain unclear. To examine this more closely, 16 Chinese-English and 14 English-Chinese late bilinguals were recruited to perform lexical decision tasks to visually presented words in both their native and second languages (L1 and L2) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Here we demonstrate that visual word form processing for L1 versus L2 engaged different spatial areas of the left occipito-temporal region. Namely, the spatial organization of the visual word form processing in the left occipito-temporal region is more medial and posterior for L2 than L1 processing in Chinese-English bilinguals, whereas activation is more lateral and anterior for L2 in English-Chinese bilinguals. In addition, for Chinese-English bilinguals, more lateral recruitment of the occipito-temporal region was correlated with higher L2 proficiency, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L1-preferred mechanisms. For English-Chinese bilinguals, higher L2 proficiency was correlated with more lateral and anterior activation of the occipito-temporal region, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L2-preferred mechanisms. Taken together, our results indicate that L1 and L2 recruit spatially different areas of the occipito-temporal region in visual word processing when the two scripts belong to different writing systems, and that the spatial organization of this region for L2 visual word processing is dynamically modulated by L2 proficiency. Specifically, proficiency in L2 in Chinese-English is associated with assimilation to the native language mechanisms, whereas L2 in English-Chinese is associated with accommodation to second language mechanisms. Copyright © 2017

  12. Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.

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    Bédos Ulvin, Line; Jonas, Jacques; Brissart, Hélène; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Thiriaux, Anne; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2017-12-01

    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47.5% and 31.8%). For 17 positive left naming sites, an additional semantic picture matching was carried out, always successfully performed. Our results showed the enhanced role of the left compared to the right VTC in naming and suggest that it may be involved in lexical retrieval rather than in semantic processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Left-right functional asymmetry of ventral hippocampus depends on aversiveness of situations.

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    Sakaguchi, Yukitoshi; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2017-05-15

    Many studies suggest that animals exhibit lateralized behaviors during aversive situations, and almost all animals exhibit right hemisphere-dominant behaviors associated with fear or anxiety. However, which brain structure in each hemisphere underlies such lateralized function is unclear. In this study, we focused on the hippocampus and investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) on anxiety-like behavior using the successive alleys test. We also examined the expression of c-fos in the VH, which was induced by an aversive situation. Results revealed that consistent right VH dominance trended with the anxiety level. Weaker anxiety induced both right and left VH functions, whereas stronger anxiety induced right VH function. From these results, we conclude that animals are able to adaptively regulate their behaviors to avoid aversive stimuli by changing the functional dominance of their left and right VH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

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    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  15. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: the role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling.

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    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulation distinguished between an orthographic word spelling condition in which correct spelling decisions had to be based on orthographic whole-word representations, a word spelling condition in which reliance on orthographic whole-word representations was optional and a phonological pseudoword spelling condition in which no reliance on such representations was possible. To evaluate spelling-specific activations the spelling conditions were contrasted with control conditions that also presented auditory words and pseudowords, but participants had to indicate if a visually presented letter corresponded to the gender of the speaker. We identified a left vOT cluster activated for the critical orthographic word spelling condition relative to both the control condition and the phonological pseudoword spelling condition. Our results suggest that activation of left vOT during spelling can be attributed to the retrieval of orthographic whole-word representations and, thus, support the position that the left vOT potentially represents the neuronal equivalent of the cognitive orthographic word lexicon. © 2014 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

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    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  17. Laterotopic representation of left-right information onto the dorso-ventral axis of a zebrafish midbrain target nucleus.

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    Aizawa, Hidenori; Bianco, Isaac H; Hamaoka, Takanori; Miyashita, Toshio; Uemura, Osamu; Concha, Miguel L; Russell, Claire; Wilson, Stephen W; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2005-02-08

    The habenulae are part of an evolutionarily highly conserved limbic-system conduction pathway that connects telencephalic nuclei to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain . In zebrafish, unilateral activation of the Nodal signaling pathway in the left brain specifies the laterality of the asymmetry of habenular size . We show "laterotopy" in the habenulo-interpeduncular projection in zebrafish, i.e., the stereotypic, topographic projection of left-sided habenular axons to the dorsal region of the IPN and of right-sided habenular axons to the ventral IPN. This asymmetric projection is accounted for by a prominent left-right (LR) difference in the size ratio of the medial and lateral habenular sub-nuclei, each of which specifically projects either to ventral or dorsal IPN targets. Asymmetric Nodal signaling directs the orientation of laterotopy but is dispensable for the establishment of laterotopy itself. Our results reveal a mechanism by which information distributed between left and right sides of the brain can be transmitted bilaterally without loss of LR coding, which may play a crucial role in functional lateralization of the vertebrate brain .

  18. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

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    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  19. Reading skill related to left ventral occipitotemporal cortex during a phonological awareness task in 5–6-year old children

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    Jin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5–6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task. Two experimental conditions: onset word pairs that shared the first phoneme and rhyme word pairs that shared the final biphone/triphone, were compared to allow a measurement of vOT’s activation to small (i.e., onsets and large grain sizes (i.e., rhymes. We found that higher reading ability was associated with better accuracy of the onset, but not the rhyme, condition. In addition, higher reading ability was only associated with greater sensitivity in the posterior left vOT for the contrast of the onset versus rhyme condition. These results suggest that acquisition of reading results in greater specialization of the posterior vOT to smaller rather than larger grain sizes in young children. Keywords: Left vOT, Grain size, Phonological awareness, Spoken language

  20. Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream.

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    Berthier, Marcelo L; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Dávila, Guadalupe; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Juárez Y Ruiz de Mier, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Antonio; De-Torres, Irene; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Alfaro, Francisco; García-Casares, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of brain-damaged subjects presenting with dissociated repetition deficits after selective injury to either the left dorsal or ventral auditory pathways can provide further insight on their respective roles in verbal repetition. We evaluated repetition performance and its neural correlates using multimodal imaging (anatomical MRI, DTI, fMRI, and(18)FDG-PET) in a female patient with transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) and in a male patient with conduction aphasia (CA) who had small contiguous but non-overlapping left perisylvian infarctions. Repetition in the TCMA patient was fully preserved except for a mild impairment in nonwords and digits, whereas the CA patient had impaired repetition of nonwords, digits and word triplet lists. Sentence repetition was impaired, but he repeated novel sentences significantly better than clichés. The TCMA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex and insula. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-frontal and parieto-frontal segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and part of the left ventral stream together with well-developed right dorsal and ventral streams, as has been reported in more than one-third of females. The CA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolic activity in the left temporoparietal cortex with additional metabolic decrements in the left frontal lobe. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-parietal and temporo-frontal segments of the AF, but the ventral stream was spared. The direct segment of the AF in the right hemisphere was also absent with only vestigial remains of the other dorsal subcomponents present, as is often found in males. fMRI during word and nonword repetition revealed bilateral perisylvian activation in the TCMA patient suggesting recruitment of spared segments of the left dorsal stream and right dorsal stream with propagation of signals to temporal lobe structures suggesting a compensatory reallocation of resources via the ventral streams. The

  1. Unimodal and multimodal regions for logographic language processing in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex

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    Yuan eDeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human neocortex appears to contain a dedicated visual word form area (VWFA and an adjacent multimodal (visual/auditory area. However, these conclusions are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of alphabetic language processing, languages that have clear grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence (GPC rules that make it difficult to disassociate visual-specific processing from form-to-sound mapping. In contrast, the Chinese language has no clear GPC rules. Therefore, the current study examined whether native Chinese readers also have the same VWFA and multimodal area. Two cross-modal tasks, phonological retrieval of visual words and orthographic retrieval of auditory words, were adopted. Different task requirements were also applied to explore how different levels of cognitive processing modulate activation of putative VWFA-like and multimodal-like regions. Results showed that the left occipitotemporal sulcus responded exclusively to visual inputs and an adjacent region, the left inferior temporal gyrus, showed comparable activation for both visual and auditory inputs. Surprisingly, processing levels did not significantly alter activation of these two regions. These findings indicated that there are both unimodal and multimodal word areas for non-alphabetic language reading, and that activity in these two word-specific regions are independent of task demands at the linguistic level.

  2. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

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    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  3. The causal role of category-specific neuronal representations in the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) in semantic processing.

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    Cattaneo, Zaira; Devlin, Joseph T; Salvini, Francesca; Vecchi, Tomaso; Silvanto, Juha

    2010-02-01

    The left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) is preferentially activated by exemplars of tools, suggestive of category specificity in this region. Here we used state-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the causal role of such category-specific neuronal representations in the encoding of tool words. Priming to a category name (either "Tool" or "Animal") was used with the objective of modulating the initial activation state of this region prior to application of TMS and the presentation of the target stimulus. When the target word was an exemplar of the "Tool" category, the effects of TMS applied over PMv (but not PMd) interacted with priming history by facilitating reaction times on incongruent trials while not affecting congruent trials. This congruency/TMS interaction implies that the "Tool" and "Animal" primes had a differential effect on the initial activation state of the left PMv and implies that this region is one neural locus of category-specific behavioral priming for the "Tool" category. TMS applied over PMv had no behavioral effect when the target stimulus was an exemplar of the "Animal" category, regardless of whether the target word was congruent or incongruent with the prime. That TMS applied over the left PMv interacted with a priming effect that extended from the category name ("Tool") to exemplars of that category suggests that this region contains neuronal representation associated with a specific semantic category. Our results also demonstrate that the state-dependent effects obtained in the combination of visual priming and TMS are useful in the study of higher-level cognitive functions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Word meaning in the ventral visual path: a perceptual to conceptual gradient of semantic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesani, Valentina; Pedregosa, Fabian; Buiatti, Marco; Amadon, Alexis; Eger, Evelyn; Piazza, Manuela

    2016-12-01

    The meaning of words referring to concrete items is thought of as a multidimensional representation that includes both perceptual (e.g., average size, prototypical color) and conceptual (e.g., taxonomic class) dimensions. Are these different dimensions coded in different brain regions? In healthy human subjects, we tested the presence of a mapping between the implied real object size (a perceptual dimension) and the taxonomic categories at different levels of specificity (conceptual dimensions) of a series of words, and the patterns of brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging in six areas along the ventral occipito-temporal cortical path. Combining multivariate pattern classification and representational similarity analysis, we found that the real object size implied by a word appears to be primarily encoded in early visual regions, while the taxonomic category and sub-categorical cluster in more anterior temporal regions. This anteroposterior gradient of information content indicates that different areas along the ventral stream encode complementary dimensions of the semantic space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is word recognition crowded in pure alexia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Pure alexia is a selective deficit in reading, which arises following damage to the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Crowding, the inability to recognise objects in a clutter, has recently been hypothesised to be the underlying deficit of apperceptive visual agnosia1. Crowding normally occurs...

  7. [Preserved ability to read aloud kanji idioms in left handed alexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taemi; Suzuki, Kyoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Endo, Keiko; Yamadori, Atushi; Mori, Eturou

    2004-08-01

    We report a 69-year-old left-handed man, who developed alexia after a right medial occipito-temporal lobe infarction. On admission to the rehabilitation department two months after the onset, neurological examination showed left hemianopia, left hemiparesis, decreased deep sensation on the left side, and alexia. A brain MRI demonstrated infarcts in the right medial occipito-temporal lobe and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Detailed neuropsychological examination was performed two months after the onset. The patient was alert and cooperative. His speech was fluent with some word-finding difficulty. Comprehension for spoken materials, repetition, and naming abilities were all preserved. Systematic examination for reading revealed that reading aloud was disturbed in both kanji and kana words. Reading comprehension was significantly better for kanji words than kana words. First, we examined the effects of number of characters in a word. The number of characters in a word didn't affect his reading performance. Second, his performance on reading aloud of usual kanji words was compared with that of kanji words representing idioms. A kanji idiom is different from usual kanji words, in which pronunciation of each character is selected from several options. Reading aloud kanji idioms was significantly better than usual kanji words. In addition, reaction time to complete reading a word was much shorter for kanji idioms than usual kanji. An analysis of qualitative features of errors revealed that most errors in kanji idiom reading were semantically similar to the correct answers, while many errors in usual kanji word reading were classified into "don't know" responses. These findings suggested that a kanji idiom was tightly connected to its pronunciation, which resulted in his much better performance for kanji idiom reading. Overlearning of a unique relationship between a kanji idiom and its pronunciation might modify neuronal organization for reading.

  8. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  9. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incarcerated) in the hernia and become impossible to push back in. This is usually painful. The blood supply ... you are lying down or that you cannot push back in. Risks The risks of ventral hernia repair ...

  10. Torakal Ventral Cord Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Tok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ventral cord herniation is a rare cause of focal myelopathy due to herniation of the thoracic cord through a dural defect.It is also known by a variety of other terms such as spontaneous thoracic cord herniation or idiopathic spinal cord herniation.The key feature is focal distortion and rotation of the cord with no CSF seen between it and the ventral theca.

  11. Left fronto-temporal dynamics during agreement processing: evidence for feature-specific computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Pérez, Alejandro; Parkkonen, Lauri; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Grammatical agreement is a widespread language phenomenon that indicates formal syntactic relations between words; however, it also conveys basic lexical (e.g. grammatical gender) or semantic (e.g. numerosity) information about a discourse referent. In this study, we focus on the reading of Spanish noun phrases, violating either number or gender determiner-noun agreement compared to grammatical controls. Magnetoencephalographic activity time-locked to the onset of the noun in both types of violation revealed a left-lateralized brain network involving anterior temporal regions (~220 ms) and, later in time, ventro-lateral prefrontal regions (>300 ms). These activations coexist with dependency-specific effects: in an initial step (~170 ms), occipito-temporal regions are employed for fine-grained analysis of the number marking (in Spanish, presence or absence of the suffix '-s'), while anterior temporal regions show increased activation for gender mismatches compared to grammatical controls. The semantic relevance of number agreement dependencies was mainly reflected by left superior temporal increased activity around 340 ms. These findings offer a detailed perspective on the multi-level analyses involved in the initial computation of agreement dependencies, and theoretically support a derivational approach to agreement computation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  13. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  14. Mapping a lateralisation gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten eSpecht

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend towards the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus...

  15. Mapping a lateralization gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual-stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend toward the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus....

  16. Large Ventral Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl Abrams, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED with diffuse abdominal pain and three days of poor oral intake associated with non-bilious, non-bloody vomiting. Initial vital signs consisted of a mild resting tachycardia of 111 with a temperature of 38.0 degrees Celsius (°C. On examination, the patient had a large pannus extending to the knees, which contained a hernia. She was tender in this region on examination. Laboratory values included normal serum chemistries and mild leukocytosis of 12.2. The patient reports that her abdomen had been enlarging over the previous 8 years but had not been painful until 3 days prior to presentation. The patient had no associated fever, chills, diarrhea, constipation, chest pain or shortness of breath. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT scan with intravenous (IV contrast of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large pannus containing a ventral hernia with abdominal contents extending below the knees (white circle, elongation of mesenteric vessels to accommodate abdominal contents outside of the abdomen (white arrow and air fluid levels (white arrow indicating a small bowel obstruction. Discussion: Hernias are a common chief complaint seen in the emergency department. The estimated lifetime risk of a spontaneous abdominal hernia is 5%.1 The most common type of hernia is inguinal while the next most common type of hernia is femoral, which are more common in women.1 Ventral hernias can be epigastric, incisional, or primary abdominal. An asymptomatic, reducible hernia can be followed up as outpatient with a general surgeon for elective repair.2 Hernias become problematic when they are either incarcerated or strangulated. A hernia is incarcerated when the hernia is irreducible and strangulated when its blood supply is compromised. A complicated hernia, especially strangulated, can have a mortality of greater than 50%.1 It is key to perform a thorough history

  17. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; Nunzio, Cosimo De; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Patients and methods Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2?cm, range 1.5?5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture...

  18. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2 cm, range 1.5-5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture 3.7, range 1.5-8) a ventral graft urethroplasty (VGU), and 63 (29.2%; mean stricture 3.4, range 1.5-10) a dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty (DVGU). The strictured urethra was opened by a ventral-sagittal urethrotomy and BM graft was inserted dorsally or ventrally or dorsal plus ventral to augment the urethral plate. The median follow-up was 37 months. The overall 5-year actuarial success rate was 91.4%. The 5-year actuarial success rates were 87.8%, 95.5% and 86.3% for the DGU, VGU and DVGU, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Success rates decreased significantly only with a stricture length of >4 cm. In BM graft bulbar urethroplasties the ventral urethrotomy access is simple and versatile, allowing an intraoperative choice of dorsal, ventral or combined dorsal and ventral grafting, with comparable success rates.

  19. The Danish ventral hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation of ...... of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years.......Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation...... to the surgical repair are recorded. Data registration is mandatory. Data may be merged with other Danish health registries and information from patient questionnaires or clinical examinations. Descriptive data: More than 37,000 operations have been registered. Data have demonstrated high agreement with patient...

  20. Ventral pallidum roles in reward and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Tindell, Amy J; Aldridge, J Wayne; Berridge, Kent C

    2009-01-23

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that (1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, (2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and (3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important 'limbic final common pathway' for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

  1. Ultrastructural changes of compressed lumbar ventral nerve roots following decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barrany, Wagih G.; Hamdy, Raid M.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A.; Jalalah, Sawsan M.; Al-Sayyad, Mohammad J.

    2006-01-01

    To study whether there will be permanent lumbar nerve rot scanning or degeneration secondary to continuous compression followed by decompression on the nerve roots, which can account for postlaminectomy leg weakness or back pain. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faulty of Medicine, king Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2003-2005. Twenty-six adult male New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study. The ventral roots of the left fourth lumbar nerve were clamped for 2 weeks then decompression was allowed by removal of the clips. The left ventral roots of the fourth lumbar nerve were excised for electron microscopic study. One week after nerve root decompression, the ventral root peripheral to the site of compression showed signs of Wallerian degeneration together with signs of regeneration. Schwann cells and myelinated nerve fibers showed severe degenerative changes. Two weeks after decompression, the endoneurium of the ventral root showed extensive edema with an increase in the regenerating myelinated and unmyentilated nerve fibers, and fibroblasts proliferation. Three weeks after decompression, the endoneurium showed an increase in the regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers with diminution of the endoneurial edema, and number of macrophages and an increase in collagen fibrils. Five and 6 weeks after decompression, the endoneurium showed marked diminution of the edema, macrophages, mast cells and fibroblasts. The enoneurium was filed of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers and collagen fibrils. Decompression of the compressed roots of a spinal nerve is followed by regeneration of the nerve fibers and nerve and nerve recovery without endoneurial scarring. (author)

  2. Ventral impressions on the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daschner, H.; Hannig, C.

    1991-01-01

    Two impressions can be seen on the ventral aspect of the hypopharynx and upper oesophagus; on static images it is difficult to differentiate these from small tumours. In order to evaluate this region more accurately, we have examined 150 patients by means of rapid rate cinematography. In 52.6% we found a constant irregular or convex impression formed by the cricoid; in the other cases this was not seen or was quite minimal. In 93% a sub-cricoid impression could be demonstrated which was due to lax mucosa. Characteristically this showed a variable appearance during the passage of a bolus. Only the cricoid impression was associated with dysphagia. (orig.) [de

  3. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  4. Attention that covers letters is necessary for the left-lateralization of an early print-tuned ERP in Japanese hiragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2015-03-01

    Extensive experience with reading develops expertise in acquiring information from print, and this is reflected in specific enhancement of the left-lateralized N170 component in event-related potentials. The N170 is generally considered to reflect visual/orthographic processing; while modulations of its left-lateralization related to phonological processes have also been indicated. However, in our previous study, N170-like response to Hiragana strings lacked left-lateralization when the stimuli were completely task-irrelevant in rapid-presentation sequences [Okumura et al. (2014). Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings. Neuroreport 25, 410-414]. This suggests that, despite the highly transparent character-to-syllable correspondence, the phonological mapping of Hiragana strings requires some kind of attention toward print. To verify this notion, the present study examined ERPs under the same experimental condition as in the previous study, except that the task required attention to a stimulus attribute (i.e., color). As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited left-lateralized negative deflection in the occipito-temporal region during 130-170ms post-stimulus in comparison to symbol strings, but only when the print had a narrow intercharacter spacing. Moreover, we observed the enhancement of very early occipital ERP in response to words during 70-100ms. The present results suggest that visual attention plays a role in early print processing, which may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie expert as well as impaired reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  6. Impairment of holistic face perception following right occipito-temporal damage in prosopagnosia: converging evidence from gaze-contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Goedele; Busigny, Thomas; Lefèvre, Philippe; Joubert, Sven; Felician, Olivier; Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Gaze-contingency is a method traditionally used to investigate the perceptual span in reading by selectively revealing/masking a portion of the visual field in real time. Introducing this approach in face perception research showed that the performance pattern of a brain-damaged patient with acquired prosopagnosia (PS) in a face matching task was reversed, as compared to normal observers: the patient showed almost no further decrease of performance when only one facial part (eye, mouth, nose, etc.) was available at a time (foveal window condition, forcing part-based analysis), but a very large impairment when the fixated part was selectively masked (mask condition, promoting holistic perception) (Van Belle, De Graef, Verfaillie, Busigny, & Rossion, 2010a; Van Belle, De Graef, Verfaillie, Rossion, & Lefèvre, 2010b). Here we tested the same manipulation in a recently reported case of pure prosopagnosia (GG) with unilateral right hemisphere damage (Busigny, Joubert, Felician, Ceccaldi, & Rossion, 2010). Contrary to normal observers, GG was also significantly more impaired with a mask than with a window, demonstrating impairment with holistic face perception. Together with our previous study, these observations support a generalized account of acquired prosopagnosia as a critical impairment of holistic (individual) face perception, implying that this function is a key element of normal human face recognition. Furthermore, the similar behavioral pattern of the two patients despite different lesion localizations supports a distributed network view of the neural face processing structures, suggesting that the key function of human face processing, namely holistic perception of individual faces, requires the activity of several brain areas of the right hemisphere and their mutual connectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural and functional analyses of human cerebral cortex using a surface-based atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed the geometry, geography, and functional organization of human cerebral cortex using surface reconstructions and cortical flat maps of the left and right hemispheres generated from a digital atlas (the Visible Man). The total surface area of the reconstructed Visible Man neocortex is 1570 cm2 (both hemispheres), approximately 70% of which is buried in sulci. By linking the Visible Man cerebrum to the Talairach stereotaxic coordinate space, the locations of activation foci reported in neuroimaging studies can be readily visualized in relation to the cortical surface. The associated spatial uncertainty was empirically shown to have a radius in three dimensions of approximately 10 mm. Application of this approach to studies of visual cortex reveals the overall patterns of activation associated with different aspects of visual function and the relationship of these patterns to topographically organized visual areas. Our analysis supports a distinction between an anterior region in ventral occipito-temporal cortex that is selectively involved in form processing and a more posterior region (in or near areas VP and V4v) involved in both form and color processing. Foci associated with motion processing are mainly concentrated in a region along the occipito-temporal junction, the ventral portion of which overlaps with foci also implicated in form processing. Comparisons between flat maps of human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex indicate significant differences as well as many similarities in the relative sizes and positions of cortical regions known or suspected to be homologous in the two species.

  8. Cephalad-renal ectopia: Bilateral subdiaphragmatic kidneys in a patient of omphalocele with ventral hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parmar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly. Thoracic ectopic kidney was being considered as rarest, however no case of bilateral subdiaphragmatic kidneys in omphalocele patients presented with ventral hernia has been reported yet, as per our best of knowledge. This is a report of a 5- year-old male patient who presented with ventral hernia after omphalocele. A thorough examination, laboratory, and radiological investigations including ultrasonography, plain abdominal x-ray, intravenous urogram, and computerized tomography revealed bilateral subdiaphragmatic ectopic kidneys with azygos continuation of inferior vena cava, retro-aortic left renal vein and spina bifida

  9. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, E; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair...... was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. RESULTS: In total, 20,714 pregnant women were...... included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery...

  10. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  11. Lateralization and gender differences in the dopaminergic response to unpredictable reward in the human ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison; Barhaghi, Krystle; Rallis, Denise; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E; Drevets, Wayne C

    2011-05-01

    Electrophysiological studies have shown that mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons increase activity in response to unpredicted rewards. With respect to other functions of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, dopamine's actions show prominent laterality effects. Whether changes in DA transmission elicited by rewards also are lateralized, however, has not been investigated. Using [¹¹C]raclopride-PET to assess the striatal DA response to unpredictable monetary rewards, we hypothesized that such rewards would induce an asymmetric reduction in [¹¹C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum, reflecting lateralization of endogenous dopamine release. In 24 healthy volunteers, differences in the regional D₂/₃ receptor binding potential (ΔBP) between an unpredictable reward condition and a sensorimotor control condition were measured using the bolus-plus-constant-infusion [¹¹C]raclopride method. During the reward condition subjects randomly received monetary awards while performing a 'slot-machine' task. The ΔBP between conditions was assessed in striatal regions-of-interest and compared between left and right sides. We found a significant condition × lateralization interaction in the ventral striatum. A significant reduction in binding potential (BP(ND) ) in the reward condition vs. the control condition was found only in the right ventral striatum, and the ΔBP was greater in the right than the left ventral striatum. Unexpectedly, these laterality effects appeared to be partly accounted for by gender differences, as our data showed a significant bilateral BP(ND) reduction in women while in men the reduction reached significance only in the right ventral striatum. These data suggest that DA release in response to unpredictable reward is lateralized in the human ventral striatum, particularly in males. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Mapping a lateralisation gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eSpecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent models on speech perception propose a dual stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend towards the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesised, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a lateralisation gradient. This increasing leftward lateralisation was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus (STS and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  13. Mapping a lateralization gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual-stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend toward the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesized, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a "lateralization" gradient. This increasing leftward lateralization was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  14. Reduced amygdala and ventral striatal activity to happy faces in PTSD is associated with emotional numbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Felmingham

    Full Text Available There has been a growing recognition of the importance of reward processing in PTSD, yet little is known of the underlying neural networks. This study tested the predictions that (1 individuals with PTSD would display reduced responses to happy facial expressions in ventral striatal reward networks, and (2 that this reduction would be associated with emotional numbing symptoms. 23 treatment-seeking patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were recruited from the treatment clinic at the Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, Westmead Hospital, and 20 trauma-exposed controls were recruited from a community sample. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during the presentation of happy and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. PTSD participants rated happy facial expression as less intense than trauma-exposed controls. Relative to controls, PTSD participants revealed lower activation to happy (-neutral faces in ventral striatum and and a trend for reduced activation in left amygdala. A significant negative correlation was found between emotional numbing symptoms in PTSD and right ventral striatal regions after controlling for depression, anxiety and PTSD severity. This study provides initial evidence that individuals with PTSD have lower reactivity to happy facial expressions, and that lower activation in ventral striatal-limbic reward networks may be associated with symptoms of emotional numbing.

  15. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  16. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael; Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas; Braus, Dieter F.; Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl; Roesch, Frank; Cumming, Paul; Gruender, Gerhard; Bartenstein, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [ 18 F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [ 18 F]DOPA net influx constant K in app /[ 18 F]DMFP-binding potential (BP N D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  17. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  18. Congenital Unilateral Deafness Affects Cerebral Organization of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that early sensory deprivation modifies brain functional structure and connectivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-functional organization of reading in a patient with profound congenital unilateral deafness. Using event-related potentials (ERPs, we compared cortical networks supporting the processing of written words in patient RA (completely deaf in the right ear since birth and in a group of control volunteers. We found that congenital unilateral hearing deprivation modifies neural mechanisms of word reading. Indeed, while written word processing was left-lateralized in controls, we found a strong right lateralization of the fusiform and inferior occipital gyri activation in RA. This finding goes in the same direction of recent proposals that the ventral occipito-temporal activity in word reading seem to lateralize to the same hemisphere as the one involved in spoken language processing.

  19. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  20. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Machado, Gislaine Cristina Lopes; Morillo, Lilian Schafirovits; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2010-01-01

    Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD) is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal) and ventral (occipito-temporal) pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction), complete Balint’s syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right. Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD. PMID:29213665

  1. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  2. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  3. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  4. Hyporeactivity of ventral striatum towards incentive stimuli in unmedicated depressed patients normalizes after treatment with escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Meline; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Bermpohl, Felix; Hägele, Claudia; Suchotzki, Kristina; Schmack, Katharina; Wrase, Jana; Ricken, Roland; Knutson, Brian; Adli, Mazda; Bauer, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) involves deficits in the reward system. While neuroimaging studies have focused on affective stimulus processing, few investigations have directly addressed deficits in the anticipation of incentives. We examined neural responses during gain and loss anticipation in patients with MDD before and after treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Fifteen adults with MDD and 15 healthy participants, matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits, were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a monetary incentive delay task. Patients were scanned drug-free and after 6 weeks of open-label treatment with escitalopram; controls were scanned twice at corresponding time points. We compared the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response during the anticipation of gain and loss with a neutral condition. A repeated measures ANOVA was calculated to identify effects of group (MDD vs. controls), time (first vs. second scan) and group-by-time interaction. Severity of depression was measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. MDD patients showed significantly less ventral striatal activation during anticipation of gain and loss compared with controls before, but not after, treatment. There was a significant group-by-time interaction during anticipation of loss in the left ventral striatum due to a signal increase in patients after treatment. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness was associated with the severity of depression and in particular anhedonic symptoms. These findings suggest that MDD patients show ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during incentive cue processing, which normalizes after successful treatment.

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans VEM-1, a novel membrane protein, regulates the guidance of ventral nerve cord-associated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runko, Erik; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2004-10-13

    In the developing CNS, pathfinding growth cones use intermediate target- and pioneer axon-associated guidance cues to navigate along stereotypical trajectories. We previously showed that the novel membrane-associated protein Vema is localized to the floor plate and the optic chiasm, intermediate targets located at the ventral midline of the spinal cord and diencephalon in the developing rodent CNS, respectively. Here, we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of vema, vem-1, is expressed by the AVG pioneer midline neuron and by several neurons that extend longitudinally projecting axons into the ventral nerve cord (VNC). In vem-1 mutants and vem-1 (RNAi) animals, a subset of posteriorly projecting interneuron axons either fail to extend ventrally to the VNC and, instead, assume aberrant lateral positions or are inappropriately located in the left tract of the VNC. In addition, ventral motor neuron axons exhibit pathfinding errors within the VNC and along the dorsoventral body axis. The conserved UNC-40/DCC and SAX-3-/Robo receptors mediate signaling events that regulate axon guidance in a wide variety of systems. Double-mutant analyses reveal that vem-1 genetically interacts with unc-40 and is likely to function in parallel with sax-3 to regulate the guidance of a subset of VNC-associated interneuron and motor neuron axons. Consistent with these genetic data, we also show that VEM-1 is capable of physically interacting with UNC-40 but not SAX-3.

  6. Establishment and initial experiences from the Danish Ventral Hernia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, F; Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2010-01-01

    , use of mesh or no mesh, type of suture material, and placement of the mesh. A total of 5,629 elective and 661 acute ventral hernia repairs were registered. After the first 2 years the registration rate was 70%. CONCLUSION: The first national ventral hernia database has been established. Preliminary...... of the Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD). Furthermore, the first 2-year data from 2007 to 2008 are presented. METHODS: Registrations were based on surgeons' web registrations and validated by cross checking with data from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: The DVHD was established in June 2006...... and is based on prospective online web-registration of perioperative data, and individualised tracking of follow up data. During the first 2 years (2007-2008) data showed a large variation in almost all aspects of ventral hernia repair regarding surgical technique, use of open versus laparoscopic technique...

  7. Reduced activation in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area during probabilistic decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Schilling, Claudia; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels. We compared activation patterns during decision-making under conditions of certainty versus uncertainty and evaluated the process of final decision-making in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We replicated a pre-described extended cortical activation pattern during probabilistic reasoning. During final decision-making, activations in several fronto- and parietocortical areas, as well as in VS and VTA became apparent. In both of these regions schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced activation. These results further define the network underlying probabilistic decision-making. The observed hypo-activation in regions commonly associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission fits into current concepts of disrupted prediction error signaling in schizophrenia and suggests functional links to reward anticipation. Forthcoming studies with patients at risk for psychosis and drug-naive first episode patients are necessary to elucidate the development of these findings over time and the interplay with associated clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inter- and intrahemispheric connectivity differences when reading Japanese Kanji and Hiragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata Duncan, Keith J; Twomey, Tae; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Seghier, Mohamed L; Haji, Tomoki; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Price, Cathy J; Devlin, Joseph T

    2014-06-01

    Unlike most languages that are written using a single script, Japanese uses multiple scripts including morphographic Kanji and syllabographic Hiragana and Katakana. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic causal modeling to investigate competing theories regarding the neural processing of Kanji and Hiragana during a visual lexical decision task. First, a bilateral model investigated interhemispheric connectivity between ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex and Broca's area ("pars opercularis"). We found that Kanji significantly increased the connection strength from right-to-left vOT. This is interpreted in terms of increased right vOT activity for visually complex Kanji being integrated into the left (i.e. language dominant) hemisphere. Secondly, we used a unilateral left hemisphere model to test whether Kanji and Hiragana rely preferentially on ventral and dorsal paths, respectively, that is, they have different intrahemispheric functional connectivity profiles. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that Kanji increased connectivity within the ventral path (V1 ↔ vOT ↔ Broca's area), and that Hiragana increased connectivity within the dorsal path (V1 ↔ supramarginal gyrus ↔ Broca's area). Overall, the results illustrate how the differential processing demands of Kanji and Hiragana influence both inter- and intrahemispheric interactions.

  9. Ventral Striatum Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Disorder in a Longitudinal Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pedro Mario; Sato, João R; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luis A; Gadelha, Ary; Zugman, Andre; Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Stringaris, Argyris

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of adolescent depression. However, no study has used functional connectivity within a distributed reward network, assessed using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), to predict the onset of depression in adolescents. This study used reward network-based functional connectivity at baseline to predict depressive disorder at follow-up in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 637 children 6-12 years old underwent resting-state fMRI. Discovery and replication analyses tested intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among nodes of a putative reward network. Logistic regression tested whether striatal node strength, a measure of reward-related iFC, predicted onset of a depressive disorder at 3-year follow-up. Further analyses investigated the specificity of this prediction. Increased left ventral striatum node strength predicted increased risk for future depressive disorder (odds ratio=1.54, 95% CI=1.09-2.18), even after excluding participants who had depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.05-2.20). Among 11 reward-network nodes, only the left ventral striatum significantly predicted depression. Striatal node strength did not predict other common adolescent psychopathology, such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance use. Aberrant ventral striatum functional connectivity specifically predicts future risk for depressive disorder. This finding further emphasizes the need to understand how brain reward networks contribute to youth depression.

  10. Increased functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams during retrieval of novel words in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Valizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl; Jäncke, Lutz; Besson, Mireille; Elmer, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations. In accordance with the dual stream model, word learning was generally associated with increased beta functional connectivity in the ventral stream compared to the dorsal stream. In addition, in the linguistically most demanding "semantic task," musicians outperformed nonmusicians, and this behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased left-hemispheric theta connectivity in both streams. Moreover, theta coherence in the left dorsal pathway was positively correlated with the number of years of music training. These results provide evidence for a complex interplay within a network of brain regions involved in semantic processing and verbal memory functions, and suggest that intensive music training can modify its functional architecture leading to advantages in novel word learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Financial implications of ventral hernia repair: a hospital cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Drew; Davenport, Daniel L; Korosec, Ryan L; Roth, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    Complicated ventral hernias are often referred to tertiary care centers. Hospital costs associated with these repairs include direct costs (mesh materials, supplies, and nonsurgeon labor costs) and indirect costs (facility fees, equipment depreciation, and unallocated labor). Operative supplies represent a significant component of direct costs, especially in an era of proprietary synthetic meshes and biologic grafts. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex abdominal wall hernia repair at a tertiary care referral facility. Cost data on all consecutive open ventral hernia repairs (CPT codes 49560, 49561, 49565, and 49566) performed between 1 July 2008 and 31 May 2011 were analyzed. Cases were analyzed based upon hospital status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and whether the hernia repair was a primary or secondary procedure. We examined median net revenue, direct costs, contribution margin, indirect costs, and net profit/loss. Among primary hernia repairs, cost data were further analyzed based upon mesh utilization (no mesh, synthetic, or biologic). Four-hundred and fifteen patients underwent ventral hernia repair (353 inpatients and 62 outpatients); 173 inpatients underwent ventral hernia repair as the primary procedure; 180 inpatients underwent hernia repair as a secondary procedure. Median net revenue ($17,310 vs. 10,360, p costs for cases performed without mesh were $5,432; median direct costs for those using synthetic and biologic mesh were $7,590 and 16,970, respectively (p financial loss was $8,370. Outpatient ventral hernia repairs, with and without synthetic mesh, resulted in median net losses of $1,560 and 230, respectively. Ventral hernia repair is associated with overall financial losses. Inpatient synthetic mesh repairs are essentially budget neutral. Outpatient and inpatient repairs without mesh result in net financial losses. Inpatient biologic mesh repairs result in a negative contribution margin and striking net financial losses. Cost

  12. Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renana eEitan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN, an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12-30Hz, the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs.In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and

  13. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus restores deficits in processing of auditory evoked potentials in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-02-01

    Existing antipsychotic drugs are most effective at treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but their relative efficacy is low and they are associated with considerable side effects. In this study deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus was performed in a rodent model of schizophrenia (MAM-E17) in an attempt to alleviate one set of neurophysiological alterations observed in this disorder. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were fabricated and implanted, bilaterally, into the ventral hippocampus of rats. High frequency stimulation was delivered bilaterally via a custom-made stimulation device and both spectral analysis (power and coherence) of resting state local field potentials and amplitude of auditory evoked potential components during a standard inhibitory gating paradigm were examined. MAM rats exhibited alterations in specific components of the auditory evoked potential in the infralimbic cortex, the core of the nucleus accumbens, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, and ventral hippocampus in the left hemisphere only. DBS was effective in reversing these evoked deficits in the infralimbic cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of MAM-treated rats to levels similar to those observed in control animals. In contrast stimulation did not alter evoked potentials in control rats. No deficits or stimulation-induced alterations were observed in the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, the shell of the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. These data indicate a normalization of deficits in generating auditory evoked potentials induced by a developmental disruption by acute high frequency, electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  15. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  16. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Tan, Jiat Chow; Parimal, Sarayu; Dinges, David F; Chee, Michael W L

    2010-02-05

    Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD) have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW) and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA) activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

  19. Inhibitory stimulation of the ventral premotor cortex temporarily interferes with musical beat rate preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornysheva, Katja; von Anshelm-Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2011-08-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that preference for a beat rate (tempo) in auditory sequences is tightly linked to the motor system. However, from a neuroscientific perspective the contribution of motor-related brain regions to tempo preference in the auditory domain remains unclear. A recent fMRI study (Kornysheva et al. [2010]: Hum Brain Mapp 31:48-64) revealed that the activity increase in the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) is associated with the preference for a tempo of a musical rhythm. The activity increase correlated with how strongly the subjects preferred a tempo. Despite this evidence, it remains uncertain whether an interference with activity in the left PMv affects tempo preference strength. Consequently, we conducted an offline repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) study, in which the cortical excitability in the left PMv was temporarily reduced. As hypothesized, 0.9 Hz rTMS over the left PMv temporarily affected individual tempo preference strength depending on the individual strength of tempo preference in the control session. Moreover, PMv stimulation temporarily interfered with the stability of individual tempo preference strength within and across sessions. These effects were specific to the preference for tempo in contrast to the preference for timbre, bound to the first half of the experiment following PMv stimulation and could not be explained by an impairment of tempo recognition. Our results corroborate preceding fMRI findings and suggest that activity in the left PMv is part of a network that affects the strength of beat rate preference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  1. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  2. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  3. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1) ...

  4. Radiographic identification of the equine ventral conchal bulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, C M; Townsend, N B; Barnett, T P; Barakzai, S Z

    Involvement of the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) is an important diagnostic and prognostic feature in cases of the equine sinus disease. The authors aimed to ascertain if the caudo-dorsal extension of the VCS, the ventral conchal bulla (VCB) is identifiable on plain radiographs of cadaver skulls without sinus disease. Bilateral frontonasal sinus flaps were made in 10 equine cadaver skulls. Plain lateral, lateral oblique and dorso-ventral radiographs were then obtained followed by the same views taken with stainless steel wire outlining the caudal border of the VCB. Plain radiographs were randomised and blindly evaluated by two observers who marked where they believed the VCB to be positioned. This was then correlated with the true position of the VCB using radiographs with wires in place. The ease of identification of the VCB was classified as 'easy' or 'difficult'. The VCB was correctly identified in 70 per cent of lateral radiographs, but only 45 per cent of lateral oblique radiographs and 17 per cent of dorso-ventral radiographs. If a clinician was confident that he or she could identify the VCB, they were usually correct. Conversely if the clinician judged VCB identification as 'difficult', they usually identified it incorrectly. In the authors' clinical experience, the VCB of horses with sinusitis involving this compartment is more radiologically evident than in clinically normal horses. Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of this structure should aid clinicians in identifying horses with sinusitis affecting the VCS.

  5. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  6. Pelvic ventral hernia repair in a pygopagus conjoint twin | Bhullar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelvic ventral hernia repair in a surviving conjoint twin with multiple congenital anomalies that make surgery a challenge. Conjoint twins are a rare. The incidence is reported to be in the range of 1/50 000 to 1/100 000 live births. Of the conjoint twins, 40% are stillborn and an additional one-third die within 24 h of birth.

  7. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  8. Development of Tool Representations in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Object Processing Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; Clark, Tyia S.; Lussier, Courtney A.; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2016-01-01

    Tools represent a special class of objects, because they are processed across both the dorsal and ventral visual object processing pathways. Three core regions are known to be involved in tool processing: the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the medial fusiform gyrus (bilaterally), and the left inferior parietal lobule. A critical and relatively unexplored issue concerns whether, in development, tool preferences emerge at the same time and to a similar degree across all regions of the tool-processing network. To test this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural amplitude, peak location, and the dispersion of tool-related neural responses in the youngest sample of children tested to date in this domain (ages 4–8 years). We show that children recruit overlapping regions of the adult tool-processing network and also exhibit similar patterns of co-activation across the network to adults. The amplitude and co-activation data show that the core components of the tool-processing network are established by age 4. Our findings on the distributions of peak location and dispersion of activation indicate that the tool network undergoes refinement between ages 4 and 8 years. PMID:26108614

  9. A case of impaired shape integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbet; Habekost, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a patient, HE, who was left with a remarkably selective deficit in intermediate vision following an infarct in the right occipito-temporal region. Thus, HE was able to group elements by colour and proximity but impaired in grouping based on similarity in shape. This finding supports...

  10. On the Functional Neuroanatomy of Visual Word Processing: Effects of Case and Letter Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbichler, Martin; Klackl, Johannes; Richlan, Fabio; Schurz, Matthias; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasted case-deviant and letter-deviant forms with familiar forms of the same phonological words (e.g., "TaXi" and "Taksi" vs. "Taxi") and found that both types of deviance led to increased activation in a left occipito-temporal region, corresponding to the visual word form area (VWFA). The…

  11. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects

  12. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects

  13. Dorsal and ventral changes of the occipital vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banki, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Based on his own observation and on the literature, the author discusses various types of calcification in the occipital-cervical region, beginning with those situated dorsally and followed by ventral forms. An attempt is made to classify these changes, depending on their morphology and situation, from an embryological point of view. The pro-atlantal and ante pro-atlanto origin of the occipital vertebrae is discussed. Differentiation depends on appearances. (orig.) [de

  14. Mesh versus non-mesh repair of ventral abdominal hernias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.A.; Talpur, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relative effectiveness of mesh and suture repair of ventral abdominal hernias in terms of clinical outcome, quality of life and rate of recurrence in both the techniques. This is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 236 patients with mesh and non-mesh repair of primary ventral hernias performed between January 2000 to December 2004 at Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. The record sheets of the patients were analyzed and data retrieved to compare the results of both techniques for short-term and long-term results. The data retrieved is statistically analyzed on SPSS version 11. There were 43 (18.22%) males and 193 (81.77%) females with a mean age of 51.79 years and a range of 59 (81-22). Para-umbilical hernia was the commonest of ventral hernia and accounted for 49.8% (n=118) of the total study population followed by incisional hernia comprising 24% (n=57) of the total number. There was a significant difference in the recurrent rate at 3 years interval with 23/101 (22.77%) recurrences in suture-repaired subjects compared to 10/135 (7.40%) in mesh repair group. Chronic pain lasting up to 1-2 years was noted in 14 patients with suture repair. Wound infection is comparatively more common (8.14%) in mesh group. The other variables such as operative and postoperative complications, total hospital stay and quality of life is also discussed. Mesh repair of ventral hernia is much superior to non-mesh suture repair in terms of recurrence and overall outcome. (author)

  15. Binocular depth processing in the ventral visual pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2016-06-19

    One of the most powerful forms of depth perception capitalizes on the small relative displacements, or binocular disparities, in the images projected onto each eye. The brain employs these disparities to facilitate various computations, including sensori-motor transformations (reaching, grasping), scene segmentation and object recognition. In accordance with these different functions, disparity activates a large number of regions in the brain of both humans and monkeys. Here, we review how disparity processing evolves along different regions of the ventral visual pathway of macaques, emphasizing research based on both correlational and causal techniques. We will discuss the progression in the ventral pathway from a basic absolute disparity representation to a more complex three-dimensional shape code. We will show that, in the course of this evolution, the underlying neuronal activity becomes progressively more bound to the global perceptual experience. We argue that these observations most probably extend beyond disparity processing per se, and pertain to object processing in the ventral pathway in general. We conclude by posing some important unresolved questions whose answers may significantly advance the field, and broaden its scope.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Polyester composite versus PTFE in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Modesto J; Telem, Dana A; Chin, Edward; Weber, Kaare; Divino, Celia M; Nguyen, Scott Q

    2011-01-01

    Both polyester composite (POC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh are commonly used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, sparse information exists comparing perioperative and long-term outcome by mesh repair. A prospective database was utilized to identify 116 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2004-2009. Patients were grouped by type of mesh used, PTFE versus POC, and retrospectively compared. Follow-up at a mean of 12 months was achieved by telephone interview and office visit. Of the 116 patients, 66 underwent ventral hernia repair with PTFE and 50 with POC mesh. Patients were well matched by patient demographics. No difference in mean body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC group (31.8 vs. 32.5, respectively; P=NS). Operative time was significantly longer in the PTFE group (136 vs.106 minutes, PPTFE group and none in the POC group (P NS). No other major complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period (30 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC groups in hernia recurrence (3% vs. 2%), wound complications (1% vs. 0%), mesh infection, requiring removal (3% vs. 0%), bowel obstruction (3% vs. 2%), or persistent pain or discomfort (28% vs. 32%), respectively (P=NS). Our study demonstrated no significant association between types of mesh used and postoperative complications. In the 12-month follow-up, no differences were noted in hernia recurrence.

  17. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  18. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  19. A multicenter prospective study of patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with intraperitoneal positioning using the monofilament polyester composite ventral patch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrevoet, Frederik; Doerhoff, Carl; Muysoms, Filip

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the recurrence rate and other safety and efficacy parameters following ventral hernia repair with a polyester composite prosthesis (Parietex™ Composite Ventral Patch [PCO-VP]). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter prospective study of 126 patients undergoing...

  20. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A Webb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex was performed. RESULTS: Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (p<0.05 than controls (4 had scores in the clinically significant range. Ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy were significantly reduced in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, p<0.02, r = -0.46, p<0.049 respectively. There were no significant correlations between left ventral cingulum, corpus callosum or optic radiation fractional anisotropy and behavioral scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that children with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic

  1. Solitary Osteochondroma of the Ventral Scapula Associated with Large Bursa Formation and Pseudowinging of the Scapula: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohisa Ogawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondroma (OC is the most common benign bone tumor and may occur on any bone in which endochondral ossification develops. Although scapular OC accounts for less than 5% of the cases of solitary OC, OC is the most common lesion among the tumors and tumor-like lesions of the scapula. OC that develops near the medial scapular border easily causes friction with the ribcage; hence, almost half the number of cases of OC associated with marked bursa formation develops in the ventral scapula. We report a case of a 27-year-old female with a painful OC of the ventral scapular surface associated with large bursa formation and pseudowinging of the scapula. After l2 years of follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging, we confirm that the accompanied bursa left at surgery disappears.

  2. Ventral hernia repair with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Dugan, Adam; Zachem, Amanda; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Biomaterial research has made available a biologically derived fully resorbable poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) mesh for use in ventral and incisional hernia repair (VIHR). This study evaluates outcomes of patients undergoing VIHR with P4HB mesh. An IRB-approved prospective pilot study was conducted to assess clinical and quality of life (QOL) outcomes for patients undergoing VIHR with P4HB mesh. Perioperative characteristics were defined. Clinical outcomes, employment status, QOL using 12-item short form survey (SF-12), and pain assessments were followed for 24 months postoperatively. 31 patients underwent VIHR with bioresorbable mesh via a Rives-Stoppa approach with retrorectus mesh placement. The median patient age was 52 years, median body mass index was 33 kg/m 2 , and just over half of the patients were female. Surgical site occurrences occurred in 19% of patients, most of which were seroma. Hernia recurrence rate was 0% (median follow-up = 414 days). Patients had significantly improved QOL at 24 months compared to baseline for SF-12 physical component summary and role emotional (p < 0.05). Ventral hernia repair with P4HB bioresorbable mesh results in favorable outcomes. Early hernia recurrence was not identified among the patient cohort. Quality of life improvements were noted at 24 months versus baseline for this cohort of patients with bioresorbable mesh. Use of P4HB mesh for ventral hernia repair was found to be feasible in this patient population. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01863030).

  3. Nationwide analysis of prolonged hospital stay and readmission after elective ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Early outcome after elective ventral hernia repair is unsatisfactory, but detailed analyses are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the aetiology of prolonged hospital stay (LOS), readmission and death <30 days after elective ventral hernia repair.......Early outcome after elective ventral hernia repair is unsatisfactory, but detailed analyses are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the aetiology of prolonged hospital stay (LOS), readmission and death

  4. Islet-1 is required for ventral neuron survival in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yu; Zhao, Shuhua; Li, Jiejing; Mao, Bingyu

    2009-01-01

    Islet-1 is a LIM domain transcription factor involved in several processes of embryonic development. Xenopus Islet-1 (Xisl-1) has been shown to be crucial for proper heart development. Here we show that Xisl-1 and Xisl-2 are differentially expressed in the nervous system in Xenopus embryos. Knock-down of Xisl-1 by specific morpholino leads to severe developmental defects, including eye and heart failure. Staining with the neuronal markers N-tubulin and Xisl-1 itself reveals that the motor neurons and a group of ventral interneurons are lost in the Xisl-1 morphants. Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis shows that Xisl-1 morpholino injection induces extensive apoptosis in the ventral neural plate, which can be largely inhibited by the apoptosis inhibitor M50054. We also find that over-expression of Xisl-1 is able to promote cell proliferation and induce Xstat3 expression in the injected side, suggesting a potential role for Xisl-1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in co-operation with the Jak-Stat pathway.

  5. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  6. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  7. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  8. A Ventral Visual Stream Reading Center Independent of Sensory Modality and Visual Experience

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    Lior Reich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA is a ventral-temporal-visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It encodes letter-strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual-field, with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, reading can be achieved using Braille, with a comparable level-of-expertise to that of sighted readers. We investigated which area plays the role of the VWFA in the blind. One would expect it to be at either parietal or bilateral occipital cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the task and crossmodal plasticity, respectively. However, according to the notion that brain areas are task specific rather than sensory-modality specific, we predicted recruitment of the left-hemispheric VWFA, identically to the sighted and independent of visual experience. Using fMRI we showed that activation during Braille reading in congenitally blind individuals peaked in the VWFA, with striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted. The VWFA was reading-selective when contrasted to high-level language and low-level sensory controls. Further preliminary results show that the VWFA is selectively activated also when people learn to read in a new language or using a different modality. Thus, the VWFA is a mutlisensory area specialized for reading regardless of visual experience.

  9. Temporal lobe epilepsy and surgery selectively alter the dorsal, not the ventral, default-mode network

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    Gaelle Eve Doucet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The default-mode network (DMN is a major resting-state network. It can be divided in 2 distinct networks: one is composed of dorsal and anterior regions (referred to as the dorsal DMN, dDMN, while the other involves the more posterior regions (referred to as the ventral DMN, vDMN. To date, no studies have investigated the potentially distinct impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on these networks. In this context, we explored the effect of TLE and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL on the dDMN and vDMN. We utilized 2 resting-state fMRI sessions from left, right TLE patients (pre-/post-surgery and normal controls (NCs, sessions 1/2. Using independent component analysis, we identified the 2 networks. We then evaluated for differences in spatial extent for each network between the groups, and across the scanning sessions. The results revealed that, pre-surgery, the dDMN showed larger differences between the three groups than the vDMN, and more particularly between right and left TLE than between the TLE patients and controls. In terms of change post-surgery, in both TLE groups, the dDMN also demonstrated larger changes than the vDMN. For the vDMN, the only changes involved the resected temporal lobe for each ATL group. For the dDMN, the left ATL group showed post-surgical increases in several regions outside the ictal temporal lobe. In contrast, the right ATL group displayed a large reduction in the frontal cortex. The results highlight that the 2 DMNs are not impacted by TLE and ATL in an equivalent fashion. Importantly, the dDMN was the more affected, with right ATL having a more deleterious effects on the dDMN than left ATL. We are the first to highlight that the dDMN more strongly bears the negative impact of TLE than the vDMN, suggesting there is an interaction between the side of pathology and DM subnetwork activity. Our findings have implications for understanding the impact TLE and subsequent ATL on the functions implemented by the distinct

  10. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. S175. AMOTIVATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALLER VENTRAL STRIATUM VOLUMES IN OLDER PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long‐term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) blockade by antipsychotics. Methods Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D2/3R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Results Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). Discussion We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D2/3R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit.

  12. Amotivation is associated with smaller ventral striatum volumes in older patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-03-01

    Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long-term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor (D 2/3 R) blockade by antipsychotics. Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D 2/3 R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D 2/3 R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

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    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  14. Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-05-15

    In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Holmes’ Tremor with Shoulder Pain Treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of Unilateral Ventral Intermediate Thalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Internus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Aydın

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. The patient underwent left globus pallidum internus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The patient improved by more than 80% as rated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale and Visual Analog Scale six months after surgery.

  16. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  17. Abnormal asymmetry of white matter tracts between ventral posterior cingulate cortex and middle temporal gyrus in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Woo; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha E; Kubicki, Marek; Lee, Jungsun

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We extracted left and right vPCC-MTG tract on each side from T1W and diffusion MRI (dMRI) at 3T. We then calculated the asymmetry index of diffusion measures of vPCC-MTG tracts as well as volume and thickness of vPCC and MTG using the formula: 2×(right-left)/(right+left). We compared asymmetry indices between patients and controls and evaluated their correlations with the severity of psychiatric symptoms and cognition in patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), video-based social cognition scale (VISC) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Asymmetry of fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the vPCC-MTG tract, while present in healthy controls, was not evident in schizophrenia patients. Also, we observed that patients, not healthy controls, had a significant FA decrease and RD increase in the left vPCC-MTG tract. There was no significant association between the asymmetry indices of dMRI measures and IQ, VISC, or PANSS scores in schizophrenia. Disruption of asymmetry of the vPCC-MTG tract in schizophrenia may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impaired communication between the dorsal and ventral stream: indications from apraxia

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    Carys eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with apraxia perform poorly when demonstrating how an object is used, particularly when pantomiming the action. However, these patients are able to accurately identify, and to pick up and move objects, demonstrating intact ventral and dorsal stream visuomotor processing. Appropriate object manipulation for skilled use is thought to rely on integration of known and visible object properties associated with ‘ventro-dorsal’ stream neural processes. In apraxia, it has been suggested that stored object knowledge from the ventral stream may be less readily available to incorporate into the action plan, leading to an over-reliance on the objects’ visual affordances in object-directed motor behaviour. The current study examined grasping performance in left hemisphere stroke patients with (N = 3 and without (N = 9 apraxia, and in age-matched healthy control participants (N = 14, where participants repeatedly grasped novel cylindrical objects of varying weight distribution. Across two conditions, object weight distribution was indicated by either a memory-associated cue (object colour or visual-spatial cue (visible dot over the weighted end. Participants were required to incorporate object-weight associations to effectively grasp and balance each object. Control groups appropriately adjusted their grasp according to each object’s weight distribution across each condition, whereas throughout the task two of the three apraxic patients performed poorly on both the memory-associated and visual-spatial cue conditions. A third apraxic patient seemed to compensate for these difficulties but still performed differently to control groups. Patients with apraxia performed normally on the neutral control condition when grasping the evenly weighted version. The pattern of behaviour in apraxic patients suggests impaired integration of visible and known object properties attributed to the ventro-dorsal stream: in learning to grasp the weighted object

  19. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  20. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  1. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Niki H; Lewis, Daniel J; van den Bos, Wouter; Morton, J Bruce

    2017-08-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain's sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The ventral premammillary nucleus links leptin action and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eDonato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.

  3. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  4. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral, intestinal, and skin bacteria in ventral hernia mesh implants

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    Odd Langbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6–10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket. Methods: Thirty patients referred to our hospital for recurrence after former ventral hernia mesh repair, were examined for periodontitis in advance of new surgical hernia repair. Oral examination included periapical radiographs, periodontal probing, and subgingival plaque collection. A piece of mesh (1×1 cm from the abdominal wall was harvested during the new surgical hernia repair and analyzed for bacteria by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From patients with positive PCR mesh samples, subgingival plaque samples were analyzed with the same techniques. Results: A great variety of taxa were detected in 20 (66.7% mesh samples, including typical oral commensals and periodontopathogens, enterics, and skin bacteria. Mesh and periodontal bacteria were further analyzed for similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. In 17 sequences, the level of resemblance between mesh and subgingival bacterial colonization was 98–100% suggesting, but not proving, a transfer of oral bacteria to the mesh. Conclusion: The results show great bacterial diversity on mesh implants from the anterior abdominal wall including oral commensals and periodontopathogens. Mesh can be reached by bacteria in several ways including hematogenous spread from an oral site. However, other sites such as gut and skin may also

  6. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  8. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  9. Hippocampal projections to the ventral striatum: from spatial memory to motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, M.M.A; Ito, R.; Lansink, C.S.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Derdikman, D.; Knierim, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple regions of the hippocampal formation project to the ventral striatum, a central node in brain circuits that subserve aspects of motivation. These projections emphasize information flow from the ventral (temporal) pole of the hippocampus and interact with converging projections and

  10. Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Keown, Christopher L; Wen, Xianglan; Li, Junhao; Vousden, Dulcie A; Anacker, Christoph; Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Ryan, Richard; Diorio, Josie; O'Toole, Nicholas; Lerch, Jason P; Mukamel, Eran A; Meaney, Michael J

    2018-01-19

    Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.

  11. The role of the ventral dentate gyrus in olfactory pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Christy S S; Hu, Nathan J; Ho, Liana U N; Kesner, Raymond P

    2014-05-01

    Dorsoventral lesion studies of the hippocampus have indicated that the dorsal axis of the hippocampus is important for spatial processing and the ventral axis of the hippocampus is important for olfactory learning and memory and anxiety. There is some evidence to suggest that the ventral CA3 and ventral CA1 conduct parallel processes for pattern completion and temporal processing, respectively. Studies have indicated that the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) is importantly involved in processes reflecting underlying pattern separation activity for spatial information. However, the ventral DG is less understood. The current study investigated the less-understood role of the ventral DG in olfactory pattern separation. A series of odor stimuli that varied on only one level, number of carbon chains (methyl groups), was used in a matching-to-sample paradigm in order to investigate ventral DG involvement in working memory for similar and less similar odors. Rats with ventral DG lesions were impaired at delays of 60 sec, but not at delays of 15 sec. A memory-based pattern separation effect was observed performance was poorest with only one carbon chain separation between trial odors and was highest for trials with four separations. The present study indicates that the ventral DG plays an important role in olfactory learning and memory processes for highly similar odors. The results also indicate a role for the ventral DG in pattern separation for odor information, which may have further implications for parallel processing across the dorsoventral axis for the DG in spatial (dorsal) and olfactory (ventral) pattern separation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  13. Functional asymmetry between the left and right human fusiform gyrus explored through electrical brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef

    2016-03-01

    The ventral temporal cortex (VTC) contains several areas with selective responses to words, numbers, faces, and objects as demonstrated by numerous human and primate imaging and electrophysiological studies. Our recent work using electrocorticography (ECoG) confirmed the presence of face-selective neuronal populations in the human fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left or right hemisphere. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) disrupted the conscious perception of faces only when it was delivered in the right, but not left, FG. In contrast to our previous findings, here we report both negative and positive EBS effects in right and left FG, respectively. The presence of right hemisphere language dominance in the first, and strong left-handedness and poor language processing performance in the second case, provide indirect clues about the functional architecture of the human VTC in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in language processing and handedness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  15. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  16. Brain Regions Associated to a Kinesthetic Illusion Evoked by Watching a Video of One's Own Moving Hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminari Kaneko

    Full Text Available It is well known that kinesthetic illusions can be induced by stimulation of several sensory systems (proprioception, touch, vision…. In this study we investigated the cerebral network underlying a kinesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in humans. Participants were instructed to keep their hand still while watching the video of their own moving hand (Self Hand or that of someone else's moving hand (Other Hand. In the Self Hand condition they experienced an illusory sensation that their hand was moving whereas the Other Hand condition did not induce any kinesthetic illusion. The contrast between the Self Hand and Other Hand conditions showed significant activation in the left dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, in the left Superior and Inferior Parietal lobules, at the right Occipito-Temporal junction as well as in bilateral Insula and Putamen. Most strikingly, there was no activation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, whilst previous studies have reported significant activation in these regions for vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that humans can experience kinesthetic perception without activation in the primary motor and somatosensory areas. We conclude that under some conditions watching a video of one's own moving hand could lead to activation of a network that is usually involved in processing copies of efference, thus leading to the illusory perception that the real hand is indeed moving.

  17. Neural substrates of sublexical processing for spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Andrew T; Wilson, Stephen M; Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M

    2017-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine the neural substrates of sublexical phoneme-grapheme conversion during spelling in a group of healthy young adults. Participants performed a writing-to-dictation task involving irregular words (e.g., choir), plausible nonwords (e.g., kroid), and a control task of drawing familiar geometric shapes (e.g., squares). Written production of both irregular words and nonwords engaged a left-hemisphere perisylvian network associated with reading/spelling and phonological processing skills. Effects of lexicality, manifested by increased activation during nonword relative to irregular word spelling, were noted in anterior perisylvian regions (posterior inferior frontal gyrus/operculum/precentral gyrus/insula), and in left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. In addition to enhanced neural responses within domain-specific components of the language network, the increased cognitive demands associated with spelling nonwords engaged domain-general frontoparietal cortical networks involved in selective attention and executive control. These results elucidate the neural substrates of sublexical processing during written language production and complement lesion-deficit correlation studies of phonological agraphia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain Regions Associated to a Kinesthetic Illusion Evoked by Watching a Video of One's Own Moving Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fuminari; Blanchard, Caroline; Lebar, Nicolas; Nazarian, Bruno; Kavounoudias, Anne; Romaiguère, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that kinesthetic illusions can be induced by stimulation of several sensory systems (proprioception, touch, vision…). In this study we investigated the cerebral network underlying a kinesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans. Participants were instructed to keep their hand still while watching the video of their own moving hand (Self Hand) or that of someone else's moving hand (Other Hand). In the Self Hand condition they experienced an illusory sensation that their hand was moving whereas the Other Hand condition did not induce any kinesthetic illusion. The contrast between the Self Hand and Other Hand conditions showed significant activation in the left dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, in the left Superior and Inferior Parietal lobules, at the right Occipito-Temporal junction as well as in bilateral Insula and Putamen. Most strikingly, there was no activation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, whilst previous studies have reported significant activation in these regions for vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that humans can experience kinesthetic perception without activation in the primary motor and somatosensory areas. We conclude that under some conditions watching a video of one's own moving hand could lead to activation of a network that is usually involved in processing copies of efference, thus leading to the illusory perception that the real hand is indeed moving.

  19. Neuroimaging studies of practice-related change: fMRI and meta-analytic evidence of a domain-general control network for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason M; Schneider, Walter

    2005-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies were used to characterize cortical changes resulting from extensive practice and to evaluate a dual-processing account of the neural mechanisms underlying human learning. Three core predictions of the dual processing theory are evaluated: 1) that practice elicits generalized reductions in regional activity by reducing the load on the cognitive control mechanisms that scaffold early learning; 2) that these control mechanisms are domain-general; and 3) that no separate processing pathway emerges as skill develops. To evaluate these predictions, a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies and a within-subjects fMRI experiment contrasting unpracticed to practiced performance in a paired-associate task were conducted. The principal effect of practice was found to be a reduction in the extent and magnitude of activity in a cortical network spanning bilateral dorsal prefrontal, left ventral prefrontal, medial frontal (anterior cingulate), left insular, bilateral parietal, and occipito-temporal (fusiform) areas. These activity reductions are shown to occur in common regions across prior neuroimaging studies and for both verbal and nonverbal paired-associate learning in the present fMRI experiment. The implicated network of brain regions is interpreted as a domain-general system engaged specifically to support novice, but not practiced, performance.

  20. Dual Coding of Frequency Modulation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraouty, Nihaad; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Lorenzi, Christian; Varnet, Léo; Winter, Ian M

    2018-04-25

    Frequency modulation (FM) is a common acoustic feature of natural sounds and is known to play a role in robust sound source recognition. Auditory neurons show precise stimulus-synchronized discharge patterns that may be used for the representation of low-rate FM. However, it remains unclear whether this representation is based on synchronization to slow temporal envelope (ENV) cues resulting from cochlear filtering or phase locking to faster temporal fine structure (TFS) cues. To investigate the plausibility of those encoding schemes, single units of the ventral cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs of either sex were recorded in response to sine FM tones centered at the unit's best frequency (BF). The results show that, in contrast to high-BF units, for modulation depths within the receptive field, low-BF units (modulation depths extending beyond the receptive field, the discharge patterns follow the ENV and fluctuate at the modulation rate. The receptive field proved to be a good predictor of the ENV responses for most primary-like and chopper units. The current in vivo data also reveal a high level of diversity in responses across unit types. TFS cues are mainly conveyed by low-frequency and primary-like units and ENV cues by chopper and onset units. The diversity of responses exhibited by cochlear nucleus neurons provides a neural basis for a dual-coding scheme of FM in the brainstem based on both ENV and TFS cues. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Natural sounds, including speech, convey informative temporal modulations in frequency. Understanding how the auditory system represents those frequency modulations (FM) has important implications as robust sound source recognition depends crucially on the reception of low-rate FM cues. Here, we recorded 115 single-unit responses from the ventral cochlear nucleus in response to FM and provide the first physiological evidence of a dual-coding mechanism of FM via synchronization to temporal envelope cues and phase locking to temporal

  1. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  2. Single-minded and the evolution of the ventral midline in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Viktoria; Eriksson, Bo Joakim; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2012-04-01

    In insects and crustaceans, ventral midline cells are present that subdivide the CNS into bilateral symmetric halves. In both arthropod groups unpaired midline neurons and glial cells have been identified that contribute to the embryonic patterning mechanisms. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, for example, the midline cells are involved in neural cell fate specification along the dorso-ventral axis but also in axonal pathfinding and organisation of the axonal scaffold. Both in insects and malacostracan crustaceans, the bHLH-PAS transcription factor single-minded is the master regulator of ventral midline development and homology has been suggested for individual midline precursors in these groups. The conserved arrangement of the axonal scaffold as well as the regular pattern of neural precursors in all euarthropod groups raises the question whether the ventral midline system is conserved in this phylum. In the remaining euarthropod groups, the chelicerates and myriapods, a single-minded homologue has been identified in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum (chelicerate), however, the gene is not expressed in the ventral midline but in the median area of the ventral neuroectoderm. Here we show that At-sim is not required for ventral midline development. Furthermore, we identify sim homologues in representatives of arthropods that have not yet been analysed: the myriapod Strigamia maritima and a representative of an outgroup to the euarthropods, the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis. We compare the expression patterns to the A. tepidariorum sim homologue expression and furthermore analyse the nature of the arthropod midline cells. Our data suggest that in arthropods unpaired midline precursors evolved from the bilateral median domain of the ventral neuroectoderm in the last common ancestor of Mandibulata (insects, crustaceans, myriapods). We hypothesize that sim was expressed in this domain and recruited to ventral midline development. Subsequently, sim

  3. HIV Distal Neuropathic Pain Is Associated with Smaller Ventral Posterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, John R; Connolly, Colm G; Vaida, Florin; Jenkinson, Mark; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Akkari, Cherine; Schlein, Alexandra; Lee, Jisu; Wang, Dongzhe; Kim, Sung; Li, Han; Rennels, Austin; Miller, David J; Kesidis, George; Franklin, Donald R; Sanders, Chelsea; Corkran, Stephanie; Grant, Igor; Brown, Gregory G; Atkinson, J Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-03-01

    . Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neuropathy is one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of distal neuropathic pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage. A better understanding of brain structure in HIV distal neuropathic pain may help explain why some patients with HIV neuropathy report pain while the majority does not. Previously, we reported that more intense distal neuropathic pain was associated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volumes. The objective of this study was to determine which parts of the cortex are smaller. . HIV positive individuals with and without distal neuropathic pain enrolled in the multisite (N = 233) CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects (CHARTER) study underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate regional brain volumes in these structural brain images. . Left ventral posterior cingulate cortex was smaller for HIV positive individuals with versus without distal neuropathic pain (peak P  = 0.017; peak t = 5.15; MNI coordinates x = -6, y = -54, z = 20). Regional brain volumes within cortical gray matter structures typically associated with pain processing were also smaller for HIV positive individuals having higher intensity ratings of distal neuropathic pain. . The posterior cingulate is thought to be involved in inhibiting the perception of painful stimuli. Mechanistically a smaller posterior cingulate cortex structure may be related to reduced anti-nociception contributing to increased distal neuropathic pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Seroma in ventral incisional herniorrhaphy: incidence, predictors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Hur, Kwan; Hirter, Angie; Kim, Lawrence T; Thomas, Anthony; Berger, David H; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F

    2009-11-01

    Factors leading to seroma following ventral incisional herniorrhaphy (VIH) are poorly understood. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were prospectively randomized at 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed seromas within 8 weeks postoperatively were compared with those who did not. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of seroma. Of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 24 (16.6%) developed seromas. Patients who underwent open VIH had more seromas than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (23.3% vs 6.8%, P = .011). Seroma patients had hernias that were never spontaneously reducible (0% vs 21%, P = .015), had more abdominal incisions preoperatively (mean, 2.4 vs 1.8; P = .037), and were less likely to have drain catheters placed than those without seromas (30.0% vs 63.1%, P = .011). In multivariate analyses, open VIH predicted seroma (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.8), as well as the specific hospital at which the procedure was performed. Spontaneous resolution occurred in 71% of seromas; 29% required aspiration. Procedural characteristics and hernia characteristics rather than patient comorbidities predicted seroma in VIH.

  5. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventral tegmental area GABA neurons and opiate motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Perez, Hector; Mabey, Jennifer K.; Shin, Samuel I.; Steffensen, Scott C.; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Rational Past research has demonstrated that when an animal changes from a previously drug-naive to an opiate-dependent and withdrawn state, morphine’s motivational effects are switched from a tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP)-dependent to a dopamine-dependent pathway. Interestingly, a corresponding change is observed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABAA receptors, which change from mediating hyperpolarization of VTA GABA neurons to mediating depolarization. Objectives The present study investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of VTA GABAA receptor activity could directly influence the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation. Results Using an unbiased place conditioning procedure, we demonstrated that in Wistar rats, intra-VTA administration of furosemide, a Cl− cotransporter inhibitor, was able to promote a switch in the mechanisms underlying morphine’s motivational properties, one which is normally observed only after chronic opiate exposure. This behavioral switch was prevented by intra-VTA administration of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of the bicarbonate ion-producing carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Electrophysiological recordings of mouse VTA showed that furosemide reduced the sensitivity of VTA GABA neurons to inhibition by the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol, instead increasing the firing rate of a significant subset of these GABA neurons. Conclusion Our results suggest that the carbonic anhydrase enzyme may constitute part of a common VTA GABA neuron-based biological pathway responsible for controlling the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation, supporting the hypothesis that VTA GABAA receptor hyperpolarization or depolarization is responsible for selecting TPP- or dopamine-dependent motivational outputs, respectively. PMID:23392354

  7. Surfing a spike wave down the ventral stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRullen, Rufin; Thorpe, Simon J

    2002-10-01

    Numerous theories of neural processing, often motivated by experimental observations, have explored the computational properties of neural codes based on the absolute or relative timing of spikes in spike trains. Spiking neuron models and theories however, as well as their experimental counterparts, have generally been limited to the simulation or observation of isolated neurons, isolated spike trains, or reduced neural populations. Such theories would therefore seem inappropriate to capture the properties of a neural code relying on temporal spike patterns distributed across large neuronal populations. Here we report a range of computer simulations and theoretical considerations that were designed to explore the possibilities of one such code and its relevance for visual processing. In a unified framework where the relation between stimulus saliency and spike relative timing plays the central role, we describe how the ventral stream of the visual system could process natural input scenes and extract meaningful information, both rapidly and reliably. The first wave of spikes generated in the retina in response to a visual stimulation carries information explicitly in its spatio-temporal structure: the most salient information is represented by the first spikes over the population. This spike wave, propagating through a hierarchy of visual areas, is regenerated at each processing stage, where its temporal structure can be modified by (i). the selectivity of the cortical neurons, (ii). lateral interactions and (iii). top-down attentional influences from higher order cortical areas. The resulting model could account for the remarkable efficiency and rapidity of processing observed in the primate visual system.

  8. Multiplexed Neurochemical Signaling by Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David J.; Root, David H.; Zhang, Shiliang; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is an evolutionarily conserved structure that has roles in reward-seeking, safety-seeking, learning, motivation, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. The involvement of the VTA in these various behaviors and disorders is paralleled by its diverse signaling mechanisms. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of neuronal diversity in the VTA with a focus on cell phenotypes that participate in ‘multiplexed’ neurotransmission involving distinct signaling mechanisms. First, we describe the cellular diversity within the VTA, including neurons capable of transmitting dopamine, glutamate or GABA as well as neurons capable of multiplexing combinations of these neurotransmitters. Next, we describe the complex synaptic architecture used by VTA neurons in order to accommodate the transmission of multiple transmitters. We specifically cover recent findings showing that VTA multiplexed neurotransmission may be mediated by either the segregation of dopamine and glutamate into distinct microdomains within a single axon or by the integration of glutamate and GABA into a single axon terminal. In addition, we discuss our current understanding of the functional role that these multiplexed signaling pathways have in the lateral habenula and the nucleus accumbens. Finally, we consider the putative roles of VTA multiplexed neurotransmission in synaptic plasticity and discuss how changes in VTA multiplexed neurons may relate to various psychopathologies including drug addiction and depression. PMID:26763116

  9. De novo formation of left-right asymmetry by posterior tilt of nodal cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Nonaka

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing mouse embryo, leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node determines left-right (L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism by which the rotational movement of node cilia can generate a unidirectional flow remains hypothetical. Here we have addressed this question by motion and morphological analyses of the node cilia and by fluid dynamic model experiments. We found that the cilia stand, not perpendicular to the node surface, but tilted posteriorly. We further confirmed that such posterior tilt can produce leftward flow in model experiments. These results strongly suggest that L-R asymmetry is not the descendant of pre-existing L-R asymmetry within each cell but is generated de novo by combining three sources of spatial information: antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes, and the chirality of ciliary movement.

  10. Damage to white matter bottlenecks contributes to language impairments after left hemispheric stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Griffis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the white matter underlying the left posterior temporal lobe leads to deficits in multiple language functions. The posterior temporal white matter may correspond to a bottleneck where both dorsal and ventral language pathways are vulnerable to simultaneous damage. Damage to a second putative white matter bottleneck in the left deep prefrontal white matter involving projections associated with ventral language pathways and thalamo-cortical projections has recently been proposed as a source of semantic deficits after stroke. Here, we first used white matter atlases to identify the previously described white matter bottlenecks in the posterior temporal and deep prefrontal white matter. We then assessed the effects of damage to each region on measures of verbal fluency, picture naming, and auditory semantic decision-making in 43 chronic left hemispheric stroke patients. Damage to the posterior temporal bottleneck predicted deficits on all tasks, while damage to the anterior bottleneck only significantly predicted deficits in verbal fluency. Importantly, the effects of damage to the bottleneck regions were not attributable to lesion volume, lesion loads on the tracts traversing the bottlenecks, or damage to nearby cortical language areas. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping revealed additional lesion predictors of deficits. Post-hoc fiber tracking of the peak white matter lesion predictors using a publicly available tractography atlas revealed evidence consistent with the results of the bottleneck analyses. Together, our results provide support for the proposal that spatially specific white matter damage affecting bottleneck regions, particularly in the posterior temporal lobe, contributes to chronic language deficits after left hemispheric stroke. This may reflect the simultaneous disruption of signaling in dorsal and ventral language processing streams.

  11. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  12. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  13. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p testosterone...

  14. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  15. Deep Neural Networks Reveal a Gradient in the Complexity of Neural Representations across the Ventral Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel A J

    2015-07-08

    Converging evidence suggests that the primate ventral visual pathway encodes increasingly complex stimulus features in downstream areas. We quantitatively show that there indeed exists an explicit gradient for feature complexity in the ventral pathway of the human brain. This was achieved by mapping thousands of stimulus features of increasing complexity across the cortical sheet using a deep neural network. Our approach also revealed a fine-grained functional specialization of downstream areas of the ventral stream. Furthermore, it allowed decoding of representations from human brain activity at an unsurpassed degree of accuracy, confirming the quality of the developed approach. Stimulus features that successfully explained neural responses indicate that population receptive fields were explicitly tuned for object categorization. This provides strong support for the hypothesis that object categorization is a guiding principle in the functional organization of the primate ventral stream. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510005-10$15.00/0.

  16. The ventral visual pathway: an expanded neural framework for the processing of object quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Baker, Chris I; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2013-01-01

    Since the original characterization of the ventral visual pathway, our knowledge of its neuroanatomy, functional properties, and extrinsic targets has grown considerably. Here we synthesize this recent evidence and propose that the ventral pathway is best understood as a recurrent occipitotemporal network containing neural representations of object quality both utilized and constrained by at least six distinct cortical and subcortical systems. Each system serves its own specialized behavioral, cognitive, or affective function, collectively providing the raison d'être for the ventral visual pathway. This expanded framework contrasts with the depiction of the ventral visual pathway as a largely serial staged hierarchy culminating in singular object representations and more parsimoniously incorporates attentional, contextual, and feedback effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. High-grade hemorrhoids requiring surgical treatment are common after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, J. J.; Formijne Jonkers, H. A.; Verheijen, P. M.; Draaisma, W. A.; Consten, E. C J; Broeders, I. A M J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe patients developing grade III and IV hemorrhoids requiring surgery after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVMR) and to explore the relationship between developing such hemorrhoids and recurrence of rectal prolapse after LVMR. Methods: All consecutive patients receiving LVMR

  18. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  19. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  20. Context Dependent Effects of Ventral Tegmental Area Inactivation on Spatial Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martig, Adria K.; Jones, Graham L.; Smith, Kelsey E.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were tested on a hippocampus dependent win-shift working memory task in familiar or novel environments after receiving bilateral ventral tegmental area infusions of baclofen. Baclofen infusion disrupted working memory performance in both familiar and novel environments. In addition, baclofen infusion selectively disrupted short-term working memory in the novel environment. This experiment confirms selective ventral tegmental area support of accurate performance during a context dependent...

  1. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-01-01

    Aims : Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods : Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plica...

  2. Novel structural components of the ventral disc and lateral crest in Giardia intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari D Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a ubiquitous parasitic protist that is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common protozoan diarrheal diseases in the world. Giardia trophozoites attach to the intestinal epithelium using a specialized and elaborate microtubule structure, the ventral disc. Surrounding the ventral disc is a less characterized putatively contractile structure, the lateral crest, which forms a continuous perimeter seal with the substrate. A better understanding of ventral disc and lateral crest structure, conformational dynamics, and biogenesis is critical for understanding the mechanism of giardial attachment to the host. To determine the components comprising the ventral disc and lateral crest, we used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins in a preparation of isolated ventral discs. Candidate disc-associated proteins, or DAPs, were GFP-tagged using a ligation-independent high-throughput cloning method. Based on disc localization, we identified eighteen novel DAPs, which more than doubles the number of known disc-associated proteins. Ten of the novel DAPs are associated with the lateral crest or outer edge of the disc, and are the first confirmed components of this structure. Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP with representative novel DAP::GFP strains we found that the newly identified DAPs tested did not recover after photobleaching and are therefore structural components of the ventral disc or lateral crest. Functional analyses of the novel DAPs will be central toward understanding the mechanism of ventral disc-mediated attachment and the mechanism of disc biogenesis during cell division. Since attachment of Giardia to the intestine via the ventral disc is essential for pathogenesis, it is possible that some proteins comprising the disc could be potential drug targets if their loss or disruption interfered with disc biogenesis or function, preventing attachment.

  3. Slits Are Chemorepellents Endogenous to Hypothalamus and Steer Thalamocortical Axons into Ventral Telencephalon

    OpenAIRE

    Braisted, Janet E.; Ringstedt, Thomas; O'Leary, Dennis D. M.

    2009-01-01

    Thalamocortical axons (TCAs) originate in dorsal thalamus, extend ventrally along the lateral thalamic surface, and as they approach hypothalamus make a lateral turn into ventral telencephalon. In vitro studies show that hypothalamus releases a chemorepellent for TCAs, and analyses of knockout mice indicate that Slit chemorepellents and their receptor Robo2 influence TCA pathfinding. We show that Slit chemorepellents are the hypothalamic chemorepellent and act through Robos to steer TCAs into...

  4. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correction of distal hypospadias: ventral adaption of the prepuce and meatal advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson-Jünemann, C; Seemann, O; Köhrmann, K U; Potempa, D; Jünemann, K P; Alken, P

    1993-01-01

    In distal hypospadias without chordee, surgical correction has a purely cosmetic character. In contrast to standard techniques focusing on meatal position, parents often regard the redundant dorsal prepuce and its missing ventral fusion as the essential constituent of this malformation. The operative technique, presented in detail, emphasizes on foreskin reconstruction. The ventral adaption of the prepuce (VAP procedure) results in a penis with normal appearance. Complications presented reveal the importance of proper patient selection.

  6. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  7. Modified semitendinosus muscle transposition to repair ventral perineal hernia in 14 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, E; Martano, M; Zabarino, S; Piras, L A; Nicoli, S; Bussadori, R; Buracco, P

    2015-06-01

    To describe a modified technique of semitendinosus muscle transposition for the repair of ventral perineal hernia. Retrospective review of case records of dogs with ventral perineal hernia that were treated by transposing the medial half of the longitudinally split semitendinosus muscle of one limb. The transposition of the internal obturator muscle was used when uni- or bilateral rectal sacculation was also present in addition to ventral perineal hernia; colopexy and vas deferens pexy were also performed. Fourteen dogs were included. In addition to ventral perineal hernia, unilateral and bilateral perineal hernia was also present in five and six of the dogs, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 890 days. Ventral perineal hernia was successfully managed by the modified semitendinosus muscle transposition with minor complications in all the dogs included in the study. Despite the small number of dogs included, the unilateral transposition of the medial half of the longitudinally split semitendinosus muscle consistently supported the ventral rectal enlargement in perineal hernia without obvious adverse effects. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Volumes Differ in Maltreated Youth with and without Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered a disorder of recovery where individuals fail to learn and retain extinction of the traumatic fear response. In maltreated youth, PTSD is common, chronic, and associated with comorbidity. Studies of extinction-related structural volumes (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)) and this stress diathesis, in maltreated youth were not previously investigated. In this cross-sectional study, neuroanatomical volumes associated with extinction in maltreated youth with PTSD (N=31), without PTSD (N=32), and in non-maltreated healthy volunteers (n=57) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Groups were sociodemographically similar. Participants underwent extensive assessments for strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and DSM-IV disorders. Maltreated youth with PTSD demonstrated decreased right vmPFC volumes compared with both maltreated youth without PTSD and non-maltreated controls. Maltreated youth without PTSD demonstrated larger left amygdala and right hippocampal volumes compared with maltreated youth with PTSD and non-maltreated control youth. PTSD symptoms inversely correlated with right and left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Confirmatory masked voxel base morphometry analyses demonstrated greater medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter intensity in controls than maltreated youth with PTSD. Volumetric results were not influenced by psychopathology or maltreatment variables. We identified volumetric differences in extinction-related structures between maltreated youth with PTSD from those without PTSD. Alterations of the vmPFC may be one mechanism that mediates the pathway from PTSD to comorbidity. Further longitudinal work is needed to determine neurobiological factors related to chronic and persistent PTSD, and to PTSD resilience despite maltreatment.

  9. Additive effects of emotional content and spatial selective attention on electrocortical facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Andreas; Moratti, Stephan; Sabatinelli, Dean; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Affectively arousing visual stimuli have been suggested to automatically attract attentional resources in order to optimize sensory processing. The present study crosses the factors of spatial selective attention and affective content, and examines the relationship between instructed (spatial) and automatic attention to affective stimuli. In addition to response times and error rate, electroencephalographic data from 129 electrodes were recorded during a covert spatial attention task. This task required silent counting of random-dot targets embedded in a 10 Hz flicker of colored pictures presented to both hemifields. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were obtained to determine amplitude and phase of electrocortical responses to pictures. An increase of ssVEP amplitude was observed as an additive function of spatial attention and emotional content. Statistical parametric mapping of this effect indicated occipito-temporal and parietal cortex activation contralateral to the attended visual hemifield in ssVEP amplitude modulation. This difference was most pronounced during selection of the left visual hemifield, at right temporal electrodes. In line with this finding, phase information revealed accelerated processing of aversive arousing, compared to affectively neutral pictures. The data suggest that affective stimulus properties modulate the spatiotemporal process along the ventral stream, encompassing amplitude amplification and timing changes of posterior and temporal cortex.

  10. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  11. Effects of unilatral- and bilateral inhibition of rostral ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of amygdala on morphine-induced place conditioning in male Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Zahra; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Ali-Beik, Hengameh

    2017-03-01

    The rostral ventral tegmental area (VTAR) and central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) are considered the main regions for induction of psychological dependence on abused drugs, such as morphine. The main aim of this study was to investigate the transient inhibition of each right and left side as well as both sides of the VTAR and the CeA by lidocaine (2%) on morphine reward properties using the conditioned place preference (CPP) method. Male Wistar rats (250±20 g) 7 days after recovery from surgery and cannulation were conditioned to morphine (7.5 mg/kg) in CPP apparatus. Five minutes before morphine injection in conditioning phase, lidocaine was administered either uni- or bilaterally into the VTAR (0.25 μL/site) or CeA (0.5 μL/site). The results revealed that lidocaine administration into the left side, but not the right side of the VTAR and the CeA reduced morphine CPP significantly. The reduction was potentiated when lidocaine was injected into both sides of the VTAR and the CeA. The number of compartment crossings was reduced when lidocaine was injected into both sides of the VTAR and the CeA as well as the left side. Rearing was reduced when lidocaine was injected into the right, but not the left side of the VTAR. Sniffing and rearing increased when animals received lidocaine in the right side and reduced in the group that received lidocaine in the left side of the CeA. It was concluded that the right and the left side of VTAR and the CeA play different roles in morphine-induced activity and reward. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: a novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovell, Robert Caleb; Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-02-01

    To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures.

  13. Cocaine exposure shifts the balance of associative encoding from ventral to dorsolateral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahashi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral striatum are implicated in the "habitization" of behavior that occurs in addiction. Here we examined the effect of cocaine exposure on associative encoding in these two regions. Neural activity was recorded during go/no-go discrimination learning and reversal. Activity in ventral striatum developed and reversed rapidly, tracking the valence of the predicted outcome, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum developed and reversed more slowly, tracking discriminative responding. This difference is consistent with the putative roles of these two areas in promoting habit-like behavior. Dorsolateral striatum has been directly implicated in habit or stimulus response learning, whereas ventral striatum appears to be involved indirectly by allowing cues associated with reward to exert a general motivational influence on responding. Interestingly cocaine exposure did not uniformly enhance processing across both regions. Instead cocaine reduced the degree and flexibility of cue-evoked firing in ventral striatum while marginally enhanced cue-selective firing in dorsolateral striatum. Thus cocaine exposure causes regionally specific effects on neural processing in striatum; these effects may promote the habitization of behavior by shifting control from ventral to dorsolateral regions.

  14. Requirement of Xmsx-1 in the BMP-triggered ventralization of Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T S; Takagi, C; Ueno, N

    2000-03-01

    Signaling triggered by polypeptide growth factors leads to the activation of their target genes. Several homeobox genes are known to be induced in response to polypeptide growth factors in early Xenopus development. In particular, Xmsx-1, an amphibian homologue of vertebrate Msx-1, is well characterized as a target gene of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Here, using a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP-Xmsx-1), which is a fusion protein made with the virus-derived VP16 activation domain, we have examined whether Xmsx-1 activity is required in the endogenous ventralizing pathway. VP-Xmsx-1 induced a secondary body axis, complete with muscle and neural tissues, when overexpressed in ventral blastomeres, suggesting that Xmsx-1 activity is necessary for both mesoderm and ectoderm to be ventralized. We have also examined the epistatic relationship between Xmsx-1 and another ventralizing homeobox protein, Xvent-1, and show that Xmsx-1 is likely to be acting upstream of Xvent-1. We propose that Xmsx-1 is required in the BMP-stimulated ventralization pathway that involves the downstream activation of Xvent-1.

  15. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  16. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-02-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist between the dorsal and the ventral stream. Here, we used TMS and concurrent EEG recordings to explore these interactions between the dorsal and ventral stream during figure-ground segregation. In two separate experiments, we used repetitive TMS and single-pulse TMS to disrupt processing in the dorsal (V5/HMT⁺) and the ventral (lateral occipital area) stream during a motion-defined figure discrimination task. We presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between relatively low-level (figure boundary detection) from higher-level (surface segregation) processing steps during figure-ground segregation. Results show that disruption of V5/HMT⁺ impaired performance related to surface segregation; this effect was mainly found when V5/HMT⁺ was perturbed in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. Surprisingly, disruption of the lateral occipital area resulted in increased performance scores and enhanced neural correlates of surface segregation. This facilitatory effect was also mainly found in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. These results suggest a "push-pull" interaction in which dorsal and ventral extrastriate areas are being recruited or inhibited depending on stimulus category and task demands.

  17. Sizzled controls dorso-ventral polarity by repressing cleavage of the Chordin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Shimizu, Takashi; Yabe, Taijiro; Nojima, Hideaki; Bae, Young-Ki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    The Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling gradient has a major function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis. The zebrafish ventralized mutant, ogon, encodes Secreted Frizzled (Sizzled). sizzled is ventrally expressed in a Bmp-dependent manner and is required for the suppression of Bmp signalling on the ventral side of zebrafish embryos. However, it remains unclear how Sizzled inhibits Bmp signalling and controls ventro-lateral cell fate. We found that Sizzled stabilizes Chordin, a Bmp antagonist, by binding and inhibiting the Tolloid-family metalloproteinase, Bmp1a, which cleaves and inactivates Chordin. The cysteine-rich domain of Sizzled is required for inhibition of Bmp1a activity. Loss of both Bmp1a and Tolloid-like1 (Tll1; another Tolloid-family metalloproteinase) function leads to a complete suppression and reversal of the ogon mutant phenotype. These results indicate that Sizzled represses the activities of Tolloid-family proteins, thereby creating the Chordin-Bmp activity gradient along the dorso-ventral axis. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role for a secreted Frizzled-related protein.

  18. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Psenner, K.; Hamburger, C.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs

  19. Gastric dilatation volvulus: a retrospective study of 203 dogs with ventral midline gastropexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, B; Seehaus, N; Hungerbühler, S; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation volvulus and the incidence of complications in subsequent coeliotomies following ventral midline gastropexy. The medical records of dogs treated for gastric dilatation volvulus by ventral midline gastropexy were retrospectively reviewed. Owners were contacted and invited to complete a questionnaire and to return to the clinic for ultrasonographic and radiographic follow-up. The questionnaire was completed by 203 owners 2 to 123 months postoperatively, 24 of whom attended the follow-up examination. Of the 203 dogs, 13 (6 · 4%) underwent subsequent ventral midline coeliotomy and none developed complications related to the gastropexy site. In 23 of the 24 re-evaluated dogs, the stomach was closely associated with the abdominal on radiography and/or ultrasound. The recurrence rate for clinical signs of gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy was 6 · 4%. This study shows that the recurrence of gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy is low and adhesion of the stomach to the abdominal wall is persistent in almost all dogs that were re-examined. The gastropexy site did not appear to interfere with subsequent coeliotomy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Risk-Assessment Score and Patient Optimization as Cost Predictors for Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Sherif; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) is associated with complications that significantly increase healthcare costs. This study explores the associations between hospital costs for VHR and surgical complication risk-assessment scores, need for cardiac or pulmonary evaluation, and smoking or obesity counseling. An IRB-approved retrospective study of patients having undergone open VHR over 3 years was performed. Ventral Hernia Risk Score (VHRS) for surgical site occurrence and surgical site infection, and the Ventral Hernia Working Group grade were calculated for each case. Also recorded were preoperative cardiology or pulmonary evaluations, smoking cessation and weight reduction counseling, and patient goal achievement. Hospital costs were obtained from the cost accounting system for the VHR hospitalization stratified by major clinical cost drivers. Univariate regression analyses were used to compare the predictive power of the risk scores. Multivariable analysis was performed to develop a cost prediction model. The mean cost of index VHR hospitalization was $20,700. Total and operating room costs correlated with increasing CDC wound class, VHRS surgical site infection score, VHRS surgical site occurrence score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and Ventral Hernia Working Group (all p variance in costs (p optimization significantly reduced direct and operating room costs (p < 0.05). Cardiac evaluation was associated with increased costs. Ventral hernia repair hospital costs are more accurately predicted by CDC wound class than VHR risk scores. A straightforward 6-factor model predicted most cost variation for VHR. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...... and ventral granular cell layer with a false discovery rate below 5% and with a relative change in gene expression level of 20% or more. From this pool of genes 45 genes were more than two-fold regulated, 13 genes being dorsally enriched and 32 genes being ventrally enriched. Moreover, cluster analysis based...

  2. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  3. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  4. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing Penile Length in Patients Undergoing Partial Penectomy for Penile Cancer: Novel Application of the Ventral Phalloplasty Oncoplastic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared J. Wallen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ventral phalloplasty (VP has been well described in modern day penile prosthesis surgery. The main objectives of this maneuver are to increase perceived length and patient satisfaction and to counteract the natural 1-2 cm average loss in length when performing implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis. Similarly, this video represents a new adaptation for partial penectomy patients. One can only hope that the addition of the VP for partial penectomy patients with good erectile function will increase their quality of life. The patient in this video is a 56-year-old male who presented with a 4.0x3.5x1.0 cm, pathologic stage T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the glans penis. After partial penectomy with VP and inguinal lymph node dissection, pathological specimen revealed negative margins, 3/5 right superficial nodes and 1/5 left superficial nodes positive for malignancy. The patient has been recommended post-operative systemic chemotherapy (with external beam radiotherapy based on the multiple node positivity and presence of extranodal extension. The patient’s pre-operative penile length was 9.5 cm, and after partial penectomy with VP, penile length is 7 cm.

  6. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  7. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  8. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants......Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection...

  9. Radiographic and ultrasonographic characteristics of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mohammed S; Hassan, Elham A; Torad, Faisal A

    2018-02-20

    Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning. Lateral radiographs were more helpful than ventrodorsal radiographs for identification of the hernial content and its continuation with the abdominal muscles. Ultrasonographic examination offered a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allowed for the differentiation of hernia from other abdominal swellings. In addition, it played a beneficial role in identification of the hernial content and follow up after surgical interference. In conclusion, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial in the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow up after surgical interference of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons.

  10. Correlation between early surgical complications and readmission rate after ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Postoperative surgical complications arising from ventral hernia repair have been assessed by a variety of outcome measures. The objective of this study was to correlate the Clavien Dindo Classification (CDC) graded complications with the 30-day readmission rate as early outcome measures...... in ventral hernia repair. Secondarily, we wanted to investigate whether the risk factors for Clavien Dindo class ≥1 and 30-day readmission were comparable. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective study including all patients (≥18 years) who underwent ventral hernia repair between January 1, 2009 and September 1......). There was a significant association between a complication graded by the CDC ≥1 and 30-day readmission for both incisional and umbilical/epigastric hernia repair (p readmission. Recurrent...

  11. Orbitofrontal lesions eliminate signalling of biological significance in cue-responsive ventral striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Nisha K; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Wied, Heather M; Bali-Chaudhary, Sheena; McDannald, Michael A; Liu, Tzu-Lan; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2015-05-21

    The ventral striatum has long been proposed as an integrator of biologically significant associative information to drive actions. Although inputs from the amygdala and hippocampus have been much studied, the role of prominent inputs from orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are less well understood. Here, we recorded single-unit activity from ventral striatum core in rats with sham or ipsilateral neurotoxic lesions of lateral OFC, as they performed an odour-guided spatial choice task. Consistent with prior reports, we found that spiking activity recorded in sham rats during cue sampling was related to both reward magnitude and reward identity, with higher firing rates observed for cues that predicted more reward. Lesioned rats also showed differential activity to the cues, but this activity was unbiased towards larger rewards. These data support a role for OFC in shaping activity in the ventral striatum to represent the biological significance of associative information in the environment.

  12. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the healing of ventral midline abdominal incisions in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Badertscher, R R; Boero, M J; Baker, G J; Foreman, J H

    1989-06-01

    Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the ventral midline incisions of 21 ponies following exploratory laparotomy. The incisions were evaluated before surgery and at weekly intervals from one to seven weeks after surgery. Both 5.0 and 7.5 MHz linear array and 7.5 MHz sector transducers were used for the evaluations. The incisional complications observed were drainage, oedema, suture sinus formation, suture abscess, superficial dehiscence and incisional hernia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the ventral midline incision was an easy, reliable and objective method for detecting and monitoring the progression of incisional complications in a non-invasive manner.

  15. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  16. Reduced activation in the ventral striatum during probabilistic decision-making in patients in an at-risk mental state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Fenske, Sabrina; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Schilling, Claudia; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia display metacognitive impairments, such as hasty decision-making during probabilistic reasoning - the "jumping to conclusion" bias (JTC). Our recent fMRI study revealed reduced activations in the right ventral striatum (VS) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to be

  17. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  18. Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra Neural Correlates of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…

  19. FETAL PORCINE VENTRAL MESENCEPHALON GRAFTS - DISSECTION PROCEDURE AND CELLULAR CHARACTERIZATION IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANROON, WMC; COPRAY, JCVM; HOGENESCH, RI; KEMA, [No Value; MEYER, EM; MOLENAAR, G; LUGARD, C; STAAL, MJ; GO, KG

    The objective of this study was to develop an optimal dissection procedure for fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon (VM) grafts and to characterize the cellular composition of such an explant, in particular with respect to the dopaminergic and GABAergic components. We have used a monolayer cell

  20. Blindness alters the microstructure of the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reislev, Nina L; Kupers, Ron; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ptito, Maurice; Dyrby, Tim B

    2016-07-01

    Visual deprivation from birth leads to reorganisation of the brain through cross-modal plasticity. Although there is a general agreement that the primary afferent visual pathways are altered in congenitally blind individuals, our knowledge about microstructural changes within the higher-order visual streams, and how this is affected by onset of blindness, remains scant. We used diffusion tensor imaging and tractography to investigate microstructural features in the dorsal (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) visual pathways in 12 congenitally blind, 15 late blind and 15 normal sighted controls. We also studied six prematurely born individuals with normal vision to control for the effects of prematurity on brain connectivity. Our data revealed a reduction in fractional anisotropy in the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream for both congenitally and late blind individuals. Prematurely born individuals, with normal vision, did not differ from normal sighted controls, born at term. Our data suggest that although the visual streams are structurally developing without normal visual input from the eyes, blindness selectively affects the microstructure of the ventral visual stream regardless of the time of onset. We suggest that the decreased fractional anisotropy of the ventral stream in the two groups of blind subjects is the combined result of both degenerative and cross-modal compensatory processes, affecting normal white matter development.

  1. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for external rectal prolapse improves constipation and avoids de novo constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, P; Collinson, R; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal rectopexy is ideal for otherwise healthy patients with rectal prolapse because of low recurrence, yet after posterior rectopexy, half of the patients complain of severe constipation. Resection mitigates this dysfunction but risks a pelvic anastomosis. The novel nerve-sparing ventral rectopexy appears to avoid postero-lateral rectal dissection denervation and thus postoperative constipation. We aimed to evaluate our functional results with laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. Consecutive rectal prolapse patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy were prospectively assessed (Wexner Constipation and Faecal Incontinence Severity Index scores) pre-, 3 months postoperatively, and late (> 12 months). Sixty-five consecutive patients with external rectal prolapse (median age 72 years, 34% > 80 years, median follow up 19 months) underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. There was one recurrence (2%) and one conversion. Morbidity (17%) and mortality (0%) were low. Median operating time was 140 min and median length of stay 2 days. At 3 months, constipation was improved in 72% and mildly induced in 2% (median pre-and postoperative Wexner scores 9 vs 4, P constipation and incontinence (P constipation and avoidance of de novo constipation appear superior to historical functional results of posterior rectopexy. A laparoscopic approach allows low morbidity and short hospital stay, even in those patients over 80 years of age in whom a perineal approach is usually preferred for safety.

  2. Fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon graft. Determination of the optimal gestational age for implantation in Parkinsonian patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, RI; Koopmans, J; Copray, JCVM; van Roon, WMC; Kema, [No Value; Molenaar, G; Go, KG; Staal, MJ

    Human fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue has been used as dopaminergic striatal implants in Parkinsonian patients, so far with variable effects. Fetuses from animals that breed in large litters, e.g., pigs, have been considered as alternative donors of dopaminergic tissue. The optimal gestational

  3. Cryopreservation of porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue for intrastriatal transplantation in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, J.; Hogenesch, I.; Copray, S.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, H.; Go, K-G.; Staal, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the efficacy of cryopreserving porcine fetal mesencephalic tissue. After microscopical dissection of the ventral mesencephalon (VM) from E28 pig fetuses, the collection of explants was randomly divided into two equal parts. One part was directly prepared as cell suspension.

  4. Cell cycle regulator E2F4 is essential for the development of the ventral telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; McClellan, Kelly A; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L; Jeong, Yongsu; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Epstein, Douglas J; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2007-05-30

    Early forebrain development is characterized by extensive proliferation of neural precursors coupled with complex structural transformations; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which these processes are integrated. Here, we show that deficiency of the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, results in the loss of ventral telencephalic structures and impaired self-renewal of neural precursor cells. The mechanism underlying aberrant ventral patterning lies in a dramatic loss of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression specifically in this region. The E2F4-deficient phenotype can be recapitulated by interbreeding mice heterozygous for E2F4 with those lacking one allele of Shh, suggesting a genetic interaction between these pathways. Treatment of E2F4-deficient cells with a Hh agonist rescues stem cell self-renewal and cells expressing the homeodomain proteins that specify the ventral telencephalic structures. Finally, we show that E2F4 deficiency results in impaired activity of Shh forebrain-specific enhancers. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel requirement for the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, in the development of the ventral telencephalon.

  5. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist

  6. GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE. MB Rosen, VS Wilson, JE Schmid, and LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC.Vinclozolin (Vi) and procymidone (Pr) are antiandrogenic fungicides. While changes in gene expr...

  7. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  8. Watchful waiting as a treatment strategy for patients with a ventral hernia appears to be safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to risks of postoperative morbidity and recurrence some patients with a ventral hernia are not offered surgical repair. There is limited data on the rate and consequences of a watchful waiting (WW) strategy for these patients. The objective of this cohort study was to analyse outcome...

  9. Inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide dismutase in ventral horns, liver, and kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, P.A.; Bergemalm, D.; Andersen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant superoxide dismutases type 1 (SOD1s) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by an unidentified toxic property. In a patient carrying the G127X truncation mutation, minute amounts of SOD1 were found in ventral horns using a mutant-specific antibody. Still, both absolute levels and ratios versus...

  10. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumaru, D.; Haraguchi, R.; Miyagawa, S.; Motoyama, J.; Nakagata, N.; Meijlink, F.; Yamada, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In

  11. Visualization of nitric oxide production in the earthworm ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Tsuji, N; Shimizu, R; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-06-01

    Distribution of nitric oxide (NO)-producible neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm was investigated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry. Some neurons (20-30 microm in diameter) were intensely stained and were localized in areas between the 1st and 2nd lateral nerves in the ventral side of VNC. In contrast, no neurons including giant fibers were stained in the dorsal side. Endogenous NO production from VNC was visualized using a fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). When VNC was incubated in a saline, a relative high level of NO was produced from the ventral side, especially from NADPH-d-positive neurons. Under high-K+ stimulation, NO was also detected in the giant fibers in the dorsal side of VNC. Our results suggest that the earthworm VNC constantly and relative highly produces NO as a neuromodulator, and that NO produced from the ventral side sometimes reaches and affects the giant fibers. In conclusion, we successfully visualized NO in the earthworm VNC by clarifying both the distribution of NO-producible neurons and the endogenous NO production.

  12. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  13. Feasibility and outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using Proceed mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Burcharth, J.

    2008-01-01

    laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using the Proceed mesh secured with tackers with a double crown technique. Patients were discharged according to standard discharge criteria, and follow-up was performed with a search in the national patient database and with manual search in the patients' files. RESULTS: Our...

  14. Drumming with dopamine neurons : Resonance and synchronization in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, L.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a dopaminergic nucleus in the midbrain with the propensity to exhibit spontaneous intrinsic rhythmic activity in the 1-5 Hz frequency range (ex vivo). Here, we combine in-vitro simultaneous action potential recording from a 60 channel multi-electro-array with

  15. Morphine withdrawal enhances constitutive μ-opioid receptor activity in the ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meye, F.J.; van Zessen, R.; Smidt, M.P.; Adan, R.A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are pivotally involved in addictive behavior. While MORs are typically activated by opioids, they can also become constitutively active in the absence of any agonist. In the current study, we present evidence that MOR constitutive

  16. Characterization of organotypic ventral mesencephalic cultures from embryonic mice and protection against MPP toxicity by GDNF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B; Gramsbergen, J B; Møller Dall, A

    2005-01-01

    We characterized organotypic ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures derived from embryonic day 12 (E12) mice (CBL57/bL6) in terms of number of dopaminergic neurons, cell soma size and dopamine production in relation to time in vitro and tested the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and ...

  17. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  18. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  19. Relative Contributions of the Dorsal vs. Ventral Speech Streams to Speech Perception are Context Dependent: a lesion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corianne Rogalsky

    2014-04-01

    , (iii two sentence comprehension tasks (sentence-picture matching, plausibility judgments, and (iv two sensory-motor tasks (a non-word repetition task and BDAE repetition subtest. Our results indicate that the neural bases of speech perception are task-dependent. The syllable discrimination and sensory-motor tasks all identified a dorsal temporal-parietal voxel cluster, including area Spt, primary auditory and somatosensory cortex. Conversely, the auditory comprehension task identified left mid-temporal regions. This suggest that syllable discrimination deficits do not stem from impairments in the perceptual analysis of speech sounds but rather involve temporary maintenance of the stimulus trace and/or the similarity comparison process. The ventral stream (anterior and posterior clusters in the superior and middle temporal gyri, were associated with both sentence tasks. However, the dorsal stream’s involvement was more selective: inferior frontal regions were identified in the sentence–to-picture matching task, not the semantic plausibility task. Within the sentence-to-picture matching task, these inferior frontal regions were only identified by the trials with the most difficult sentences. This suggests that the dorsal stream’s contribution to sentence comprehension is not driven by perception per se. These initial findings highlight the task-dependent nature of speech processing, challenge claims regarding any specific motor region being critical for speech perception, and refute the notion that speech perception relies on dorsal stream auditory-motor systems.

  20. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  1. Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Siavash; Connor, Charles E

    2016-03-21

    The ventral visual pathway in humans and non-human primates is known to represent object information, including shape and identity [1]. Here, we show the ventral pathway also represents scene structure aligned with the gravitational reference frame in which objects move and interact. We analyzed shape tuning of recently described macaque monkey ventral pathway neurons that prefer scene-like stimuli to objects [2]. Individual neurons did not respond to a single shape class, but to a variety of scene elements that are typically aligned with gravity: large planes in the orientation range of ground surfaces under natural viewing conditions, planes in the orientation range of ceilings, and extended convex and concave edges in the orientation range of wall/floor/ceiling junctions. For a given neuron, these elements tended to share a common alignment in eye-centered coordinates. Thus, each neuron integrated information about multiple gravity-aligned structures as they would be seen from a specific eye and head orientation. This eclectic coding strategy provides only ambiguous information about individual structures but explicit information about the environmental reference frame and the orientation of gravity in egocentric coordinates. In the ventral pathway, this could support perceiving and/or predicting physical events involving objects subject to gravity, recognizing object attributes like animacy based on movement not caused by gravity, and/or stabilizing perception of the world against changes in head orientation [3-5]. Our results, like the recent discovery of object weight representation [6], imply that the ventral pathway is involved not just in recognition, but also in physical understanding of objects and scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential activation of amygdala, dorsal and ventral hippocampus following an exposure to a reminder ofunderwater trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recollection of emotional memories is attributed in part to the activation of the amygdala and the hippocampus. Recent hypothesis suggest a pivotal role for the ventral hippocampus in traumatic stress processing and emotional memory retrieval. Persistent re-experiencing and intrusive recollections are core symptoms in acute and posttraumatic stress disorders (ASD; PTSD. Such intrusive recollections are often triggered by reminders associated with the trauma.We examined the impact of exposure to a trauma reminder (under water trauma on the activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA, dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Rats were exposed to underwater trauma and 24 hours later were re-exposed to the context of the trauma. Phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK was used as a marker for level of activation of these regions. Significant increase in ERK activation was found in the ventral hippocampus and BLA. Such pattern of activation was not found in animals exposed only to the trauma or in animals exposed only to the trauma reminder. Additionally, the dissociative pattern of activation of the ventral hippocampus sub-regions positively correlated with the activation of the BLA.Our findings suggest a specific pattern of neural activation during recollection of a trauma reminder, with a unique contribution of the ventral hippocampus. Measured 24 hrs after the exposure to the traumatic experience, the current findings relate to relatively early stages of traumatic memory consolidation. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying these initial stages may contribute to developing intervention strategies that could reduce the risk of eventually developing PTSD.

  3. Expression and Function of Xmsx-2B in Dorso-Ventral Axis Formation in Gastrula Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, I; Takeda, M; Maéno, M

    2000-11-01

    Msx is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional factor that plays an essential role in pattern formation in vertebrata and invertebrata embryos. In Xenopus laevis, two msx genes have been identified (Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2). In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the expression and function of Xmsx-2B (formerly designated as Xhox7.1') in early embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B at gastrula and neurula stages was very similar to that of Xmsx-1: the transcript of Xmsx-2B was observed in ventral and lateral sides of the embryo. At the tailbud stage, however, the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B in neural tissues was distinct from that of Xmsx-1. An RNA injection experiment revealed that, like BMP-4, Xmsx-2B has a strong ventralizing activity. In the Xmsx-2B -injected embryos, differentiation of axial structures such as the notochord, muscle, and neural tissue was completely suppressed, whereas alpha-globin mRNA, a blood cell marker, was highly expressed. Simultaneous injection of Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B RNAs showed that they function in an additive manner. It was also shown that coinjection of Xmsx-2B with a dominant-negative BMP-4 receptor (tBR), which can induce formation of secondary axis when injected alone in ventral blastomeres, suppressed secondary axis formation. Furthermore, Xmsx-2B also suppressed secondary axis formation, which was induced by a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP16/msx-1). Therefore, like Xmsx-1, Xmsx-2B is a downstream nuclear factor of the BMP-4-derived ventralizing signal, and these two factors probably share the same target molecules. In conclusion, Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B function in dorso-ventral axis formation in early Xenopus laevis development.

  4. Ventral Slit Scrotal Flap: A New Outpatient Surgical Option for Reconstruction of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mary E; Tausch, Timothy J; Zhao, Lee C; Siegel, Jordan A; Starke, Nathan; Klein, Alexandra K; Morey, Allen F

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel technique using ventral slit with scrotal skin flaps (VSSF) for the reconstruction of adult buried penis without skin grafting. An initial ventral slit is made in the phimotic ring, and the penis is exposed. To cover the defect in the ventral shaft skin, local flaps are created by making a ventral midline scrotal incision with horizontal relaxing incisions. The scrotal flaps are rotated to resurface the ventral shaft. Clinical data analyzed included preoperative diagnoses, length of stay, blood loss, and operative outcomes. Complications were also recorded. Fifteen consecutive patients with a penis trapped due to lichen sclerosus (LS) or phimosis underwent repair with VSSF. Each was treated in the outpatient setting with no perioperative complications. Mean age was 51 years (range, 26-75 years), and mean body mass index was 42.6 kg/m(2) (range, 29.8-53.9 kg/m(2)). The majority of patients (13 of 15, 87%) had a pathologic diagnosis of LS. Mean estimated blood loss was 57 cc (range, 25-200 cc), mean operative time was 83 minutes (range, 35-145 minutes), and all patients were discharged on the day of surgery. The majority of patients (11 of 15, 73.3%) remain satisfied with their results and have required no further intervention. Recurrences in 3 of 15 (20.0%) were due to LS, panniculus migration, and concealment by edematous groin tissue; 2 of these patients underwent subsequent successful skin grafting. VSSF is a versatile, safe, and effective reconstructive option in appropriately selected patients with buried penis, which enables reconstruction of penile shaft skin defects without requiring complex skin grafting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Hedgehog Signaling in Ventral Body Wall Development and the Onset of Omphalocele Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Motoyama, Jun; Nakagata, Naomi; Meijlink, Frits; Yamada, Gen

    2011-01-01

    Background An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In spite of its clinical importance, the etiology of omphalocele formation is still controversial. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is one of the essential growth factor signaling pathways involved in the formation of the limbs and urogenital system. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the roles of Hh signaling in ventral body wall formation and its malformation, we analyzed phenotypes of mouse mutants of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3) and Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (Alx4). Introduction of additional Alx4Lst mutations into the Gli3Xt/Xt background resulted in various degrees of severe omphalocele and pubic diastasis. In addition, loss of a single Shh allele restored the omphalocele and pubic symphysis of Gli3Xt/+; Alx4Lst/Lst embryos. We also observed ectopic Hh activity in the ventral body wall region of Gli3Xt/Xt embryos. Moreover, tamoxifen-inducible gain-of-function experiments to induce ectopic Hh signaling revealed Hh signal dose-dependent formation of omphaloceles. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that one of the possible causes of omphalocele and pubic diastasis is ectopically-induced Hh signaling. To our knowledge, this would be the first demonstration of the involvement of Hh signaling in ventral body wall malformation and the genetic rescue of omphalocele phenotypes. PMID:21283718

  6. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Matsumaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In spite of its clinical importance, the etiology of omphalocele formation is still controversial. Hedgehog (Hh signaling is one of the essential growth factor signaling pathways involved in the formation of the limbs and urogenital system. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear.To gain insight into the roles of Hh signaling in ventral body wall formation and its malformation, we analyzed phenotypes of mouse mutants of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3 and Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (Alx4. Introduction of additional Alx4(Lst mutations into the Gli3(Xt/Xt background resulted in various degrees of severe omphalocele and pubic diastasis. In addition, loss of a single Shh allele restored the omphalocele and pubic symphysis of Gli3(Xt/+; Alx4(Lst/Lst embryos. We also observed ectopic Hh activity in the ventral body wall region of Gli3(Xt/Xt embryos. Moreover, tamoxifen-inducible gain-of-function experiments to induce ectopic Hh signaling revealed Hh signal dose-dependent formation of omphaloceles.We suggest that one of the possible causes of omphalocele and pubic diastasis is ectopically-induced Hh signaling. To our knowledge, this would be the first demonstration of the involvement of Hh signaling in ventral body wall malformation and the genetic rescue of omphalocele phenotypes.

  7. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  8. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  9. Brain signal complexity rises with repetition suppression in visual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Marc Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Lina, Jean-Marc; McIntosh, Anthony R; Gosselin, Frédéric; Théoret, Hugo; Lippé, Sarah

    2016-06-21

    Neuronal activity associated with visual processing of an unfamiliar face gradually diminishes when it is viewed repeatedly. This process, known as repetition suppression (RS), is involved in the acquisition of familiarity. Current models suggest that RS results from interactions between visual information processing areas located in the occipito-temporal cortex and higher order areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain signal complexity, which reflects information dynamics of cortical networks, has been shown to increase as unfamiliar faces become familiar. However, the complementarity of RS and increases in brain signal complexity have yet to be demonstrated within the same measurements. We hypothesized that RS and brain signal complexity increase occur simultaneously during learning of unfamiliar faces. Further, we expected alteration of DLPFC function by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate RS and brain signal complexity over the occipito-temporal cortex. Participants underwent three tDCS conditions in random order: right anodal/left cathodal, right cathodal/left anodal and sham. Following tDCS, participants learned unfamiliar faces, while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Results revealed RS over occipito-temporal electrode sites during learning, reflected by a decrease in signal energy, a measure of amplitude. Simultaneously, as signal energy decreased, brain signal complexity, as estimated with multiscale entropy (MSE), increased. In addition, prefrontal tDCS modulated brain signal complexity over the right occipito-temporal cortex during the first presentation of faces. These results suggest that although RS may reflect a brain mechanism essential to learning, complementary processes reflected by increases in brain signal complexity, may be instrumental in the acquisition of novel visual information. Such processes likely involve long-range coordinated activity between prefrontal and lower order visual

  10. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  11. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: Evidence from morphometry and tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG, as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller grey matter (GM volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  12. The representation of object viewpoint in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, David R; Vinberg, Joakim; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the nature of object representations in the human brain is critical for understanding the neural basis of invariant object recognition. However, the degree to which object representations are sensitive to object viewpoint is unknown. Using fMRI we employed a parametric approach to examine the sensitivity to object view as a function of rotation (0 degrees-180 degrees ), category (animal/vehicle) and fMRI-adaptation paradigm (short or long-lagged). For both categories and fMRI-adaptation paradigms, object-selective regions recovered from adaptation when a rotated view of an object was shown after adaptation to a specific view of that object, suggesting that representations are sensitive to object rotation. However, we found evidence for differential representations across categories and ventral stream regions. Rotation cross-adaptation was larger for animals than vehicles, suggesting higher sensitivity to vehicle than animal rotation, and was largest in the left fusiform/occipito-temporal sulcus (pFUS/OTS), suggesting that this region has low sensitivity to rotation. Moreover, right pFUS/OTS and FFA responded more strongly to front than back views of animals (without adaptation) and rotation cross-adaptation depended both on the level of rotation and the adapting view. This result suggests a prevalence of neurons that prefer frontal views of animals in fusiform regions. Using a computational model of view-tuned neurons, we demonstrate that differential neural view tuning widths and relative distributions of neural-tuned populations in fMRI voxels can explain the fMRI results. Overall, our findings underscore the utility of parametric approaches for studying the neural basis of object invariance and suggest that there is no complete invariance to object view in the human ventral stream.

  13. Biomimetic collagen/elastin meshes for ventral hernia repair in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Wang, Xin; Cabrera, Fernando J; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Robbins, Andrew B; Sandri, Monica; Moreno, Michael R; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-03-01

    Ventral hernia repair remains a major clinical need. Herein, we formulated a type I collagen/elastin crosslinked blend (CollE) for the fabrication of biomimetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. To evaluate the effect of architecture on the performance of the implants, CollE was formulated both as flat sheets (CollE Sheets) and porous scaffolds (CollE Scaffolds). The morphology, hydrophylicity and in vitro degradation were assessed by SEM, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The stiffness of the meshes was determined using a constant stretch rate uniaxial tensile test, and compared to that of native tissue. CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were tested in vitro with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (h-BM-MSC), and finally implanted in a rat ventral hernia model. Neovascularization and tissue regeneration within the implants was evaluated at 6weeks, by histology, immunofluorescence, and q-PCR. It was found that CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were not only biomechanically sturdy enough to provide immediate repair of the hernia defect, but also promoted tissue restoration in only 6weeks. In fact, the presence of elastin enhanced the neovascularization in both sheets and scaffolds. Overall, CollE Scaffolds displayed mechanical properties more closely resembling those of native tissue, and induced higher gene expression of the entire marker genes tested, associated with de novo matrix deposition, angiogenesis, adipogenesis and skeletal muscles, compared to CollE Sheets. Altogether, this data suggests that the improved mechanical properties and bioactivity of CollE Sheets and Scaffolds make them valuable candidates for applications of ventral hernia repair. Due to the elevated annual number of ventral hernia repair in the US, the lack of successful grafts, the design of innovative biomimetic meshes has become a prime focus in tissue engineering, to promote the repair of the abdominal wall, avoid recurrence. Our meshes (Coll

  14. Differences between Dorsal and Ventral Striatum in the Sensitivity of Tonically Active Neurons to Rewarding Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs, represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum, but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i.e., limbic striatum, a region specialized for processing of motivational information. To address this issue, we examined the activity of dorsal and ventral TANs in two monkeys trained on a Pavlovian conditioning task in which a visual stimulus preceded the delivery of liquid reward by a fixed time interval. We found that the proportion of TANs responding to the stimulus predictive of reward did not vary significantly across regions (58%–80%, whereas the fraction of TANs responding to reward was higher in the limbic striatum (100% compared to the motor (65% and associative striatum (52%. By examining TAN modulation at the level of both the population and the individual neurons, we showed that the duration of pause responses to the stimulus and reward was longer in the ventral than in the dorsal striatal regions. Also, the magnitude of the pause was greater in ventral than dorsal striatum for the stimulus predictive of reward but not for the reward itself. We found similar region-specific differences in pause response duration to the stimulus when the timing of reward was less predictable (fixed replaced by variable time interval. Regional variations in the duration and magnitude of the pause response were transferred from the stimulus to reward when reward was delivered in the absence of any predictive stimulus. It therefore appears that ventral TANs exhibit stronger responses to

  15. Reward Expectancy Strengthens CA1 Theta and Beta Band Synchronization and Hippocampal-Ventral Striatal Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Meijer, Guido T; Lankelma, Jan V; Vinck, Martin A; Jackson, Jadin C; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2016-10-12

    The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation. The beta band component, also labeled theta's harmonic, involves selective hippocampal CA1 cell groups showing frequency doubling of firing periodicity relative to theta rhythmicity and it partitions the theta cycle into segments showing clear versus poor spike timing organization. We found that theta phase precession occurred over a wider range than previously reported. This was apparent from spikes emitted near the peak of the theta cycle exhibiting large "phase precessing jumps" relative to spikes in foregoing cycles. Neither this phenomenon nor the regular manifestation of theta phase precession was affected by reward expectancy. Ventral striatal neuronal firing phase-locked not only to hippocampal theta, but also to beta band activity. Both hippocampus and ventral striatum showed increased synchronization between neuronal firing and local field potential activity during cued compared with uncued goal approaches. These results suggest that cue-triggered reward expectancy intensifies hippocampal output to target structures, such as the ventral striatum, by which the hippocampus may gain prioritized access to systems modulating motivated behaviors. Here we show that temporally discrete cues raising reward expectancy enhance both theta and beta band activity in the hippocampus once goal-directed navigation has been initiated. These rhythmic activities are associated with increased synchronization of neuronal firing

  16. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  17. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  18. On the context-dependent nature of the contribution of the ventral premotor cortex to speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Small, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    What is the nature of the interface between speech perception and production, where auditory and motor representations converge? One set of explanations suggests that during perception, the motor circuits involved in producing a perceived action are in some way enacting the action without actually causing movement (covert simulation) or sending along the motor information to be used to predict its sensory consequences (i.e., efference copy). Other accounts either reject entirely the involvement of motor representations in perception, or explain their role as being more supportive than integral, and not employing the identical circuits used in production. Using fMRI, we investigated whether there are brain regions that are conjointly active for both speech perception and production, and whether these regions are sensitive to articulatory (syllabic) complexity during both processes, which is predicted by a covert simulation account. A group of healthy young adults (1) observed a female speaker produce a set of familiar words (perception), and (2) observed and then repeated the words (production). There were two types of words, varying in articulatory complexity, as measured by the presence or absence of consonant clusters. The simple words contained no consonant cluster (e.g. “palace”), while the complex words contained one to three consonant clusters (e.g. “planet”). Results indicate that the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) was significantly active during speech perception and speech production but that activation in this region was scaled to articulatory complexity only during speech production, revealing an incompletely specified efferent motor signal during speech perception. The right planum temporal (PT) was also active during speech perception and speech production, and activation in this region was scaled to articulatory complexity during both production and perception. These findings are discussed in the context of current theories theory of

  19. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R

    2015-01-01

    shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10days......, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be increased by factors known to influence survival and differentiation of dopaminergic cells....... to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which...

  20. Identification of dorsal root synaptic terminals on monkey ventral horn cells by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, H.J.; Ralston, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    The projection of dorsal root fibres to the motor nucleus of the macaque monkey spinal cord has been examined utilizing light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Light microscopy demonstrates a very sparse labelling of primary afferent fibres in the ventral horn. Silver grains overlying radioactive sources are frequently clustered into small groups, often adjacent to dendritic profiles. Under the electron microscope, myelinated axons and a few large synaptic profiles containing rounded synaptic vesicles were overlain by numerous silver grains. These labelled profiles made synaptic contact with dendrites 1 - 3 micrometers in diameter. The labelled profiles did not contact cell bodies or large proximal dendrites of ventral horn neutrons. Frequently, small synaptic profiles containing flattened vesicles were presynaptic to the large labelled terminals and it is suggested that these axoaxonal synapses may mediate presynaptic inhibition of the primary afferent fibres. The relationship of the present findings to previously published physiological and anatomical studies is discussed. (author)

  1. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...... repair at Hvidovre Hospital and Herlev Hospital, Denmark, are invited to participate. CONCLUSION: The gap closure technique may induce more post-operative pain than the non-closure repair, but it may also be superior with regard to other important surgical outcomes. No studies have previously...

  2. Novel insights into the interplay between ventral neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gunnel; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Falla, Deborah; Dedering, Åsa; Wallman, Thorne; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is common after whiplash injury, with considerable personal, social, and economic burden. Despite decades of research, factors responsible for continuing pain and disability are largely unknown, and diagnostic tools are lacking. Here, we report a novel model of mechanical ventral neck muscle function recorded from non-invasive, real-time, ultrasound measurements. We calculated the deformation area and deformation rate in 23 individuals with persistent WAD and compared them to 23 sex- and age-matched controls. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse interactions between ventral neck muscles, revealing different interplay between muscles in individuals with WAD and healthy controls. Although the cause and effect relation cannot be established from this data, for the first time, we reveal a novel method capable of detecting different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD. This non-invasive method stands to make a major breakthrough in the assessment and diagnosis of people following a whiplash trauma. PMID:26472599

  3. Mucoceles en Cara Ventral de Lengua: Reporte de 6 casos y manejo quirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle, Sol C.

    2002-01-01

    El "Mucocele" como todos sabemos es un término clínico que corresponde histopatológicamente a un fenómeno de retención o extravasación de moco, causado por obstrucción o ruptura del ducto de una glándula salival menor. La localización más frecuente es la mucosa del labio inferior seguida de mucosa bucal, paladar, y pocas veces en cara ventral de lengua. (1-2) Se estudiaron 6 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de mucocele en cara ventral de lengua que acudieron el Servicio de Patología Clínica ...

  4. Dorsal free graft urethroplasty for urethral stricture by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asopa, H S; Garg, M; Singhal, G G; Singh, L; Asopa, J; Nischal, A

    2001-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of applying a dorsal free graft to treat urethral stricture by the ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach without mobilizing the urethra. Twelve patients with long or multiple strictures of the anterior urethra were treated by a dorsal free full-thickness preputial or buccal mucosa graft. The urethra was not separated from the corporal bodies and was opened in the midline over the stricture. The floor of the urethra was incised, and an elliptical raw area was created over the tunica on which a free full-thickness graft of preputial or buccal mucosa was secured. The urethra was retubularized in one stage. After a follow-up of 8 to 40 months, one recurrence developed and required dilation. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for dorsal free graft urethroplasty is not only feasible and successful, but is easy to perform.

  5. Blindness alters the microstructure of the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reislev, Nina L; Kupers, Ron; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-01-01

    Visual deprivation from birth leads to reorganisation of the brain through cross-modal plasticity. Although there is a general agreement that the primary afferent visual pathways are altered in congenitally blind individuals, our knowledge about microstructural changes within the higher...... pathways in 12 congenitally blind, 15 late blind and 15 normal sighted controls. We also studied six prematurely born individuals with normal vision to control for the effects of prematurity on brain connectivity. Our data revealed a reduction in fractional anisotropy in the ventral but not the dorsal......-order visual streams, and how this is affected by onset of blindness, remains scant. We used diffusion tensor imaging and tractography to investigate microstructural features in the dorsal (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) visual...

  6. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reelin signaling in the migration of ventral brain stem and spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBlaess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix protein Reelin is an important orchestrator of neuronal migration during the development of the central nervous system. While its role and mechanism of action have been extensively studied and reviewed in the formation of dorsal laminar brain structures like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, its functions during the neuronal migration events that result in the nuclear organization of the ventral central nervous system are less well understood. In an attempt to delineate an underlying pattern of Reelin action in the formation of neuronal cell clusters, this review highlights the role of Reelin signaling in the migration of neuronal populations that originate in the ventral brain stem and the spinal cord.

  8. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called "Hemisity," a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 "either-or," forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their "either-or" type of behavioral preferences.

  9. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called Hemisity, a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC as revealed by a 3 minute MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new.Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05 for 47 of the 107 either-or, forced choice type preference questionnaire items. Hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. They were in: a. logical orientation, b. type of consciousness, c. fear level and sensitivity, d. social-professional orientation, and e. pair bonding-spousal dominance style.Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed numerous significant differences in their either-or type of behavioral preferences.

  10. REGENERATIVE GROWTH OF CORTICOSPINAL TRACT AXONS VIA THE VENTRAL COLUMN AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Steward, Oswald; Zheng, Binhai; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Hofstadter, Maura; Sharp, Kelli; Yee, Kelly Matsudaira

    2008-01-01

    Studies that have assessed regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons in mice following genetic modifications or other treatments have tacitly assumed that there is little if any regeneration of CST axons in normal mice in the absence of some intervention. Here, we document a previously unrecognized capability for regenerative growth of CST axons in normal mice that involves growth past the lesion via the ventral column. Mice received dorsal hemisection injuries at thoracic level 6–7, wh...

  11. Xenopus msx-1 regulates dorso-ventral axis formation by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Saito, Y; Sekine, R; Onitsuka, I; Maeda, R; Maéno, M

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrated previously that Xmsx-1 is involved in mesoderm patterning along the dorso-ventral axis, under the regulation of BMP-4 signaling. When Xmsx-1 RNA was injected into the dorsal blastomeres, a mass of muscle tissue formed instead of notochord. This activity was similar to that of Xwnt-8 reported previously. In this study, we investigated whether the activity of Xmsx-1 is related to the ventralizing signal and myogenesis promoting factor, Xwnt-8. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Xmsx-1, Xwnt-8, and XmyoD were expressed in overlapping areas, including the ventro-lateral marginal zone at mid-gastrula stage. The expression of XmyoD was induced by the ectopic expression of either Xmsx-1 or Xwnt-8 in dorsal blastomeres, and Xwnt-8 was induced by the ectopic expression of Xmsx-1. On the other hand, the expression of Xmsx-1 was not affected by the loading of pCSKA-Xwnt-8 or dominant-negative Xwnt-8 (DN-Xwnt-8) RNA. In addition, Xmsx-1 RNA did not abrogate the formation of notochord if coinjected with DN-Xwnt-8 RNA. These results suggest that Xmsx-1 functions upstream of the Xwnt-8 signal. Furthermore, the antagonistic function of Xmsx-1 to the expression of organizer genes, such as Xlim-1 and goosecoid, was shown by in situ hybridization analysis and luciferase reporter assay using the goosecoid promoter construct. Finally if Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion RNA, which was expected to function as a dominant-negative Xmsx-1, was injected into ventral blastomeres, a partial secondary axis formed in a significant number of embryos. In such embryos, the activity of luciferase, under the control of goosecoid promoter sequence, was significantly elevated at gastrula stage. These results led us to conclude that Xmsx-1 plays a central role in establishing dorso-ventral axis in gastrulating embryo, by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

  12. Ventral striatal regulation of CREM mediates impulsive action and drug addiction vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Michael L.; Ren, Yanhua; Szutorisz, Henrietta; Warren, Noël A.; Tessereau, Chloé; Egervári, Gábor; Mlodnicka, Agnieszka; Kapoor, Manav; Chaarani, Bader; Morris, Claudia V.; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh; Goate, Alison M.; Bannon, Michael J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat mode...

  13. Correlation between early surgical complications and readmission rate after ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I; Helgstrand, F

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative surgical complications arising from ventral hernia repair have been assessed by a variety of outcome measures. The objective of this study was to correlate the Clavien Dindo Classification (CDC) graded complications with the 30-day readmission rate as early outcome measures in ventral hernia repair. Secondarily, we wanted to investigate whether the risk factors for Clavien Dindo class ≥1 and 30-day readmission were comparable. Single-centre retrospective study including all patients (≥18 years) who underwent ventral hernia repair between January 1, 2009 and September 1, 2014 at Zealand University Hospital. Data were obtained from hospital files and the Danish National Patient Registry. A 100% follow-up was obtained. In total, the study included 700 patients (261 patients with incisional hernia repair and 439 patients with umbilical or epigastric hernia repair). There was a significant association between a complication graded by the CDC ≥1 and 30-day readmission for both incisional and umbilical/epigastric hernia repair (p readmission. Recurrent (vs. primary) hernia repair was an independent risk factors for both CDC ≥1 and 30-day readmission in umbilical/epigastric hernia repair. Furthermore, hernia size 2-7 cm (vs. >2 cm) was a risk factor for CDC ≥1 but not for 30-day readmission in umbilical/epigastric hernia repair. Reports on 30-day readmission can be used as a general outcome measure in ventral hernia repair, however CDC provides a more precise and detailed registration of postoperative complications.

  14. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhu; Xiao Chen; Zhan Liu; Yu-Ping Peng; Yi-Hua Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson?s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h pr...

  15. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort, Maike C.; Soch, Joram; W?stenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, J?rgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Bj?rn H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BP...

  16. DORSAL ROOT REGENERATION INTO TRANSPLANTS OF DORSAL OR VENTRAL HALF OF EMBRYONIC SPINAL CORD

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Tohru; Itoh, Yasunobu; Tessler, Alan; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Adult cut dorsal root axons regenerate into the transplants of embryonic spinal cord (ESC) and form functional synapses within the transplants. It is unknown whether the growth is specific to transplants of dorsal half of ESC, a normal target of most dorsal root axons, or whether it is due to properties shared by transplants of ventral half of ESC. We used calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunohistochemistry to label to the subpopulations of regenerated adult dorsal root axons, quantit...

  17. Neuropsychiatric effects of neurodegeneration of the medial vs. lateral ventral prefrontal cortex in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Huey, Edward D.; Lee, Seonjoo; Brickman, Adam M.; Manoochehri, Masood; Griffith, Erica; Devanand, D.P.; Stern, Yaakov; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Animal evidence suggests that a brain network involving the medial and rostral ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central for threat response and arousal and a network involving the lateral and caudal PFC plays an important role in reward learning and behavioral control. In this study, we contrasted the neuropsychiatric effects of degeneration of the medial versus lateral PFC in 43 patients with Frontotemporal dementia and 11 patients with Corticobasal Syndrome using MRI, the Neuropsychiatric...

  18. Dorsal-ventral patterning in amphioxus: current understanding, unresolved issues, and future directions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Yu, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10-12 (2017), s. 601-610 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-21285J Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : dorsal-ventral patterning * organizer * signaling pathway * chordate * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2016

  19. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristafor Farrant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the ventral attention network (VAN anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ and ventral frontal cortex (VFC. Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF, children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC, adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development.

  20. Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Dor; Sivan, Bezalel; Livne, Pinhas M; Nevo, Amihay; Ben-Meir, David

    2018-02-01

    To assess the postpubertal outcome of ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy in terms of recurrence and aesthetics. Postpubertal patients treated for hypospadias and ventral penile curvature in infancy at a tertiary medical center were invited to undergo assessment of the quality of the repair. Findings were compared between patients with a straight penis after skin release and patients who required dorsal plication. The cohort included 27 patients of mean age 16.5 years who were reported with straight penis after surgery. Postpubertal curvature was found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) successfully treated by skin release and 10 of 13 patients (77%) who underwent dorsal plication (P = .087). Significant curvature (≥30 degrees) was found in 1 of 14 patients in the skin-release group and 4 of 13 in the dorsal plication group (P = .16). Rates of redo urethroplasty were 2 of 14 (14%) and 5 of 10 (50%), respectively. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the penis did not differ significantly. Ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy often recurs after puberty. The need for dorsal plication has a trend-level association with recurrence of penile curvature in puberty. It might also be related to the degree of postpubertal penile curvature and the need for redo urethroplasty. Procedure type does not affect patient satisfaction with the postpubertal appearance of the penis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of neonatal excitotoxic lesions in ventral thalamus on social interaction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rainer; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Nullmeier, Sven; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schwegler, Herbert

    2017-03-30

    The role of the thalamus in schizophrenia has increasingly been studied in recent years. Deficits in the ventral thalamus have been described in only few postmortem and neuroimaging studies. We utilised our previously introduced neurodevelopmental animal model, the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of the ventral thalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats (Wolf et al., Pharmacopsychiatry 43:99-109, 22). At postnatal day (PD7), male pubs received bilateral thalamic infusions with ibotenic acid (IBA) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control). In adulthood, social interaction of two animals not familiar to each other was studied by a computerised video tracking system. This study displays clear lesion effects on social interaction of adult male rats. The significant reduction of total contact time and the significant increase in distance between the animals in the IBA group compared to controls can be interpreted as social withdrawal modelling a negative symptom of schizophrenia. The significant increase of total distance travelled in the IBA group can be hypothesised as agitation modelling a positive symptom of schizophrenia. Using a triple concept of social interaction, the percentage of no social interaction (Non-SI%) was significantly larger, and inversely, the percentage of passive social interaction (SI-passive%) was significantly smaller in the IBA group when compared to controls. In conclusion, on the background of findings in schizophrenic patients, the effects of neonatal ventral thalamic IBA lesions in adult male rats support the hypothesis of face and construct validity as animal model of schizophrenia.

  2. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  3. A biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Conte

    Full Text Available The article provides a biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Ventral furrow formation is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement in the fly embryo. It involves deformation of a uniform cellular monolayer formed following cellularisation, and has therefore long been used as a simple system in which to explore the role of mechanics in force generation. Here we use a quantitative framework to carry out a systematic perturbation analysis to determine the role of each of the active forces observed. The analysis confirms that ventral furrow invagination arises from a combination of apical constriction and apical-basal shortening forces in the mesoderm, together with a combination of ectodermal forces. We show that the mesodermal forces are crucial for invagination: the loss of apical constriction leads to a loss of the furrow, while the mesodermal radial shortening forces are the primary cause of the internalisation of the future mesoderm as the furrow rises. Ectodermal forces play a minor but significant role in furrow formation: without ectodermal forces the furrow is slower to form, does not close properly and has an aberrant morphology. Nevertheless, despite changes in the active mesodermal and ectodermal forces lead to changes in the timing and extent of furrow, invagination is eventually achieved in most cases, implying that the system is robust to perturbation and therefore over-determined.

  4. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  5. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  6. Attention supports verbal short-term memory via competition between dorsal and ventral attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, Wim; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and a ventral attention network centered on the temporoparietal junction supporting stimulus-related attention. We observed that, with increasing STM load, the dorsal attention network was activated while the ventral attention network was deactivated, especially during early maintenance. Importantly, activation in the ventral attention network increased in response to task-irrelevant stimuli briefly presented during the maintenance phase of the STM trials but only during low-load STM conditions, which were associated with the lowest levels of activity in the dorsal attention network during encoding and early maintenance. By demonstrating a trade-off between task-related and stimulus-related attention networks during verbal STM, this study highlights the dynamics of attentional processes involved in verbal STM.

  7. The functional anatomy of speech perception: Dorsal and ventral processing pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.

  8. Multicenter review of robotic versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: is there a role for robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter A; May, Audriene C; Mo, Jiandi; Cherla, Deepa V; Santillan, Monica Rosales; Kim, Steven; Ryan, Heidi; Shah, Shinil K; Wilson, Erik B; Tsuda, Shawn

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of robotic platforms for general surgery procedures such as hernia repair is growing rapidly in the United States. A limited amount of data are available evaluating operative outcomes in comparison to standard laparoscopic surgery. We completed a retrospective review comparing robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair to provide safety and outcomes data to help design a future prospective trial design. A retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (142 robotic and 73 laparoscopic) was completed at two large academic centers. Primary outcome measure evaluated was recurrence. Secondary outcomes included incidence of primary fascial closure, and surgical site occurrences. Propensity for treatment match comparison demonstrated that robotic repair was associated with a decreased incidence of recurrence (2.1 versus 4.2%, p robotic repair was associated with increased incidence of primary fascial closure (77.1 versus 66.7%, p robotic repairs were completed on patients with lower body mass index (28.1 ± 3.6 versus 34.2 ± 6.4, p robotic repair was associated with decreased recurrence and surgical site occurrence. However, the differences noted in the patient populations limit the interpretability of these results. As adoption of robotic ventral hernia repair increases, prospective trials need to be designed in order to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this evolving technique.

  9. Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

  10. Microsurgical resection of ventral foramen magnum meningiomas via a far-lateral suboccipital approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Cheng; Zhilin Guo; Meixiu Ding

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years some reports have been published propagating microsurgical resection of ventral foramen magnum meningiomas (VFMMs). Operative approaches to these lesions have been studied by various authors, but remain controversial.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the operative technique and outcome in patients with VFMMs who had been treatedvia a far lateral suboccipital approach.DESIGN: Retrospectively clinic case investigation. SElrING: Department of Neurosurgery, the Ninth People's Hospital, Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.PARTICIPANTS: Between January 1997 and June 2003, 10 patients were treated surgically with VFMMs in Department of Neurosurgery, the Ninth People's Hospital, Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. In the series of 10 patients, ages ranged from 37 to 72 years, mean (53±10) years, were consisted of 6 males and 4 females. All the subjects were informed of the treatment plan and agreed to join the experiment. Early symptoms included headache and upper cervical pain. The time between the first occurrence of symptoms and the diagnosis ranged from 6 months to 17 months, mean (10.3±3.4) months. Main presenting symptoms were unilateral upper extremity sensory and motor deficits in 6 cases, swallowing difficulties in 2 and spastic quadriparesis in 2. VFMMs were demonstrated as round by the computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in all patients. The maximum diameter of tumors ranged from 2 to 4 cm,mean (2.55±0.57) cm, including 2 cm in one case, 2.0-3.0 cm in six and 3.0-4.0 cm in three.METHODS: ①All tumors were removed via the far lateral suboccipital approach. Resection of the posterior 5 mm of the condyle was necessary in one patient whose tumors' diameter were 2 cm. The patient was situated in the lateral decubitus position. The head was fixed in a Mayfield headrest. A C-shaped incision made behind the ear 2 cm medial to the mastoid process, turning vertically down to the level C4, to

  11. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  12. Boolean modelling reveals new regulatory connections between transcription factors orchestrating the development of the ventral spinal cord.

    KAUST Repository

    Lovrics, Anna; Gao, Yu; Juhá sz, Bianka; Bock, Istvá n; Byrne, Helen M; Dinnyé s, Andrá s; Ková cs, Krisztiá n A

    2014-01-01

    with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where

  13. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug......-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  14. The outcome of A. Double mesh intraperitoneal repair for complex ventral hernia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y; Hamood, Mokhtar; Hassan, Maged

    2018-05-01

    Complex ventral hernia is a challenging surgical entity, commonly attended with huge defect, loss of domain and possible soft tissue infection. It is difficult to repair, especially with multiple recurrences. Numerous methods of repair have been described with no evidence-based data available to prefer one method over the other. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term outcome of the proposed new modification of intraperitoneal mesh repair procedure in complex ventral hernia. This is a single-center retrospective analysis utilizing the prospectively-maintained dataset in our institution during the study period between January 2003 and June 2017. Patients who fit the inclusion criteria of having a complex ventral hernia, whether de-novo or recurrent and were subjected to A. Double Mesh Intraperitoneal Repair (ADMIR) procedure were included in the study. Patients were followed up till recurrence or lost to follow through a period ranging from 6 to 174 months (mean: 142.96 ± SE: 11.91). Forty-nine cases were included in this study (38 females and 11 males) with a female to male ratio of 3.5:1. The age range was from 28 to 81 years (mean 49 ± 12.4). BMI range from 25 to 42 (mean 33.6 ± 5.42). The ratio between the hernia sac volume and abdominal cavity volume was more than 20% in 12 patients (24.5%), who were subjected to preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) for an average period of two weeks. Hernias were recurrent in 28 cases (57%) and associated comorbidities were observed in 29 patients (63%). Postoperative complications occurred in 19 patients (38.7%), among them only 2 patients developed recurrence (4%) after a mean follow up period of 142 months. Five patients were lost to follow and were included in the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. ADMIR procedure is successful for the repair of complex ventral hernias as it is applicable to all sites of ventral hernias. The mesh is tension free hidden within the abdomen allowing

  15. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as ...

  16. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in "ventral F-actin waves" that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the ex...

  17. Strong rightward lateralization of the dorsal attentional network in left-handers with right sighting-eye: an evolutionary advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for spatial attention and its relationships with manual preference strength and eye preference were studied in a sample of 293 healthy individuals balanced for manual preference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map this large sample while performing visually guided saccadic eye movements. This activated a bilateral distributed cortico-subcortical network in which dorsal and ventral attentional/saccadic pathways elicited rightward asymmetrical activation depending on manual preference strength and sighting eye. While the ventral pathway showed a strong rightward asymmetry irrespective of both manual preference strength and eye preference, the dorsal frontoparietal network showed a robust rightward asymmetry in strongly left-handers, even more pronounced in left-handed subjects with a right sighting-eye. Our findings brings support to the hypothesis that the origin of the rightward hemispheric dominance for spatial attention may have a manipulo-spatial origin neither perceptual nor motor per se but rather reflecting a mechanism by which a spatial context is mapped onto the perceptual and motor activities, including the exploration of the spatial environment with eyes and hands. Within this context, strongly left-handers with a right sighting-eye may benefit from the advantage of having the same right hemispheric control of their dominant hand and visuospatial attention processing. We suggest that this phenomenon explains why left-handed right sighting-eye athletes can outperform their competitors in sporting duels and that the prehistoric and historical constancy of the left-handers ratio over the general population may relate in part on the hemispheric specialization of spatial attention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The functional organization of the left STS: a large scale meta-analysis of PET and fMRI studies of healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Desai, Rutvik H.; Humphries, Colin; Sabri, Merav; Desai, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the left hemisphere is functionally diverse, with sub-areas implicated in both linguistic and non-linguistic functions. However, the number and boundaries of distinct functional regions remain to be determined. Here, we present new evidence, from meta-analysis of a large number of positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, of different functional specificity in the left STS supporting a division of its middle to terminal extent into at least three functional areas. The middle portion of the left STS stem (fmSTS) is highly specialized for speech perception and the processing of language material. The posterior portion of the left STS stem (fpSTS) is highly versatile and involved in multiple functions supporting semantic memory and associative thinking. The fpSTS responds to both language and non-language stimuli but the sensitivity to non-language material is greater. The horizontal portion of the left STS stem and terminal ascending branches (ftSTS) display intermediate functional specificity, with the anterior-dorsal ascending branch (fatSTS) supporting executive functions and motor planning and showing greater sensitivity to language material, and the horizontal stem and posterior-ventral ascending branch (fptSTS) supporting primarily semantic processing and displaying greater sensitivity to non-language material. We suggest that the high functional specificity of the left fmSTS for speech is an important means by which the human brain achieves exquisite affinity and efficiency for native speech perception. In contrast, the extreme multi-functionality of the left fpSTS reflects the role of this area as a cortical hub for semantic processing and the extraction of meaning from multiple sources of information. Finally, in the left ftSTS, further functional differentiation between the dorsal and ventral aspect is warranted. PMID:25309312

  19. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophila embryo DV axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Suk; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David

    2010-06-22

    The establishment of Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity relies on serine proteolytic activity in the perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective cleaves and activates Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral restriction of ligand formation depends on the Pipe sulfotransferase, which is expressed in ventral cells of the follicular epithelium surrounding the developing oocyte. Pipe modifies components of the developing eggshell to produce a ventral cue embedded in the vitelline membrane. This ventral cue is believed to promote one or more of the proteolysis steps in the perivitelline space. By examining the processing of transgenic, tagged versions of the perivitelline proteins during DV patterning, we find that the proteolysis of Easter by Snake is the first Pipe-dependent step and therefore the key ventrally restricted event in the protease cascade. We also find that Snake and Easter associate together in a complex in both wild-type and pipe mutant-derived embryos. This observation suggests a mechanism in which the sulfated target of Pipe promotes a productive interaction between Snake and Easter, perhaps by facilitating conformational changes in a complex containing the two proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  1. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2004-11-01

    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  2. Effects of spatial attention on motion discrimination are greater in the left than right visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G; Petrich, Jennifer A F; Dobkins, Karen R

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate differences in the effects of spatial attention between the left visual field (LVF) and the right visual field (RVF), we employed a full/poor attention paradigm using stimuli presented in the LVF vs. RVF. In addition, to investigate differences in the effects of spatial attention between the dorsal and ventral processing streams, we obtained motion thresholds (motion coherence thresholds and fine direction discrimination thresholds) and orientation thresholds, respectively. The results of this study showed negligible effects of attention on the orientation task, in either the LVF or RVF. In contrast, for both motion tasks, there was a significant effect of attention in the LVF, but not in the RVF. These data provide psychophysical evidence for greater effects of spatial attention in the LVF/right hemisphere, specifically, for motion processing in the dorsal stream. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-10-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.

  4. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of actions and habits by ventral hippocampal trkB and adolescent corticosteroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Elizabeth T; Gerber, Kyle J; Zimmermann, Kelsey S; Ressler, Kerry J; Parsons, Ryan G; Gourley, Shannon L

    2017-11-01

    In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. In both adolescents and adults, CORT also caused a shift in the balance between full-length tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB) and a truncated form of this neurotrophin receptor, favoring the inactive form throughout multiple corticolimbic brain regions. In adolescents, phosphorylation of the trkB substrate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 42/44 (ERK42/44) in the ventral hippocampus was also diminished, a long-term effect that persisted for at least 12 wk. Administration of the trkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) during adolescence at doses that stimulated ERK42/44 corrected long-lasting corticosterone-induced behavioral abnormalities. Meanwhile, viral-mediated overexpression of truncated trkB in the ventral hippocampus reduced local ERK42/44 phosphorylation and was sufficient to induce habit-based and depression-like behaviors. Together, our findings indicate that ventral hippocampal trkB is essential to goal-directed action selection, countering habit-based behavior otherwise facilitated by developmental stress hormone exposure. They also reveal an early-life sensitive period during which trkB-ERK42/44 tone determines long-term behavioral outcomes.

  6. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-Institution Experience With Component Separation for Ventral Hernia Repair: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brian; Kambeyanda, Rohan; Fewell, Donna; Bryant, Stewart; Delaney, Kevin O; Herrera, Fernando A

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we reviewed our institution's experience using component separation for repair of ventral hernias. This was a retrospective review of all component separations for ventral hernia between July 2009 and December 2015. Recorded data included body mass index (BMI), preoperative albumin, smoking history, comorbidities, additional procedures, length of surgery, hospitalization, recurrence, and postoperative complications. One hundred ninety-six component separations were performed in the study period. The average patient age was 56 years, and 65.3% of patients were female. The average BMI was 32.6 kg/m; preoperative albumin was 3.59; 18.4% were current smokers; 28.1% were diabetic; and 14.3% had heart disease. Postoperative complications developed in 16.8% of patients. Recurrence developed in 8.7% of patients. Patients who developed a postoperative complication had a higher BMI (P = 0.025) and lower albumin (P = 0.047) compared with patients who did not develop complications. Current smokers were more likely to develop complications (P = 0.008). More than one third of patients had additional procedures at the time of the ventral hernia repair. The addition of a plastic surgery procedure was not associated with an increased risk of developing a complication (P = 0.25). Patients who developed complications had a significantly longer hospital course (P < 0.001) but no difference in total operative time (P = 0.975). Increased number of comorbidities did not statistically correlate with an increased complication rate (P = 0.65) or length of hospital stay (P = 0.43). We identified risk factors that increase the likelihood of postoperative complications and length of hospital stay. In addition, this study suggests that more comorbidities and additional procedures at the time of the hernia repair may not have as large of impact on complication risk as previously thought.

  8. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  9. Dopamine system dysregulation by the ventral subiculum as the common pathophysiological basis for schizophrenia psychosis, psychostimulant abuse, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Anthony A

    2010-11-01

    The dopamine system is under multiple forms of regulation, and in turn provides effective modulation of system responses. Dopamine neurons are known to exist in several states of activity. The population activity, or the proportion of dopamine neurons firing spontaneously, is controlled by the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. In contrast, burst firing, which is proposed to be the behaviorally salient output of the dopamine system, is driven by the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg). When an animal is exposed to a behaviorally salient stimulus, the PPTg elicits a burst of action potentials in the dopamine neurons. However, this bursting only occurs in the portion of the dopamine neuron population that is firing spontaneously. This proportion is regulated by the ventral subiculum. Therefore, the ventral subiculum provides the gain, or the amplification factor, for the behaviorally salient stimulus. The ventral subiculum itself is proposed to carry information related to the environmental context. Thus, the ventral subiculum will adjust the responsivity of the dopamine system based on the needs of the organism and the characteristics of the environment. However, this finely tuned system can be disrupted in disease states. In schizophrenia, a disruption of interneuronal regulation of the ventral subiculum is proposed to lead to an overdrive of the dopamine system, rendering the system in a constant hypervigilant state. Moreover, amphetamine sensitization and stressors also appear to cause an abnormal dopaminergic drive. Such an interaction could underlie the risk factors of drug abuse and stress in the precipitation of a psychotic event. On the other hand, this could point to the ventral subiculum as an effective site of therapeutic intervention in the treatment or even the prevention of schizophrenia.

  10. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DOPAMINERGIC AND NONDOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN ORGANOTYPIC SLICE CULTURES OF THE RAT VENTRAL MESENCEPHALON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEENSEN, BH; NEDERGAARD, S; OSTERGAARD, K

    1995-01-01

    -old organotypic slice cultures of the ventral mesencephalon prepared from newborn rats. Dopaminergic neurones were distinguished from non-dopaminergic neurones by staining with the autofluorescent serotonin analogue 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and briefly viewing the preparation with short exposures to ultraviolet...... 81 M Omega), were silent or fired spontaneously at a low frequency (0-9 Hz), and no spontaneous GABA(A)-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials or inward rectification were present. In contrast, non-dopaminergic neurones had fast action potentials (0.6-3.2 ms), low input resistance (mean 32 M Omega...

  11. Separate populations of neurons in ventral striatum encode value and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Burton, Amanda C; Gentry, Ronny N; Goldstein, Brandon L; Hearn, Taylor N; Barnett, Brian R; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS) fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation.

  12. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy in an elderly population with external rectal prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerke, Trine; Mynster, Tommie

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We report the clinical and anal manometric results of elderly patients treated with laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) for full-thickness rectal prolapse. METHOD: From March 2009 to June 2012, patients were consecutively included. A modified laparoscopic Orr-Loygue procedure with posterior...... mobilisation was used. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, 2 months postoperatively and after 1 year. We registered Wexner incontinence scores and laxative uses by a questionnaire and performed simple anal manometry. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients underwent operation, all women. The median age was 83...

  13. Transvaginal Repair of a Large Chronic Porcine Ventral Hernia with Synthetic Mesh Using NOTES

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ben; Whang, Susan H.; Bachman, Sharon L.; Andres Astudillo, J.; Sporn, Emanuel; Miedema, Brent W.; Thaler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ventral incisional hernias still remain a common surgical problem. We tested the feasibility of transvaginal placement of a large synthetic mesh to repair a porcine hernia. Methods: Seven pigs were used in this survival model. Each animal had creation of a 5-cm hernia defect and underwent a transvaginal repair of the defect with synthetic mesh. A single colpotomy was made using a 12-cm trocar for an overtube. The mesh was cut to size and placed through the trocar. A single-channel...

  14. Aphasia with left occipitotemporal hypometabolism: a novel presentation of posterior cortical atrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Machulda, Mary M; Josephs, Keith A

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease often characterized by initial episodic memory loss. Atypical focal cortical presentations have been described, including the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) which presents with language impairment, and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits. Both lvPPA and PCA are characterized by specific patterns of hypometabolism: left temporoparietal in lvPPA and bilateral parietoccipital in PCA. However, not every patient fits neatly into these categories. We retrospectively identified two patients with progressive aphasia and visuospatial deficits from a speech and language based disorders study. The patients were further characterized by MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose F18 and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography. Two women, aged 62 and 69, presented with a history of a few years of progressive aphasia characterized by fluent output with normal grammar and syntax, anomia without loss of word meaning, and relatively spared repetition. They demonstrated striking deficits in visuospatial function for which they were lacking insight. Prominent hypometabolism was noted in the left occipitotemporal region and diffuse retention of PiB was noted. Posterior cortical atrophy may present focally with left occipitotemporal metabolism characterized clinically with a progressive fluent aphasia and prominent ventral visuospatial deficits with loss of insight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Premotor activations in response to visually presented single letters depend on the hand used to write: a study on left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcamp, Marieke; Anton, Jean-Luc; Roth, Muriel; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    In a previous fMRI study on right-handers (Rhrs), we reported that part of the left ventral premotor cortex (BA6) was activated when alphabetical characters were passively observed and that the same region was also involved in handwriting [Longcamp, M., Anton, J. L., Roth, M., & Velay, J. L. (2003). Visual presentation of single letters activates a premotor area involved in writing. NeuroImage, 19, 1492-1500]. We therefore suggested that letter-viewing may induce automatic involvement of handwriting movements. In the present study, in order to confirm this hypothesis, we carried out a similar fMRI experiment on a group of left-handed subjects (Lhrs). We reasoned that if the above assumption was correct, visual perception of letters by Lhrs might automatically activate cortical motor areas coding for left-handed writing movements, i.e., areas located in the right hemisphere. The visual stimuli used here were either single letters, single pseudoletters, or a control stimulus. The subjects were asked to watch these stimuli attentively, and no response was required. The results showed that a ventral premotor cortical area (BA6) in the right hemisphere was specifically activated when Lhrs looked at letters and not at pseudoletters. This right area was symmetrically located with respect to the left one activated under the same circumstances in Rhrs. This finding supports the hypothesis that visual perception of written language evokes covert motor processes. In addition, a bilateral area, also located in the premotor cortex (BA6), but more ventrally and medially, was found to be activated in response to both letters and pseudoletters. This premotor region, which was not activated correspondingly in Rhrs, might be involved in the processing of graphic stimuli, whatever their degree of familiarity.

  16. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Jill A; Balantac, Zaneta L; Crawford, Andrew R; Ren, Yuexin; Toure, Jamal; Zchut, Sigalit; Kochilas, Lazaros; Creton, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos generate striking Ca(2+) patterns, which are unique regulators of dynamic developmental events. In the present study, we used zebrafish embryos as a model system to examine the developmental roles of Ca(2+) during gastrulation. We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) concentrations in the ventral margin and lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the dorsal margin and dorsal forerunner cells. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump with 0.5 microM thapsigargin elevates cytosolic Ca(2+) in all embryonic regions and induces a randomization of laterality in the heart and brain. Affected hearts, visualized in living embryos by a subtractive imaging technique, displayed either a reversal or loss of left-right asymmetry. Brain defects include a left-right reversal of pitx2 expression in the dorsal diencephalon and a left-right reversal of the prominent habenular nucleus in the brain. Embryos are sensitive to inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during early and mid gastrulation and lose their sensitivity during late gastrulation and early segmentation. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during gastrulation inhibits expression of no tail (ntl) and left-right dynein related (lrdr) in the dorsal forerunner cells and affects development of Kupffer's vesicle, a ciliated organ that generates a counter-clockwise flow of fluid. Previous studies have shown that Ca(2+) plays a role in Kupffer's vesicle function, influencing ciliary motility and translating the vesicle's counter-clockwise flow into asymmetric patterns of gene expression. The present results suggest that Ca(2+) plays an additional role in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle.

  17. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  18. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months. Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  19. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  20. Which way is up? Asymmetric spectral input along the dorsal-ventral axis influences postural responses in an amphibious annelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John

    2014-11-01

    Medicinal leeches are predatory annelids that exhibit countershading and reside in aquatic environments where light levels might be variable. They also leave the water and must contend with terrestrial environments. Yet, leeches generally maintain a dorsal upward position despite lacking statocysts. Leeches respond visually to both green and near-ultraviolet (UV) light. I used LEDs to test the hypothesis that ventral, but not dorsal UV would evoke compensatory movements to orient the body. Untethered leeches were tested using LEDs emitting at red (632 nm), green (513 nm), blue (455 nm) and UV (372 nm). UV light evoked responses in 100 % of trials and the leeches often rotated the ventral surface away from it. Visible light evoked no or modest responses (12-15 % of trials) and no body rotation. Electrophysiological recordings showed that ventral sensilla responded best to UV, dorsal sensilla to green. Additionally, a higher order interneuron that is engaged in a variety of parallel networks responded vigorously to UV presented ventrally, and both the visible and UV responses exhibited pronounced light adaptation. These results strongly support the suggestion that a dorsal light reflex in the leech uses spectral comparisons across the dorsal-ventral axis rather than, or in addition to, luminance.

  1. Reciprocal neural response within lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex during hot and cold reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Dolan, Raymond J

    2003-12-01

    Logic is widely considered the basis of rationality. Logical choices, however, are often influenced by emotional responses, sometimes to our detriment, sometimes to our advantage. To understand the neural basis of emotionally neutral ("cold") and emotionally salient ("hot") reasoning we studied 19 volunteers using event-related fMRI, as they made logical judgments about arguments that varied in emotional saliency. Despite identical logical form and content categories across "hot" and "cold" reasoning conditions, lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex showed reciprocal response patterns as a function of emotional saliency of content. "Cold" reasoning trials resulted in enhanced activity in lateral/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (L/DLPFC) and suppression of activity in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). By contrast, "hot" reasoning trials resulted in enhanced activation in VMPFC and suppression of activation in L/DLPFC. This reciprocal engagement of L/DLPFC and VMPFC provides evidence for a dynamic neural system for reasoning, the configuration of which is strongly influenced by emotional saliency.

  2. Origin Level of the Ventral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta in the Rabbit and European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maženský D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the level of origin of the branches originating from the ventral surface of the abdominal aorta in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of the celiac, cranial mesenteric and caudal mesenteric arteries in both species. In the rabbit, the celiac artery originated in the majority of cases at the cranial end of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the middle part of the vertebral body of the same vertebra. The cranial mesenteric artery in the rabbit originated predominantly at the level of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. In the rabbit, the caudal mesenteric artery originated mainly at the level of the sixth lumbar vertebra and in the hare, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. We concluded that there were higher variabilities of the origins of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta in domesticated rabbit in comparison with the European hare.

  3. Dorsal and ventral working memory-related brain areas support distinct processes in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginelli, Angela A; Baumgartner, Florian; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the use of implicitly learned spatial contexts for improved visual search may depend on visual working memory resources. Working memory may be involved in contextual cueing in different ways: (1) for keeping implicitly learned working memory contents available during search or (2) for the capture of attention by contexts retrieved from memory. We mapped brain areas that were modulated by working memory capacity. Within these areas, activation was modulated by contextual cueing along the descending segment of the intraparietal sulcus, an area that has previously been related to maintenance of explicit memories. Increased activation for learned displays, but not modulated by the size of contextual cueing, was observed in the temporo-parietal junction area, previously associated with the capture of attention by explicitly retrieved memory items, and in the ventral visual cortex. This pattern of activation extends previous research on dorsal versus ventral stream functions in memory guidance of attention to the realm of attentional guidance by implicit memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Org-1-dependent lineage reprogramming generates the ventral longitudinal musculature of the Drosophila heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Christoph; März, Johannes; Reim, Ingolf; Frasch, Manfred

    2015-02-16

    Only few examples of transdifferentiation, which denotes the conversion of one differentiated cell type to another, are known to occur during normal development, and more often, it is associated with regeneration processes. With respect to muscles, dedifferentiation/redifferentiation processes have been documented during post-traumatic muscle regeneration in blastema of newts as well as during myocardial regeneration. As shown herein, the ventral longitudinal muscles of the adult Drosophila heart arise from specific larval alary muscles in a process that represents the first known example of syncytial muscle transdifferentiation via dedifferentiation into mononucleate myoblasts during normal development. We demonstrate that this unique process depends on the reinitiation of a transcriptional program previously employed for embryonic alary muscle development, in which the factors Org-1 (Drosophila Tbx1) and Tailup (Drosophila Islet1) are key components. During metamorphosis, the action of these factors is combined with cell-autonomous inputs from the ecdysone steroid and the Hox gene Ultrabithorax, which provide temporal and spatial specificity to the transdifferentiation events. Following muscle dedifferentiation, inductive cues, particularly from the remodeling heart tube, are required for the redifferentiation of myoblasts into ventral longitudinal muscles. Our results provide new insights into mechanisms of lineage commitment and cell-fate plasticity during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Fox (forkhead) genes are involved in the dorso-ventral patterning of the Xenopus mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hodiri, H; Bhatia-Dey, N; Kenyon, K; Ault, K; Dirksen, M; Jamrich, M

    2001-01-01

    Fox (forkhead/winged helix) genes encode a family of transcription factors that are involved in embryonic pattern formation, regulation of tissue specific gene expression and tumorigenesis. Several of them are transcribed during Xenopus embryogenesis and are important for the patterning of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. We have isolated three forkhead genes that are activated during gastrulation and play an important role in the dorso-ventral patterning of the mesoderm. XFKH1 (FoxA4b), the first vertebrate forkhead gene to be implicated in embryonic pattern formation, is expressed in the Spemann-Mangold organizer region and later in the embryonic notochord. XFKH7, the Xenopus orthologue of the murine Mfh1(Foxc2), is expressed in the presomitic mesoderm, but not in the notochord or lateral plate mesoderm. Finally, XFD-13'(FoxF1b)1 is expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, but not in the notochord or presomitic mesoderm. Expression pattern and functional experiments indicate that these three forkhead genes are involved in the dorso-ventral patterning of the mesoderm.

  7. Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: converging evidence for dissociable ventral and dorsal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J; Chafe, Chris H; Berger, Jonathan; Menon, Vinod

    2007-08-02

    The real world presents our sensory systems with a continuous stream of undifferentiated information. Segmentation of this stream at event boundaries is necessary for object identification and feature extraction. Here, we investigate the neural dynamics of event segmentation in entire musical symphonies under natural listening conditions. We isolated time-dependent sequences of brain responses in a 10 s window surrounding transitions between movements of symphonic works. A strikingly right-lateralized network of brain regions showed peak response during the movement transitions when, paradoxically, there was no physical stimulus. Model-dependent and model-free analysis techniques provided converging evidence for activity in two distinct functional networks at the movement transition: a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with detecting salient events, followed in time by a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with maintaining attention and updating working memory. Our study provides direct experimental evidence for dissociable and causally linked ventral and dorsal networks during event segmentation of ecologically valid auditory stimuli.

  8. Enhanced haemolymph circulation by insect ventral nerve cord: hormonal control by Pseudaletia unipuncta allatotropin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koladich, P M; Tobe, S S; McNeil, J N

    2002-10-01

    The ventral diaphragm (VD) in many insects is a muscular membrane that essentially partitions a perineural sinus from the rest of the abdomen. In the true armyworm moth Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) we describe how the VD is characterized by a series of aliform muscles inserted into a tissue matrix that is fused to the dorsal surface of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) itself. Because of this arrangement, the abdominal VNC can attain high rates of lateral oscillation, and is capable of directing haemolymph flow. We have previously demonstrated Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT)-like immunoreactivity throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in P. unipuncta, and that both Manse-AT and serotonin (5-HT) are dose-dependent stimulators of the dorsal vessel. Here we describe both Manse-AT- and 5-HT-like immunoreactivity associated with the VD. Furthermore, both Manse-AT and 5-HT are dose-dependent stimulators of the rates of VNC oscillation, and together are capable of maintaining highly elevated rates of VNC oscillation for extended periods of time. These data indicate that both the dorsal vessel and the VD/VNC are similarly modulated by both Manse-AT and 5-HT, and that VNC oscillations play a more active role in overall haemolymph circulation than previously recognized.

  9. Serotonin-induced nitric oxide production in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-10-01

    Effect of serotonin on nitric oxide (NO) production in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated by a bio-imaging and an electrochemical technique. In the bio-imaging, the spatial pattern of NO production in VNC was visualized using an NO-specific fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). Application of serotonin (100 microM) increased NO production in VNC by about 65% (PVNC. In the electrochemical technique, real-time basal and serotonin-induced NO production was estimated with an NO-specific electrode. On the ventral surface of VNC, the estimated basal NO production was stable at 200+/-52 nM, and was transiently augmented to 840+/-193 nM by the addition of 10 microM serotonin. In conclusion, the estimated basal NO production in the earthworm VNC is relatively high compared with other nervous systems earlier reported, and transiently augmented by serotonin. Our results suggest that NO signaling in VNC is involved in neuromodulation by serotonin.

  10. Optogenetic Activation of a Lateral Hypothalamic-Ventral Tegmental Drive-Reward Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Eduardo D; Benaliouad, Faiza; Zamora-Olivencia, Veronica; Wise, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus can motivate feeding or can serve as a reward in its own right. It remains unclear whether the same or independent but anatomically overlapping circuitries mediate the two effects. Electrical stimulation findings implicate medial forebrain bundle (MFB) fibers of passage in both effects, and optogenetic studies confirm a contribution from fibers originating in the lateral hypothalamic area and projecting to or through the ventral tegmental area. Here we report that optogenetic activation of ventral tegmental fibers from cells of origin in more anterior or posterior portions of the MFB failed to induce either reward or feeding. The feeding and reward induced by optogenetic activation of fibers from the lateral hypothalamic cells of origin were influenced similarly by variations in stimulation pulse width and pulse frequency, consistent with the hypothesis of a common substrate for the two effects. There were, however, several cases where feeding but not self-stimulation or self-stimulation but not feeding were induced, consistent with the hypothesis that distinct but anatomically overlapping systems mediate the two effects. Thus while optogenetic stimulation provides a more selective tool for characterizing the mechanisms of stimulation-induced feeding and reward, it does not yet resolve the question of common or independent substrates.

  11. Role of the Astroglial Glutamate Exchanger xCT in Ventral Hippocampus in Resilience to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Carla; Bigio, Benedetta; Zelli, Danielle; de Angelis, Paolo; Lau, Timothy; Okamoto, Masahiro; Soya, Hideyo; Ni, Jason; Brichta, Lars; Greengard, Paul; Neve, Rachael L; Lee, Francis S; McEwen, Bruce S

    2017-10-11

    We demonstrate that stress differentially regulates glutamate homeostasis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and identify a role for the astroglial xCT in ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) in stress and antidepressant responses. We provide an RNA-seq roadmap for the stress-sensitive vDG. The transcription factor REST binds to xCT promoter in co-occupancy with the epigenetic marker H3K27ac to regulate expression of xCT, which is also reduced in a genetic mouse model of inherent susceptibility to depressive-like behavior. Pharmacologically, modulating histone acetylation with acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) or acetyl-N-cysteine (NAC) rapidly increases xCT and activates a network with mGlu2 receptors to prime an enhanced glutamate homeostasis that promotes both pro-resilient and antidepressant-like responses. Pharmacological xCT blockage counteracts NAC prophylactic effects. GFAP + -Cre-dependent overexpression of xCT in vDG mimics pharmacological actions in promoting resilience. This work establishes a mechanism by which vDG protection leads to stress resilience and antidepressant responses via epigenetic programming of an xCT-mGlu2 network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Photoperiod and aggression induce changes in ventral gland compounds exclusively in male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Nikki M; Soini, Helena A; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Weigel, Ellen R; Novotny, Milos V; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-05-01

    Chemical communication is a critical component of social behavior as it facilitates social encounters, allows for evaluation of the social partner, defines territories and resources, and advertises information such as sex and physiological state of an animal. Odors provide a key source of information about the social environment to rodents; however, studies identifying chemical compounds have thus far focused primarily on few species, particularly the house mouse. Moreover, considerably less attention has been focused on how environmental factors, reproductive phenotype, and behavioral context alter these compounds outside of reproduction. We examined the effects of photoperiod, sex, and social context on chemical communication in the seasonally breeding Siberian hamster. We sampled ventral gland secretions in both male and female hamsters before and after an aggressive encounter and identified changes in a range of volatile compounds. Next, we investigated how photoperiod, reproductive phenotype, and aggression altered ventral gland volatile compound composition across the sexes. Males exhibited a more diverse chemical composition, more sex-specific volatiles, and showed higher levels of excretion compared to females. Individual volatiles were also differentially excreted across photoperiod and reproductive phenotype, as well as differentially altered in response to an aggressive encounter. Female volatile compound composition, in contrast, did not differ across photoperiods or in response to aggression. Collectively, these data contribute to a greater understanding of context-dependent changes in chemical communication in a seasonally breeding rodent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ventral dermatitis in rowi (Apteryx rowi) due to cutaneous larval migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, B D; Argilla, L; Finlayson, S; Gedye, K; Gonzalez Argandona, A K; Graham, I; Howe, L; Hunter, S; Lenting, B; Makan, T; McInnes, K; Michael, S; Morgan, K J; Scott, I; Sijbranda, D; van Zyl, N; Ward, J M

    2015-04-01

    The rowi is a critically endangered species of kiwi. Young birds on a crèche island showed loss of feathers from the ventral abdomen and a scurfy dermatitis of the abdominal skin and vent margin. Histology of skin biopsies identified cutaneous larval migrans, which was shown by molecular sequencing to be possibly from a species of Trichostrongylus as a cause of ventral dermatitis and occasional ulcerative vent dermatitis. The predisposing factors that led to this disease are suspected to be the novel exposure of the rowi to parasites from seabirds or marine mammals due to the island crèche and the limited management of roost boxes. This is the first instance of cutaneous larval migrans to be recorded in birds. Severe and fatal complications of the investigation resulted in the death of eight birds of aspergillosis and pulmonary complications associated with the use of bark as a substrate in hospital. Another bird died of renal failure during the period of hospitalisation despite oral and intravenous fluid therapy. The initiating cause of the renal failure was not determined. These complications have the potential to undermine the working relationship between wildlife veterinarians and conservation managers. This case highlights that intensive conservation management can result in increased opportunities for novel routes of cross-species pathogen transmission.

  14. Ventral medullary neurones excited from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S M; Smith, P R

    1984-07-01

    In cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the ventral medulla was explored in and around the strip previously identified as the location of the efferent pathway from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas to the spinal cord, in a search for neurones excited by electrical stimulation of the defence areas. Such units were found mostly in the caudal part of this strip, at a depth of not more than 500 microns from the surface. Nearly all were located in the ventral part of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) at the level of the rostral pole of the inferior olive. There was evidence of temporal and spatial facilitation, indicating a convergent excitatory input from the defence areas onto neurones in PGL. This is consistent with earlier evidence of a synaptic relay in the efferent pathway at this site. When the pathway is blocked at this site, arterial blood pressure falls profoundly, so activity in these neurones may be essential for the normal level of sympathetic nerve activity.

  15. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  16. Enhanced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in deaf and dyslexic adults during rhyming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Brammer, Michael J; Waters, Dafydd; Goswami, Usha

    2009-07-01

    Hearing developmental dyslexics and profoundly deaf individuals both have difficulties processing the internal structure of words (phonological processing) and learning to read. In hearing non-impaired readers, the development of phonological representations depends on audition. In hearing dyslexics, many argue, auditory processes may be impaired. In congenitally profoundly deaf individuals, auditory speech processing is essentially absent. Two separate literatures have previously reported enhanced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus in both deaf and dyslexic adults when contrasted with hearing non-dyslexics during reading or phonological tasks. Here, we used a rhyme judgement task to compare adults from these two special populations to a hearing non-dyslexic control group. All groups were matched on non-verbal intelligence quotient, reading age and rhyme performance. Picture stimuli were used since this requires participants to generate their own phonological representations, rather than have them partially provided via text. By testing well-matched groups of participants on the same task, we aimed to establish whether previous literatures reporting differences between individuals with and without phonological processing difficulties have identified the same regions of differential activation in these two distinct populations. The data indicate greater activation in the deaf and dyslexic groups than in the hearing non-dyslexic group across a large portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus. This includes the pars triangularis, extending superiorly into the middle frontal gyrus and posteriorly to include the pars opercularis, and the junction with the ventral precentral gyrus. Within the left inferior frontal gyrus, there was variability between the two groups with phonological processing difficulties. The superior posterior tip of the left pars opercularis, extending into the precentral gyrus, was activated to a greater extent by deaf than dyslexic

  17. Direct Exploration of the Role of the Ventral Anterior Temporal Lobe in Semantic Memory: Cortical Stimulation and Local Field Potential Evidence From Subdural Grid Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotake, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Riki; Ueno, Taiji; Kunieda, Takeharu; Saito, Satoru; Hoffman, Paul; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory is a crucial higher cortical function that codes the meaning of objects and words, and when impaired after neurological damage, patients are left with significant disability. Investigations of semantic dementia have implicated the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region, in general, as crucial for multimodal semantic memory. The potentially crucial role of the ventral ATL subregion has been emphasized by recent functional neuroimaging studies, but the necessity of this precise area has not been selectively tested. The implantation of subdural electrode grids over this subregion, for the presurgical assessment of patients with partial epilepsy or brain tumor, offers the dual yet rare opportunities to record cortical local field potentials while participants complete semantic tasks and to stimulate the functionally identified regions in the same participants to evaluate the necessity of these areas in semantic processing. Across 6 patients, and utilizing a variety of semantic assessments, we evaluated and confirmed that the anterior fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus is crucial in multimodal, receptive, and expressive, semantic processing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Decreased functional connectivity between ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Yip, Sarah W; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Chen, Chao; Yan, Chao-Gan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ben; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-11-18

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become an increasing mental health problem worldwide. Decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been found in substance use and is thought to play an important role in the development of substance addiction. However, rsFC between the VTA and NAcc in a non-substance addiction, such as IGD, has not been assessed previously. The current study aimed to investigate: (1) if individuals with IGD exhibit alterations in VTA-NAcc functional connectivity; and (2) whether VTA-NAcc functional connectivity is associated with subjective Internet craving. Thirty-five male participants with IGD and 24 healthy control (HC) individuals participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions of interest (left NAcc, right NAcc and VTA) were selected based on the literature and were defined by placing spheres centered on Talairach Daemon coordinates. In comparison with HCs, individuals with IGD had significantly decreased rsFC between the VTA and right NAcc. Resting-state functional connectivity strength between the VTA and right NAcc was negatively correlated with self-reported subjective craving for the Internet. These results suggest possible neural functional similarities between individuals with IGD and individuals with substance addictions.

  19. Technical Case Report of Deep Brain Stimulation: Is it Possible Single Electrode Reach to Both of Subthalamic Nucleus and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus in One Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Hülagu; Çakmur, Raif

    2018-04-15

    The primary target of this operation is Ventral Intermediate Nucleus (VIM); however VIM - Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) were tried to be reached with one electrode, adjusting the angle well, the coronal section; medial of VIM can partially reach the STN. Using the properties of the electrode; we believe we could act on a wide area. An analysis was performed on one patient who underwent VIM Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in 3 periods (pre - peri - post-operation). A 53 - year - old woman diagnosed with Parkinson's disease 8 years earlier including symptoms of severe tremor on the right than left underwent bilateral DBS VIM. Obtaining a satisfactory improvement of tremor, the patient did well, and postoperative complications were not observed. The patient was discharged from hospital on postoperative thirty day. It is certain that more research and experience are needed. However, we believe that the two targets can reach the same point and the second operations for another target can be avoided.We believe that this initiative is advantageous and promising regarding patient and cost.

  20. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  1. Haptically guided grasping. FMRI shows right-hemisphere parietal stimulus encoding, and bilateral dorso-ventral parietal gradients of object- and action-related processing during grasp execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eMarangon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  2. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy.

  3. Arteriosclerosis in the ventral aorta and epicarditis in the bulbus arteriosus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, A S; Kristthorsdottir, K H; Griffiths, D J; Bjørklund, K; Poppe, T T

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous mortality of seemingly healthy, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) is an increasing problem in Norwegian aquaculture. In this study, we present a morphological study of the previously undescribed syndrome of arteriosclerosis of the ventral aorta and epicarditis of the adjacent bulbus arteriosus found in farmed Atlantic salmon, with wild-captured fish as a control group. Both the ventral aorta and epicardium are vital for correct arterial compliance and vascular resistance in the respiratory capillaries of the gills. We discuss the possible implications of ventral aorta arteriosclerosis and epicarditis for blood vascular health and in particular for the increasing frequency of spontaneous gill bleeding in farmed salmon. As both these conditions primarily occur in farmed salmon, we suggest that they should be considered pathological. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ventral striatal activity correlates with memory confidence for old- and new-responses in a difficult recognition test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schwarze

    Full Text Available Activity in the ventral striatum has frequently been associated with retrieval success, i.e., it is higher for hits than correct rejections. Based on the prominent role of the ventral striatum in the reward circuit, its activity has been interpreted to reflect the higher subjective value of hits compared to correct rejections in standard recognition tests. This hypothesis was supported by a recent study showing that ventral striatal activity is higher for correct rejections than hits when the value of rejections is increased by external incentives. These findings imply that the striatal response during recognition is context-sensitive and modulated by the adaptive significance of "oldness" or "newness" to the current goals. The present study is based on the idea that not only external incentives, but also other deviations from standard recognition tests which affect the subjective value of specific response types should modulate striatal activity. Therefore, we explored ventral striatal activity in an unusually difficult recognition test that was characterized by low levels of confidence and accuracy. Based on the human uncertainty aversion, in such a recognition context, the subjective value of all high confident decisions is expected to be higher than usual, i.e., also rejecting items with high certainty is deemed rewarding. In an accompanying behavioural experiment, participants rated the pleasantness of each recognition response. As hypothesized, ventral striatal activity correlated in the current unusually difficult recognition test not only with retrieval success, but also with confidence. Moreover, participants indicated that they were more satisfied by higher confidence in addition to perceived oldness of an item. Taken together, the results are in line with the hypothesis that ventral striatal activity during recognition codes the subjective value of different response types that is modulated by the context of the recognition test.

  5. Comparison of the Schirmer tear test I values after placement in ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Ghazal; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Faghihi, Houman

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the Schirmer tear test I values obtained from placement of Schirmer tear test (STT) strips in ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices and to investigate any correlation between age, body weight and STT values in clinically normal cats. Methods Twenty-eight intact adult domestic shorthair and Persian were used in this study. The cats were gently physically restrained in a sternal position, and a Schirmer tear strip was placed on each eye in the ventral conjunctival fornix at one-third of the distance from the temporal to nasal canthus for 60 s. Then, the wetted portion of the strips was measured as mm/min (L-STT I). After 48 h, the same procedure was performed on each eye in the dorsal conjunctival fornix (U-STT I). Results Mean ± SD STT values of the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices were 20.80 ± 2.25 mm/min (range 14-25 mm/min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.92-21.67) and 18.28 ± 2.27 mm/min (range 15-22 mm/min; 95% CI 17.39-19.16) in all of the study population, respectively. A significant difference was found between STT values obtained from the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices ( P <0.001). There was no correlation between the age and body weight of the animals and STT I values. Conclusions and relevance This study compared the STT I values of the dorsal and ventral conjunctival fornices in cats. The difference was significant between the L-STT I and U-STT I values; however, the L-STT I and U-STT I values were within normal reference intervals. The U-STT I data have diagnostic value that might be of benefit in cases where there is a problem in the ventral conjunctival fornix.

  6. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Anne Lobier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual attention (VA span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric, similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

  7. First human use of hybrid synthetic/biologic mesh in ventral hernia repair: a multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; El-Hayek, Kevin; Strong, Andrew T; LaPinska, Melissa Phillips; Yoo, Jin S; Pauli, Eric M; Kroh, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position. Patients were classified as Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grades 1-3 and had clean or clean-contaminated wounds. Outcomes of ventral and incisional hernia were compared using appropriate parametric tests. In all, 63 patients underwent VIH repair with hybrid mesh. Most were females (54.0%), had a mean age of 54.8 ± 10.9 years and mean body mass index of 34.5 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 , and classified as VHWG grade 2 (87.3%). Most defects were midline (92.1%) with a mean area of 106 ± 155 cm 2 . Cases were commonly classified as clean (92.1%) and were performed laparoscopically (60.3%). Primary fascial closure was achieved in 82.5% with 28.2% requiring component separation. Mesh location was frequently intraperitoneal (69.8%). Overall, 39% of patients available for follow-up at 12 months suffered surgical site events, which were generally more frequent after incisional hernia repair. Of these, seroma (23.7%) was most common, but few (8.5%) required procedural intervention. Other surgical site events that required procedural intervention included hematoma (1.7%), wound dehiscence (1.7%), and surgical site infection (3.4%). Recurrence rate was 6.8% (95% CI 2.2-16.6%) at 12-months postoperatively. Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device is safe and effective in VHWG grade 1-2 patients with clean wounds out to 12 months. Short-term outcomes and recurrence rate

  8. Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain

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    Goldstein-Kral Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their

  9. Preoperative Botulinum toxin A enabling defect closure and laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Acevedo, Omar; Elstner, Kristen E; Jacombs, Anita S W; Read, John W; Martins, Rodrigo Tomazini; Arduini, Fernando; Wehrhahm, Michael; Craft, Colette; Cosman, Peter H; Dardano, Anthony N; Ibrahim, Nabeel

    2018-02-01

    Operative management of complex ventral hernia still remains a significant challenge for surgeons. Closure of large defects in the unprepared abdomen has serious pathophysiological consequences due to chronic contraction and retraction of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. We report outcomes of 56 consecutive patients who had preoperative Botulinum toxin A (BTA) abdominal wall relaxation facilitating closure and repair. This was a prospective observational study of 56 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided BTA into the lateral abdominal oblique muscles prior to elective ventral hernia repair between November 2012 and January 2017. Serial non-contrast abdominal CT imaging was performed to evaluate changes in lateral oblique muscle length and thickness. All hernias were repaired laparoscopically, or laparoscopic-open-laparoscopic (LOL) using intraperitoneal onlay mesh. 56 patients received BTA injections at predetermined sites to the lateral oblique muscles, which were well tolerated. Mean patient age was 59.7 years, and mean BMI was 30.9 kg/m 2 (range 21.8-54.0). Maximum defect size was 24 × 27 cm. A subset of 18 patients underwent preoperative pneumoperitoneum as an adjunct procedure. A comparison of pre-BTA to post-BTA imaging demonstrated an increase in mean lateral abdominal wall length from 16.1 cm to 20.1 cm per side, a mean gain of 4.0 cm/side (range 1.0-11.7 cm/side) (p LOL primary closure was achieved in all cases, with no clinical evidence of raised intra-abdominal pressures. One patient presented with a new fascial defect 26 months post-operative. Preoperative BTA to the lateral abdominal wall muscles is a safe and effective technique for the preparation of patients prior to operative management of complex ventral hernias. BTA temporary flaccid paralysis relaxes, elongates and thins the chronically contracted abdominal musculature. This in turn reduces lateral traction forces facilitating laparoscopic repair and fascial closure of large

  10. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  11. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  12. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  13. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare congenitalanomaly of the coronary arteries. The prevalence of theanomaly in different studies ranges from 0.6% to 1.3%. Ofthese, 80% are benign and asymptomatic and 20% are clinicallyimportant. We report a 56-year-old man presented withacute resting chest pain who was diagnosed as having acuteanterolateral infarction accompanied by electrocardiographicchanges and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiographyin different views was conducted, however, no left circumflexartery was found. The territory supplied by the artery had beenperfused by the super dominant right coronary artery. Therewas no left circumflex coronary artery with anomalous origin.Sever stenosis of left anterior ascending artery superimposedto the absent left circumflex artery was presented as acute anterolateralinfarction. Although absence of the artery is mostlyconsidered as a benign condition, atherosclerotic lesions maybe more important in such cases because of diminished compensatingmechanisms.

  14. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  15. Repair of aorto-left ventricular tunnel arising from the left sinus of valsalva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Maleki, Mahmood Hosseinzadeh; Javan, Hadi; Zirak, Nahid

    2010-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that bypasses the aortic valve via a para-valvular connection from the left ventricle to the aorta. In most cases, the tunnel arises from the right aortic sinus. In this case report, we are presenting a case of ALVT, of which the aortic orifice arose from the left aortic sinus, requiring special attention to avoid the left coronary artery injury at the time of surgical repair.

  16. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis.

  17. Mere Exposure: Preference Change for Novel Drinks Reflected in Human Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ian C; Hennigan, Kelly; McClure, Samuel M

    2017-05-01

    Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change. Furthermore, a network comprising the sensory thalamus, posterior insula, and ventrolateral striatum showed differential connectivity with the VTA that correlated with individual changes in preference. Our results suggest that the VTA is centrally involved in both assigning value to sensory stimuli and influencing downstream regions to translate these value signals into subjective preference. These results have important implications for models of dopaminergic function and behavioral addiction.

  18. Dissociating frontal regions that co-lateralize with different ventral occipitotemporal regions during word processing☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The ventral occipitotemporal sulcus (vOT) sustains strong interactions with the inferior frontal cortex during word processing. Consequently, activation in both regions co-lateralize towards the same hemisphere in healthy subjects. Because the determinants of lateralisation differ across posterior, middle and anterior vOT subregions, we investigated whether lateralisation in different inferior frontal regions would co-vary with lateralisation in the three different vOT subregions. A whole brain analysis found that, during semantic decisions on written words, laterality covaried in (1) posterior vOT and the precentral gyrus; (2) middle vOT and the pars opercularis, pars triangularis, and supramarginal gyrus; and (3) anterior vOT and the pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus and thalamus. These findings increase the spatial resolution of our understanding of how vOT interacts with other brain areas during semantic categorisation on words. PMID:23728081

  19. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T

    2009-01-01

    . Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal......Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro...... derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing....

  20. Hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal activation during retrieval-mediated learning supports novel inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Dominick, April L; Preston, Alison R

    2012-07-12

    Memory enables flexible use of past experience to inform new behaviors. Although leading theories hypothesize that this fundamental flexibility results from the formation of integrated memory networks relating multiple experiences, the neural mechanisms that support memory integration are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that retrieval-mediated learning, whereby prior event details are reinstated during encoding of related experiences, supports participants' ability to infer relationships between distinct events that share content. Furthermore, we show that activation changes in a functionally coupled hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal cortical circuit track the formation of integrated memories and successful inferential memory performance. These findings characterize the respective roles of these regions in retrieval-mediated learning processes that support relational memory network formation and inferential memory in the human brain. More broadly, these data reveal fundamental mechanisms through which memory representations are constructed into prospectively useful formats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    the hyperplastic growth phase of the prostate in newborn rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Newborn rats were treated for 8 weeks with EGF (150 microg/kg body weight per day), administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Sections of the prostate tissue were examined by a stereological technique to determine tissue......OBJECTIVE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is expressed in the rat prostate, and growth factors from this system induce proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cell cultures. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible growth-promoting effects of the system during...... of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p

  2. Duration of inhibition of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons encodes a level of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileykovskiy, Boris; Morales, Marisela

    2011-05-18

    It is widely accepted that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons encode actual and expected reward values by phasic alterations in firing rate. However, how DA neurons encode negative events in the environment is still unclear because some DA neurons appear to be depressed and others excited by aversive stimuli. Here, we show that exposing fear-conditioned rats to stimuli predicting electrical shock elicited three types of biphasic responses, each of which contained an inhibitory pause, in neurochemically identified ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. The duration of the inhibitory pause in these responses of VTA DA neurons was in direct proportion to the increase in respiratory rate reflecting the level of conditioned fear. Our results suggest that the duration of inhibition of VTA DA neurons encodes negative emotional values of signals predicting aversive events in the environment.

  3. A computational exploration of complementary learning mechanisms in the primate ventral visual pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerer, Courtney J; Eguchi, Akihiro; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-02-01

    In order to develop transformation invariant representations of objects, the visual system must make use of constraints placed upon object transformation by the environment. For example, objects transform continuously from one point to another in both space and time. These two constraints have been exploited separately in order to develop translation and view invariance in a hierarchical multilayer model of the primate ventral visual pathway in the form of continuous transformation learning and temporal trace learning. We show for the first time that these two learning rules can work cooperatively in the model. Using these two learning rules together can support the development of invariance in cells and help maintain object selectivity when stimuli are presented over a large number of locations or when trained separately over a large number of viewing angles. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis following Laparoscopic Small Bowel Resection and Ventral Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhradeev Sivasambu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic surgery that has been described in literature. Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as mesenteric ischemia and infarction. A 51-year-old lady had laparoscopic small bowel resection and primary anastomosis with ventral hernia repair 4 weeks earlier for partial small bowel obstruction. Her postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged home. Four weeks after surgery she developed watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain for four-day duration. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed portomesenteric venous thrombosis although a computed tomography of abdomen before surgery 4 weeks back did not show any portomesenteric venous thrombosis. We are reporting a case of acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery.

  5. The visual neuroscience of robotic grasping achieving sensorimotor skills through dorsal-ventral stream integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chinellato, Eris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents interdisciplinary research that pursues the mutual enrichment of neuroscience and robotics. Building on experimental work, and on the wealth of literature regarding the two cortical pathways of visual processing - the dorsal and ventral streams - we define and implement, computationally and on a real robot, a functional model of the brain areas involved in vision-based grasping actions. Grasping in robotics is largely an unsolved problem, and we show how the bio-inspired approach is successful in dealing with some fundamental issues of the task. Our robotic system can safely perform grasping actions on different unmodeled objects, denoting especially reliable visual and visuomotor skills. The computational model and the robotic experiments help in validating theories on the mechanisms employed by the brain areas more directly involved in grasping actions. This book offers new insights and research hypotheses regarding such mechanisms, especially for what concerns the interaction between the...

  6. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  7. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983

  8. Computational Modelling of the Neural Representation of Object Shape in the Primate Ventral Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro eEguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in successive stages of the primate ventral visual pathway encode the spatial structure of visual objects. In this paper, we investigate through computer simulation how these cell firing properties may develop through unsupervised visually-guided learning. Individual neurons in the model are shown to exploit statistical regularity and temporal continuity of the visual inputs during training to learn firing properties that are similar to neurons in V4 and TEO. Neurons in V4 encode the conformation of boundary contour elements at a particular position within an object regardless of the location of the object on the retina, while neurons in TEO integrate information from multiple boundary contour elements. This representation goes beyond mere object recognition, in which neurons simply respond to the presence of a whole object, but provides an essential foundation from which the brain is subsequently able to recognise the whole object.

  9. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  10. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  11. Fast and automatic activation of an abstract representation of money in the human ventral visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tallon-Baudry

    Full Text Available Money, when used as an incentive, activates the same neural circuits as rewards associated with physiological needs. However, unlike physiological rewards, monetary stimuli are cultural artifacts: how are monetary stimuli identified in the first place? How and when does the brain identify a valid coin, i.e. a disc of metal that is, by social agreement, endowed with monetary properties? We took advantage of the changes in the Euro area in 2002 to compare neural responses to valid coins (Euros, Australian Dollars with neural responses to invalid coins that have lost all monetary properties (French Francs, Finnish Marks. We show in magneto-encephalographic recordings, that the ventral visual pathway automatically distinguishes between valid and invalid coins, within only ∼150 ms. This automatic categorization operates as well on coins subjects were familiar with as on unfamiliar coins. No difference between neural responses to scrambled controls could be detected. These results could suggest the existence of a generic, all-purpose neural representation of money that is independent of experience. This finding is reminiscent of a central assumption in economics, money fungibility, or the fact that a unit of money is substitutable to another. From a neural point of view, our findings may indicate that the ventral visual pathway, a system previously thought to analyze visual features such as shape or color and to be influenced by daily experience, could also able to use conceptual attributes such as monetary validity to categorize familiar as well as unfamiliar visual objects. The symbolic abilities of the posterior fusiform region suggested here could constitute an efficient neural substrate to deal with culturally defined symbols, independently of experience, which probably fostered money's cultural emergence and success.

  12. Focal inflammation in the embryological ventral pancreas: assessment using CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kawai, H.; Naganawa, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To identify the characteristic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of nonuniform inflammation between the posterior aspect of the head and the remainder of the pancreas. Materials and methods: Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated images of 19 patients in whom the degree of attenuation in the CT images and/or the signal intensity in the MRI images differed between the posterior aspect of the head (ventral primordium) and the remainder of the pancreas (dorsal primordium) due to benign disorders other than uneven fatty replacement. Multiphase, contrast-enhanced CT examinations were performed in 17 patients. In five, T1- and T2-weighted images with and without fat suppression were obtained using a 1.5 T superconducting MRI system. Results: The lesions were localized in the posterior aspect of the head in 17 patients. In two patients, the lesions occupied the posterior aspect of the head and extended to the neck. The lesions exhibited the following findings: inhomogeneous hypoattenuation (with spotty areas of relatively well-maintained contrast enhancement) during the pancreatic phase (17/17) and no intense peripheral enhancement or central necrotic areas (17/17) in CT images, hypointensity in T1-weighed images (5/5), hyperintensity in T2-weighed images (4/5), no vascular invasion (19/19), failure to depict the entire course of Wirsung's duct (17/19), and calcification (13/19). Santorini's ducts were depicted in all but three patients. Conclusion: Focal inflammation in the embryological ventral pancreas exhibits a unique anatomical distribution and characteristic findings

  13. Concomitant release of ventral tegmental acetylcholine and accumbal dopamine by ghrelin in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Jerlhag

    Full Text Available Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, regulates energy balance specifically via hypothalamic circuits. Growing evidence suggest that ghrelin increases the incentive value of motivated behaviours via activation of the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. It encompasses the cholinergic afferent projection from the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg to the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the mesolimbic dopamine system projecting from the VTA to nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.. Ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A are expressed in these reward nodes and ghrelin administration into the LDTg increases accumbal dopamine, an effect involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the VTA. The present series of experiments were undertaken directly to test this hypothesis. Here we show that ghrelin, administered peripherally or locally into the LDTg concomitantly increases ventral tegmental acetylcholine as well as accumbal dopamine release. A GHS-R1A antagonist blocks this synchronous neurotransmitter release induced by peripheral ghrelin. In addition, local perfusion of the unselective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine into the VTA blocks the ability of ghrelin (administered into the LDTg to increase N.Acc.-dopamine, but not VTA-acetylcholine. Collectively our data indicate that ghrelin activates the LDTg causing a release of acetylcholine in the VTA, which in turn activates local nicotinic acetylcholine receptors causing a release of accumbal dopamine. Given that a dysfunction in the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward system is involved in addictive behaviours, including compulsive overeating and alcohol use disorder, and that hyperghrelinemia is associated with such addictive behaviours, ghrelin-responsive circuits may serve as a novel pharmacological target for treatment of alcohol use disorder as well as binge eating.

  14. Investigation of Financial Conflict of Interest among Published Ventral Hernia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Olavarria, Oscar A; Bernardi, Karla; Viso, Cristina P; Moses, Maya L; Holihan, Julie L; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2018-03-01

    Discordance exists between author self-disclosure and the Open Payments Database in various surgical fields, but the effects of this discordance on study design and presentation are unknown. We hypothesized that, among ventral hernia publications, discordance exists between industry and physician self-reported conflicts of interest (COIs); authors disclose relevant COIs; and disclosure and relevant COIs affect study favorability. We conducted a double-blinded, prospective, observational study of published articles. PubMed was searched in reverse chronological order for clinical articles pertaining to ventral hernias. Authors' self-disclosed conflicts were compared with those on the Open Payments Database. Two reviewers blinded to article disclosure status determined jointly whether the COIs were relevant to the article. Three blinded referees independently voted whether each article was favorable to discussed subject matter. The primary end point was study favorability. Secondary outcomes included disclosure status and relevance. One hundred articles were included. Compared with authors with no COIs, authors with a COI, self-disclosed or not, were twice as likely to write results favorable to industry. Of those with a COI, most of the articles had a relevant COI (37 of 45 [82.2%]), and 25% of relevant COIs were not disclosed by authors. Among authors with a relevant COI, study favorability remained unchanged at 68.5% (control: no COI 33.3%; p reporting of COI is discordant in 63% of articles. Twenty-five percent of relevant COI are not disclosed. Having a COI increases the chances that an article will cast a favorable impression on the company paying the authors by 200%. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal Ventral and Dorsal Attention Network Activity During Single and Dual Target Detection in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Jimenez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls. In both tasks, letters were targets and numbers were distractors. For the dual target task, the second target (T2 was presented at 3 different lags after the first target (T1 (lag1=100ms, lag3=300ms, lag7=700ms. For both single and dual target tasks, patients identified fewer targets than controls. For the dual target task, both groups showed the expected AB effect with poorer performance at lag 3 than at lags 1 or 7, and there was no group by lag interaction. During the single target task, patients showed abnormally increased deactivation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, a key region of the ventral network. When attention demands were increased during the dual target task, patients showed overactivation of the posterior intraparietal cortex, a key dorsal network region, along with failure to deactivate TPJ. Results suggest inefficient and faulty suppression of salience-oriented processing regions, resulting in increased sensitivity to stimuli in general, and difficulty distinguishing targets from non-targets.

  16. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  17. The ventral nerve cord in Cephalocarida (Crustacea): new insights into the ground pattern of Tetraconata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegner, Martin E J; Brenneis, Georg; Richter, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Cephalocarida are Crustacea with many anatomical features that have been interpreted as plesiomorphic with respect to crustaceans or Tetraconata. While the ventral nerve cord (VNC) has been investigated in many other arthropods to address phylogenetic and evolutionary questions, the few studies that exist on the cephalocarid VNC date back 20 years, and data pertaining to neuroactive substances in particular are too sparse for comparison. We reinvestigated the VNC of adult Hutchinsoniella macracantha in detail, combining immunolabeling (tubulin, serotonin, RFamide, histamine) and nuclear stains with confocal laser microscopy, complemented by 3D-reconstructions based on serial semithin sections. The subesophageal ganglion in Cephalocarida comprises three segmental neuromeres (Md, Mx1, Mx2), while a separate ganglion occurs in all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and the telson are free of ganglia. The maxillar neuromere and the thoracic ganglia correspond closely in their limb innervation pattern, their pattern of mostly four segmental commissures and in displaying up to six individually identified serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per body side, which exceeds the number found in most other tetraconates. Only two commissures and two serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per side are present in abdominal ganglia. The stomatogastric nervous system in H. macracantha corresponds to that in other crustaceans and includes, among other structures, a pair of lateral neurite bundles. These innervate the gut as well as various trunk muscles and are, uniquely, linked to the unpaired median neurite bundle. We propose that most features of the cephalocarid ventral nerve cord (VNC) are plesiomorphic with respect to the tetraconate ground pattern. Further, we suggest that this ground pattern includes more serotonin-like neurons than hitherto assumed, and argue that a sister-group relationship between Cephalocarida and Remipedia, as

  18. First-Pass Processing of Value Cues in the Ventral Visual Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Dennis; Emeric, Erik; Stuphorn, Veit; Connor, Charles E

    2018-02-19

    Real-world value often depends on subtle, continuously variable visual cues specific to particular object categories, like the tailoring of a suit, the condition of an automobile, or the construction of a house. Here, we used microelectrode recording in behaving monkeys to test two possible mechanisms for category-specific value-cue processing: (1) previous findings suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) identifies object categories, and based on category identity, PFC could use top-down attentional modulation to enhance visual processing of category-specific value cues, providing signals to PFC for calculating value, and (2) a faster mechanism would be first-pass visual processing of category-specific value cues, immediately providing the necessary visual information to PFC. This, however, would require learned mechanisms for processing the appropriate cues in a given object category. To test these hypotheses, we trained monkeys to discriminate value in four letter-like stimulus categories. Each category had a different, continuously variable shape cue that signified value (liquid reward amount) as well as other cues that were irrelevant. Monkeys chose between stimuli of different reward values. Consistent with the first-pass hypothesis, we found early signals for category-specific value cues in area TE (the final stage in monkey ventral visual pathway) beginning 81 ms after stimulus onset-essentially at the start of TE responses. Task-related activity emerged in lateral PFC approximately 40 ms later and consisted mainly of category-invariant value tuning. Our results show that, for familiar, behaviorally relevant object categories, high-level ventral pathway cortex can implement rapid, first-pass processing of category-specific value cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radio-anatomical analysis of the pericranial flap "money box approach" for ventral skull base reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Alfonso; Langdon, Cristóbal; López-Chacon, Mauricio; Cordero, Arturo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Carrau, Ricardo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Alobid, Isam

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the versatility of the pericranial flap (PCF) to reconstruct the ventral skull base, using the frontal sinus as a gate for its passage into the sinonasal corridor "money box approach." Anatomic-radiological study and case series. Various approaches and their respective defects (cribriform, transtuberculum, clival, and craniovertebral junction) were completed in 10 injected specimens. The PCF was introduced into the nose through the uppermost portion of the frontal sinus (money box approach). Computed tomography (CT) scans (n = 50) were used to measure the dimensions of the PCF and the skull base defects. The vertical projection of the external ear canal was used as the reference point to standardize the incisions for the PCF. The surface area and maximum length of the PCF were 121.5 ± 19.4 cm 2 and 18.3 ± 1.3 cm, respectively. Using CT scans, we determined that to reconstruct defects secondary to transcribriform, transtuberculum, clival, and craniovertebral approaches, the PCF distal incision must be placed respectively at -3.7 ± 2.0 cm (angle -17.4 ± 8.5°), -0.2 ± 2.0 cm (angle -1.0 ± 9.3°), +5.5 ± 2.3 cm (angle +24.4 ± 9.7°), +8.4 ± 2.4 cm (angle +36.6 ± 11.5°), as related to the reference point. Skull base defects in our clinical cohort (n = 6) were completely reconstructed uneventfully with the PCF. The PCF renders enough surface area to reconstruct all possible defects in the ventral and median skull base. Using the uppermost frontal sinus as a gateway into the nose (money box approach) is feasible and simple. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2482-2489, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Weak surround suppression of the attentional focus characterizes visual selection in the ventral stream in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological findings in the typical population demonstrate that spatial scrutiny for visual selection determines a center-surround profile of the attentional focus, which is the result of recurrent processing in the visual system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD manifest several anomalies in their visual selection, with strengths in detail-oriented tasks, but also difficulties in distractor inhibition tasks. Here, we asked whether contradictory aspects of perception in ASD might be due to a different center-surround profile of their attentional focus. In two experiments, we tested two independent samples of children with ASD, comparing them with typically developing (TD peers. In Experiment 1, we used a psychophysical task that mapped the entire spatial profile of the attentional focus. In Experiment 2, we used dense-array electroencephalography (EEG to explore its neurophysiological underpinnings. Experiment 1 results showed that the suppression, surrounding the attentional focus, was markedly reduced in children with ASD. Experiment 2 showed that the center-surround profile in TD children resulted in a modulation of the posterior N2 ERP component, with cortical sources in the lateral-occipital and medial/inferior temporal areas. In contrast, children with ASD did not show modulation of the N2 and related activations in the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, behavioural and neurophysiological measures of weaker suppression predicted more severe autistic symptomatology. The present findings, showing an altered center-surround profile during attentional selection, give an important insight to understand superior visual processing in autism as well as the experiencing of sensory overload. Keywords: EEG, Source analysis, Ventral visual stream, Perception, Rehabilitation

  2. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  3. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [ 11 C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([ 11 C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [ 11 C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  4. Glutamatergic stimulation of the left dentate gyrus abolishes depressive-like behaviors in a rat learned helplessness paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeho; Cho, Hojin; Kim, Gun Tae; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo

    2017-10-01

    Episodic experiences of stress have been identified as the leading cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). The occurrence of MDD is profoundly influenced by the individual's coping strategy, rather than the severity of the stress itself. Resting brain activity has been shown to alter in several mental disorders. However, the functional relationship between resting brain activity and coping strategies has not yet been studied. In the present study, we observed different patterns of resting brain activity in rats that had determined either positive (resilient to stress) or negative (vulnerable to stress) coping strategies, and examined whether modulation of the preset resting brain activity could influence the behavioral phenotype associated with negative coping strategy (i.e., depressive-like behaviors). We used a learned helplessness paradigm-a well-established model of MDD-to detect coping strategies. Differences in resting state brain activity between animals with positive and negative coping strategies were assessed using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Glutamatergic stimulation was used to modulate resting brain activity. After exposure to repeated uncontrollable stress, seven of 23 rats exhibited positive coping strategies, while eight of 23 rats exhibited negative coping strategies. Increased resting brain activity was observed only in the left ventral dentate gyrus of the positive coping rats using FDG-PET. Furthermore, glutamatergic stimulation of the left dentate gyrus abolished depressive-like behaviors in rats with negative coping strategies. Increased resting brain activity in the left ventral dentate gyrus helps animals to select positive coping strategies in response to future stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavior-driven arc expression is reduced in all ventral hippocampal subfields compared to CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus in rat dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, M K; Sutherland, V L; Olson, K; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2018-02-01

    Anatomical connectivity and lesion studies reveal distinct functional heterogeneity along the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. The immediate early gene Arc is known to be involved in neural plasticity and memory and can be used as a marker for cell activity that occurs, for example, when hippocampal place cells fire. We report here, that Arc is expressed in a greater proportion of cells in dorsal CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG), following spatial behavioral experiences compared to ventral hippocampal subregions (dorsal CA1 = 33%; ventral CA1 = 13%; dorsal CA3 = 23%; ventral CA3 = 8%; and dorsal DG = 2.5%; ventral DG = 1.2%). The technique used here to obtain estimates of numbers of behavior-driven cells across the dorsal-ventral axis, however, corresponds quite well with samples from available single unit recording studies. Several explanations for the two- to-threefold reduction in spatial behavior-driven cell activity in the ventral hippocampus can be offered. These include anatomical connectivity differences, differential gain of the self-motion signals that appear to alter the scale of place fields and the proportion of active cells, and possibly variations in the neuronal responses to non-spatial information within the hippocampus along its dorso-ventral axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social aspects of left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human history left-handedness has been considered as sinful. It has been associated with the devil, weakness, female gender, unhealthiness, evil, something that has to be turned to a “good” - right side by force. Left-handedness is being more and more acceptable at rational level, but in everyday life it is still considered to be unusual if someone writes with the left hand. Lessening of the number of lefthanders is associated with ageing. There are about 13% lefthanders among people in twenties and less than 1% lefthanders among those in eighties. This finding may be explaned with more pronounced socio-cultural pressure on left-handed people in the past, compared to nowadays. On the other hand, this may also support the hypothesis about a reduced life span of lefthanded people. With cross-exercising of left-handedness, certain typical characteristics and behavioral patterns appear in these people. This was a sort of provoked behavior and an attack on the integrity of an emotional attitude toward oneself. Stuttering may also appear as a consequence of unsuccessful cross-exercising of left-handedness. The hypothesis about left-handedness as an advantage is supported with the reports about relatively more lefthanders in some specific groups such as: mathematicians, sculptors, architects, painters, musicians, actors, tennis players, as well as famous army commanders and rulers.

  7. Steroidogenic factor 1 directs programs regulating diet-induced thermogenesis and leptin action in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is exclusively expressed in the brain in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and is required for the development of this nucleus. However, the physiological importance of transcriptional programs regulated by SF-1 in the VMH is not wel...

  8. Catecholaminergic development of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon : Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasini, R; Kema, IP; Muskiet, FAJ; Meiborg, G; Staal, MJ; Go, KG

    We determined dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and adrenaline (A), as well as immunohistochemically stained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA in dissected rat ventral mesencephalon (VM) tissue from Embryonic Day (ED) 14 to Postnatal Day (P) 17. Whole VM tissue DA, NA, and A contents increased with

  9. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Nathan; Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-07-01

    To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula.

  10. [EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED SKIN FLAP AND V-SHAPED VENTRAL INCISION ALONG THE ROOT OF PENILE SHAFT FOR CONCEALED PENIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junshan; Li, Dumiao; Zhang, Jianxing; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Yali; Lin, Li

    2015-09-01

    To investigate effectiveness of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft for concealed penis in children. Between July 2007 and January 2015, 121 boys with concealed penis were treated with advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft. The age varied from 18 months to 13 years (mean, 7.2 years). Repair was based on a vertical incision in median raphe, complete degloving of penis and tacking its base to the dermis of the skin. Advanced skin flap and a V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft were used to cover the penile shaft. The operation time ranged from 60 to 100 minutes (mean, 75 minutes). Disruption of wound occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; and primary healing of incision was obtained in the others. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median, 24 months). All patients achieved good to excellent cosmetic results with a low incidence of complications. The results were satisfactory in exposure of penis and prepuce appearance. No obvious scar was observed. The penis had similar appearance to that after prepuce circumcision. A combination of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with a similar appearance result to the prepuce circumcision.

  11. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wnt5a regulates ventral midbrain morphogenesis and the development of A9-A10 dopaminergic cells in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersson, E.R.; Prakash, N.; Čajánek, L.; Minina, E.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Bryjová, Lenka; Yamaguchi, T.P.; Hall, A.C.; Wurst, W.; Arenas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 10 (2008), s. 1-14 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Wnt 5a deficient mouse * ventral midbrain * planar cell polarity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. The Pathogenesis of Ventral Idiopathic Herniation of the Spinal Cord: A Hypothesis Based on the Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Brunner, H.G.; Hosman, A.J.; Alfen, N. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic ventral herniation of the spinal cord (SC) is not often encountered in daily practice. Its clinical prevalence, however, will increase through increasing awareness and more frequent use of MRI. A clear explanation of its pathophysiology has never been formulated. It was hypothesized that

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the ventral callosal radiations: new destination, correlations with diffusion tensor imaging fiber-tracking, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Verclytte, Sébastien; Delmaire, Christine; Deramond, Hervé; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Le Gars, Daniel; Godefroy, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    In the current literature, there is a lack of a detailed map of the origin, course, and connections of the ventral callosal radiations of the human brain. The authors used an older dissection technique based on a freezing process as well as diffusion tensor imaging to investigate this area of the human brain. The authors demonstrated interconnections between areas 11, 12, and 25 for the callosal radiations of the trunk and rostrum of the corpus callosum; between areas 9, 10, and 32 for the genu; and between areas 6, 8, and 9 for the ventral third of the body. The authors identified new ventral callosal connections crossing the rostrum between both temporal poles and coursing within the temporal stem, and they named these connections the "callosal radiations of Peltier." They found that the breadth of the callosal radiations slightly increases along their course from the rostrum to the first third of the body of the corpus callosum. The fiber dissection and diffusion tensor imaging techniques are complementary not only in their application to the study of the commissural system in the human brain, but also in their practical use for diagnosis and surgical planning. Further investigations, neurocognitive tests, and other contributions will permit elucidation of the functional relevance of the newly identified callosal radiations in patients with disease involving the ventral corpus callosum.

  15. Effects of sustained serotonin reuptake inhibition on the firing of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    Background: Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are efficacious in depression because of their ability to increase 5-HT neurotransmission. However, owing to a purported inhibitory effect of 5- HT on dopamine (DA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), this increase

  16. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.

  17. Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Nomura, Emi M; Gratton, Caterina; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Anatomical connectivity differences between the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the non-human primate strongly suggests that these regions support different functions. However, after years of study, it remains unclear whether these regions are functionally distinct. In contrast, there has been a groundswell of recent studies providing evidence for a rostro-caudal functional organization, along the lateral as well as dorsomedial frontal cortex. Thus, it is not known whether dorsal and ventral regions of lateral PFC form distinct functional networks and how to reconcile any dorso-ventral organization with the medio-lateral and rostro-caudal axes. Here, we used resting-state connectivity data to identify parallel dorsolateral and ventrolateral streams of intrinsic connectivity with the dorsomedial frontal cortex. Moreover, we show that this connectivity follows a rostro-caudal gradient. Our results provide evidence for a novel framework for the intrinsic organization of the frontal cortex that incorporates connections between medio-lateral, dorso-ventral, and rostro-caudal axes.

  18. The improbability of dorso-ventral axis inversion during animal evolution, as presumed by Geoffroy Saint Hilaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, van den J.A.M.; Edsinger-Gonzales, E.; Schram, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of developmental genetics have lead to the resurrection of the old idea, first proposed in the early 19th century, that the dorso-ventral axis of deuterostomes, such as vertebrates, has been inverted during the course of evolution from that noted in protostomes, i.e.,

  19. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Mirror System Activity for Action and Language Is Embedded in the Integration of Dorsal and Ventral Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the view that the involvement of mirror neurons in embodied experience grounds brain structures that underlie language, but that many other brain regions are involved. We stress the cooperation between the dorsal and ventral streams in praxis and language. Both have perceptual and motor schemas but the perceptual schemas in the dorsal…

  1. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the

  2. Endogenous Opioid-Induced Neuroplasticity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area Influences Natural and Opiate Reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Coppens, Caroline M.; Beloate, Lauren N.; Fuller, Jonathan; Van, Sandy; Frohmader, Karla S.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge on the mesolimbic pathway and activate common mechanism of neural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Chronic exposure to opiates induces plasticity in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which regulates morphine reward tolerance.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ventral midbrain-nucleus accumbens pathway: A role in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisch, A.J.; Bolanos, C.A.; de Wit, J.; Simonak, R.D.; Pudiak, C.M.; Barrot, M.; Verhaagen, J.; Nestler, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous work has shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), are involved in appetitive behavior. Here we show that BDNF in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens (VTA-NAc) pathway is also involved in the development of

  4. GDNF family ligands display distinct action profiles on cultured GABAergic and serotonergic neurons of rat ventral mesencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducray, Angélique; Krebs, Sandra H:; Schaller, Benoft

    2006-01-01

    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN), known as the GDNF family ligands (GFLs), influence the development, survival and differentiation of cultured dopaminergic neurons from ventral mesencephalon (VM). Detailed knowledge about...... factors for VM GABAergic and serotonergic neurons, demonstrating characteristic individual action profiles emphasizing their important and distinct roles during brain development....

  5. Gene expression patterns in the ventral tegmental area relate to oestrus behaviour in high-producing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyszynska-Koko, J.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced oestrus behaviour expression or its absence (silent oestrus) results in subfertility in high-producing dairy cows. Insight into the genomic regulation of oestrus behaviour is likely to help alleviate reproduction problems. Here, gene expression was recorded in the ventral tegmental area

  6. Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Jacobs, Robert A; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2018-06-01

    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Classifiers were trained and tested across task (e.g., training data: pantomime; testing data: identification), stimulus format (e.g., training data: word format; testing format: picture) and specific objects (e.g., training data: scissors vs. corkscrew; testing data: pliers vs. screwdriver). The only brain region in which action relations among objects could be decoded across task, stimulus format and objects was the inferior parietal lobule. By contrast, medial aspects of the ventral surface of the left temporal lobe represented object function, albeit not at the same level of abstractness as actions in the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest compulsory access to abstract action information in the inferior parietal lobe even when simply identifying objects.

  7. Initiation and slow propagation of epileptiform activity from ventral to dorsal medial entorhinal cortex is constrained by an inhibitory gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, Thomas; Matthews, Peter; Phillips, Keith G; Randall, Andrew D; Brown, Jonathan T

    2018-03-31

    The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has an important role in initiation and propagation of seizure activity. Several anatomical relationships exist in neurophysiological properties of mEC neurons; however, in the context of hyperexcitability, previous studies often considered it as a homogeneous structure. Using multi-site extracellular recording techniques, ictal-like activity was observed along the dorso-ventral axis of the mEC in vitro in response to various ictogenic stimuli. This originated predominantly from ventral areas, spreading to dorsal mEC with a surprisingly slow velocity. Modulation of inhibitory tone was capable of changing the slope of ictal initiation, suggesting seizure propagation behaviours are highly dependent on levels of GABAergic function in this region. A distinct disinhibition model also showed, in the absence of inhibition, a prevalence for interictal-like initiation in ventral mEC, reflecting the intrinsic differences in mEC neurons. These findings suggest the ventral mEC is more prone to hyperexcitable discharge than the dorsal mEC, which may be relevant under pathological conditions. The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has an important role in the generation and propagation of seizure activity. The organization of the mEC is such that a number of dorso-ventral relationships exist in neurophysiological properties of neurons. These range from intrinsic and synaptic properties to density of inhibitory connectivity. We examined the influence of these gradients on generation and propagation of epileptiform activity in the mEC. Using a 16-shank silicon probe array to record along the dorso-ventral axis of the mEC in vitro, we found 4-aminopyridine application produces ictal-like activity originating predominantly in ventral areas. This activity spreads to dorsal mEC at a surprisingly slow velocity (138 μm s -1 ), while cross-site interictal-like activity appeared relatively synchronous. We propose that ictal propagation is constrained by

  8. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n...... = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297...

  9. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  10. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, L; Sanchez, L C; Olsen, S N; Baptiste, K E; Merritt, A M

    2008-06-01

    Stall housing has been suggested as a risk factor for ulcer development in the equine stomach; however, the exact pathogenesis for this has not been established. To investigate the effect of 3 environmental situations (grass paddock, stall alone or stall with adjacent companion) on pH in the proximal and the ventral stomach. Six horses with permanently implanted gastric cannulae were used in a randomised, cross-over, block design. Each horse rotated through each of three 24 h environmental situations. Horses remained on their normal diet (grass hay ad libitum and grain b.i.d.) throughout the study. Intragastric pH was measured continuously for 72 h just inside the lower oesophageal sphincter (proximal stomach) and via a pH probe in the gastric cannula (ventral stomach). Neither proximal nor ventral 24 h gastric pH changed significantly between the 3 environmental situations. Mean hourly proximal gastric pH decreased significantly in the interval from 01.00-09.00 h compared to the interval from 13.00-20.00 h, regardless of environmental situation. Median hourly proximal pH only differed in the interval from 06.00-07.00 h compared to the interval 14.00-19.00 h. Neither mean nor median hourly ventral gastric pH varied significantly with the time of day. The change in housing status used in the current study did not affect acid exposure within either region of the equine stomach. The pH in the ventral stomach was uniformly stable throughout the study, while the proximal pH demonstrated a 24 h circadian pattern.

  11. Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvandi, Mina Sadighi; Bourmpoula, Maria; Homberg, Judith R; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2017-11-01

    Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to the CPP (conditioned place preference) paradigm and received 10 mg/kg morphine. Half of the rats were used to evaluate neurogenesis by immunohistochemical markers Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX). The other half was used for Golgi staining to measure spine density and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess BDNF/TrkB expression levels. We found that morphine-treated rats exhibited more place conditioning as compared with saline-treated rats and animals that were exposed to the CPP without any injections. Locomotor activity did not change significantly. Morphine-induced CPP significantly increased the number of Ki67 and DCX-labeled cells in the ventral dentate gyrus. Additionally, we found increased dendritic spine density in both CA1 and dentate gyrus and an enhancement of BDNF/TrkB mRNA levels in the whole ventral hippocampus. Ki67, DCX and spine density were significantly correlated with CPP scores. In conclusion, we show that morphine-induced reward-related memory is associated with neural and synaptic plasticity changes in the ventral hippocampus. Such neural changes could underlie context-induced drug relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  13. Clinical analysis on the treatment of 24 cases of severe traumatic brain injury with non ventral intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical treatment for severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI with non ventral intestinal obstruction. Methods A total of 48 patients with sTBI were enrolled in this study, including 24 with (observation group and 24 without (control group non ventral intestinal obstruction. Among 24 patients with non ventral intestinal obstruction, 3 cases (12.50% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 5 cases (20.83% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 16 cases (66.67% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by gastrointestinal decompression and parenteral nutrition. Among 24 patients without non ventral intestinal obstruction, 4 cases (16.67% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 6 cases (25% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 14 cases (58.33% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by enteral nutrition. Hemoglobin (Hb, albumin (ALB and prealbumin (PA were detected 10 and 20 d after treatment. Results Compared with control group, the level of Hb (P = 0.008, ALB (P = 0.002 and PA (P = 0.031 were significantly reduced in observation group. Compared with 10 d after treatment, the level of Hb (P = 0.003, ALB (P = 0.000 and PA (P = 0.005 were significantly reduced 20 d after treatment. Conclusions Early diagnosis and timely treatment for non ventral intestinal obstruction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury could effectively relieve the symptoms of intestinal obstruction, and is favorable to early enteral nutrition, so as to enhance the patients' recovery. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.01.012

  14. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  15. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior

  16. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Brenneis

    Full Text Available Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i immunolabeling, (ii histology and (iii scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida, the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two

  17. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Robin K; Hebert, Jenna C; Thomas, Arthur S; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2015-01-01

    Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved in predator odor conditioning remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections), when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections), when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between the MS-275 and vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by a mild stressor such as restraint leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization.

  18. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  19. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  20. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

  1. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors

  2. Assessment of left ventricular global function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuel, H.-P.; Baehre, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), i.e. noninvasive evaluation of left venticular performance following the application of radionuclides has had a major impact on many aspects of cardiology and has proven its clinical value and reliability in the last few years. This article deals mainly with the changes in global left ventricular function. The clinical applications of RNV for coronary artery diseases and valvular heart diseases are described. (Auth.)

  3. Aetiological factors in left-handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateralisation associates the extremities and senses of one side of the body, which are connected by afferent and efferent pathways, with the primary motor and sensory areas of the hemisphere on the opposite side. Dominant laterality denotes the appearance of a dominant extremity or sense in the performance of complex psychomotor activities. Laterality is manifested both as right-handedness or left-handedness, which are functionally equivalent and symmetrical in the performance of activities. Right-handedness is significantly more common than left-handedness. Genetic theory is most widely accepted in explaining the onset of lateralisation. According to this theory, the models of brain organisation asymmetry (anatomical, functional, and biochemical are strongly, genetically determined. However, the inability to clearly demonstrate the association between genetic factors and left-handedness has led researchers to investigate the effects of the environment on left-handedness. Of particular interest are the intrauterine environment and the factors influencing foetal development, of which hormones and ultrasound exposure are the most significant. It has been estimated that an extra five cases of nonright-handed lateralisation can be expected in every 100 males who were exposed to ultrasound in utero compared to those who were not. Socio-cultural pressure on left-handed individuals was much more severe in the past, which is confirmed by scientific findings that left-handedness is present in 13% of individuals in their twenties, while in less than 1% of individuals in their eighties.

  4. Region-specific roles of the prelimbic cortex, the dorsal CA1, the ventral DG and ventral CA1 of the hippocampus in the fear return evoked by a sub-conditioning procedure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Xing, Xiaoli; Han, Mengfi; Xu, Na; Piao, Chengji; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Xigeng

    2016-02-01

    The return of learned fear is an important issue in anxiety disorder research since an analogous process may contribute to long-term fear maintenance or clinical relapse. A number of studies demonstrate that mPFC and hippocampus are important in the modulation of post-extinction re-expression of fear memory. However, the region-specific role of these structures in the fear return evoked by a sub-threshold conditioning (SC) is not known. In the present experiments, we first examined specific roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL), the dorsal hippocampus (DH, the dorsal CA1 area in particular), the ventral hippocampus (the ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) and the ventral CA1 area in particular) in this fear return process. Then we examined the role of connections between PL and vCA1 with this behavioral approach. Rats were subjected to five tone-shock pairings (1.0-mA shock) to induce conditioned fear (freezing), followed by three fear extinction sessions (25 tone-alone trials each session). After a post-test for extinction memory, some rats were retrained with the SC procedure to reinstate tone-evoked freezing. Rat groups were injected with low doses of the GABAA agonist muscimol to selectively inactivate PL, DH, vDG, or vCA1 120 min before the fear return test. A disconnection paradigm with ipsilateral or contralateral muscimol injection of the PL and the vCA1 was used to examine the role of this pathway in the fear return. We found that transient inactivation of these areas significantly impaired fear return (freezing): inactivation of the prelimbic cortex blocked SC-evoked fear return in particular but did not influence fear expression in general; inactivation of the DH area impaired fear return, but had no effect on the extinction retrieval process; both ventral DG and ventral CA1 are required for the return of extinguished fear whereas only ventral DG is required for the extinction retrieval. These findings suggest that PL, DH, vDG, and vCA1 all contribute to the fear

  5. A probabilistic map of the human ventral sensorimotor cortex using electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, Jonathan D; Molinaro, Annette M; Chang, Edward F

    2015-08-01

    The human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) is involved in facial expression, mastication, and swallowing, as well as the dynamic and highly coordinated movements of human speech production. However, vSMC organization remains poorly understood, and previously published population-driven maps of its somatotopy do not accurately reflect the variability across individuals in a quantitative, probabilistic fashion. The goal of this study was to describe the responses to electrical stimulation of the vSMC, generate probabilistic maps of function in the vSMC, and quantify the variability across individuals. Photographic, video, and stereotactic MRI data of intraoperative electrical stimulation of the vSMC were collected for 33 patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Stimulation sites were converted to a 2D coordinate system based on anatomical landmarks. Motor, sensory, and speech stimulation responses were reviewed and classified. Probabilistic maps of stimulation responses were generated, and spatial variance was quantified. In 33 patients, the authors identified 194 motor, 212 sensory, 61 speech-arrest, and 27 mixed responses. Responses were complex, stereotyped, and mostly nonphysiological movements, involving hand, orofacial, and laryngeal musculature. Within individuals, the presence of oral movement representations varied; however, the dorsal-ventral order was always preserved. The most robust motor responses were jaw (probability 0.85), tongue (0.64), lips (0.58), and throat (0.52). Vocalizations were seen in 6 patients (0.18), more dorsally near lip and dorsal throat areas. Sensory responses were spatially dispersed; however, patients' subjective reports were highly precise in localization within the mouth. The most robust responses included tongue (0.82) and lips (0.42). The probability of speech arrest was 0.85, highest 15-20 mm anterior to the central sulcus and just dorsal to the sylvian fissure, in the anterior precentral gyrus or pars opercularis. The

  6. Optogenetic Inhibition of Ventral Pallidum Neurons Impairs Context-Driven Salt Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E; Smedley, Elizabeth B; Stansfield, Katherine J; Stott, Jeffrey J; Smith, Kyle S

    2017-06-07

    Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013). However, it is not known whether the VP is necessary for salt appetite in terms of seeking out salt or consuming salt following sodium depletion. Here, we used a conditioned place-preference procedure to investigate the effects of optogenetically inhibiting the VP on context-driven salt seeking and the consumption of salt following deprivation. Male rats learned to associate one context with sucrose and another context with less-desirable salt. Following sodium depletion, and in the absence of either sucrose or salt, we found that inhibiting the VP selectively reduced the elevation in time spent in the salt-paired context. VP inhibition had minimal effects on the consumption of salt once it was made available. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the VP or any brain region is necessary for the ability to use contextual cues to guide salt seeking. These results highlight a dissociation between deficit-driven reward seeking and reward consumption to replenish those deficits, with the former process being particularly sensitive to on-line VP activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Salt appetite, in which rats will immediately seek out a once-undesirable concentrated salt solution after being depleted of bodily sodium despite never having tasted salt as a positive reward, is a phenomenon showing how animals can update their motivational goals without any new learning or conditioning. This salt-seeking behavior is also observed when the animal

  7. Functional μ-Opioid-Galanin Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Quiroz, César; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; Ferré, Sergi

    2017-02-01

    The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin-opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells, we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR-Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative cross talk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin. These specific interactions, which represented biochemical properties of the MOR-Gal1R heteromer, could then be identified in situ in slices of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) with MAPK activation and two additional cell signaling pathways, AKT and CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis experiments showed that the disruptive peptide selectively counteracted the ability of galanin to block the dendritic dopamine release in the rat VTA induced by local infusion of endomorphin-1, demonstrating a key role of MOR-Gal1R heteromers localized in the VTA in the direct control of dopamine cell function and their ability to mediate antagonistic interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands. The results also indicate that MOR-Gal1R heteromers should be viewed as targets for the treatment of opioid use disorders. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) localized in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a key role in the reinforcing and addictive properties of opioids. With parallel in vitro experiments in mammalian transfected cells and in situ and in vivo experiments in rat VTA, we demonstrate that a significant population of these MORs form

  8. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  9. Correction of Residual Ventral Penile Curvature After Division of the Urethral Plate in the First Stage of a 2-Stage Proximal Hypospadias Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J

    2017-02-01

    The first stage of a 2-stage proximal hypospadias repair involves division of the urethral plate and correction of any residual ventral penile curvature (VPC). Options to correct residual VPC include dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening techniques. This review discusses these options and suggests an approach to management. Recent reports of 2-stage proximal hypospadias repairs indicate low rates of recurrent VPC with either dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening. Dorsal corporal shortening with dorsal plication may be preferentially used for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate and ventral corporal lengthening reserved for severe residual VPC. Ventral corporal lengthening with grafts has been associated with urethroplasty complications after the second stage hypospadias surgery. Ventral corporal lengthening with relaxing incisions of corpora has been reported, but concerns about adverse effects require longer term studies. Little guidance exists to choose the best technique for VPC correction during first stage hypospadias repair after division of urethral plate. Reported literature suggests good results with dorsal plication techniques and ventral corporal lengthening. A practical approach is to use dorsal plication techniques for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate (lengthening for severe residual VPC (>45°).

  10. Mapping of the left-sided phrenic nerve course in patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Martin; Wutzler, Alexander; Parwani, Abdul S; Attanasio, Philipp; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been associated with left-sided phrenic nerve palsy. Knowledge of the individual left phrenic nerve course therefore is essential to prevent nerve injury. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an intraprocedural pace mapping and reconstruction of the left phrenic nerve course and to characterize which anatomical areas are affected. In patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablation, a three-dimensional map of the left atrial anatomical structures was created. The left-sided phrenic nerve course was determined by high-output pace mapping and reconstructed in the map. In this study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardias were included. Left phrenic nerve capture was observed in 23 (57.5%) patients. Phrenic nerve was captured in 22 (55%) patients inside the left atrial appendage, in 22 (55%) in distal parts, in 21 (53%) in medial parts, and in two (5%) in ostial parts of the appendage. In three (7.5%) patients, capture was found in the distal coronary sinus and in one (2.5%) patient in the left atrium near the left atrial appendage ostium. Ablation target was changed due to direct spatial relationship to the phrenic nerve in three (7.5%) patients. No phrenic nerve palsy was observed. Left-sided phrenic nerve capture was found inside and around the left atrial appendage in the majority of patients and additionally in the distal coronary sinus. Phrenic nerve mapping and reconstruction can easily be performed and should be considered prior catheter ablations in potential affected areas. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  12. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid systems of the ventral orbital cortex in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofizadeh, Shahnaz; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas

    2015-07-05

    Nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors are involved in modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid compounds into the ventral orbital cortex (VOC) on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. For this purpose, two guide cannulas were placed into the left and right sides of the VOC of the brain. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50μl, 1.5%) into the right vibrissa pad and face rubbing durations were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-3min and second phase: 15-33min). Epibatidine (a nicotinic receptor agonist) at doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/site, morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2μg/site and their sub-analgesic doses (0.025μg/site epibatidine with 0.25μg/site morphine) combination treatment suppressed the second phase of pain. The antinociceptive effect induced by 0.2μg/site of epibatidine, but not morphine (2μg/site), was prevented by 2μg/site of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist). Naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) at a dose of 2μg/site prevented the antinociceptive effects induced by 2μg/site of morphine and 0.2μg/site of epibatidine. No above-mentioned chemical compounds affected locomotor activity. These results showed that at the VOC level, epibatidine and morphine produced antinociception. In addition, opioid receptor might be involved in epibatidine-induced antinociception, but the antinociception induced by morphine was not mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... with the cleavage-lines of industrial society, but that it is an orientational metaphor which is articulated with others-in/out, up/down and front/back-and that we are in the process of moving beyond the industrial society right/left prototype. The second part looks at where New Labour is heading when moving beyond...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  14. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Iain M.

    2018-01-01

    Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease. PMID:29755990

  15. Ketamine attenuates the glutamatergic neurotransmission in the ventral posteromedial nucleus slices of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bao; Liu, Chengxi; Zhang, Yajun; Fu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2017-08-23

    Ketamine is a frequently used intravenous anesthetic, which can reversibly induce loss of consciousness (LOC). Previous studies have demonstrated that thalamocortical system is critical for information transmission and integration in the brain. The ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) is a critical component of thalamocortical system. Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and may be involved in ketamine-induced LOC. The study used whole-cell patch-clamp to observe the effect of ketamine (30 μM-1000 μM) on glutamatergic neurotransmission in VPM slices. Ketamine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), but only higher concentration of ketamine (300 μM and 1000 μM) suppressed the frequency of sEPSCs. Ketamine (100 μM-1000 μM) also decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), without altering the frequency. In VPM neurons, ketamine attenuates the glutamatergic neurotransmission mainly through postsynaptic mechanism and action potential may be involved in the process.

  16. Effects of prefrontal cortical inactivation on neural activity in the ventral tegmental area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Sang; Lee, Jane; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) cells have been suggested to signal discrepancies between expected and actual rewards in reinforcement learning. DA cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) receive direct projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a structure that is known as one of the brain areas that represent expected future rewards. To investigate whether the mPFC contributes to generating reward prediction error signals of DA cells, we recorded VTA cells from rats foraging for different amounts of reward in a spatial working memory task. Our results showed that DA cells initially responded after the acquisition of rewards, but over training, they exhibited phasic responses when rats detected sensory cues originating from the rewards before obtaining them. We also observed two separate groups of non-DA cells that were activated in expectation of upcoming rewards or during reward consumption. Bilateral injections of muscimol, a GABAA agonist, into the mPFC significantly decreased the non-DA activity that encoded reward expectation. By contrast, the same manipulation of the mPFC elevated DA responses to reward-predicting cues. However, neither DA nor non-DA responses that were elicited after reward acquisition were affected by mPFC inactivation. These results suggest that the mPFC provides the information about expected rewards to the VTA, and its functional loss elevates DA responses to reward-predicting cues by altering expectations about forthcoming rewards. PMID:23658156

  17. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M.; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2–19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years). CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors. PMID:27694318

  18. Computed Tomographic Analysis of Ventral Atlantoaxial Optimal Safe Implantation Corridors in 27 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Guillaume; Gaitero, Luis; Moens, Noel M M; Zur Linden, Alex; James, Fiona M K; Monteith, Gabrielle J; Runciman, John

    2017-11-01

    Objectives  Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data. The aims of this study were (1) to provide detailed anatomical descriptions of atlantoaxial optimal safe implantation corridors to generate objective recommendations for optimal implant placements and (2) to compare anatomical data obtained in non-affected Toy breed dogs, affected Toy breed dogs suffering from atlantoaxial instability and non-affected Beagle dogs. Methods  Anatomical data were collected from a prospectively recruited population of 27 dogs using a previously validated method of optimal safe implantation corridor analysis using computed tomographic images. Results  Optimal implant positions and three-dimensional numerical data were generated successfully in all cases. Anatomical landmarks could be used to generate objective definitions of optimal insertion points which were applicable across all three groups. Overall the geometrical distribution of all implant sites was similar in all three groups with a few exceptions. Clinical Significance  This study provides extensive anatomical data available to facilitate surgical planning of implant placement for atlantoaxial stabilization. Our data suggest that non-affected Toy breed dogs and non-affected Beagle dogs constitute reasonable research models to study atlantoaxial stabilization constructs. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  19. Electrical Stimulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ken; Van Dort, Christa J.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Taylor, Norman E.; Kenny, Jonathan D.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methylphenidate or a D1 dopamine receptor agonist induce reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia. We tested whether electrical stimulation of dopaminergic nuclei also induces reanimation from general anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, a bipolar insulated stainless steel electrode was placed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, n = 5) or substantia nigra (SN, n = 5). After a minimum 7-day recovery period, the isoflurane dose sufficient to maintain loss of righting was established. Electrical stimulation was initiated and increased in intensity every 3 min to a maximum of 120μA. If stimulation restored the righting reflex, an additional experiment was performed at least 3 days later during continuous propofol anesthesia. Histological analysis was conducted to identify the location of the electrode tip. In separate experiments, stimulation was performed in the prone position during general anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol, and the electroencephalogram was recorded. RESULTS To maintain loss of righting, the dose of isoflurane was 0.9% ± 0.1 vol%, and the target plasma dose of propofol was 4.4 μg/ml ± 1.1 μg/ml (mean ± SD). In all rats with VTA electrodes, electrical stimulation induced a graded arousal response including righting that increased with current intensity. VTA stimulation induced a shift in electroencephalogram peak power from δ (anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine release by VTA, but not SN, neurons induces reanimation from general anesthesia. PMID:24398816

  20. Different role of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex on modulation of innate and associative learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, S F; Stecchini, M F; Corrêa, F M A; Guimarães, F S; Resstel, L B M

    2010-12-15

    Reversible inactivation of the ventral portion of medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) of the rat brain has been shown to induce anxiolytic-like effects in animal models based on associative learning. The role of this brain region in situations involving innate fear, however, is still poorly understood, with several contradictory results in the literature. The objective of the present work was to verify in male Wistar rats the effects of vMPFC administration of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a selective inhibitor of synaptic activity, in rats submitted to two models based on innate fear, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB), comparing the results with those obtained in two models involving associative learning, the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and Vogel conflict (VCT) tests. The results showed that, whereas CoCl(2) induced anxiolytic-like effects in the CFC and VCT tests, it enhanced anxiety in rats submitted to the EPM and LDB. Together these results indicate that the vMPFC plays an important but complex role in the modulation of defensive-related behaviors, which seems to depend on the nature of the anxiety/fear inducing stimuli. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Observations at the CNS-PNS border of ventral roots connected to a neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Remahl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that numerous sprouts originating from a neuroma, after nerve injury in neonatal animals, can invade spinal nerve roots. In this study the border between the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS-PNS border of ventral roots in kittens was examined with both light and electron microscopy after early postnatal sciatic nerve resection. A transient ingrowth of substance P positive axons was observed into the CNS, but no spouts remained 6 weeks after the injury. Using serial sections and electron microscopy it was possible to identify small bundles of unmyelinated axons that penetrated from the root fascicles for a short distance into the CNS. These axons ended blindly, sometimes with a growth cone-like terminal swelling filled with vesicles. The axon bundles were accompanied by p75 positive cells in both the root fascicles and the pia mater, but not in the CNS. It may thus be suggested that neurotrophin presenting p75 positive cells could facilitate axonal growth into the pia mater and that the lack of such cells in the CNS compartment might contribute to the failure of growth into the CNS. A maldevelopment of myelin sheaths at the CNS-PNS border of motor axons was observed and it seems possible that this could have consequences for the propagation of action potential across this region after neonatal nerve injury.

  2. Differential coding of conspecific vocalizations in the ventral auditory cortical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-03-26

    The mammalian auditory cortex integrates spectral and temporal acoustic features to support the perception of complex sounds, including conspecific vocalizations. Here we investigate coding of vocal stimuli in different subfields in macaque auditory cortex. We simultaneously measured auditory evoked potentials over a large swath of primary and higher order auditory cortex along the supratemporal plane in three animals chronically using high-density microelectrocorticographic arrays. To evaluate the capacity of neural activity to discriminate individual stimuli in these high-dimensional datasets, we applied a regularized multivariate classifier to evoked potentials to conspecific vocalizations. We found a gradual decrease in the level of overall classification performance along the caudal to rostral axis. Furthermore, the performance in the caudal sectors was similar across individual stimuli, whereas the performance in the rostral sectors significantly differed for different stimuli. Moreover, the information about vocalizations in the caudal sectors was similar to the information about synthetic stimuli that contained only the spectral or temporal features of the original vocalizations. In the rostral sectors, however, the classification for vocalizations was significantly better than that for the synthetic stimuli, suggesting that conjoined spectral and temporal features were necessary to explain differential coding of vocalizations in the rostral areas. We also found that this coding in the rostral sector was carried primarily in the theta frequency band of the response. These findings illustrate a progression in neural coding of conspecific vocalizations along the ventral auditory pathway.

  3. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years).CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. History of childhood adversity is positively associated with ventral striatal dopamine responses to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Lynn M; Wand, Gary S; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Zhu, Shijun; Brasic, James R

    2014-06-01

    Childhood exposure to severe or chronic trauma is an important risk factor for the later development of adult mental health problems, such as substance abuse. Even in nonclinical samples of healthy adults, persons with a history of significant childhood adversity seem to experience greater psychological distress than those without this history. Evidence from rodent studies suggests that early life stress may impair dopamine function in ways that increase risks for drug abuse. However, the degree to which these findings translate to other species remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine associations between childhood adversity and dopamine and subjective responses to amphetamine in humans. Following intake assessment, 28 healthy male and female adults, aged 18-29 years, underwent two consecutive 90-min positron emission tomography studies with high specific activity [(11)C]raclopride. The first scan was preceded by intravenous saline; the second by amphetamine (AMPH 0.3 mg/kg). Consistent with prior literature, findings showed positive associations between childhood trauma and current levels of perceived stress. Moreover, greater number of traumatic events and higher levels of perceived stress were each associated with higher ventral striatal dopamine responses to AMPH. Findings of mediation analyses further showed that a portion of the relationship between childhood trauma and dopamine release may be mediated by perceived stress. Overall, results are consistent with preclinical findings suggesting that early trauma may lead to enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants and that this mechanism may underlie increased vulnerability for drug abuse.

  5. Evidence for respiratory neuromodulator interdependence after cholinergic disruption in the ventral respiratory column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Miller, Justin; Olesiak, Samantha; Hodges, Matthew R; Pan, Lawrence; Forster, Hubert V

    2015-01-01

    Reverse dialysis of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (ATR, 50 mM), into the pre-Bötzinger Complex region of the ventral respiratory column (VRC) of awake and sleeping goats increases breathing frequency and serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), glycine, and GABA concentrations in the effluent dialysate. Herein, we report data from goats in which we reverse dialyzed 5 mM ATR or specific antagonists of M2 or M3 muscarinic receptors into the VRC. The effects on frequency of all three antagonists were not significantly different from time control studies. 5 mM ATR and the M3 antagonist increased SP sevenfold less than 50 mM ATR. The antagonists had no effect on 5-HT, glycine, and/or GABA, suggesting that the increases in glycine and GABA with 50 mM ATR were secondary to the larger increases in 5-HT and/or SP. These data are suggestive of neuromodulator interdependence, whereby attenuation of one neuromodulator is compensated for by local changes in other neuromodulators to stabilize breathing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T.; Seiz, Emma G.; Ramos, Milagros [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain); Meyer, Morten [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21,st, DK-500, Odense C (Denmark); Juliusson, Bengt; Kusk, Philip [NsGene A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Martinez-Serrano, Alberto, E-mail: amserrano@cbm.uam.es [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro. Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal of growth factors, proliferation and expression of v-myc were dramatically reduced and the cells differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. hVM1 cells yield a large number of dopaminergic neurons (about 12% of total cells are TH{sup +}) after differentiation, which also produce dopamine. In addition to proneural genes (NGN2, MASH1), differentiated cells show expression of several genuine mesencephalic dopaminergic markers such as: LMX1A, LMX1B, GIRK2, ADH2, NURR1, PITX3, VMAT2 and DAT, indicating that they retain their regional identity. Our data indicate that this cell line and its clonal derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing.

  7. Mapping face categorization in the human ventral occipitotemporal cortex with direct neural intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Jacques, Corentin; Jonas, Jacques

    2018-02-26

    The neural basis of face categorization has been widely investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identifying a set of face-selective local regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC). However, indirect recording of neural activity with fMRI is associated with large fluctuations of signal across regions, often underestimating face-selective responses in the anterior VOTC. While direct recording of neural activity with subdural grids of electrodes (electrocorticography, ECoG) or depth electrodes (stereotactic electroencephalography, SEEG) offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap in knowledge, these studies rather reveal widely distributed face-selective responses. Moreover, intracranial recordings are complicated by interindividual variability in neuroanatomy, ambiguity in definition, and quantification of responses of interest, as well as limited access to sulci with ECoG. Here, we propose to combine SEEG in large samples of individuals with fast periodic visual stimulation to objectively define, quantify, and characterize face categorization across the whole VOTC. This approach reconciles the wide distribution of neural face categorization responses with their (right) hemispheric and regional specialization, and reveals several face-selective regions in anterior VOTC sulci. We outline the challenges of this research program to understand the neural basis of face categorization and high-level visual recognition in general. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. The lateral somitic frontier: dorso-ventral aspects of anterio-posterior regionalization in avian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Julie L; Takimoto, Ryoko; Burke, Ann Campbell

    2003-02-01

    Patterning events along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of vertebrate embryos result in the distribution of muscle and bone forming a highly effective functional system. A key aspect of regionalized AP patterning results from variation in the migratory pattern of somite cells along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of the body. This occurs as somite cell populations expand around the axis or migrate away from the dorsal midline and cross into the lateral plate. The fate of somitic cells has been intensely studied and many details have been reported about inductive signaling from other tissues that influence somite cell fate and behavior. We are interested in understanding the specific differences between somites in particular AP regions and how these differences contribute to the global pattern of the organism. Using orthotopic transplants of segmental plate between quail and chick embryos, we have mapped the interface of the somitic and lateral plate mesoderm during the formation of the body wall in cervical and thoracic regions. This interface does not change dramatically in the mid-cervical region, but undergoes extensive changes in the thoracic region. Based on this regional mapping and consistent with the extensive literature, we suggest a revised method of classifying regions of the body wall that relies on embryonic cell lineages rather than adult functional criteria.

  9. Orexin–Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area as Targets for Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A.; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.

    2015-01-01

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R–OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R–OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R–CRF1R–OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A–CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. PMID:25926444

  10. Orexin-corticotropin-releasing factor receptor heteromers in the ventral tegmental area as targets for cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; McCormick, Peter J

    2015-04-29

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R-OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R-OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R-CRF1R-OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A-CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356639-15$15.00/0.

  11. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George S; Hou, Jin-Bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-Guang

    2016-03-15

    Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in the upper-stem group euarthropod Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte (South China). The VNC of C. kunmingensis comprises a homonymous series of condensed ganglia that extend throughout the body, each associated with a pair of biramous limbs. Submillimetric preservation reveals numerous segmental and intersegmental nerve roots emerging from both sides of the VNC, which correspond topologically to the peripheral nerves of extant Priapulida and Onychophora. The fuxianhuiid VNC indicates that ancestral neurological features of Ecdysozoa persisted into derived members of stem-group Euarthropoda but were later lost in crown-group representatives. These findings illuminate the VNC ground pattern in Panarthropoda and suggest the independent secondary loss of cycloneuralian-like neurological characters in Tardigrada and Euarthropoda.

  12. Multiple roles for apoptosis facilitating condensation of the Drosophila ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damon T; Olofsson, Birgitta

    2008-02-01

    At the end of embryogenesis, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of Drosophila undergoes a shape change, termed condensation. During condensation the length of the VNC shortens by 25%, a process dependent on extracellular matrix deposited by hemocytes, an intact cytoskeleton of glia and neurons and neural activity. Here we show that cell death contributes to nerve cord shortening. Firstly, apoptosis occurs at the interface of the epidermis and the nerve cord where it plays a role in the separation of these two tissues. Separation precedes condensation and in conditions where separation is prevented, condensation fails. Secondly, many cells undergo apoptosis within VNC during condensation. This cell death is localized mainly to the posterior part of the nerve cord where more than half of all cell death occurs. Preventing apoptosis either in neurons or glia partially inhibits VNC shortening during condensation. Despite the importance of midline glia in axon tract development, preventing midline glia cell death results in normal hatching and adult formation. We find that undead midline glia are eliminated from the midline and become mispositioned or expelled from the nervous system. We suggest that this represent a form of pattern repair that operates to reduce the impact of the additional cells. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Interdependence of macrophage migration and ventral nerve cord development in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Iwan R; Hu, Nan; Skaer, Helen; Wood, Will

    2010-05-01

    During embryonic development, Drosophila macrophages (haemocytes) undergo a series of stereotypical migrations to disperse throughout the embryo. One major migratory route is along the ventral nerve cord (VNC), where haemocytes are required for the correct development of this tissue. We show, for the first time, that a reciprocal relationship exists between haemocytes and the VNC and that defects in nerve cord development prevent haemocyte migration along this structure. Using live imaging, we demonstrate that the axonal guidance cue Slit and its receptor Robo are both required for haemocyte migration, but signalling is not autonomously required in haemocytes. We show that the failure of haemocyte migration along the VNC in slit mutants is not due to a lack of chemotactic signals within this structure, but rather to a failure in its detachment from the overlying epithelium, creating a physical barrier to haemocyte migration. This block of haemocyte migration in turn disrupts the formation of the dorsoventral channels within the VNC, further highlighting the importance of haemocyte migration for correct neural development. This study illustrates the important role played by the three-dimensional environment in directing cell migration in vivo and reveals an intriguing interplay between the developing nervous system and the blood cells within the fly, demonstrating that their development is both closely coupled and interdependent.

  14. Whole mount preparation of the adult Drosophila ventral nerve cord for giant fiber dye injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Jana; Godenschwege, Tanja A

    2011-06-04

    To analyze the axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons, it is essential to obtain accurate labeling of neuronal structures. Preparing well labeled samples with little to no tissue damage enables us to analyze cell morphology and to compare individual samples to each other, hence allowing the identification of mutant anomalies. In the demonstrated dissection method the nervous system remains mostly inside the adult fly. Through a dorsal incision, the abdomen and thorax are opened and most of the internal organs are removed. Only the dorsal side of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) and the cervical connective (CvC) containing the big axons of the giant fibers (GFs) are exposed, while the brain containing the GF cell body and dendrites remains in the intact head. In this preparation most nerves of the VNC should remain attached to their muscles. Following the dissection, the intracellular filling of the giant fiber (GF) with a fluorescent dye is demonstrated. In the CvC the GF axons are located at the dorsal surface and thus can be easily visualized under a microscope with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. This allows the injection of the GF axons with dye at this site to label the entire GF including the axons and their terminals in the VNC. This method results in reliable and strong staining of the GFs allowing the neurons to be imaged immediately after filling with an epifluorescent microscope. Alternatively, the fluorescent signal can be enhanced using standard immunohistochemistry procedures suitable for high resolution confocal microscopy.

  15. Focal lesions within the ventral striato-pallidum abolish attraction for male chemosignals in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    In rodents, socio-sexual behaviour is largely mediated by chemosensory cues, some of which are rewarding stimuli. Female mice display an innate attraction towards male chemosignals, dependent on the vomeronasal system. This behaviour likely reflects the hedonic value of sexual chemosignals. The anteromedial aspect of the olfactory tubercle, along with its associated islands of Calleja, receives vomeronasal inputs and sexually-dimorphic vasopressinergic innervation. Thus, we hypothesised that this portion of the ventral striato-pallidum, known to be involved in reward processing, might be important for sexual odorant-guided behaviours. In this study, we demonstrate that lesions of this region, but not of regions in the posterolateral striato-pallidum, abolish the attraction of female mice for male chemosignals, without affecting significantly their preference for a different natural reward (a sucrose solution). These results show that, at least in female mice, the integrity of the anterior aspect of the medioventral striato-pallidum, comprising a portion of the olfactory tubercle and associated islands of Calleja, is necessary for the attraction for male chemosignals. We suggest that this region contributes to the processing of the hedonic properties of biologically significant odorants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Temporal Pole Top-Down Modulates the Ventral Visual Stream During Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Zaki, Jamil; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Jacobs, Arthur M; Kuchinke, Lars; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The temporal pole (TP) has been associated with diverse functions of social cognition and emotion processing. Although the underlying mechanism remains elusive, one possibility is that TP acts as domain-general hub integrating socioemotional information. To test this, 26 participants were presented with 60 empathy-evoking film clips during fMRI scanning. The film clips were preceded by a linguistic sad or neutral context and half of the clips were accompanied by sad music. In line with its hypothesized role, TP was involved in the processing of sad context and furthermore tracked participants' empathic concern. To examine the neuromodulatory impact of TP, we applied nonlinear dynamic causal modeling to a multisensory integration network from previous work consisting of superior temporal gyrus (STG), fusiform gyrus (FG), and amygdala, which was extended by an additional node in the TP. Bayesian model comparison revealed a gating of STG and TP on fusiform-amygdalar coupling and an increase of TP to FG connectivity during the integration of contextual information. Moreover, these backward projections were strengthened by emotional music. The findings indicate that during social cognition, TP integrates information from different modalities and top-down modulates lower-level perceptual areas in the ventral visual stream as a function of integration demands. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Muscarinic receptor blockade in ventral hippocampus and prelimbic cortex impairs memory for socially transmitted food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Márquez, Anna; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita

    2009-05-01

    Acetylcholine is involved in learning and memory and, particularly, in olfactory tasks, but reports on its specific role in consolidation processes are somewhat controversial. The present experiment sought to determine the effects of blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and the prelimbic cortex (PLC) on the consolidation of social transmission of food preference, an odor-guided relational task that depends on such brain areas. Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally infused with scopolamine (20 microg/site) immediately after social training and showed impairment, relative to vehicle-injected controls, in the expression of the task measured 24 h after learning. Results indicated that scopolamine in the PLC completely abolished memory, suggesting that muscarinic transmission in this cortical region is crucial for consolidation of recent socially acquired information. Muscarinic receptors in the vHPC contribute in some way to task consolidation, as the rats injected with scopolamine in the vHPC showed significantly lower trained food preference than control rats, but higher than both chance level and that of the PLC-injected rats. Behavioral measures such as social interaction, motivation to eat, neophobia, or exploration did not differ between rats infused with scopolamine or vehicle. Such data suggest a possible differential role of muscarinic receptors in the PLC and the vHPC in the initial consolidation of a naturalistic form of nonspatial relational memory. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Transvaginal Repair of a Large Chronic Porcine Ventral Hernia with Synthetic Mesh Using NOTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ben; Whang, Susan H.; Bachman, Sharon L.; Andres Astudillo, J.; Sporn, Emanuel; Miedema, Brent W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ventral incisional hernias still remain a common surgical problem. We tested the feasibility of transvaginal placement of a large synthetic mesh to repair a porcine hernia. Methods: Seven pigs were used in this survival model. Each animal had creation of a 5-cm hernia defect and underwent a transvaginal repair of the defect with synthetic mesh. A single colpotomy was made using a 12-cm trocar for an overtube. The mesh was cut to size and placed through the trocar. A single-channel gastroscope with an endoscopic atraumatic grasper was used for grasping sutures. Further fascial sutures were placed every 5cm. Results: Mesh repair was feasible in all 7 animals. Mean operative time was 133 minutes. Technical difficulties were encountered. No gross contamination was seen at the time of necropsy. However, 5 animals had positive mesh cultures; 7 had positive cultures in the rectouterine space in enrichment broth or on direct culture. Conclusion: Transvaginal placement of synthetic mesh to repair a large porcine hernia using NOTES is challenging but feasible. Future studies need to be conducted to develop better techniques and determine the significance of mesh contamination. PMID:20932375

  19. Ofd1 controls dorso-ventral patterning and axoneme elongation during embryonic brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D'Angelo

    Full Text Available Oral-facial-digital type I syndrome (OFDI is a human X-linked dominant-male-lethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in the OFD1 gene. Similar to other inherited disorders associated to ciliary dysfunction OFD type I patients display neurological abnormalities. We characterized the neuronal phenotype that results from Ofd1 inactivation in early phases of mouse embryonic development and at post-natal stages. We determined that Ofd1 plays a crucial role in forebrain development, and in particular, in the control of dorso-ventral patterning and early corticogenesis. We observed abnormal activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a major pathway modulating brain development. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that early Ofd1 inactivation results in the absence of ciliary axonemes despite the presence of mature basal bodies that are correctly orientated and docked. Ofd1 inducible-mediated inactivation at birth does not affect ciliogenesis in the cortex, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent role for a basal body protein in ciliogenesis. Moreover, we showed defects in cytoskeletal organization and apical-basal polarity in Ofd1 mutant embryos, most likely due to lack of ciliary axonemes. Thus, the present study identifies Ofd1 as a developmental disease gene that is critical for forebrain development and ciliogenesis in embryonic life, and indicates that Ofd1 functions after docking and before elaboration of the axoneme in vivo.

  20. Ventral medial prefrontal functional connectivity and emotion regulation in chronic schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Mei Fan; Shu-Ping Tan; Fu-De Yang; Yun-Long Tan; Yan-Li Zhao; Nan Chen; Bin-Bin Li

    2013-01-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions,particularly emotion regulation.Abnormal activations of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) during emotional tasks have been demonstrated in schizophrenia,suggesting its important role in emotion processing in patients.We used the resting-state functional connectivity approach,setting a functionally relevant region,the vMPFC,as a seed region to examine the intrinsic functional interactions and communication between the vMPFC and other brain regions in schizophrenic patients.We found hypo-connectivity between the vMPFC and the medial frontal cortex,right middle temporal lobe (MTL),right hippocampus,parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and amygdala.Further,there was a decreased strength of the negative connectivity (or anticorrelation) between the vMPFC and the bilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pre-supplementary motor areas.Among these connectivity alterations,reduced vMPFCDLPFC connectivity was positively correlated with positive symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale,while vMPFC-right MTL/PHC/amygdala functional connectivity was positively correlated with the performance of emotional regulation in patients.These findings imply that communication and coordination throughout the brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia.The emotional correlates of vMPFC connectivity suggest a role of the hypo-connectivity between these regions in the neuropathology of abnormal social cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

  1. Morphine withdrawal enhances constitutive μ-opioid receptor activity in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meye, Frank J; van Zessen, Ruud; Smidt, Marten P; Adan, Roger A H; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2012-11-14

    μ-Opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are pivotally involved in addictive behavior. While MORs are typically activated by opioids, they can also become constitutively active in the absence of any agonist. In the current study, we present evidence that MOR constitutive activity is highly relevant in the mouse VTA, as it regulates GABAergic input to dopamine neurons. Specifically, suppression of MOR constitutive activity with the inverse agonist KC-2-009 enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission onto VTA dopamine neurons. This inverse agonistic effect was fully blocked by the specific MOR neutral antagonist CTOP, which had no effect on GABAergic transmission itself. We next show that withdrawal from chronic morphine further increases the magnitude of inverse agonistic effects at the MOR, suggesting enhanced MOR constitutive activity. We demonstrate that this increase can be an adaptive response to the detrimental elevation in cAMP levels known to occur during morphine withdrawal. These findings offer important insights in the physiological occurrence and function of MOR constitutive activity, and have important implications for therapeutic strategies aimed at normalizing MOR signaling during addiction and opioid overdose.

  2. BOLD repetition decreases in object-responsive ventral visual areas depend on spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, E; Henson, R N A; Driver, J; Dolan, R J

    2004-08-01

    Functional imaging studies of priming-related repetition phenomena have become widely used to study neural object representation. Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) repetition decreases can sometimes be observed without awareness of repetition, any role for spatial attention in BOLD repetition effects remains largely unknown. We used fMRI in 13 healthy subjects to test whether BOLD repetition decreases for repeated objects in ventral visual cortices depend on allocation of spatial attention to the prime. Subjects performed a size-judgment task on a probe object that had been attended or ignored in a preceding prime display of 2 lateralized objects. Reaction times showed faster responses when the probe was the same object as the attended prime, independent of the view tested (identical vs. mirror image). No behavioral effect was evident from unattended primes. BOLD repetition decreases for attended primes were found in lateral occipital and fusiform regions bilaterally, which generalized across identical and mirror-image repeats. No repetition decreases were observed for ignored primes. Our results suggest a critical role for attention in achieving visual representations of objects that lead to both BOLD signal decreases and behavioral priming on repeated presentation.

  3. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  4. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  5. A Rare Case of Strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an Incarcerated Ventral Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incisional or postoperative hernia, one of the most common surgical procedure in general surgery practice, mostly occurs in the first years following abdominal operations. Incarceration or strangulation is a serious complication of these hernias, and mostly requires emergent surgery. Meckel%u2019s diverticulum, the most frequent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is rarely found within a hernial sac and this unusual condition is called as Littre%u2019s hernia. In addition, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual condition is rather difficult and it is almost always first discovered during operation. A small number of cases of strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an incarcerated ventral incisional hernia have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum through a ventral incisional hernia in a 65 year-old woman who presented with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction.

  6. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  7. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Aims Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Design Pathological Gamblers...... and Healthy Controlswere experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. Measurements We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition...... of the Iowa GamblingTask (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Setting Laboratory experiment. Participants 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Findings Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels...

  8. A functional difference in information processing between orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum during decision-making behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jeffrey J; Redish, A David

    2014-11-05

    Both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (vStr) have been identified as key structures that represent information about value in decision-making tasks. However, the dynamics of how this information is processed are not yet understood. We recorded ensembles of cells from OFC and vStr in rats engaged in the spatial adjusting delay-discounting task, a decision-making task that involves a trade-off between delay to and magnitude of reward. Ventral striatal neural activity signalled information about reward before the rat's decision, whereas such reward-related signals were absent in OFC until after the animal had committed to its decision. These data support models in which vStr is directly involved in action selection, but OFC processes decision-related information afterwards that can be used to compare the predicted and actual consequences of behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  10. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  11. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  12. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  13. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jagia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best of our knowledge, use of multi-detector computed tomography in aortic atresia with well developed left ventricle has not been reported in literature till date.

  14. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  15. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  16. Neural correlates of consciousness: a definition of the dorsal and ventral streams and their relation to phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a hypothesis for a neural correlate of consciousness. A proposal is made that both the dorsal and ventral streams must be concurrently active to generate conscious awareness and that V1 (striate cortex) provides a serial link between them. An argument is presented against a true extrastriate communication between the dorsal and ventral streams. Secondly, a detailed theory is developed for the structure of the visual hierarchy. Premotor theory states that each organism-object interaction can be described by the two quantitative measures of torque and change in joint position served by the basal ganglia and cerebellum, respectively. This leads to a component theory of motor efference copy providing a fundamental tool for categorizing dorsal and ventral stream networks. The rationale for this is that the dorsal stream specifies spatial coordinates of the external world, which can be coded by the reafference of changes in joint position. The ventral stream is concerned with object recognition and is coded for by forces exerted on the world during a developmental exploratory phase of the organism. The proposed pathways for a component motor efference copy from both the cerebellum and basal ganglia converge on the thalamus and modulate thalamocortical projections via the thalamic reticular nucleus. The origin of the corticopontine projections, which are a massive pathway for cortical information to reach the cerebellum, coincides with the area typically considered as part of the dorsal stream, whereas the entire cortex projects to the striatum. This adds empirical support for a new conceptualization of the visual streams. The model also presents a solution to the binding problem of a neural correlate of consciousness, that is, how a distributed neural network synchronizes its activity during a cognitive event. It represents a reinterpretation of the current status of the visual hierarchy.

  17. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hoag

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods: We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results: The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions: This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula.

  18. Direct monitoring of dopamine and 5-HT release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, M E; Richards, C D; Nedergaard, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes was used to detect endogenous dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from three distinct regions of guinea-pig mid-brain in vitro: rostral and caudal substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous...... these regions with in situ electrodes and demonstrates the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate the mechanisms and possible non-classical functions of somato-dendritic DA release....

  19. The homeobox gene mirror links EGF signalling to embryonic dorso-ventral axis formation through notch activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K C; Clegg, N J; Blasi, J A; Morimoto, A M; Sen, J; Stein, D; McNeill, H; Deng, W M; Tworoger, M; Ruohola-Baker, H

    2000-04-01

    Recent studies in vertebrates and Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that Fringe-mediated activation of the Notch pathway has a role in patterning cell layers during organogenesis. In these processes, a homeobox-containing transcription factor is responsible for spatially regulating fringe (fng) expression and thus directing activation of the Notch pathway along the fng expression border. Here we show that this may be a general mechanism for patterning epithelial cell layers. At three stages in Drosophila oogenesis, mirror (mirr) and fng have complementary expression patterns in the follicle-cell epithelial layer, and at all three stages loss of mirr enlarges, and ectopic expression of mirr restricts, fng expression, with consequences for follicle-cell patterning. These morphological changes are similar to those caused by Notch mutations. Ectopic expression of mirr in the posterior follicle cells induces a stripe of rhomboid (rho) expression and represses pipe (pip), a gene with a role in the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis, at a distance. Ectopic Notch activation has a similar long-range effect on pip. Our results suggest that Mirror and Notch induce secretion of diffusible morphogens and we have identified TGF-beta (encoded by dpp) as such a molecule in germarium. We also found that mirr expression in dorsal follicle cells is induced by the EGF-receptor (EGFR) pathway and that mirr then represses pip expression in all but the ventral follicle cells, connecting EGFR activation in the dorsal follicle cells to repression of pip in the dorsal and lateral follicle cells. Our results suggest that the differentiation of ventral follicle cells is not a direct consequence of germline signalling, but depends on long-range signals from dorsal follicle cells, and provide a link between early and late events in Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral axis formation.

  20. Notch and PKC Are Involved in Formation of the Lateral Region of the Dorso-Ventral Axis in Drosophila Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Tremmel, Daniel M.; Resad, Sedat; Little, Christopher J.; Wesley, Cedric S.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenot...

  1. Wingless, decapentaplegic and EGF receptor signaling pathways interact to specify dorso-ventral pattern in the adult abdomen of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, A; Blackman, R K; Duncan, I

    1999-08-01

    Adult abdominal segments of Drosophila are subdivided along the dorso-ventral axis into a dorsal tergite, a ventral sternite and ventro-lateral pleural cuticle. We report that this pattern is largely specified during the pupal stage by Wingless (Wg), Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Drosophila EGF Receptor (DER) signaling. Expression of wg and dpp is activated at the posterior edge of the anterior compartment by Hedgehog signaling. Within this region, wg and dpp are expressed in domains that are mutually exclusive along the dorso-ventral axis: wg is expressed in the sternite and medio-lateral tergite, whereas dpp expression is confined to the pleura and the dorsal midline. Neither gene is expressed in the lateral tergite. Shirras and Couso (1996, Dev. Biol. 175, 24-36) have shown that tergite and sternite cell fates are specified by Wg signaling. We find that DER acts synergistically with Wg to promote tergite and sternite identities, and that Wg and DER activities are opposed by Dpp signaling, which promotes pleural identity. Wg and Dpp interact antagonistically at two levels. First, their expression is confined to complementary domains by mutual transcriptional repression. Second, Wg and Dpp compete directly with one another by exerting opposite effects on cell fate. DER signaling does not affect the expression of wg or dpp, indicating that it interacts with Wg and Dpp at the level of cell fate determination. Within the tergite, the requirements for Wg and DER function are roughly complementary: Wg is required mainly in the medial region, whereas DER is most important laterally. Finally, we show that Dpp signaling at the dorsal midline controls dorso-ventral patterning within the tergite by promoting pigmentation in the medial region.

  2. Dynamic anticipatory processing of hierarchical sequential events: a common role for Broca's area and ventral premotor cortex across domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebach, Christian J; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2006-05-01

    This paper proposes a domain-general model for the functional contribution of ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and adjacent Broca's area to perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential events onto stored structural templates and Broca's Area involved in more complex, hierarchical or hypersequential processing. This proposal is supported by reference to previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating abstract sequence processing and syntactic processing.

  3. The ventral hippocampus, but not the dorsal hippocampus is critical for learned approach-avoidance decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; Vlassov, Ekaterina; Ito, Rutsuko

    2016-04-01

    The resolution of an approach-avoidance conflict induced by ambivalent information involves the appraisal of the incentive value of the outcomes and associated stimuli to orchestrate an appropriate behavioral response. Much research has been directed at delineating the neural circuitry underlying approach motivation and avoidance motivation separately. Very little research, however, has examined the neural substrates engaged at the point of decision making when opposing incentive motivations are experienced simultaneously. We hereby examine the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HPC) in a novel approach-avoidance decision making paradigm, revisiting a once popular theory of HPC function, which posited the HPC to be the driving force of a behavioral inhibition system that is activated in situations of imminent threat. Rats received pre-training excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral HPC, and were trained to associate different non-spatial cues with appetitive, aversive and neutral outcomes in three separate arms of the radial maze. On the final day of testing, a state of approach-avoidance conflict was induced by simultaneously presenting two cues of opposite valences, and comparing the time the rats spent interacting with the superimposed 'conflict' cue, and the neutral cue. The ventral HPC-lesioned group showed significant preference for the conflict cue over the neutral cue, compared to the dorsal HPC-lesioned, and control groups. Thus, we provide evidence that the ventral, but not dorsal HPC, is a crucial component of the neural circuitry concerned with exerting inhibitory control over approach tendencies under circumstances in which motivational conflict is experienced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Amygdaloid projections to the ventral striatum in mice: direct and indirect chemosensory inputs to the brain reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novejarque, Amparo; Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Rodents constitute good models for studying the neural basis of sociosexual behavior. Recent findings in mice have revealed the molecular identity of the some pheromonal molecules triggering intersexual attraction. However, the neural pathways mediating this basic sociosexual behavior remain elusive. Since previous work indicates that the dopaminergic tegmento-striatal pathway is not involved in pheromone reward, the present report explores alternative pathways linking the vomeronasal system with the tegmento-striatal system (the limbic basal ganglia) by means of tract-tracing experiments studying direct and indirect projections from the chemosensory amygdala to the ventral striato-pallidum. Amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and adjoining structures are studied by analyzing the retrograde transport in the amygdala from dextran amine and fluorogold injections in the ventral striatum, as well as the anterograde labeling found in the ventral striato-pallidum after dextran amine injections in the amygdala. This combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments reveals direct projections from the vomeronasal cortex to the ventral striato-pallidum, as well as indirect projections through different nuclei of the basolateral amygdala. Direct projections innervate mainly the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja, whereas indirect projections are more widespread and reach the same structures and the shell and core of nucleus accumbens. These pathways are likely to mediate innate responses to pheromones (direct projections) and conditioned responses to associated chemosensory and non-chemosensory stimuli (indirect projections). Comparative studies indicate that similar connections are present in all the studied amniote vertebrates and might constitute the basic circuitry for emotional responses to conspecifics in most vertebrates, including humans.

  5. Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanuza Enrique

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory receptor neurons whose axons project to the main olfactory bulb. The main projections of the olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala (the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdalae. The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. Results Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. Injections of Fluoro-Gold into the ventral striatum were performed to allow retrograde confirmation of these projections. Conclusion The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial olfactory tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse.

  6. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gyroid cuticular structure grown in the domains of different orientation. We also show that this three-dimensional structure, operating as a biophotonic crystal, gives rise to various polarization ef...

  7. Distribution of serotonin 2A and 2C receptor mRNA expression in the cervical ventral horn and phrenic motoneurons following spinal cord hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Zhou, S Y; Walker, P D; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury leads to a disruption of bulbospinal innervation from medullary respiratory centers to phrenic motoneurons. Animal models utilizing cervical hemisection result in inhibition of ipsilateral phrenic nerve activity, leading to paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. We have previously demonstrated a role for serotonin (5-HT) as one potential modulator of respiratory recovery following cervical hemisection, a mechanism that likely occurs via 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2C receptors. The present study was designed to specifically examine if 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2C receptors are colocalized with phrenic motoneurons in both intact and spinal-hemisected rats. Adult female rats (250-350 g; n = 6 per group) received a left cervical (C2) hemisection and were injected with the fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold into the left hemidiaphragm. Twenty-four hours later, animals were killed and spinal cords processed for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Using (35)S-labeled cRNA probes, cervical spinal cords were probed for 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNA expression and double-labeled using an antibody to Fluorogold to detect phrenic motoneurons. Expression of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNA was detected in motoneurons of the cervical ventral horn. Despite positive expression of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mRNA-hybridization signal over phrenic motoneurons, only 5-HT2A silver grains achieved a signal-to-noise ratio representative of colocalization. 5-HT2A mRNA levels in identified phrenic motoneurons were not significantly altered following cervical hemisection compared to sham-operated controls. Selective colocalization of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA with phrenic motoneurons may have implications for recently observed 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation of respiratory activity and/or recovery in both intact and injury-compromised states. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Left ventricular assist device implantation via left thoracotomy: alternative to repeat sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Howser, Renee; Donaldson, Terri; Merrill, Walter H; Dignan, Rebecca J; Drinkwater, Davis C; Christian, Karla G; Butler, Javed; Chomsky, Don; Wilson, John R; Clark, Rick; Davis, Stacy F

    2002-03-01

    Repeat sternotomy for left ventricular assist device insertion may result in injury to the right heart or patent coronary grafts, complicating intraoperative and postoperative management. In 4 critically ill patients, left thoracotomy was used as an alternative to repeat sternotomy. Anastomosis of the outflow conduit to the descending thoracic aorta provided satisfactory hemodynamic support.

  9. The functional organization of the left STS: a large scale meta-analysis of PET and fMRI studies of healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eLiebenthal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The superior temporal sulcus (STS in the left hemisphere is functionally diverse, with sub-areas implicated in both linguistic and non-linguistic functions. However, the number and boundaries of distinct functional regions remain to be determined. Here, we present new evidence, from meta-analysis of a large number of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, of different functional specificity in the left STS supporting a division of its middle to terminal extent into at least three functional areas. The middle portion of the left STS stem (fmSTS is highly specialized for speech perception and the processing of language material. The posterior portion of the left STS stem (fpSTS is highly versatile and involved in multiple functions supporting semantic memory and associative thinking. The fpSTS responds to both language and non-language stimuli but the sensitivity to non-language material is greater. The horizontal portion of the left STS stem and terminal ascending branches (ftSTS display intermediate functional specificity, with the anterior ascending branch adjoining the supramarginal gyrus (fatSTS supporting executive functions and motor planning and showing greater sensitivity to language material, and the horizontal stem and posterior ascending branch adjoining the angular gyrus (fptSTS supporting primarily semantic processing and displaying greater sensitivity to non-language material. We suggest that the high functional specificity of the left fmSTS for speech is an important means by which the human brain achieves exquisite affinity and efficiency for native speech perception. In contrast, the extreme multi-functionality of the left fpSTS reflects the role of this area as a cortical hub for semantic processing and the extraction of meaning from multiple sources of information. Finally, in the left ftSTS, further functional differentiation between the dorsal and ventral aspect is warranted.

  10. Greater pre-stimulus effective connectivity from the left inferior frontal area to other areas is associated with better phonological decoding in dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs and typical readers (TRs, yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger Causality (GC to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA, temporoparietal areas (TPA, and ventral occipitotemporal areas (VOTA within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs, brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by typical readers for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non

  11. Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Tsg compound mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Kuroda, Hiroki; Lyons, Karen M; De Robertis, Eddy M

    2005-05-01

    Sirenomelia or mermaid-like phenotype is one of the principal human congenital malformations that can be traced back to the stage of gastrulation. Sirenomelia is characterized by the fusion of the two hindlimbs into a single one. In the mouse, sirens have been observed in crosses between specific strains and as the consequence of mutations that increase retinoic acid levels. We report that the loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in combination with a half dose or complete loss of twisted gastrulation (Tsg) causes sirenomelia in the mouse. Tsg is a Bmp- and chordin-binding protein that has multiple effects on Bmp metabolism in the extracellular space; Bmp7 is one of many Bmps and is shown here to bind to Tsg. In Xenopus, co-injection of Tsg and Bmp7 morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) has a synergistic effect, greatly inhibiting formation of ventral mesoderm and ventral fin tissue. In the mouse, molecular marker studies indicate that the sirenomelia phenotype is associated with a defect in the formation of ventroposterior mesoderm. These experiments demonstrate that dorsoventral patterning of the mouse posterior mesoderm is regulated by Bmp signaling, as is the case in other vertebrates. Sirens result from a fusion of the hindlimb buds caused by a defect in the formation of ventral mesoderm.

  12. Cytoskeleton and gravity at work in the establishment of dorso-ventral polarity in the egg of Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Brom, Tim G.

    The establishment of polarities during early embryogenesis is essential for normal development. Amphibian eggs are appropriate models for studies on embryonic pattern formation. The animal-vegetal axis of the axially symmetrical amphibian egg originates during oogenesis and foreshadows the main body axis of the embryo. The dorso-ventral polarity is epigenetically established before first cleavage. Recent experiments strongly suggest that in the monospermic eggs of the anuran Xenopus laevis both the cytoskeleton and gravity act in the determination of the dorso-ventral polarity. In order to test the role of gravity in this process, eggs will be fertilized under microgravity conditions during the SL-D1 flight in 1985. In a fully automatic experiment container eggs will be kept under well-defined conditions and artificially fertilized as soon as microgravity is reached; eggs and embryos at different stages will then be fixed for later examination. Back on earth the material will be analysed and we will know whether fertilization under microgravity conditions is possible. If so, the relation of the dorso-ventral axis to the former sperm entry point will be determined on the whole embryos; in addition eggs and embryos will be analysed cytologically.

  13. Investigating category- and shape-selective neural processing in ventral and dorsal visual stream under interocular suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Karin; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp; Hesselmann, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have suggested that action-related processing in the dorsal visual stream might be independent of perceptual awareness, in line with the "vision-for-perception" versus "vision-for-action" distinction of the influential dual-stream theory. It remains controversial if evidence suggesting exclusive dorsal stream processing of tool stimuli under CFS can be explained by their elongated shape alone or by action-relevant category representations in dorsal visual cortex. To approach this question, we investigated category- and shape-selective functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood-oxygen level-dependent responses in both visual streams using images of faces and tools. Multivariate pattern analysis showed enhanced decoding of elongated relative to non-elongated tools, both in the ventral and dorsal visual stream. The second aim of our study was to investigate whether the depth of interocular suppression might differentially affect processing in dorsal and ventral areas. However, parametric modulation of suppression depth by varying the CFS mask contrast did not yield any evidence for differential modulation of category-selective activity. Together, our data provide evidence for shape-selective processing under CFS in both dorsal and ventral stream areas and, therefore, do not support the notion that dorsal "vision-for-action" processing is exclusively preserved under interocular suppression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Boolean modelling reveals new regulatory connections between transcription factors orchestrating the development of the ventral spinal cord.

    KAUST Repository

    Lovrics, Anna

    2014-11-14

    We have assembled a network of cell-fate determining transcription factors that play a key role in the specification of the ventral neuronal subtypes of the spinal cord on the basis of published transcriptional interactions. Asynchronous Boolean modelling of the network was used to compare simulation results with reported experimental observations. Such comparison highlighted the need to include additional regulatory connections in order to obtain the fixed point attractors of the model associated with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where the transcription factors were overexpressed. Furthermore the network predicted the inhibition of Irx3 by Nkx2.2 and this prediction was tested experimentally. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an as yet undescribed inhibitory connection which could potentially have significance beyond the ventral spinal cord. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the strength of Boolean modelling for identifying gene regulatory networks.

  15. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  16. Passive Avoidance Training and Recall are Associated With Increased Glutamate Levels in the Intermediate Medial Hyperstriatum Ventrale of the Day-Old Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan N. Daisley

    1998-01-01

    glutamate levels in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale accompany pecking at either the water- or the methylanthranylate-bead. The taste of the aversant may be responsible for the greater increases found in methylanthranylate-trained birds.

  17. Transient inactivation of the ventral hippocampus in neonatal rats impairs the mesolimbic regulation of prefrontal glutamate release in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Jørgensen, Christinna Vangsgaard; Mikkelsen, J D

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) reflect maturational disruptions within a neural system that includes the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). A better understanding of these changes may reveal drug targets for more efficacious ...

  18. Occipitalization of the ventral part and the vertebralization of the dorsal part of the atlas with insufficiency of the transverse ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1982-01-01

    Occipitalization and vertebralization of the atlas are well known. We observed the first case of ventral occipitalization associated with dorsal vertebralization of the atlas in a 15-year-old female. (orig.)

  19. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  20. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  1. Beware the left-sided gallbladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal ultrasound scan showed multiple stones in the gallbladder with no evidence of acute cholecystitis and a common bile duct (CBD) diameter of 4 mm. Owing to the atypical nature of her pain, a computed tomography (CT) scan was requested which showed a left-sided gallbladder containing gallstones (Fig. 1).

  2. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Left-right subtraction of brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1986-01-01

    A new image-processing method to obtain a left-right subtraction image of CT was designed for the automated detection of abnormalities in brain CT. An original CT image was divided in two by a centerline. Then the right half of the image was subtracted from the left half by calculating the absorption value of the pixels on the symmetrical positions against the centerline. The mean and the standard deviation of the absorption value of the pixels in the subtraction image were used as parameters for analysis, and the detectability of abnormal CT findings was evaluated in 100 cases - 50 cases each with normal and abnormal CT. The presence of abnormalities could be diagnosed with a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 90 %, and an overall accuracy of 88 % when the borderline of these parameters between normal and abnormal CT was set at the mean + 2SD in the normal group. As a further analysis, the CT image was subdivided into several areas from a functional or anatomical viewpoint, such as cerebral vascular territories, and the left-right subtraction image of each area was obtained. The possibilities of diagnosing the location of an abnormality and of detecting smaller lesions with this method were shown. Left-right subtraction was considered to be a useful method for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities in the automated diagnosis of brain CT. (author)

  4. Left ventricular hypertrophy : virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, S; Sharma, UC; Pinto, YM

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, there

  5. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there

  6. Left-sided portal hypertension revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manenti

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In every case of left-sided portal hypertension, upper digestive endoscopy and close follow-up are recommended. Besides, computed tomography can demonstrate particular conditions directly favoring gastroesophageal varices, and aid in selection of the appropriate therapeutic decisions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 211-215

  7. Comparative analysis of open and robotic transversus abdominis release for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; Alrefai, Sameer; Vy, Michelle; Mabe, Micah; Del Prado, Paul A R; Clingempeel, Natasha L

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis release (TAR) is a safe, effective strategy to repair complex ventral incisional hernia (VIH); however, open TAR (o-TAR) often necessitates prolonged hospitalization. Robot-assisted TAR (r-TAR) may benefit short-term outcomes and shorten convalescence. This study compares 90-day outcomes of o-TAR and r-TAR for VIH repair. A single-center, retrospective review of patients who underwent o-TAR or r-TAR for VIH from 2015 to 2016 was conducted. Patient and hernia characteristics, operative data, and 90-day outcomes were compared. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, and secondary metrics were morbidity, surgical site events, and readmission. Overall, 102 patients were identified (76 o-TAR and 26 r-TAR). Patients were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index, and the presence of co-morbidities. Diabetes was more common in the open group (22.3 vs. 0%, P = 0.01). Most VIH defects were midline (89.5 vs. 83%, P = 0.47) and recurrent (52.6 vs. 58.3%, P = 0.65). Hernia characteristics were similar regarding mean defect size (260 ± 209 vs. 235 ± 107 cm 2 , P = 0.55), mesh removal, and type/size mesh implanted. Average operative time was longer in the r-TAR cohort (287 ± 121 vs. 365 ± 78 min, P VIH offers the short-term benefits of low morbidity and decreased hospital length of stay compared to open TAR.

  8. Classification and valuation of postoperative complications in a randomized trial of open versus laparoscopic ventral herniorrhaphy.

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    Kaafarani, H M A; Hur, K; Campasano, M; Reda, D J; Itani, K M F

    2010-06-01

    Generic instruments used for the valuation of health states (e.g., EuroQol) often lack sensitivity to notable differences that are relevant to particular diseases or interventions. We developed a valuation methodology specifically for complications following ventral incisional herniorrhaphy (VIH). Between 2004 and 2006, 146 patients were prospectively randomized to undergo laparoscopic (n = 73) or open (n = 73) VIH. The primary outcome of the trial was complications at 8 weeks. A three-step methodology was used to assign severity weights to complications. First, each complication was graded using the Clavien classification. Second, five reviewers were asked to independently and directly rate their perception of the severity of each class using a non-categorized visual analog scale. Zero represented an uncomplicated postoperative course, while 100 represented postoperative death. Third, the median, lowest, and highest values assigned to each class of complications were used to derive weighted complication scores for open and laparoscopic VIH. Open VIH had more complications than laparoscopic VIH (47.9 vs. 31.5%, respectively; P = 0.026). However, complications of laparoscopic VIH were more severe than those of open VIH. Non-parametric analysis revealed a statistically higher weighted complication score for open VIH (interquartile range: 0-20 for open vs. 0-10 for laparoscopic; P = 0.049). In the sensitivity analysis, similar results were obtained using the median, highest, and lowest weights. We describe a new methodology for the valuation of complications following VIH that allows a direct outcome comparison of procedures with different complication profiles. Further testing of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of this method is warranted.

  9. Evaluation of GABA Receptors of Ventral Tegmental Area in Cardiovascular Responses in Rat

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    Minoo Rasoulpanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA is well known for its role in cardiovascular control. It is demonstrated that about 20-30% of the VTA neurons are GABAergic though their role in cardiovascular control is not yet understood. This study is carried out to find the effects of GABA A and GABA B receptors on cardiovascular response of the VTA. Methods: Experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized male Wistar rats. Drugs were microinjected unilaterally into the VTA. The average changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were compared between the case and the control groups using t test and with the pre-injection values using paired t test. Results: Microinjection of muscimol, a GABAA agonist (500, 1500 and 2500 pmol/100nl into the VTA had no significant effect on MAP and HR compared with the saline group and pre-injection values. Injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 100 and 200 pmol/100 nl, a GABAA antagonist, caused a significant increase in the MAP (11.1±1.95mmHg, P<0.5 and a decrease in HR (-32.07±10.2, P<0.01. Microinjection of baclofen a GABAB receptor agonist (500 or 1000 pmole/100 nl and phaclofen a GABAB receptor antagonist (500 or 1000 pmole/100 nl had no significant effects on MAP and HR. Conclusion: For the first time it was demonstrated that GABA system of the VTA inhibits the cardiovascular system through the activation of GABAA but not the GABAB receptors.

  10. Disrupted functional connectivity in dorsal and ventral attention networks during attention orienting in autism spectrum disorders.

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    Fitzgerald, Jacqueline; Johnson, Katherine; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Bokde, Arun L W; Garavan, Hugh; Gallagher, Louise; McGrath, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Attention orienting is a cognitive process that facilitates the movement of attention focus from one location to another: this may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN and VAN) sub-serve the process of attention orienting. This study investigated the functional connectivity of attention orienting in these networks in ASD using the Posner Cueing Task. Twenty-one adolescents with ASD and 21 age and IQ matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. A psychophysical interaction (PPI) analysis was implemented to investigate task-dependent functional connectivity, measuring synchronicity of brain regions during the task. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to explore functional connectivity in the DAN during cue-only conditions and in the VAN during invalid and valid trials. Behaviourally, the ASD and control groups performed the task in a similar manner. Functional MRI results indicated that the ASD and control groups activated similar brain regions. During invalid trials (VAN), the ASD group showed significant positive functional connectivity to multiple brain regions, whilst the control group demonstrated negative connectivity. During valid trials (VAN), the two groups also showed contrasting patterns of connectivity. In the cue-only conditions (DAN), the ASD group showed weaker functional connectivity. The DAN analysis suggests that the ASD group has weaker coherence between brain areas involved in goal-driven, endogenous attention control. The strong positive functional connectivity exhibited by the ASD group in the VAN during the invalid trials suggests that individuals with ASD may generate compensatory mechanisms to achieve neurotypical behaviour. These results support the theory of abnormal cortical connectivity in autism. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Organization of GABAergic synaptic circuits in the rat ventral tegmental area.

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    Ciccarelli, Alessandro; Calza, Arianna; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Concas, Alessandra; Giustetto, Maurizio; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is widely implicated in drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders. This brain region is densely populated by dopaminergic (DA) neurons and also contains a sparse population of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells that regulate the activity of the principal neurons. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the organization of VTA GABAergic circuits and of the plasticity induced by drug consumption is essential for understanding the mechanisms by which drugs induce stable changes in brain reward circuits. Using immunohistochemistry, we provide a detailed description of the localization of major GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor subunits in the rat VTA. We show that DA and GABAergic cells express both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. However VTA neurons differ considerably in the expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits, as the α1 subunit is associated predominantly with non-DA cells, whereas the α3 subunit is present at low levels in both types of VTA neurons. Using an unbiased stereological method, we then demonstrate that α1-positive elements represent only a fraction of non-DA neurons and that the ratio of DA and non-DA cells is quite variable throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the VTA. Interestingly, DA and non-DA cells receive a similar density of perisomatic synapses, whereas axo-dendritic synapses are significantly more abundant in non-DA cells, indicating that local interneurons receive prominent GABAergic inhibition. These findings reveal a differential expression of GABA receptor subtypes in the two major categories of VTA neurons and provide an anatomical basis for interpreting the plasticity of inhibitory circuits induced by drug exposure.

  12. Organization of GABAergic synaptic circuits in the rat ventral tegmental area.

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    Alessandro Ciccarelli

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA is widely implicated in drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders. This brain region is densely populated by dopaminergic (DA neurons and also contains a sparse population of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic cells that regulate the activity of the principal neurons. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the organization of VTA GABAergic circuits and of the plasticity induced by drug consumption is essential for understanding the mechanisms by which drugs induce stable changes in brain reward circuits. Using immunohistochemistry, we provide a detailed description of the localization of major GABA(A and GABA(B receptor subunits in the rat VTA. We show that DA and GABAergic cells express both GABA(A and GABA(B receptors. However VTA neurons differ considerably in the expression of GABA(A receptor subunits, as the α1 subunit is associated predominantly with non-DA cells, whereas the α3 subunit is present at low levels in both types of VTA neurons. Using an unbiased stereological method, we then demonstrate that α1-positive elements represent only a fraction of non-DA neurons and that the ratio of DA and non-DA cells is quite variable throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the VTA. Interestingly, DA and non-DA cells receive a similar density of perisomatic synapses, whereas axo-dendritic synapses are significantly more abundant in non-DA cells, indicating that local interneurons receive prominent GABAergic inhibition. These findings reveal a differential expression of GABA receptor subtypes in the two major categories of VTA neurons and provide an anatomical basis for interpreting the plasticity of inhibitory circuits induced by drug exposure.

  13. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

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    Ducrot, Charles; Fortier, Emmanuel; Bouchard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VTA neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarization mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VTA neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VTA neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VTA AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for 2 h after bilateral VTA microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5 μl/side) and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid). NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VTA sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected, respectively, into the anterior and posterior VTA. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VTA neurons, to

  14. Oleic Acid in the Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibits Feeding, Food Reward, and Dopamine Tone.

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    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Sheng, Zhenyu; Décarie-Spain, Léa; Giguère, Nicolas; Ducrot, Charles; Trudeau, Louis-Éric; Routh, Vanessa H; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (FAs) act centrally to decrease food intake and hepatic glucose production and alter hypothalamic neuronal activity in a manner that depends on FA type and cellular transport proteins. However, it is not known whether FAs are sensed by ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons to control food-motivated behavior and DA neurotransmission. We investigated the impact of the monounsaturated FA oleate in the VTA on feeding, locomotion, food reward, and DA neuronal activity and DA neuron expression of FA-handling proteins and FA uptake. A single intra-VTA injection of oleate, but not of the saturated FA palmitate, decreased food intake and increased locomotor activity. Furthermore, intra-VTA oleate blunted the rewarding effects of high-fat/sugar food in an operant task and inhibited DA neuronal firing. Using sorted DA neuron preparations from TH-eGFP mice we found that DA neurons express FA transporter and binding proteins, and are capable of intracellular transport of long-chain FA. Finally, we demonstrate that a transporter blocker attenuates FA uptake into DA neurons and blocks the effects of intra-VTA oleate to decrease food-seeking and DA neuronal activity. Together, these results suggest that DA neurons detect FA and that oleate has actions in the VTA to suppress DA neuronal activity and food seeking following cellular incorporation. These findings highlight the capacity of DA neurons to act as metabolic sensors by responding not only to hormones but also to FA nutrient signals to modulate food-directed behavior.

  15. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

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    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemogenetic manipulation of ventral pallidal neurons impairs acquisition of sign-tracking in rats.

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    Chang, Stephen E; Todd, Travis P; Bucci, David J; Smith, Kyle S

    2015-12-01

    Cues associated with rewarding events acquire value themselves as a result of the incentive value of the reward being transferred to the cue. Consequently, presentation of a reward-paired cue can trigger reward-seeking behaviours towards the cue itself (i.e. sign-tracking). The ventral pallidum (VP) has been demonstrated to be involved in a number of motivated behaviours, both conditioned and unconditioned. However, its contribution to the acquisition of incentive value is unknown. Using a discriminative autoshaping procedure with levers, the effects of disrupting VP activity in rats on the emergence of sign-tracking was investigated using chemogenetics, i.e. Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs). Transient disruption of VP neurons [activation of the inhibitory hM4D(Gi) DREADD through systemic injections of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) prior to each autoshaping session] impaired acquisition of sign-tracking (lever press rate) without having any effect on approach to the site of reward delivery (i.e. goal-tracking) or on the expression of sign-tracking after it was acquired. In addition, electrophysiological recordings were conducted in freely behaving rats following VP DREADD activation. The majority of VP units that were responsive to CNO injections exhibited rapid inhibition relative to baseline, a subset of CNO-responsive units showed delayed excitation, and a smaller subset displayed a mixed response of inhibition and excitation following CNO injections. It is argued that disruption of VP during autoshaping specifically disrupted the transfer of incentive value that was attributed to the lever cue, suggesting a surprisingly fundamental role for the VP in acquiring, compared with expressing, Pavlovian incentive values. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spontaneous and Evoked Activity from Murine Ventral Horn Cultures on Microelectrode Arrays

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    Bryan J. Black

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15–16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by immunocytochemistry. Well resolved, all-or-nothing spontaneous spikes with profiles consistent with extracellular action potentials were observed after 3 days in vitro, persisting with consistent firing rates until at least day in vitro 19. The majority of the spontaneous activity consisted of tonic firing interspersed with coordinated bursting across the network. After 5 days in vitro, spike activity was readily evoked by voltage pulses where a minimum amplitude and duration required for excitation was 300 mV and 100 μs/phase, respectively. We characterized the sensitivity of spontaneous and evoked activity to a host of pharmacological agents including AP5, CNQX, strychnine, ω-agatoxin IVA, and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A. These experiments revealed sensitivity of the cultured VH to both agonist and antagonist compounds in a manner consistent with mature tissue derived from slices. In the case of BoNT/A, we also demonstrated intoxication persistence over an 18-day period, followed by partial intoxication recovery induced by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel agonist GV-58. In total, our findings suggest that VH cultures on multi-well MEA plates may represent a moderate throughput, high content assay for performing mechanistic studies and for screening potential therapeutics pertaining to paralytic toxins and neurological disorders.

  18. Neurotrophins in the ventral tegmental area: Role in social stress, mood disorders and drug abuse.

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    Nikulina, E M; Johnston, C E; Wang, J; Hammer, R P

    2014-12-12

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of the main generator source of longitudinal muscle contraction in the earthworm ventral nerve cord

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    Chang Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main generator source of a longitudinal muscle contraction was identified as an M (mechanical-stimulus-sensitive circuit composed of a presynaptic M-1 neuron and a postsynaptic M-2 neuron in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Amynthas hawayanus, by simultaneous intracellular response recording and Lucifer Yellow-CH injection with two microelectrodes. Five-peaked responses were evoked in both neurons by a mechanical, but not by an electrical, stimulus to the mechanoreceptor in the shaft of a seta at the opposite side of an epidermis-muscle-nerve-cord preparation. This response was correlated to 84% of the amplitude, 73% of the rising rate and 81% of the duration of a longitudinal muscle contraction recorded by a mechano-electrical transducer after eliminating the other possible generator sources by partitioning the epidermis-muscle piece of this preparation. The pre- and postsynaptic relationship between these two neurons was determined by alternately stimulating and recording with two microelectrodes. Images of the Lucifer Yellow-CH-filled M-1 and M-2 neurons showed that both of them are composed of bundles of longitudinal processes situated on the side of the nerve cord opposite to stimulation. The M-1 neuron has an afferent process (A1 in the first nerve at the stimulated side of this preparation and the M-2 neuron has two efferent processes (E1 and E3 in the first and third nerves at the recording side where their effector muscle cell was identified by a third microelectrode.

  20. Cocaine Dysregulates Opioid Gating of GABA Neurotransmission in the Ventral Pallidum

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    Scofield, Michael D.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Roques, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is a target of dense nucleus accumbens projections. Many of these projections coexpress GABA and the neuropeptide enkephalin, a δ and μ opioid receptor (MOR) ligand. Of these two, the MOR in the VP is known to be involved in reward-related behaviors, such as hedonic responses to palatable food, alcohol intake, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Stimulating MORs in the VP decreases extracellular GABA, indicating that the effects of MORs in the VP on cocaine seeking are via modulating GABA neurotransmission. Here, we use whole-cell patch-clamp on a rat model of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration to test the hypothesis that MORs presynaptically regulate GABA transmission in the VP and that cocaine withdrawal changes the interaction between MORs and GABA. We found that in cocaine-extinguished rats pharmacological activation of MORs no longer presynaptically inhibited GABA release, whereas blocking the MORs disinhibited GABA release. Moreover, MOR-dependent long-term depression of GABA neurotransmission in the VP was lost in cocaine-extinguished rats. Last, GABA neurotransmission was found to be tonically suppressed in cocaine-extinguished rats. These substantial synaptic changes indicated that cocaine was increasing tone on MOR receptors. Accordingly, increasing endogenous tone by blocking the enzymatic degradation of enkephalin inhibited GABA neurotransmission in yoked saline rats but not in cocaine-extinguished rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that following withdrawal from cocaine self-administration enkephalin levels in the VP are elevated and the opioid modulation of GABA neurotransmission is impaired. This may contribute to the difficulties withdrawn addicts experience when trying to resist relapse. PMID:24431463

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